AL-KAFI (Arabic & English) [Hasan Rizvi's Translation] Volume 2

AL-KAFI (Arabic & English) [Hasan Rizvi's Translation]0%

AL-KAFI (Arabic & English) [Hasan Rizvi's Translation] Author:
Translator: Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Rizvi
Publisher: World Organization for Islamic Services (WOFIS)
Category: Texts of Hadith

AL-KAFI (Arabic & English) [Hasan Rizvi's Translation]

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Sheikh Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al-Kulayni Ar-Razi
Translator: Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Rizvi
Publisher: World Organization for Islamic Services (WOFIS)
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AL-KAFI (Arabic & English) [Hasan Rizvi's Translation]

AL-KAFI (Arabic & English) [Hasan Rizvi's Translation] Volume 2

Author:
Publisher: World Organization for Islamic Services (WOFIS)
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


 

 

Al-Kafi, Volume One, Part Two
 

 

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

BY

ASH-SHAYKH ABU JA‘FAR MUHAMMAD IBN YA‘QUB IBN IS'HÃQ AL-KULAYNI AR-RÃZI

Volume One

AL-USŨL - Part One

2) THE BOOK OF EXCELLENCE OF KNOWLEDGE

World Organization for Islamic Services,

TEHRAN - IRAN

www.alhassanain.org/english

English translation with Arabic Test

First edition 1398/1978

Fifth edition 1418/1998

Translated and published by:

World Organization for Islamic Services,

P. O. Box 11165-1545,

Tehran - 15837,

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

This part has been translated by:

SAYYID MUHAMMAD HASAN RIZVI

Design of the book for its translation, indexes, revisions, explanatory remarks and other related work has been done by:

ASH-SHAYKH MUHAMMAD RIDA AL-JA‘FARI

IN THE NAME OF ALLÃH, THE MOST COMPASSIONATE, THE MERCIFUL

Praise belongs to Allãh, the Lord of all beings; the Most Compassionate, the Merciful; the Master of the Day of Judgment; Thee only we serve, and to Thee alone we pray for succour; Guide us in the straight path; the path of those whom Thou hast blessed, who are immune from Thy wrath and have never gone astray.

* * * * *

O Allãh! Send your blessings to the head of your messengers and the last of your prophets Muhammad, and his pure and cleansed progeny.

Also send your blessings to all your prophets and envoys.

Table of Contents

FOREWORD 10

1) Caution 20

2) A Chronological List of the Holy Prophet, his Daughter and the Twelve Holy Imãms 20

3) List of Technical Terms and Special Signs used in the Traditions 20

The Book of EXCELLENCE OF KNOWLEDGE 25

1: CHAPTER ON THE NECESSITY OF KNOWLEDGE, THE OBLIGATION OF ITS QUEST AND ITS INCITEMENT 26

2: CHAPTER ON PROPERTY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE EMINANCE OF THE LEARNED 30

3: CHAPTER ON CATEGORIES OF THE PEOPLE 35

4: CHAPTER ON THE DIVINE REWARDS FOR THE LEARNED AND THE LEARNERS 38

5: CHAPTER ON ATTRIBUTES OF THE LEARNED SCHOLARS 42

6: CHAPTER ON RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF A LEARNED SCHOLAR 46

7: CHAPTER ON THE PASSING AWAY OF THE SCHOLARS 47

8: CHAPTER ON THE COMPANY OF THE LEARNED AND HAVING ASSOCIATION WITH THEM 50

9: CHAPTER ON ASKING QUESTIONS AND INTERCHANGING WITH A LEARNED SCHOLAR 52

10: CHAPTER ON DEFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE 56

11: CHAPTER ON NOT TO SPEAK WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE 58

12: CHAPTER ON ACTING WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE 63

13: CHAPTER ON APPLICATION AND USE OF KNOWLEDGE 64

14: CHAPTER ON ONE WHO LIVES BY AND IS PROUD OF HIS KNOWLEDGE 69

15: CHAPTER ON ACCOUNTABILITY OF THE LEARNED (BEFORE ALLAH) AND ITS SEVERITY 73

16: CHAPTER ON MISCELLANEOUS TRADITIONS 75

17: CHAPTER ON QUOTING BOOKS AND THE TRADITION. SIGNIFICANCE OF WRITING AND ADHERING TO THE BOOKS 84

18: CHAPTER ON BLIND FOLLOWING 91

19: CHAPTER ON INNOVATIONS, OPINION AND GUESS WORK - DERIVING CONCLUSIONS ON THE BASIS OF SIMILARITIES, SEMBLENCES AND APPEARANCES (IN RELIGION) 93

