• Start
  • Previous
  • 11 /
  • Next
  • End
  •  
  • Download HTML
  • Download Word
  • Download PDF
  • visits: 2348 / Download: 865
Size Size Size
Ghadir as Narrated by Ahlulbayt (s.a)

Ghadir as Narrated by Ahlulbayt (s.a)

Author:
Publisher: www.shiaword.net
English

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Islamic Truths Center

A Series of Theological Studies

Ghadir as Narrated by Ahlulbayt (s.a)

Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hussaini Milani

Translated by : Dr. S.A.R. Afzali

www.alhassanain.org/english

Table of Contents

Forward 3

Islamic Truths Center 5

Part One: Ghadir in Qur’an 7

Verses on Ghadir 8

First Verse 8

Second Verse 9

Third Verse 9

Fourth Verse 11

Part Two: Ghadir as Narrated by Ahlulbayt (a.s) 12

Ghadir and the Guardianship of Hazrat Ali (a.s) 13

Arrival at Juhfah 13

How surprising Ali’s misfortunes are! 14

Helper of Ali (a.s) 15

Ghadir and Some of Prophet’s Sayings 16

Leader and Master of People 18

Ali (a. s) similar to Aaron 18

Ghadir and another Saying 19

Important Points 19

Invoking Ghadir Narration and swearing by it 20

Dialogue between Sa’d and Muawiyah 22

Objection and Opposition on Ghadir Day 24

Meaning of Ghadir Narration 25

Abu Hanifah’s confession about the signification of Ghadir Narration 26

Fasting on Ghadir Day 27

Ghadir Mosque and offering prayer in it 28

Ghadir Day as festivity day 28

Bibliography 31

Forward

With the prophetic mission of Prophet Muhammad (s), the seal of the prophets, the last and the most perfect divine religion was conveyed to humanity and prophethood came to an end.

The religion of Islam emerged in Mecca but after twenty three years of arduous efforts made by the Messenger Allah (s) and a handful of his loyal companions it spread all over the Arabian Peninsula.

The continuation of this divine mission was a task that was entrusted publicly on Dhul Hijja, the eighteenth, by Allah, the Glorious, to Ali (a.s), the commander of the faithful and the first personality after the Holy Prophet (a) in the world of Islam.

With the proclamation of Hazrat Ali’s guardianship and succession on this day, divine blessings were completed and the religion of Islam was perfected, being announced as the only religion chosen by Allah. That was how unbelievers and pagans got disappointed from destroying Islam.

Soon after [the demise of the Messenger of Allah (s)], some of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s) based on their pre-hatched conspiracies, brought deviation in the course of guidance and leadership. They closed the gate of the city of knowledge putting Muslims in perplexity. From the very beginning of their rule, they placed the truths of Islam - that were like shinning sun - behind the dark clouds of doubt and skepticism by putting a ban on recording prophetic narrations, spreading fabricated narrations, casting doubts and using hypocrisy and deception.

Obviously, in spite of all conspiracies hatched by the enemies of Islam, the truths of Islam and noble sayings of the Messenger of Allah (s) were promulgated by the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), his successors and a few of his devout companions and those truths kept flowing and manifesting themselves in one way or the other in the course of history. By explaining the truths, they did away with the doubts, hesitation, illusions, and unfounded beliefs inculcated by the enemies of Islam, making truths clear to all.

In this respect, great scholars and men of knowledge such as Sheikh Mufid, Sayyid Murtadha, Khaja Nasir, Allamah Hilli, Qadhi Nurullah, Mir Hamid Husain, Sayyid Sharafuddin, Allamah Amini etc. are like shining stars for they are the ones who defended Islamic truths, explained the realities of the school of Ahlulbayt (a.s.) and dealt with spurious arguments using their tongues and pens.

In our era, one of the of the scholars and researchers who has, with his eloquent pen and expressive writing, explained the truths of the religion of Islam and astutely defended the leadership and wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) is Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani.

The Islamic Truths Center is proud to embark on reviving the fruitful and precious works of that great researcher by reviewing, translating and publishing them in a bid to make them available to students, scientific figures and those who are in search for Islamic truths.

The book in your hand is a translation of one of his works, intended to acquaint the English audience with Islamic truths. It is expected that this humble effort will earn the pleasure of the Remnant of Allah, the Imam of Time [the twelfth Shiite Imam] may Allah hasten his reappearance.

Islamic Truths Center

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds and may prayer and peace be upon our master and Prophet, Muhammad, and his pure progeny, and may Allah’s curse be upon all their enemies from the first to the last one.

One of the indisputable principles of dialogue on matters of difference is that each side of the dispute is supposed to make use of the ideas accepted by the other side or base his or her arguments on principles taken for granted by both sides.

Throughout history, Shiite scholars have used this methodology against other Islamic sects in all issues of disagreement -jurisprudential or theological- especially the issue of Imamate and caliphate.

