Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals]

 Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals]0%

 Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals] Author:
Translator: Yasin T. al-Jibouri
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
Category: Fatima al-Zahra

 Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals]

Author: Ja’far Murtadha al-Amili
Translator: Yasin T. al-Jibouri
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
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Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals]
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 Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals]

Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses [The Tragedy of Fatima Daughter of Prophet Muhammad: Doubts cast and Rebuttals]

Author:
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
English

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses

The events which al-Zahra' had to undergo and the tribulations were not directed against just her own self, or against her personality as an individual, as much as transgressing firm Islamic principles in order to reach what those who carried them out could not otherwise reach or achieve, matters which they had no right to attain. Al- Zahra' in fact, was a mighty bulwark that stood in the way of the achievement of such unjustified and illegitimate ambitions. This issue emphasized and confirmed the illegitimacy and illegality of such ambitions according to the nation's level of awareness, in her conscience, and in the Islamic and human consciousness as well. This brief review aims at displaying those inquiries which produced some sort of doubts among some people then register observations and provide explanations which clarify things and, God willing,polish the right image and perfect its necessary characteristics, providing explanations or answers to other questions or doubts raised about other issues relevant to al-Zahra' .

Author(s): Ja’far Murtadha al-Amili

Translator(s): Yasin T. Al - Jibouri

www.alhassanain.org/english

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH

Table of Contents

Introduction 9

Author’s Introduction 10

Choosing the Tragedy of al-Zahra’ as a Topic 11

Notes 12

To The Reader 13

Preface 14

Important Points to Notice 14

Repeated Points 21

Notes 25

Part 1: Al-Zahra’ (sa) And Her Tragedy 26

Status and Infallibility of al-Zahra’ (sa) 26

When was al-Zahra’ (sa) Born? 26

Who is Superior: Maryam or Fatima, peace with them both? 28

Worthiness of al-Zahra’ (sa) 29

Head of the Women of Mankind 31

The Social Activity of al-Zahra’ (sa) 32

Al-Zahra’ : Her Father’s Mother 37

Does Infallibility Force One Not to Commit Sins?! 38

Do Environment and Surroundings Affect Infallibility? 39

The Ability to Revolt Against the Environment And the Surroundings 40

Wives of Prophets Noah and Lot (as) 41

Maryam (sa) Facing the Challenge 42

Deductions from the Above 43

Notes 43

Part 2: Al-Zahra’ (sa) And The Unknown 46

Ideological Connection is Insufficient 50

Al-Zahra’ (sa) was above Menstruation and Postpartum 51

Interpreting Texts 54

Is al-Zahra’ (sa) the First Author in Islam? 57

Are There in “Mushaf Fatima” Judicial Injunctions? 58

There is No Contradiction in Traditions about Fatima’s Mushaf 61

Portraying Contradiction Differently 61

Notes 63

