The History of Karbala

The History of Karbala0%

The History of Karbala Author:
Publisher: The Islamic Information Centre (Bristol)
Category: Imam Hussein

The History of Karbala

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Abu ‘Ammar
Publisher: The Islamic Information Centre (Bristol)
Category: visits: 1236
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The History of Karbala

The History of Karbala

Author:
Publisher: The Islamic Information Centre (Bristol)
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


Note:

We don't accept some contents of this book. All contents belong to the author's views not our.

The History of Karbala

By Abu ‘Ammar

This is distributed free for the donation of reward (Isal al-Thawab ) for:

Sarwar Hussain (Marhum)

Allahditta (Marhum)

Muhammad Ismail (Marhum)

Muhammad Magnoo (Marhum)

Zeenat Bi (Marhuma)

Saeeda Khanum (Marhuma)

Table of Contents

Preface 6

THE BACKGROUND OF KARBALA 8

IMAM HUSAIN 9

EXCELLENCE OF IMAM HUSAIN 10

YAZID BIN MU’AWIYAH 12

ALLEGIANCE TO YAZID BIN MU'AWIY 13

IMAM HUSAIN AND ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR WERE CALLED 15

ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH 16

IMAM HUSAIN LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH 17

ABDULLAH BIN UMAR & ABDULLAH BIN ABBAS 19

THE NEW GOVERNOR OF MADINA 21

IMAM HUSAIN IN MAKKAH 24

INVITATION TO IMAM HUSAIN FROM THE PEOPLE OF KUFA 25

MUSLIM BIN AQEEL GOES TOWARDS KUFA 26

THE GOVERNOR OF KUFA WAS INFORMED 27

ADVICE OF SARJOON ROOMI 28

UBAYDULLAH BIN ZIYAD GOES TOWARDS KUFA 29

MUSLIM BIN AQEEL MOVES PREMISES 30

UBAYDULLAH BIN ZIYAD’S DETECTIVE SLAVE 31

HANI WAS ARRESTED 33

MUSLIM BIN AQEEL SURROUNDS THE GOVERNOR’S HOUSE 34

PEOPLE OF KUFA BROKE THEIR PROMISE 35

MUSLIM BIN AQEEL WAS ARRESTED 36

IMAM HUSAIN RECEIVES MUSLIM BIN AQEEL’S LETTER AND DECIDES TO GO TO KUFA 38

IMAM HUSAIN LEFT MAKKAH FOR KUFA 40

IMAM HUSAIN MET FARZOOQ 41

LETTER FROM ABDULLAH BIN JAFFER 42

MARTYRDOM OF QAIS BIN MUSHIR 43

IMAM HUSAIN WAS INFORMED OF THE DEATH OF MUSLIM BIN AQEEL 44

HUR TA’MEMI CAME 45

FOUR PEOPLE CAME FROM KUFA TO JOIN IMAM HUSAIN 47

KARBALA 48

PLACE OF KARBALA 49

UMAR BIN SA`D ARRIVES AT KARBALA 50

SHIMAR BIN ZIL JAWSHAN`S ADVICE 52

LETTER OF IBN ZIYAD 53

IMAM HUSAIN GAVE A TALK TO HIS COMPANIONS 54

IMAM HUSAIN GAVE COMFORT TO HIS SISTER ZAINEB 55

IMAM HUSAIN’S HISTORICAL SERMON 56

EXCHANGE OF WORDS BETWEEN ZUHAIR AND SHIMAR 57

SEPARATION OF HUR BIN YAZID FROM THE ARMY OF UMAR BIN SA’D 58

BEGINNING OF THE WAR 59

END OF IBN JOZAH 60

MARTYRDOM OF IBN KHUZAIR 61

MARTYRDOM OF UMAR BIN QURZAH 62

RAIN OF ARROWS ON IMAM HUSAIN’S FOLLOWERS 63

MARTYRDOM OF HABIB BIN MUZAHAR AND HUR BIN YAZID 64

MARTYRDOM OF NAFI’ BIN HILAL 65

SOME OTHER MARTYRS 66

MARTYRDOM OF IMAM HUSAIN’S FAMILY 67

MARTYRDOM OF ABDULLAH BIN HUSAIN 68

IMAM HUSAIN’S BROTHERS WERE MARTYRED 68

IMAM HUSAIN WAS LEFT ALONE 69

MARTYRDOM OF IMAM HUSAIN 70

EVENTS AFTER MARTYRDOM 71

THE TENTS WERE ROBBED 72

IMAM HUSAIN’S FAMILY TAKEN TO KUFA 73

MARTYR OF ABDULLAH BIN AFEEF 74

PRISONER’S JOURNEY TO SYRIA 75

ZUHAIR BIN QAIS WENT TO YAZID 76