20: CHAPTER ON TAKING (EVERY CASE) BACK TO THE QUR'AN AND AS-SUNNAH, VERILY, THERE IS NOTHING FROM WHAT IS LAWFUL AND WHAT IS UNLAWFUL AND WHAT IS NEEDED BY THE MANKIND, BUT THE BOOK (OF ALLAH) AND AS-SUNNAH INCLUDES IT 108

21: CHAPTER ON CONFLICTING TRADITIONS 115

22 CHAPTER ON TAKING HOLD OF AS-SUNNAH AND THE EVIDENCES FROM THE BOOK OF ALLAH 131

FOREWORD

-1-

In our continuous effort to propagate Islam through our numerous publications we have had a persistent desire to include amongst our publications translations of the most important reference books recog-nized by the Shī‘ah. To be able to publish such key books in the Shī‘ah heritage in foreign languages does not only give us great pleasure and pride but it conforms very well to our wishes and our true sincere objectives. No doubt the non-Arab speaking researchers would now have better access to the true Islamic heritage since such books contain the ahãdīth (traditions) of the holy Imãms (peace be upon them) and the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny). Moreover, these books constitute the second source - the holy Qur'an being the first - whereby one would have better understanding of the Islamic ideology, jurisprudence, history, tradition, manners, Islamic laws pertaining to worship, business, Islamic considerations for the individual, family and society...

One of the important books in question is al-Kãfi whose author was ash-Shaykh Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Kulayni ar-Rãzi ( 328/329 = 940/941). We need not introduce either the book or its author since the introduction to the book takes care of that and also shows its religious significance and its status in our heritage, namely the heritage transmitted to us through Ahlu'l-bayt (the House-hold of the Holy Prophet - p.b.u.t.).

-2-

Our gratitude to Allãh, the Almighty, for being able to commence the translation of al-Kãfi to English. So far, the translation of the section pertaining to the “Reason and Ignorance” (‘aql and jahl) has been completed. No doubt we had to utilize all the means at our disposal and to rely on Allãh's unlimited strength in order to accomplish this translation. As a matter of fact, we had to do a lot of screening before coming up with this version. Furthermore, we took every possible effort to make sure that the translation is satisfactory and acceptable in terms of accuracy and grammar.

We do not wish to claim perfection in this humble effort to trans-late one section of al-Kãfi. Nevertheless, we have taken the first step and we are confident that subsequent steps would be taken, either by us or by somebody else, to both remove any errors and optimize the translation so that exactness in the narration process is improved.

We have decided to speed up the printing and publication of the translated section of al-Kãfi. The other sections, it is hoped, would be published in due course on individual basis; this process would be continued until all the sections of al-Kãfi are translated and published.

You will note that we have also included along with the English translation, the complete original Arabic version, this being placed at the top of each page with the corresponding English translation below.

-3-

We believe, and so does everybody who studied it believe, that and so holy in the Shī‘ah circles and that the author is considered highly honest and highly reliable. However, we should emphasize that neither the ahadīth are equal in value and significance nor are the supporting evidence for the narrations or the persons relating the ahadīth equal in terms of reliability and credibility and in no way can one give them the same appraisal.

A glance at the book entitled mir’ãtu'l- ‘ugũl (reflection of the minds) would reveal to the researcher this very point in more detail. Mir'ãtu'l-‘uqul is an explanatory book to al-Kãfi and is authored by the great scholar Muhammad Bãqir al-Majlisi (1037/1628-1111/1700). al-Majlisi is one of the prominent scholars of hadīth (tradition) and one of the most loyal and faithful to the book (al-Kãfi) and its great author and one of the most faithful and pious scholars of Islam.

Because of this - that is, the question of unequal credibility of the ahãdith, narrations and narrators - and for completeness we have retained the complete supporting evidence of the ahãdīth as in the original Arabic text. We have not omitted any original support for any ahadīth, neither have we omitted any of the links in a narration chain. In order to reveal the credibility, or otherwise, of the support for a par- ticular hadīth, one has to refer to special books dealing with the biogra- phy and the religious and moral status of the narrator/s; such books also carry an appraisal of what the narrator transmits and relates. We would like to re-emphasize that the inference of any religious or ritual doctrine or any law pertaining to jurisprudence from these ahãdīth is a long process. To start with, the researcher would have to refer the nar- rations along with their supporting chain of evidence - to the special biographic books referred to above. The narrations would have to be cross-checked against one another. Later the researcher would have to consider all other declarations and citations on the same topic from other references and then use the holy Qur'an as the arbitrator. Of more significance still, one has to abide by the rules and regulations laid down by the specialists and which rules can never be ignored. Therefore, the researcher would have to go back either to the ideological and linguistic books or to the books of jurisprudence and legislation, that is, those books which cover the inference aspects and the evaluation of various proofs and evidence used to back-up any ideological principle or jurisprudence. This is the approach to be adopted if he wants his research to be systematic and if he wants the results to be sound, accurate and reliable, thus satisfying his scientific conscience and obliging others to honour and follow such inferences.