Part 3- Digression: Khalid ibn al-Walid and his Father 67

Khalid ibn al-Walid 67

Story of al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah 72

Notes 74

Part 4: What Al-Mufid Says 75

Relying on What Scholars Say 75

Consensus Regarding Oppression 77

What Shaikh al-Mufid Intended to Say in His Book Titled 78

Al-Irshad 78

The answer to the above is as follows: 79

Al-Mufid Did Not Mention What al-Tusi Mentioned 81

What the Fadak Story? 82

Fatima (sa) After The Prophet’s Demise 82

Fadak 83

Khutba of Fatima al-Zahra' (sa) Demanding Fadak 84

(Fatima (sa) then turned towards the Ansar and said:) 92

A Brief History of Fadak After Fatima's Death 98

Back to the Ikhtisas Book 104

Al-Ikhtisas Book by Shaikh al-Mufid 106

Notes 109

Part 5: Kashifal-Ghita’ And Sharafud-Din 111

What Kashifal-Ghita’ Says 111

1. Kashifal-Ghita’ Does Not Deny What Took Place 112

2. People Accepting the Hitting of al-Zahra’ (sa) 113

3. Al-Zahra’ (sa) Arguing About What Took Place 114

4. Al-Zahra’ (sa) Arguing 115

5. Ali (as) Refers to this Matter 115

6. Protest’s Justifications non-Existent 115

7. Al-Zahra’ (sa) Did Not Remind Abu Bakr of What Took Place 116

8. What Sayyid Sharafud-Din Confirms 116

9. Other Evidences and Proofs 120

Did We Miscalculate?! 121

Reactions to the Book are in Two Directions 122

Glimpses from Some Reactions 123

Written Responses 124

Scholarly Value of such Responses 125

Nation’s Religious Authorities and Renown Theologians Make a Stance 126

Our Hand is Stretched out for a Debate 127

Objections and Reproaches 127

Why Rebut?! 127

Sanctifying the Legacy 128

A Reference 128

Arguments Regarding the Angels’ Species 129

Why was the Response Late? 130

Who is “Oppressed”? Is this “Scandalizing”? 130

Quoting Sayyid Sharafud-Din 131

Time Period Between Hijri and Christian Calendars 133

All Islamic Ideology is Human Except Fundamental Facts 133

What Implication did the Bi’r al-’Abd Attack 137

Curses and Condemnations 137

Why a Reply Method? 138

Perhaps Speaker’s Objective is not the Impression he Gave 140

Those Who Fish in Muddy Waters 141

Now is Not the Time for Such Issues 142

A Bad Method; There is no Objection to Using it! 143

Exiting the Sect’s Fiqhi Circle 144

Is This the Jawahiri Approach? 145

Placing the Hands on One Another, Testimony for the Wilayat 146

Permissibility of Looking at Nudity 147

About the Social Activity of al-Zahra’ (sa) 147

Categorizing or Sorting Texts 148

Specialization and Sulaym’s Book 151

He set out without a Legislative Method 152

Authentication of Texts 153

No Need for any Change 153

Notes 155

Part 6: “Their Love And Respect Deter Them” 159

This Part’s Research 159

Their Dispute With Ali (as) and Respect for al-Zahra’ (sa) 159

Status of al-Zahra’ (sa) with the Ansar and with Her Assailants 160

Who Said to ‘’Umar, “But Fatima (sa) is Inside...”?! 162

How Much Respect Did the Sahaba Have For al-Zahra’ (sa)? 163

Asking For Fatima’s Forgiveness Denotes the Status of al-Zahra’ (sa) 166

Was al-Zahra’ (sa) Pleased With Both Senior Sahabis?! 168

Unsuccessful Devious Attempts 173

Is the Grave of al-Zahra’ (sa) Known to Anyone? 173

Courage of al-Jahiz الجاحظ 174

An Embarrassing Conclusion 175

Al-Zahra’ (sa) Meeting Men; the Veil Issue 175

Notes 177

Part 7: Why Did Al-Zahra’ Have To Open The Door? 182

Where were Ali’s Zeal and Manliness? 182

Where is Ali’s Courage?! 183