THE FAMILY OF IMAM HUSAIN REACHED SYRIA 77

THE FAMILY’S JOURNEY BACK TO MADINA 78

NAMES OF THE PEOPLE WHO WERE MARTYRED IN KARBALA 79

WHAT HAPPENED AFTER KARBALA? 80

ALL THE ROADS INTO MADINA WERE BLOCKED 81

WAR BETWEEN THE PEOPLE OF MADINA AND THE SYRIAN ARMY 82

WAR BETWEEN THE PEOPLE OF MAKKAH AND THE SYRIAN ARMY 83

TAWWABIN (THOSE WHO MAKE REPENTENCE) 84

MUKHTAR BIN ABEE UBAID SAKFEE KAZZAB (LIAR) 86

EXAMINING CERTAIN OBJECTIONS THAT ARE RAISED ABOUT IMAM HUSAIN 87

SCHOLARS’ OPINION ABOUT YAZID 91

SUPPORTERS OF YAZID 94

SHIMAR BIN ZIL JAWSHAN 96

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 98

Preface

In the name of Allah Most High, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All Praise be to Allah Most High, the Creator, the Provider. He has no Partners, and is in no need of any. He is Alone, He made the Heavens and the Earth, and He knows what was before time, what is present and what is after. He shows the straight path to whosoever He wishes, and whoever He chooses to bless, He makes them the best among the best. O Allah, send salutations on our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), who is the last and final Messenger. After him there will be no Prophets to come until the Day of Judgement. Allah Most High has given him the highest excellence. On the Day of Judgement when every indi­vidual will be present, our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) will intercede on the behalf of the Muslims. Peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), his family, his companions and all his followers.

I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah Most High and Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) is His servant and His Messenger. I thank Allah Most High for giving me the strength and courage to write about Sayyiduna Imam Husain (Allah be well pleased with him).

There are several reasons for writing this booklet. My main aim is to clarify the rituals performed during the first Islamic month, Muharram. During this month the Shi’ah (a sect) beat themselves on their chest with knives to show that they are mourning for Imam Husain. But the truth is that it was Shi‘as of Kufa and Basra who invited Imam Husain and then left him, in Karbala, to be martyred.

On this occasion, the people ofAhl Sunnah wal Jammat recite the Holy Qur'an and make Supplication (Dua); they gather together and their scholars explain about the events of Karbala. The event that took place in Karbala is a Sa'd occasion for all the Muslims. However, some take this occasion to the extreme, exaggerating and telling fabricated stories with the aim of making emotions high, causing crowds to become frantic and overcome with tears.

Many stories are related and told with great favour, but contain untruths such as the following:

(A) If any stone were to be lifted around Masjid Aqsa (Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem) there would be blood underneath it. The suggestion is that even the rocks were mourning the passing of Imam Husain.

(B) It rained blood from the sky.

(C) When the sun went down drops of blood fell from it.

(D) The trees started to weep blood.