This very point has been ignored - intentionally or otherwise - by many researchers and we are stressing it here in order that other researchers would neither make the same mistake of ignoring it nor suffer the same deviation.

And for several considerations we refrained from introducing unnecessary explanatory notes, except where it was absolutely necessary, so as to stick to our .original aim of merely translating and publishing the book.

- 4 -

In the translation we have retained the Islamic format and Arabic pronunciation of the names and proper nouns encountered in various ahãdīth. We were not content with the Biblical equivalents, but, instead, retained the Islamic articulations in the text, following each proper noun or name (especially those mentioned in the holy Qur'an) like, Musã (Moses), ‘Isã (Jesus), Maryam (Marry), Jibrīl (Gabriel)...with its Biblical equivalent in brackets.

We took this measure because we strongly believe in preserving the original Islamic character even with respect to names and proper nouns. We believe in originality even when it comes to appearances, and we will completely avoid imitation and reproduction even if it were merely with respect to pronunciation and expression...

- 5 -

We have put a table at the beginning of each section giving general particulars and information in tabular form about the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) and Fãtima az-Zahra' (p.b.u.h.) and the twelve Imãms (p.b.u.t.). For each of them we have assigned a number according to their sequence.

It is hoped that this table would help the reader - even the non-specialist to understand some important expressions encountered in the process of the narration of hadīth.

Furthermore, we have included four indexes at the end of each section:-

a) The first index lists the originators of the ahadīth to be found in the section - the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) and the Imãms (p.b.u.t.).

It begins with a number corresponding to the serial number of the originator of the hadīth, the originator being the Prophet or one of the Imãms. The serial number has already been assigned in the table at the beginning of the section.

After the number, the format of the name used in the hadīth appears.

After that, the serial number's of ahadīth related to the originator is/are listed.

For example, in the first index of this section:

(7) - Abu Ja‘far, 1, 7 ...etc.

The number (7) preceding the name (Abu Ja‘far) indicates that the originator is Imãm Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Bãqir (p.b.u.t.) who was assigned with this number in the table at the beginning of the section. The number following the name are the serial number of the ahadīth in the book (or section) related to him: that is, the first and the seventh hadīth are related to him...etc.

b) An index containing symbols for terminology commonly encountered in the process of narration of hadīth. We have introduced these because scholars of hadīth often use them. In this index we have also explained some of those terminologies for which no simple English equivalent can be found. We have explained such terminology in the index and when it appears in the text we also mention the Arabic text in the Latinized form: e.g. “rafa ahu” - Ref. Index no.3

c) Index of the names of key personalities. Following each name the serial numbers of ahãdīth in which such a name appears are cited. We were content with citing only those names that appeared in the contexts of the ahãdīth proper and ignored the names of narrators.

d) Index of key places, names of tribes and families and sects.

Finally, it is Allãh, the Almighty, from Whom we seek help and guidance and upon Whom we rely for the success of our efforts. Moreover, we pray that He paves the way for us to complete what we have commenced and to redeem us in order to achieve what we have planned...We strongly believe that He is the reconciliator and that He is the best guide and the best artisan.

WORLD ORGANIZATION FOR ISLAMIC SERVICES

Tehran - IRAN.

6/2/1398

16/1/1978

1) Caution

2) A Chronological List of the Holy Prophet, his Daughter and the Twelve Holy Imãms.

3) List of Technical Terms and Special Signs used in the Traditions.