A Lady Confined to Her Chamber Never Opens the Door 185

Had Ali (as) Responded to Them 187

What if Fidda Responded to Them? 191

An Example and a Witness 192

Would they be too Afraid to Open the Door though Armed?! 194

Doesn’t Ali (as) Defend the Trust of the Messenger of Allah S?! 195

Is Beating al-Zahra’ (sa) a “Personal Matter”?! 196

The Fadak Factor 197

Those Present Had to Help al-Zahra’ (sa) 199

Notes 199

Part 8: From Here And There 201

Did Medina’s Houses have Doors?! 201

They did not Enter the House, so How did they Beat al-Zahra’ (sa)?! 202

1. “Do Not Quote me Saying it! 203

2. “Ali (as), Not I, Says So!” 203

3. He Dropped the Incident of Fatima (sa) Being Beaten! 204

4. Finding Fault With the Ruling System 204

5. Distorting the Book Titled Al-Ma’arif 204

Qunfath’s Version Contradicts the Shaikh’s “Consensus” 205

No Need to Assault al-Zahra’ (sa) While Ali (as) is Present 206

Confusion and Contradiction in the Narratives 208

Negation Requires Evidence 210

Miscarriage of al-Muhsin Due to a Natural Cause! 214

Did al-Zahra’ (sa) Cry Because of Impatience?! 215

The “House of Grief” and People Annoyed by Her Weeping 216

Bayt al-Ahzan Harmed Rather than Benefitted them 219

Prohibition of Grieving over Falsehood, not over Weeping 219

Prohibition of Weeping Over the Dead 220

The Torah and the Prohibition of Weeping over the Dead 221

Politics! What do You Know About Politics?! 221

Notes 222

Part 9: “I Know Not About The Nail...” 226

The Nail 226

The Book in the Balance 226

Method of Exposition 227

Weak Expressions 227

Grammatical Errors 228

Correction 228

Malik-Shah: The Knowledge-Loving Ignorant Man 228

Recklessness and Indiscretion 228

The King Assassinates his Vizier 228

The King Trusted only his Vizier 229

Who Were the Attendants? 229

Other Unjustifiable Contradictions 229

Caliphate or Imamate? 230

Unjustifiable Contradictions 230

Statement Lacking Historical Precision 231

Sometimes, it is the Method of Deduction 232

1. Cursing and Condemning 232

2. The Prophet’s Doubt of His Own Prophetic Mission! 232

3. Sunnis and the “Distortion” of the Qur’an 232

4. “He frowned and turned his back away” 233

5. Convictions of the Three Caliphs 234

6. How do You Prove the Betrayal of Abu Bakr? 234

7.’Umar Doubting Prophetic Mission 234

8. “My Nation’s Consensus will never be Wrong” and ‘Othman’s Murder 235

9. Tradition of العشرة المبشرة the Ten Men Given the Glad Tiding of Going to Paradise 235

10. Mut’a for the Sake of Getting Money 236

11. “Let me Resign, for I am not Your Best!” 236

Notes 236

Texts And Legacies 238

These Chapters 238

OPPRESSING AL-ZAHRA’ (sa) 239

1. Sayyid al-Himyari (d. 173 A.H./789 A.D.) 239

2. Al-Barqi (d. 245 A.H./859 A.D.) 240

3. Al-Nu’man, the Judge (d. 363 A.H./974 A.D.) 240

4. Mihyar al-Daylani (d. 428 A.H./1037 A.D.) 241

5. Ali ibn al-Muqarrab (d. 629 A.H./1232 A.D.) 242

6. Al-Khali’i (d. 750 A.H./1349 A.D.) 242

7. ‘Ala' ad-Din al-Hilli (killed in 786 A.H./1384 A.D.) 242

8. Mughamis al-Hilli (d. in the late 900s A.H./15th Century A.D.) 243

9. Muflih al-Saymari (d. 900 A.H./1495 A.D.) 243

10. Al-Hurr al-’Amili (d. 1104 A.H./1693 A.D.) 243

12. Sayyid Hayder al-Hilli (d. 1304 A.H./1887 A.D.) 244

13. Sayyid Baqir al-Hindi (d. 1329 A.H./1911 A.D.) 244

14. ‘Allama al-Qazwini (d. 1335 A.H./1917 A.D.) 245

15. Hafiz Ibrahim (d. 1351 A.H./1932) 245

16. Al-Isfahani, the Critic (d. 1361 A.H./1942 A.D.) 246