(E) Imam Husain took his son Ali Asgar and begged the enemy for water, and while he was asking for water they shot an arrow and martyred him. However, this is not a true account of what actually happened. In actual fact his son was playing in his lap during the time of Karbala and an arrow struck him, from which he was martyred. Imam Husain did not in truth beg for water as he had a brave and courageous character, and this would have been a sign of weakness.

(F) Imam Husain had a daughter and he left her in Madina, telling her that he would call her in a few months after he reached Kufa. Some say that when he was in Karbala he received a letter from her, which was said to have been a sad letter asking him why he had not come to collect her.

(G) Some people maintain that when Muslim bin Aqeel went to Kufa and took his two sons, who were five and seven year old, with him After their father’s death, the two sons, out of fear for their lives, attempted to escape to Madina. But they were captured by the governor of Kufa, and martyred. However, the truth is that Muslim bin Aqeel’s two sons were not of that age, nor did they accompany their father. In fact, they went to Karbala with Imam Husain and were martyred there.

None of these accounts are to be found in the books of Tabari, Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Atheer, Usd al-Ghabah, or in theTareekh of al-Khulafa, nor inTareekh Ibn Katheer . No where is it mentioned that Imam Husain left his young daughter in Madina.

In writing this booklet I intend to present authentic narrations regarding the events of Karbala. I also intend to collect them and compile them in one place so that the reader can understand the events with clarity.

Another reason for writing this booklet is that there are those who, on the 10th of Muharram, praise Yazid and speak ill of Imam Husain. They are called Nawaasib and Khawarij. These two sects are totally against Imam Husain. In their opinion Imam Husain was wrong in opposing Yazid’s government, and he was killed in accordance with the rulings of the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah.

Also, I have always had the desire to write of Imam Husain’s excellence, his bravery and the sacrifices that he made, and to refute the objections that have been made against him.In sha’ Allah , I will try to fulfill these objectives to the best of my ability in this booklet.

Allama Ibn Khuldun writes inal-Muqaddima about an event that occurred in his town. He wrote that in his area there was a Sayyid (a person from the family of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) against whom people were making false accusations. However, Ibn Khaldun relates that he supported him because on the Day of Judgement his grandfather would support him, in other words the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace).

When I read this I thought that if I were also to support the Sayyids and refute false allegations about the grandson of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), tomorrow on the day of judgement, Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) may also intercede for me.

May Allah Most High make this booklet a useful source of knowledge for the reader and accept this work and reward me.

THE BACKGROUND OF KARBALA

IMAM HUSAIN

Imam Husain was born to the daughter of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), Sayyida Fatima, in the month of Shaban 4 Hijra, Sayyiduna Hasan, Husain and Mohsin were three brothers. Mohsin passed away in his infancy. When Sayyiduna Hasan, Imam Husain’s older brother, was born, Sayyiduna Ali named him Harb. When the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) enquired as to the chosen name, Sayyiduna Ali said that the name ‘Harb’ had been chosen. However, the Prophet replied his name should be ‘Hasan’. When Imam Husain was born, Sayyiduna Ali again named Imam Husain ‘Harb’. The Prophet again said, “no his name is Husain.” When the third child was born Sayyiduna Ali again named him Harb, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) again said, “No his name is Mohsin.” Then the Prophet said, “I have given the children the same names that the prophet Harun (alai his sallam) gave his children.” His childrens’ names were Shaber, Sabbir, and Moshabir, in other words Hasan, Husain, and Mohsin. The names Hasan and Husain are from the people of Paradise. In the time of ignorance, before the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) no one had been given these names.

[Imam Ibn Atheer narrates the above incident in his book,Usdul-Gabah ]

When Imam Husain was born, the Prophet (sallal ho alihi wasallam) came and recited the Adhan in his ear. Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain had the likeness of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), Sayyiduna Hasan from the chest upwards looked very similar to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), and Imam Husain looked identical from the waist down to our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace).