CAUTION

I - Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kãfī “A group of our associates,” quoting from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã, the Group here means the following five persons:

1. Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Yahyã al-‘Attãr al-Qummī;

2. `Ali ibn Mũsã ibn Ja‘far al-Kamandãnī;

3. Abu Sulaymãn Dawũd ibn Kawrah al- Qummī;

4. Abu ‘Ali Ahmad ibn Idrīs ibn Ahmad al-Ash‘arī al- Qummī;

5. Abu'l-Hasan `Ali ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Hãshim al- Qummī.

II. - Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kãfī “A group of our associates,” quoting from Ahmad ibn Muhammãd ibn Khãlid al-Barqī, the Group here means the following four persons:

1. Abu'l-Hasan `Ali ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Hãshim al-Qummī;

2. Muhammad ibn `Abdullãh ibn Udhaynah;

3. Ahmad ibn `Abdullah ibn Umayyah;

4. `Ali ibn al-Husayn as-Sa'd Ãbãdī;

III. - Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kafī “A group of our associates,” quoting from Sahl ibn Ziyãd, the Group here means the following four persons:

1. Abu'l-Hasan `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Aban ar-Rãzī, who is renowned with `Allãn al-Kulayni;

2. Abu'l-Husayn Muhammad ibn Abī 'Abdillãh Ja‘far ibn

Muhammad ibn `Awn al-Asadi al-Kufī, resident of Ray;

3. Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Farrũkh as-Saffãr al-Qummī;

4. Muhammad ibn ‘Aqīl al-Kulaynī;

IV. - Wherever the author (al-Kulaynī) says in the book of al-Kãfi “A group of our associates,” quoting from Ja‘far ibn Muhammad who quoted from al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Faddãl, one of them is, Abu `Abd-Allãh al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn `Imrãn ibn Abī Bakr al-Ash'arī al-Qummī.

USUL AL-KÃFI

The Book of EXCELLENCE OF KNOWLEDGE

In the Name of Allãh, the Beneficent, the Merciful

1: CHAPTER ON THE NECESSITY OF KNOWLEDGE, THE OBLIGATION OF ITS QUEST AND ITS INCITEMENT

37-1. Muhammad ibn Ya‘qũb has informed us (-) ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm ibn Hãshim (-) his father (-) al-Hasan ibn Abi 'l-Husayn al-Fãrsi (-) ‘Abd ar-Rahmãn ibn Zayd (-) his father (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (peace be upon him) as saying:

“The Messenger of Allãh (peace be upon him and his progeny) has observed, 'To acquire knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim. Lo! Allãh loves those who have longing for knowledge.”

* * * * * * *

38-2. Muhammad ibn Yahya (-) Muhammad ibn al-Husayn (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh (-) ‘Isã ibn ‘Abdillãh al-‘Umary (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying: “To acquire knowledge is imperative.”

39-3. ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) Yũnus ibn ‘Abdu 'r-Rahmãn (-) some of his associates as saying:

“It was asked of Abu 'l-Hasan (p.b.u.h.) whether it is permis-sible for people not to ask questions on a subject which they must know. The Imãm replied, 'Certainly not.”

40-4. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad and others (-) Sahl ibn Ziyãd* and Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã, both of them (-) Ibn Mahbũb (-) Hishãm ibn Sãlim (-) Abi Hamzah (-) Abi Ishãq as-Sabi‘i (-) (unknown person) who narrated to him, as saying:

“I have (myself) heard Amīr al-mu'minīn, saying. 'O’ people, you should know that the climax of religion is to acquire knowledge and to act upon it. Verily, acquisition of knowledge is more incum-bent on you than the acquisition of wealth and money, since wealth and money already stand distributed and guaranteed (by Allãh). It

* * * * * * *

has been so done by One Who is just. Wealth is destined to reach you, but the knowledge has been reserved only for those who are worthy of it. Hence you have been ordered (by Allãh) to acquire knowledge from those who really possess it. Do acquire it from such people.”

41-5. A group of our associates (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi (-) Ya‘qũb ibn Yazid (-) Abi ‘Abdillãh, one of our associates (rafa‘ahu) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“The Messenger of Allãh (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) has observed, 'Ac-quiring knowledge is imperative.”

Another tradition says that Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) quoted the Messenger of Allãh (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) as saying:

“Acquiring knowledge is imperative upon each and every Muslim. Beware, verily, Allãh loves those who have longing for knowledge.”

42-6. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khãlid (-) ‘Uthmãn ibn ‘Isã (-) ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah as saying: “I have heard Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

'Acquire sound understanding of religion, since he who amongst you does not acquire it, is a (rustic) Bedouin (a‘rãbi) since

* * * * * * *

Almighty Allãh has said (in his holy Book [Qur'ãn] ), 'They (a group of Muslims) may gain sound knowledge in religion and they may warn their folk when they returned to them, so that they may be aware.”(at-Tawbah, 9:122)

43-7. al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (-) Ja‘far ibn Muhammad (-) al-Qãsim ibn ar-Rabī‘ (-) Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar as saying : “I have heard Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

'It is an obligation on you to gain sound comprehensions of the religion of Allãh and not to be like (rustic) Bedouin Arabs, since Allãh on the Day of Judgment, will neither cast even a glance at nor will He purify the deeds of a person who has developed no understanding of the religion.”