As far as the Event of Ghadir [Khum] is concerned it is dealt with in the same manner. Shiite works are full of narrations narrated by Sunnites. Shiite scholars quote in their books narrations related by the most important and reliable sources of Sunnites with the same chain of reporters that have appeared in Sunnite works. In order to prove that these narrations support their beliefs, they appeal to the words of the most famous of their scholars. They follow this methodology to the extent, that they even appeal to the words of their linguists in order to determine the meaning of a word.

The application of this methodology may, nevertheless, cause some simpletons to doubt (about the scholarly strength of Shiites) and some fanatics to ignore the truth (about Shiites). This is, for example, Rozbehan [Baqli] who says: “It is not surprising that he (a Shiite scholar) suffices to quoting from mere Sunnite sources. This is because Shiites do not have any narration (hadith) books nor do they have any scholars, expert in the science of narration. To prove his point of view, he is thus in dire need of Sunnite sources.”[1]

The present work is about Ghadir Narration as Narrated by Ahlulbayt (a.s). It studies briefly the Ghadir narration in Shiite works compiled by Shiite Mujtaheeds in order to remind Ibn Ruzbahan [and his likes] that Shiites have their own books, narrations and Mujtaheeds needing thus no Sunnite books to prove their points of views.

Similarly Sunnites need to know that thhe Ghadir narration is agreed on by all Muslims, to the extent that the Shiite and Sunnite scholars have the same opinion in quoting some of its versions with the same text and documentation.

Ahlulbayt (a.s) and the scholars who have followed them, have taken Ghadir narration into consideration, trying their best to disseminate and propagate it.

This work contains beneficial points that are not noticed or are ignored by the Sunnite narrators.

Relying on first-hand Shiite sources, I will mention versions of Ghadir Narration under certain headings, adding some [explanatory] points (concerning each one of them).

Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani

Part One: Ghadir in Qur’an

Verses on Ghadir

On Ghadir Day, some Quranic verses were revealed, which are, on the basis of narrations, as under:

First Verse

يا ايّها الرّسول بلّغ ما انزل إليك من ربّك وإن لم تفعل فما بلّغت رسألته والله يعصمك من النّاس[2]

O’ Apostle, Proclaim the Message which has been sent to you from your Lord! And if you do not do that, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) God will protect you from (the mischievous) men.

This verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet (s) on Ghadir Day before he delivered his (historic) speech. The narrations by Ahlulbayt (a.s) also confirm the revelation of this verse on Ghadir Day.

Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Ya’qub al-Kulaini (d. 328 AH) quotes this narration on his documentation as under:

Revealing this verse, Allah ordered his Prophet to announce wilayat (guardianship) of Ali (a.s).

إنّما وليّكم الله و رسوله والّذين آمنوا الّذين يقيمون الصّلاة و يؤتون الزّكاة و هم راكعون[3]

Your guardians are Allah, his Apostle and those who believe -those who establish prayers and give Zakat (poor’s rate) while they are bowing down (in worship).

This verse made it compulsory (upon every Muslim) to accept the guardianship of ulu-alamr (people of authorities) , but people were not aware of the essence of it. Therefore Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad (s) to clarify for people the concept of wilayat just as he clarified the concepts of prayers, zakat, fasting and hajj.

When this order was declared the Holy Prophet (s) became anxious, fearing that people might leave his religion, rejecting him as a prophet. He thus mentioned this while talking to his Lord. It was at this point that God, the Exalted, revealed the following verse:

يا ايّها الرّسول بلّغ ما انزل إليك من ربّك وإن لم تفعل فما بلّغت رسألته والله يعصمك من النّاس[4]

O’ Prophet, Proclaim the Message which has been sent to you from your Lord! And if you do not do that, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) Allah will protect you from (the mischievous) men.

Obeying the commandment of God, the Prophet of Allah (s) proclaimed that Ali was the wali (guardian of Muslim affairs). He called for congregational prayer and asked those who were present to inform about it those who were not present.[5]

Great Sunnite Huffaz (memorizers of Quran) and famous Sunnite scholars such as Ibn Abi Hatam, Ibn Marduyeh, Tha’labi, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Wahidi, Haskani, Ibn Asakir, Fakhr Razi, Naishaburi, Einy, Jalal Al-Din Suyuti etc. have also related that this verse was revealed on Ghadir Day.[6]

Second Verse

When the Holy Prophet’s speech ended on Ghadir Day and those who were present paid allegiance to Ali (a.s) as the commander of the faithful, this verse was revealed:

اليوم اكملت لكم دينكم و اتممت عليكم نعمتي و رضيت لكم الإسلام دينا[7]

Today I have perfected your religion for you and finished my bounty upon you and have chosen Islam for you as religion.