Notes 251

Texts And Legacies From The Fourteen Infallible Ones 253

Traditions Regarding How al-Zahra’ (sa) was Persecuted 253

Two Narratives Before the Reader 253

What Sacred Texts Narrate 253

What is Narrated From the Messenger of Allah (S) 254

What is Narrated from Imam Ali (as) 256

Books, like the sun, whose light 257

What Imam al-Hassan al-Mujtaba (as) Narrates 260

What is Narrated by al-Sajjad (as) 261

What Either al-Baqir or al-Sadiq (as) has Narrated 262

What is Narrated from Imam al-Baqir (as) 262

What Imam al-Sadiq (as) is Quoted Narrating 263

What is Narrated from Imam al-Kazim (as) 267

What is Narrated From Imam al-Rida (as) 268

What is Narrated from Imam al-Jawad (as) 268

What is Narrated from Imam al-’Askari (as) 269

Notes 269

Oppressing Al-Zahra’: Centuries-Old Sectarian Arguments 272

Testimonials 272

1. ‘Abd al-Jabbar, the Judge (d. 415 A.H.) 272

2. Sayyid al-Murtada, the Flag of Guidance (d. 436 A.H./1014 A.D.) 272

3. Shaikh al-Tusi (d. 460 A.H./1068 A.D.) 273

4. Abul-Salah al-Halabi (d. 474 A.H.) 274

5. ‘Abd al-Jalal al-Qazwini (d. cir. 560 A.H./1165 A.D.) 274

6. Yahya ibn Muhammed al-’Alawi al-Basri 275

7. Sayyid Ibn Tawus (d. 664 A.H./1266 A.D.) 276

8. Nasir ad-Din al-Tusi (d. 672 A.H./1273 A.D.) 277

9. ‘Allama al-Hilli (d. 726 A.H./1326 A.D.) 277

10. Shams ad-Din al-Isfarayani (d. 826 A.H./1423 A.D.) 277

11. Al-Qawshaji (d. 879 A.H./1474 A.D.) 277

12. The Virtuous al-Miqdad (d. 826 A.H./1423 A.D.) 278

13. Al-Bayadi al-’Amili 279

14. al-Gharawi and al-Harawi 279

15. The Researcher al-Karki (d. 940 A.H./1533 A.D.) 279

16. Ibn Makhdam (d. 976 A.H./1568 A.D.) 280

17. The Martyred Judge al-Tasatturi (d. 1019 A.H.) 280

18. Ibn Sa’d al-Jaza’iri (d. 1021 A.H./1612 A.D.) 280

19. Al-Hurr al-’Amili (d. 1104 A.H./1693 A.D.) 280

20. ‘Allama al-Majlisi (d. 1110 A.H./1698 A.D.) 281

21. Abul-Hassan al-Fattani 281

22. Al-Khawajoo’i al-Mazandarani (d. 1173 A.H./1759 A.D.) 284

23. Shaikh Yousuf al-Bahrani (d. 1186 A.H.) 284

24. Shaikh Ja’far Kashifal-Ghita’ (d. 1228 A.H./1813 A.D.) 285

25. Sayyid ‘Abdullah Shubbar (d. 1243 A.H./1827 A.D.) 285

26. Sayyid Muhammed Qulli al-Naishapuri al-Hindi (1189 – 1260 A.H./1775 – 1844 A.D.) 285

27. Sayyid Muhammed al-Mahdi al-Husayni al-Qazwini (d. 1300 A.H./1883 A.D.) 286

28. Sayyid al-Khunsari (d. 1313 A.H./1895 A.D.) 286

29. Ayatollah al-Muzaffar (d. 1375 A.H./1955 A.D.) 286

30. Sayyid Sharafud-Din (d. 1377 A.H./1952 A.D.) 287

31. Martyr [Muhammed-Baqir] al-Sadr (d. 1400 A.H./1980 A.D.) 287

Notes 287

Al-Muhsin In Texts And Legacies 289

Did al-Muhsin Die Young?! 289

What the Foremost Tabi’in Have Said 290

Mentioning al-Muhsin Without Mentioning the Reason for His Death 293

Deleting Muhsin’s Name without Saying Why 295

Referring to the Miscarriage and why 297

Muhsin was miscarried because of Grief for the Demise of the Prophet (S) 301

Is This Historical “Confusion”? 302

Notes 302

Incident In The Wording Of Traditionists And Historians 308

Ziyarat of al-Zahra’ (sa), the Truthful Lady 308

What al-Mufid Records in Al-Amali 317

Important Note 330

Notes 341

Conclusion 347

Introduction

In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful; all praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Peace and blessings with the best of Allah’s creation: Muhammad and with his pure Progeny (as) and truly sincere companions.