44-8. Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl (-) al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn (-) Ibn Abi ‘Umayr (-) Jamīl ibn Darrãj (-) Abãn ibn Taghlib (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“It will be to my liking if whip blows continue to be delivered on the heads of my companions (followers) till the time they acquire understanding (in religion).”

45-9. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (-) Sahl ibn Ziyãd (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) someone (unknown to the previous narrator) who nar-rated to him as saying:

“Someone asked Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) 'May my life be sacrificed for you, there is a person who knows all about this affair (of Imãmat), but he has confined himself to his house and has no contacts with his fellow brothers, (What do you say about such per-son?) The Imãm remarked, 'How can such a person have any knowledge and understanding of the religion?”

2: CHAPTER ON PROPERTY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE EMINANCE OF THE LEARNED

46-1. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan and ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (-) Sahl ibn Ziyãd (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) ‘Ubaydillãh ibn ‘Abdillãh

* * * * * * *

ad-Dihqãn (-) Durust al-Wãsitī (-) Ibrãhīm ibn ‘Abd al-Hamīd (-) Abu'l-Hasan Musa (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“Once the Messenger of Allãh (Muhammad - p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) while entering into the mosque saw a man surrounded by the people. The Prophet inquired about the man. He was informed that the man was an ‘Allãmah - a learned doctor. The Prophet inquired, 'What is an ‘Allãmah?' The people told the Prophet, '‘Allãmah is a person who of all the people knows most about Arab lineage, Arab battles, the days of ignorance (historical conditions prevailing before the coming of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) and all about the Arab verses and Arab literature.' Hearing this the Prophet remarked:

'This precisely is the knowledge, the acquisition of which is neither of any profit nor is the non-acquisition of it of any loss.'

Then the Prophet added:

'True knowledge is of three kinds. The first is the knowledge of the verses of Allãh which are precise and un-equivocal. The second is the knowledge of the obligations of equity and moderation. The third is the knowledge of as-Sunnah Islamic code (of musts and mustn'ts, imperatives and prohibitions). The rest is to excel or a surplus.'“

47-2. Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) Muhammad ibn Khãlid (-) Abi'l-Bakhtari (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“Scholars, the learned (in religion), are the heirs of the prophets,

since the prophets do not leave behind them any monetary legacy. But they leave behind them, the legacy of some of the aggregate of their traditions (ahãdīth). (Since it is not proper for them to leave monetory legacy behind them for their followers, as being their guide.) He who has secured a share from the legacy of these traditions, has actually secured the lion's share. So you must look at the source from where these traditions has been taken. Verily, the source of these traditions is to be found in us - the worthy family of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.). Every one of us who comes after the other is an embodiment of justice who nullifies every distortion and deviation of the extremist (ghãli),1 erases every falsehood and cuts out the misinterpretations and misconstructions of the ignorant (in divine revelations).”

48-3. al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (-) Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad (-) al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali al-Washshã' (-) Hammãd ibn ‘Uthmãn (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“When Allãh wishes well of any person He endows him with the true understanding of religion.”

49-4. Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl (-) Fadl ibn Shãdhãn (-) Hamm-ãd ibn ‘Isã (-) Rib‘i ibn ‘Abdillãh (-) a person (unknown) (-) Abu

Note

1. (Extremist - Ghãli is the one who elevates the status of the Prophet and the Imãms to the point of God-hood.)

Ja‘far (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“To have true understanding of the religion, to be patient in adversities and to be balanced and well planned in ones economic dealings is an accomplishment of all accomplishments.”

50-5. Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) Muhammad ibn Sinãn (-) Ismã‘īl ibn Jãbir (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh as saying :

“The learned scholars are the custodians (of divine religion and of knowledge). The pious are its fortresses, and the vicegerents of the prophets (the Imãms) are the chiefs.”

Another tradition to this tradition says : “The scholars (of religion) are the light houses, the pious are the fortresses and the vicegerents of the prophets are the chiefs.”

51-6. Ahmad ibn Idrīs (-) Muhammad ibn Hassan (-) Idris ibn al-Hasan (-) Abi Ishãq al-Kindi (-) Bashīr ad-Dahhãn (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“From amongst our companions (followers) he who has not developed any understanding of religion has no good to his share. O’ Bashīr, one who does not acquire sufficient knowledge of religion will have to depend on others (our opponents). And one who depends on them (regarding the knowledge of

religion), they misguide him without knowing that he is misguided.”