Usdul Gabah fi Ma’refat-i- Sahabah - biography of Sayyiduna Imam Husain by Allama Ibn Atheer .

EXCELLENCE OF IMAM HUSAIN

Hafiz Ibn Katheer writes that one day an angel came and sat down by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)said to Umme Salma (the wife of the Prophet and the mother‘s of the believers), “we have a guest, do not let any one enter as we are having a conversation.” In the meantime Imam Husain, who at the time was very young, entered the room, and as children do, Imam Husain climbed on top of our Prophet’s shoulder. The angel said “Do you love him”; Our Prophet replied “Yes”. The angel then said “Your followers will at a later time martyr him. If you wish I can show you where he will be martyred. Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said he would like to see where his grandson would be martyred. The angel then waved his hand and brought some red soil and said, “This is the place where he will be martyred.” Our Prophet took some soil from his hand and gave it to Umme Salma. She put the soil in a bottle.

After this it became known amongst the companions that Imam Husain would be martyred in a place called Karbala. Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) told them that if any of them are present at the time, they should support him. Sayyiduna Anas bin Harris was with Imam Husain in Karbala and was martyred.

Once when Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, was in Iraq and was passing the field of Karbala with Abu Abdullah. He shouted, “O Abu Abdullah stop! O Abu Abdullah go and stop near the river Euphrates”. Sayyiduna Ali then said, “One day I went to see the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and he had tears in his eyes. When I asked him why he had tears in his eyes, he said that the angel Gabriel had come to see him and had told him that Husain will be martyred near the river Euphrates, and the angel had given him some soil from there”.

In another narration it is said that once Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, was passing by a place, he asked: “What is this place called? Someone said, “This is Karbala.” Sayyiduna Ali seighed, “O Karbala”. He stopped there and performed salah (prayer) and then said that the people who will be martyred here will have the highest status among martyrs, after the companions, and they will enter Paradise without any reckoning. While Sayyiduna Ali was there he pointed to the place where Imam Husain would be martyred. The narrator confirms that Imam Husain was in fact martyred in the exact spot Sayyiduna Ali had pointed to.

Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, “Imam Husain and Sayyiduna Hasan are my two flowers of the world.” He also said, “Whoever loves them loves me and whoever hates them, hates me. Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, said that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) looked towards Sayyiduna Hasan, Imam Husain and Sayyiduna Fatima and said, “Whoever fights with you, I will fight with him and whoever loves you I will love him.”

Sayyiduna Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, said, “One day the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) came to us, and on one of his shoulders was Sayyiduna Hasan and on the other Imam Husain. On the way to us we saw that sometimes he would kiss Sayyiduna Hasan and sometimes he would kiss Imam Husain. One person spoke and said, “Our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) do you love them very dearly? The Prophet answered, “Yes, I love them dearly. Whoever loves them I will also love him and whoever holds a grudge against them, he in fact holds a grudge against me.”

Sayyiduna Laila bin Murrah says, “The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said that Husain is mine and I am his. Whoever loves Husain, Allah Most High will love him because Husain is my grandson.”

Sayyiduna Abu Sa'id Khudri says that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said that Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain are the leaders of the youth in Paradise.

Rabi bin Sa’d narrates that Imam Husain came into the Mosque. Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah, who was the companion of the Prophet, said, “I have heard from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) that whoever wants to see the leader of Paradise should look at Husain.”

Sayyiduna Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, narrates that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said that he loved Imam Husain and Sayyiduna Hasan and whoever loved him should love them. The Prophet made supplication to Allah Most High that I love Hasan and Husain and hope you also love and protect them. He also narrates that once Hasan and Husain came into the Mosque (Masjid-I-Nabawi) and the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was performing his prayer. When he would go into prostration Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain would jump onto his back, and when our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) sat up from the prostration, he would slowly put them down. When he would go into prostration again they would jump on his back again, until he would finish the prayers. Sayyiduna Abu Huraira said that he went to the Prophet and said, “Shall I take them to their mother as it is getting darker outside”.As soon as he finished saying this, a light lit up on the path from the Mosque to the house of their mother (Fatima). The light was so strong that we could see Sayyida Fatima’s house from where we were sitting. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said to his grandsons “You may go home now.”