Before starting my plain and honest discourse, I would like to attract the attention of all brethren readers to the following:

I hope that they all will read what I present to them slowly and in-depth without any prior notion that may cause them to pass a negative judgment in advance on this book, a judgment that may be greatly unfair and slanted. I also request them not to be in awe of any ideologist whose theory is presented to them to the degree that they do not subject such a theory to judgment, and that they be fair and conscientious.

Nothing should bind them to take what they read for granted even if the writer would like them to do just that... They also ought not reject what they read or hear based on fanaticism in favor of or against this person or that. Rather, what is aspired is that when there is right or wrong, they should accept what is right and reject what is wrong, acting on the statement of the Almighty saying,

“Those who listen to the word then follow the best thereof: these are the ones whom Allah has guided, and these are the men of understanding” (Qur’an, 39:18).

A good idea in any book should not be the reason for accepting a wrong one in it, even if it may be by mistake. Likewise, a wrong idea should not be the reason for rejecting a right one.

The most urgent and sensitive demand is that they should require us_ and they should require others as well_ to provide them with whatever convinces them, pleases their commonsense and satisfies their conscience so they may thus win the pleasure of Allah, the most Glorified One, and the pleasure and intercession of His prophets and the latter’s successors (as); they should accept no blame in following Allah’s path. Right ought to be followed. There is neither might nor power except in Allah; on Him do I rely, and to Him is my return.

Author’s Introduction

About four months ago, [the original Arabic text of] my book titled Tragedy of al-Zahra’: Doubts and Responses stirred an artificial uproar the obvious purpose of which was to achieve more than one goal. But I am not going to discuss this goal right here, though. Yet I have felt the need to clarify why I have written this book and the reason why I chose this issue specifically, i.e. the issue of al-Zahra’ (sa) rather than any other, aspiring brevity and restricting the discussion to what is necessary without delving into undue details and without tackling many of our issues which may embarrass some people or cause them to lose balance.

This is exactly what happened when they felt that my afore-mentioned book came close to such issues; so, what would be the outcome if I go beyond that to state openly then to explain what I state?! For this reason, I will restrict myself to briefly touching on some such issues, simply displaying them without the attempt to explain them except whenever necessary, leaving to the kind reader the option to draw his own conclusion; so, let me say the following:

Choosing the Tragedy of al-Zahra’ as a Topic

There are two reasons behind choosing the tragedy of al-Zahra’ (sa) as the subject-matter with which I will deal in a series of many topics the right wherein I would like to bring forth; they affect the issues of the creed and the sect; these are:

FIRST: This single issue, the tragedy of al-Zahra’ (sa), demands an explanation and a clarification in order to remove whatever doubts that may entertain some people’s minds, procedural or scientific inquiries, as some people label them, which they have frequently encountered during scores of radio interviews, in the printed press, or in many meetings, correspondence or debates during a lengthy period of time. Many various “evidences” were provided to deny that any violence took place against al-Zahra’ (sa) at her home, or against Ali (as) at the home of al-Zahra’ (sa). Such “evidences” and “proofs” were granted “modern ideological labels” such as “provocations,” “question marks,” or “researched doubts,” up to the end of such expressions which have all become well known.

For this reason, I wanted to study this subject by dealing with such “provocations” in detail in order to be able to absorb all issues causing such doubts, and so that I may then be able to dismiss the “question marks” in their regard. Thus, I will perhaps deserve to be thanked as promised by someone who said once to me, “We appreciate the effort of those who respond to the question marks which we have made,”1 hoping that the subject will thus come to a conclusion and the doubts will be dispelled.

The “appreciation” promised by some people is actually distinguished in its type and is unique in its classification as we, by the will of Allah, will point out.