52-7. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (-) Sahl ibn Ziyãd (-) an-Nawfali (-) as-Sakkũni (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) (-) his forefathers (one after the other) till it reaches to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (p. b. u. h.) who said:

“The Messenger of Allãh (p. b. u. h. a. h. p.) has observed, 'Except in the life of two categories of persons there is no good in the life of others. The first category is the 'learned scholars' whom people obey. The second is the category of the attentive listeners (of the discourses of these learned scholars). “'

53-8. ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) his father (-) Ibn Abi ‘Umayr *and Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad (-) Ibn Abi ‘Umayr (-) Sayf ibn ‘Amirah (-) Abi Hamzah (-) Abu Ja‘far (p.b.u.h.) as saying :

“The scholar who derives (spiritual) benefit from his knowledge is far better than seventy thousand devotees to Allãh.”

54-9. al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (-) Ahmad ibn Ishãq (-) Sudan ibn Muslim (-) Mu‘awiyah ibn Ammar, as saying:

“I asked Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) about a person who quoted

* * * * * *

your (the Imãm's) traditions, propagated them among the people, imprinted and fortified the traditions in their hearts and the hearts of your (Imãm's) followers. On the other hand there was another devotee to Allãh among your followers who had no such quality of relating and propagating your traditions, which of the two was better? The Imãm replied, 'He who relates our traditions, imprints and fortifies them in the hearts of our followers is far better than one thousand devotees.”

* * * * * *

3: CHAPTER ON CATEGORIES OF THE PEOPLE

55-1. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (-) Sahl ibn Ziyãd *and Muham-mad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (both of them)

(-) Ibn Mahbũb (-) Abu Usãmah (-) Hishãm ibn Sãlim (-) Abi Hamzah (-) Abi Ishãq as-Sabi‘i (-) whoever narrated it from a reliable source as saying :

“I have heard Amīr al-mu'minīn (the Chief of the believers) as usually saying, 'After the death of the Messenger of Allãh (Muhammad p.b.u.h.a.h.p.), people turned towards three types of men as their leaders. The first type was the learned scholar who received guidance from Allãh and was on the right path. Almighty Allãh has enriched him with so much of knowledge as to make him free and independent of any other person's knowledge (and guidance). The second category (whose leadership was accepted by the people) was of the rustic, the ignorant who (falsely) claimed learning but actually had no knowledge at all, and who were still proud over what they had. Such a person had enchanted and mislead others and was himself enchanted and misguided. The third is the category of the leaders acquiring knowledge from the learned scholar who was on the right path under the guidance of the Almighty Allãh. Such a leader is the one who has earned his salvation. Further, he who has made a false claim, has met his doom and he who tampered (with religion) has been completely disappointed.”

56-2. al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ash‘ari (-) Mu‘allã ibn Muhammad (-) al.-Hasan ibn ‘Ali al-Washshã' (-) Ahmad ibn ‘Ã'idh (-) Abu Khadījah Sãlim ibn Mukram (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying :

“People are of three kinds : (i) The learned scholars; (ii) The learners; and (iii) The rubbish.”

57-3. Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) ‘Abdillãh ibn Muhammad (-) ‘Ali ibn al-Hakam (-) al-‘Alã' ibn Razin (-) Muhammad ibn Muslim (-) Abu Hamzah ath-Thumãli as saying, “Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) addressed me thus:

'Lead your life in such a way that you either be a scholar or a learner or (at least) lover of the people of knowledge. Never be in the fourth category, otherwise you will meet your doom because of their enemity.”

58-4. ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) Yunus (-) Jamīl (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“People are of three types; (i) The learned scholars; (ii) the learners; and (iii) the rubbish. We (the worthy progeny of the Pro-phet) are the learned scholars, our disciples and followers are the learners and the rest are just rubbish.”

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4: CHAPTER ON THE DIVINE REWARDS FOR THE LEARNED AND THE LEARNERS.