Sheikh Kulaini quotes on his own documentation, a narration from Imam Baqir (a.s) about Imam Ali’s speech which is known as ‘means (wasila) sermon’. In this long speech Imam Ali (a.s) says:

“Then the Prophet of Allah (s) went to Ghadir Khum, and the Muslims made something like a pulpit by his order. The Prophet (s) mounted it and raised my arm to the extent that the whiteness of his armpit became visible. Then he said loudly:

من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه ، اللهمّ وال من والاه , و عاد من عاد اه

Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him.

Therefore, friendship with me is friendship with Allah and enmity with me is enmity with Allah; at this moment Allah revealed this verse:

اليوم اكملت لكم دينكم و اتممت عليكم نعمتي و رضيت لكم الإسلام دينا

Today I have perfected your religion for you, and finished my bounty upon you and have chosen Islam for you as religion.

It is due to this, that my guardianship has resulted in the perfection of religion and pleasure of Allah, the Exalted.[8]

It is worth mentioning that some of the great Sunnite scholars and memorizers (of Quran) like Ibn Marduyeh, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Ibn Maghazeli, Muaffaq Maki, Abu Hamed Salehani, Hamyuni etc. have also mentioned that this verse was revealed on the Day of Ghadir Khum.[9]

Third Verse

When people paid allegiance to Amir Al-Mu’minin and the process came to an end, this verse was revealed concerning a person named Nu’man Fahri:

سأل سائل بعذاب واقع * للكفرين ليس له دافع[10]

A demander demanded an absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers.

Sheikh Furat Ibn Ibrahim Kufi has quoted the following on his documentation:

Husain Ibn Muhammad Kharifi says: “I asked Sufyan Ibn Eyneh which person the verse ﴿سأل سائل﴾ was revealed about?”

Sufyan answered: “My nephew! You asked about a thing about which nobody had asked me before. I asked the same question from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s) and he reported from his father, from his grandfather from Ibn Abbas the following:

On Ghadir Day, Prophet of Allah(s) stood up and made a short speech. Afterwards, he asked for Amir Al-Mu’minin Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s). (When he came), he took his arm and raised it to the extent that the whiteness of their armpits became visible.

At this moment the Prophet (s) said:

الم ابلّغكم الرسألة؟ الم انصح لكم؟

Have I not proclaimed the message to you? Have I not admonished you?

They said: “Yes, you have done it.”

He said:

من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه,اللهمّ وال من والاه و عاد من عاداه، و انصر من نصره، واخذل من خذله

Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him, and help anyone who helps him and leave alone anyone who leaves him alone.

As the Prophet’s word was circulating among people, Nu’aman became aware of it. He saddled his camel and mounted on its back He went to Prophet (s) and greeted him.

The Prophet (s) greeted him back.

Nu’man said: “O’ Muhammad! You asked us to say “La ilaha illa Allah” -There is no god but Allah- we accepted. Then you wanted us to believe in your prophecy, and we accepted while there were some doubts. Then you requested us to pray and we accepted. Then you invited us to fasting and we did so. Then you invited us to perform hajj and we did so. Then you said that any of you who gains two hundred dirham, must give one fifth of that as charity every year, we also obeyed this order from you.

Right now you have chosen your cousin and made him our leader, saying: “Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him, and help anyone who helps him and leave alone anyone who leaves him alone.” Are these words from you or Allah?

The Prophet of Allah (s) thrice said:

بل عن الله

Indeed from Allah.

At this moment Nu’man Fahri angrily stood up and said: “O’ Allah! If these words of Muhammad are right, descend rain of stone upon us from the sky, so that it be an affliction for the present generation and a sign for coming generations and if they are wrong then descend Your misfortune on Muhammad.”

Then he browbeat his camel and opened its shackle. He rode on it and went away. When he was crossing a vast plain, God, the Most High, descended a stone from the sky on his head, in such a way that after hitting his head, the stone came out of his back, causing him perdition.

At this moment, Allah the Most High revealed this verse concerning Nu’man Fahri.

سأل سائل بعذب واقع* للكفرين ليس له دافع* من الله ذي المعارج[11]

A demander demanded an absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers. (It is) from Allah the owner of the ways of ascent.[12]

Some of the prominent Sunnite scholars and narrators such as Tha'labi, Sebt Ibn Juzi, Zarandi, Samahudi, Ibn Sabbagh, Manawi, Halabi etc have also mentioned that that this verse was revealed about Nu’man Fahri.[13]

It is worth noting that this narration with the same text has also been reported by Tha’alabi on his documentation from Sufyan Ibn Eyneh in his commentary on Quran.[14]

Fourth Verse

Sheikh Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qomi, a third century great scholar quotes Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s) as saying:

The following verses were revealed about Ali, the commander of the faithful (a.s) on Ghadir Day):

و انّه لتنزيل ربّ العالمين* نزل به الرّوح الامين* على قلبك لتكون من المنذرين[15]

And Verily this (holy Quran) has been sent down from the Lord of the worlds; The Faithful Spirit has descended it; upon your heart that you may be of the warners.[16]

Part Two: Ghadir as Narrated by Ahlulbayt (a.s)