[Tareekh Ibn Katheer by Hafiz Ibn Katheer – chapter on Karbala and Imam Husain ]

These Ahadith written by Hafiz Ibn Katheer in the excellence of Imam Husain have been collected fromBukhari ,Muslim, Tirmizi, Musnad Ahmed , and other books of Hadith. These ahadith have been accepted as authentic ahadith by all of the following scholars:

(a) Hafiz Ibn Taimiyah

(b) Hafiz Ibn Qayyim

(c) Hafiz Ibn Katheer

(d) Qadi Shuwkani

(d) Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab.

FOOTNOTE As some people do not accept the authenticity of a hadith unless it is accepted by particular scholars. Therefore, we have taken all these Ahadith from Hafiz Ibn Katheer’s book rather than original books of Hadith.

YAZID BIN MU’AWIYAH

Yazid bin Mu’awiyah was the son of Amir, who was the companion of our Prophet (sallalaho alihi wasallam). He was born in either 26th or the 27th year of the Hijra. His mother, Maysun, was divorced from Amir but Yazid lived with his father. Yazid was a very clever, witty and intelligent boy.

Yazid had a passion for music and alcohol. He always had a hangover in the morning due to his heavy drinking from the night before. When he hunted, he travelled with many dogs and enjoyed watching animals fighting one another. His fondness of his pets went to such extremes that his pets even travelled on horses laden with gold, and when a pet died, he would mourn for it. Some historians claim that he died due to one of his pets actually biting him while he was playing with it. However, there are many versions as to how he actually died, and Allah ta’ala knows best.

Sayyidina Amir Mu’awiyah could do nothing but reprimand his son for his ways, and offer him advice. He advised him repeatedly, “O my son, why do you indulge yourself in these evil things? Your enemies will triumph at your actions, while your friends will never respect you.” As time progressed, so did the habits; all the father could do was to advise him, while the son ignored the advice his father gave.

One day, Yazid asked his father if after his earthly departure, he would be made the King. Yazid promised that he would do nothing but righteous deeds and rule like ‘Umar Ibin al-Khatab. Amir was so surprised that he responded by saying, “Sub-han Allah ! How can this be possible? I swear by Allah, the Most High, that I have tried my very best to even come near to what ‘Umar used to do, and I have not been able to do that!” History proves that Yazid did not in fact implement the Islmaic political, social and economic system like Umar Ibn al- Khattab.

(Tarikh ibn Kathir, Biography of Yazid bin Mu’awiyah)

There is also difference of opinion as to when Yazid died. Abu Bakra bin Ayash says that the people took bay’ah with Yazid in 60 Hijra, and he died in Rabi-ul-Awwal 60 Hijra. But in fact he died on 15th Rabi-ul-Awwal 64 Hijra; and he was 48 years old at that time.

Lisanul Mizan Biography Yazid bin Mu'awiya by Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalanee

ALLEGIANCE TO YAZID BIN MU'AWIY

After the death of Amir Mu'awiya may Allah Most High be pleased with him, his son Yazid became the ruler of the Muslims. Most of the people had pledged their allegiance to him. However, three of the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) in Madina had not done so. It was due to this fact that Yazid wrote a letter to The governor of Madina who at the time was Waleed bin Utbah. In it he wrote:

‘My father has passed away, making me the King. I hope that you can convince these three men to swear allegiance to me’.

The three Sahabah he made refernecnce to:

Imam Husain, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.

Abdullah bin Zubair, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.

(3) Abdullah bin Umar, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.’