59-1. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan and ‘Ali ibn Muhammad (-) Sahl ibn Ziyãd *and Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad, both of them (-) Ja‘far ibn Muhammad al-Ash‘ari (-) ‘Abdullãh ibn Maymũn al-Qaddãh and ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) his father (-) Hammãd ibn ‘Isã (-) al-Qaddãh (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying :

“The Messenger of Allãh (p.b.u.h.a.h.p.) observed :

'Almighty Allãh will lead along the path of paradise a person who treads along the path that leads to knowledge. Verily, the angels spread their wings under the feet of a person who goes in search of knowledge. Verily, all the creations of heaven and earth including the fish of oceans pray for his redemption. The man of learning in

comparison with a man of prayers and devotion, stands on the same footing as the fourteenth moon stands in comparison with all the stars. Verily, the scholars (in religion) are the heirs of the prophets. The prophets do not leave behind them any monetary legacy. (It is not proper for the prophets to leave monetary legacy behind them for their followers, as being their guide.) They leave behind their knowledge. He who has a share in that knowledge has actually secured the lion's share.”

60-2. Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad (-) al-Hasan ibn Mahbũb (-) Jamīl ibn Sãlih (-) Muhammad ibn Muslim (-) Abu Ja‘far (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“The giver of knowledge is blessed by Allãh in the same way as the taker of it, rather the former has precedence over the later. Acquire knowledge from those who are its true possessors. Teach your brothers as the learned have taught you.”

61-3. ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi (-) ‘Ali ibn al-Hakam (-) ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah (-) Abu Bash. as saying, “I have heard Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

'He who teaches any good to others will have the same reward as the one who acts upon it.' I asked him, 'Should the same person teach the good to someone else, will the first person who taught it

be entitled to the same reward?' The Imãm replied, 'If the first teaches the good to all mankind, even then, the first person will continue to share the equal rewards with all the doers of the good.' I (the narrator) again asked, 'What the position would be in the case of the death of the first teacher.' The Imãm replied, 'His death makes no difference. He will go on receiving the divine rewards although dead.”

62-4. According to same ascription (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Hamīd (-) al-‘Alã ibn Razīn (-) Abi ‘Ubaydah al-Hadhdhã' (-) Abu Ja‘far (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“He who gives any lesson in any gateway towards guidance shares equal rewards with the people who act upon it without the slightest deduction in the rewards of the doers. And he who gives any lesson in any gateway towards misguidance, shares equal punishment with the people who act upon it, without the slightest deduction in the punishments of the sinners.”

63-5. al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (-) ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sa‘d (rafa‘ahu) (-) Abi Hamzah (-) ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn (p.b.u.t.) as saying:

“Had the people known the real worth of the acquisition of knowledge they would have acquired it even if they had to pay for it with a bleeding heart or if they had to dive in the deep seas. Almighty Allãh revealed to Dãniyãl (the prophet), 'Most wretched

among My creation is the rustic who makes light of the learned and stops following them. And the most lovable among My creation is the person who guards himself against evil seeking My maximum rewards, attaches himself to the learned, follows the path of the patient and the for-bearing, and always accepts the words of the wise.”

64-6. ibn Ibrãhīm (-) his father (-) al-Qãsim ibn Muhammad (-) Sulaymãn ibn Dãwũd al-Minqarī (-) Hafs ibn Ghiyãth as saying: “Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) addressed me thus:

'He who acquires knowledge, acts upon it and imparts it to others only to please Allãh is proclaimed (by all existing beings) throughout the realm of Heavens as the great and the magnificent. It is proclaimed (about him) that he is the one who acquired knowledge to please Allãh, acted upon it to please Allãh and also propagated it amongst the people only to please Allãh.”

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5: CHAPTER ON ATTRIBUTES OF THE LEARNED SCHOLARS

65-1. Muhammad ibn Yahyã al-‘Attãr (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) al-Hasan ibn Mahbũb (-) Mu‘awiyah ibn Wahab as saying, “I have heard Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

'Acquire knowledge and adorn it with forbearance and reverence. Be humble to those whom you give knowledge and also to those from whom you received it. Never be among the harsh tempered scholars. Lest you should forfeit your title (to all rewards of your learning) because of your wrong and harsh demeanour.” 4

66-2. ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) Muhammad ibn ‘Isã (-) Yunus (-) Hammãd ibn ‘Uthmãn (-) al-Hãrith ibn Mughīrah an-Nasri (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) regarding the (following) words of Allãh, the Almighty :

“Verily, fear Allãh only those of His servants endowed with knowledge.” (al-Fãtir, 35:28)

“Learned here means those whose deed corroborate their word. And he whose deed do not corroborate his word is not at all a learned scholar.”