SECOND: The issue of al-Zahra’ (sa), due to certain circumstances, transcended its specific scholarly nature, becoming a label pointing out to a general trend that goes beyond history’s sphere to other aspects of Islamic concerns, such as issues relevant to the creed, scholastic theology, usul, hadith, fiqh, exegesis, and even linguistics, in addition to many other doctrinal and non-doctrinal issues. Yes, the issue of al-Zahra’ (sa) has become the symbol, or the guiding title, that sums up its own diction and has its own specific stamp. It has its own spheres and characteristics, what it permits and what it abandons.

For the sake of all the above, I wished that my discussion of the said subject-matter be a contribution to accomplishing the duty realized by every believing Muslim, one who finds no justification in aimlessly standing by, a spectator witnessing the attempts launched against the beliefs and tenets of this creed the impact of which affects its aspects and renown personalities.

I shall do so not based on upholding the “holy legacy” of the faith of the forefathers, as some people accuse us of doing while also accusing all adherents of the creed of Ahl al-Bayt (as) and righteous Shi’ite scholars.2 Rather, I shall uphold the criterion of any decisive scholarly evidence that leaves no excuse whatsoever, thus laying the firm foundations of the truth.

When all such statements are made in order to raise doubts about theological issues, shaking their very foundations, everyone will have the right and the freedom to appropriately and scholarly respond to them, no matter from what source, without any compromise. Such is the responsibility of anyone who possesses the means of knowledge and scholarship that enable him to do so. This is what we actually witnessed when the foremost scholars of theology, in addition to many other scholars of the nation, did in order to denounce what someone has stated, declaring their rejection of the latter’s statements. We expect them to continue to carry out their religious duty in this regard, and we shall remain steadfast with them on the same path.

Notes

1. _, Fikr and Thaqafi newsletter, No. 18 (October 19, 1996).

2. _, Bayyinat (October 25, 1996).

To The Reader

All praise belongs to Allah; peace and blessings with Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, and with his pure Progeny.

The events which al-Zahra’ (sa) had to undergo and the tribulations were not directed against just her own self, or against her personality as an individual, as much as transgressing firm Islamic principles in order to reach what those who carried them out could not otherwise reach or achieve, matters which they had no right to attain. Al-Zahra’ (sa) in fact, was a mighty bulwark that stood in the way of the achievement of such unjustified and illegitimate ambitions. This issue emphasized and confirmed the illegitimacy and illegality of such ambitions according to the nation’s level of awareness, in her conscience, and in the Islamic and human consciousness as well.

One may find, as he tries to comprehend the historic sequence of events, that one may pretend that he lives a state of hesitation in accepting any reasonable justification for them, or at least subjective opportunities, for such events to take place at all. This stirs many questions in his mind about how accurate, or how precise, those who transmitted such events actually were. For this reason, he is not too embarrassed to cast doubts even if he cannot reject the issue or openly and publicly declare it as being unacceptable.

Yet the stand of such sort of people instills within them something which they take for granted, one in which they do not doubt. It says that the answer to such inquiries, then the verification of the authenticity of those events with seriousness and precision…, will by necessity imply a straightforward indictment and an open rejection of the “legitimacy” of all the events that took place in its aftermath. He will openly and bitterly find those who coined those events and who caused all those catastrophes that surrounded the truthful al-Zahra’ (sa) as being wrong, and this is something which they wish to avoid falling into.

This brief review aims at displaying those inquiries which produced some sort of doubts among some people then register observations and provide explanations which clarify things and, God willing, polish the right image and perfect its necessary characteristics, providing explanations or answers to other questions or doubts raised about other issues relevant to al-Zahra’ (sa).

We provide all the above with the emphasis that we respect and appreciate everyone’s individuality, that a different view and the recording of issues as significant as these should not spoil any friendly relationship.

It is from Allah that we derive strength and seek help. We ask the most Exalted One to inspire us to say what is right, to aspire what is right, to make our intention pure, and to help us act with the purity of intention. He is our Master and the One Who guides us to the Straight Path.

Ja’far Murtada al-’Amili

Sha’ban 10, 1417 A.H./December 8, 1996 A.D.

Beirut, Lebanon