67-3. A group of our associates (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi (-) Ismã‘īl ibn Mihrãn (-) Abu Sa‘īd al-Qammãt (-) al-Halabī (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“Amīr al-mu'minīn observed, 'Verily, let me inform you about a person who truly is a learned scholar. It is he who neither disappoints the people from the mercy of Allãh and nor does he set them free (the people) from the fear of divine curse and punishment, nor does he let the people commit sins, nor does he turn away from Qur'ãn to other things for the reason of his personal longings and inclinations. Verily, there is no virtue of any sort in the knowledge which is devoid of comprehension. There is no virtue of any sort in the recitation of the verses of Qur'ãn which is devoid of understanding of their thought power. Lo, there is no virtue of any sort in the devotedness and prayers which are devoid of deliberation and meditation.”

Another narration (of this tradition) says :

“Verily, there is no virtue in the knowledge which is devoid of comprehension. Lo, there is no virtue in recitation of the words of Allãh which is devoid of thinking. Lo, there is no virtue in devotion and prayerfulness which is devoid of knowledge and

comprehension. Lo, there is no virtue in the devotedness which is void of piousness.”

68-4. Muhammad ibn Yahyã (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isã *and Muhammad ibn Ismã‘īl (-) al-Fadl ibn Shãdhãn an-Naysãburi, both of them (-) Safwãn ibn Yahyã (-) Abu'l-Hasan ar-Ridã (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“Forbearance and silence are two among the symbols of know-ledge and understanding.”

69-5. Ahmad ibn ‘Abdillãh (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi (-) some of his associates (rafa‘ahu) Amīr al-mu'minīn (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“The heart of a learned scholar is always free from stupidity and inadvertence.”

70-6. According to the same ascription (-) Muhammad ibn Khãlid (-) Muhammad ibn Sinãn (rafa‘ahu) as saying :

“ ‘Isã ibn Maryam (Jesus - p.b.u.h.) said (addressing his people), 'O’ my comrades, I need you for something, would you like to fulfil it for my sake?' They (the comrades) replied, 'O’ spirit of Allãh, we are ready to fulfill every need of yours.' Then he (Jesus - p.b.u.h.) got up and started washing their feet. The comrades exclaimed, 'O’ spirit of Allãh ! In fact it is we who deserve the honour of washing your feet. Jesus replied,

'The person who can lay the greatest claim render service (to mankind) is the learned scholar himself. Lo, I have showed humility to this extent to you so that after me you should also show the same humility to mankind.' Jesus, the prophet, added 'It is through humility that wisdom and knowledge are nurtured, not through conceit and haughtiness in the same way as a crop is raised only from a leveled ground and not from mountainous regions.”

71-7. ‘Ali ibn Ibrãhīm (-) his father (-) ‘Ali ibn Ma‘bad (-) the person whose name was mentioned (-) Mu‘ãwiyah ibn Wahb (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying: “Amīr al-mu'minīn (p.b.u.h.) has observed :

'O’ seeker of knowledge! there are three signs of a learned scholar. They are, knowledge, forbearance and silence. Similarly there are three signs of a fake scholar. He is always a quarrelsome and insubordinate to one superior to him. He is tyrannical to those who are inferior to him through browbeating and through riding over them rough shod. Thirdly he is the backbone of the tyrants and the oppressors.”

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6: CHAPTER ON RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES OF A LEARNED SCHOLAR

72-1. ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillãh (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad (-) Muhammad ibn Khãlid (-) Sulaymãn ibn Ja‘far al-Ja‘fari (-) the person whose name was mentioned (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b. u.h.) as saying, “Amīr al-mu'minīn observed :

'Among the rights and privileges of a learned scholar is, that you should not ask him numerous questions, you should not pull him by his gown (in demanding answers). When you get into his presence, you should pay distinct and special compliments to him, while paying compliments to all present in his audience. Always sit in front of him and never sit at his back. Never gesticulate with your eyes and hands in his presence. In his presence avoid referring

frequently 'such and such man has said this and that and has repudiated you like this and like that.' Never be impatient and restless on his long speeches and discourses since a learned scholar is like a palm tree under which the people wait for some fruit to drop down to them. A learned scholar is entitled to far greater divine rewards than the rewards of a person who fasts (in the day) and stands (in prayers) in the night and who wages a war in the way of Allãh “

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7: CHAPTER ON THE PASSING AWAY OF THE SCHOLARS

73-1. A group of our associates (-) Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khãlid (-) ‘Uthmãn bin ‘Isã (-) Abi Ayyũb al-Khazzãz (-) Sulaymãn ibn Khãlid (-) Abu ‘Abdillãh (p.b.u.h.) as saying:

“Among all the deaths of Muslim believers (mu'minīn) none