When Waleed bin Utbah received the letter, one of his friends Marwan was sitting with him. He asked his advice on the matter of the allegiance of these three men. Marwan said to The governor, “Send someone to call for Imam Husain and Abdullah bin Zubair immediately, and order them to swear allegiance to Yazid. If they obey then leave them, but if they refuse then you should have them killed. If they find out that Amir Mu'awiya, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, has passed away each of them will claim that they are the Amirs (leaders). Do not worry about Abdullah bin Umar as he has no desire to fight or become a leader, unless all the people get together and ask him to become their leader.”

IMAM HUSAIN AND ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR WERE CALLED

The governor sent one of his men to call Imam Husain and Abdullah bin Zubair. He told him that he would find them in the mosque since he had just left the Mosque himself and had seen them sitting there. When the person reached the Mosque and told them that The governor wanted to see them both, they replied that they would come soon. When he left they discussed the reasons The governor would want to see them since The governor himself had very recently left the mosque. When they could not come up with any reason for his request to see them, they decided to leave and go home. When Imam Husain arrived home he called all the males from the house and asked them to accompany him to The governor’s house.” When they reached his house, Imam Husain instructed them to wait outside, and only enter the house if he called them or if The governor raised his voice.

Imam Husain entered the house of The governor. After greeting him, The governor and Marwan gave him the letter which they had received from Yazid. After reading the letter Imam Husain was saddened by the news that Amir Mu'awiya had passed away and prayed to Allah Most High to shower his blessings upon his grave. The second part of the letter concerned their allegiance. Imam Husain said that it was not appropriate for a person of his status to pledge allegiance to Yazid secretely. But if they were to gather all the people of Madina together to swear their allegiance to Yazid, he would be the first among them to speak out about. The governor agreed to invite the people in the following morning. But Marwan spoke up immediately advising The governor, “Ask him to swear allegiance to Yazid now, otherwise you will not be able to obtain allegiance from him later, until there are rivers of blood flowing between you and him. If you do not do this, I will kill Imam Husain right now.” Imam Husain spoke with anger and said “Neither you or The governor can kill me as Allah Most High is with me.” Then Imam Husain left. On his departure Marwan said to The governor, “You have made a grave error in letting Imam Husain leave.” Waleed said, “I swear by Allah Most High that I did not wish to kill Imam Husain for the reason of allegiance. And I also swear that if I were given all the possession of a kingdom I still would not have killed him.”

ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH

After Abdullah bin Zubair arrived home he hid inside. The governor sent his people a number of times to call him. In the end they surrounded his house and called out that if he did not come out they would come to see him the next morning. During the night Abdullah bin Zubair came out very upset and told the people to tell The governor that he would come the next morning to see him. During the night Abdullah bin Zubair and his brother left for Makkah through a road which was not very well known to the travellers. When The governor found out that he had been tricked, he sent his men to find them, but by that time they had gone. When Abdullah bin Zubair reached Makkah, some of his supporters were already there and he began living in Makkah with them. The governor of Makkah, Umar bin Sa'id, used to come to the Ka’bah to pray and circumblate it (doTawaf ). He would also lead the prayers. Abdullah bin Zubair and his supporters refused to join them in prayers.

IMAM HUSAIN LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH

After Imam Husain left The governor’s house, he returned home and discussed with his brother what he should do. Imam Husain’s brother, Muhammad bin Hanfiah, said, “You should go to another city and send your representative to different cities to convince people to swear their allegiance to you. If the people swear allegiance to you then you should thank Allah Most High and if they decide to choose someone else as their leader, it would still not affect your religion or the respect people have for you. If you cannot do this then you should stay in the desert or the mountains and send your representative to different cities, or even keep changing cities until all the people in each town accept you as their leader. I am also afraid that you may go to towns where only a few will support you and the majority will oppose you. If there were a conflict between them I would not like you to be there to get the blame.” Imam Husain then asked his brother which city he should go to. His brother replied, “Go to Makkah.”

ABDULLAH BIN UMAR & ABDULLAH BIN ABBAS

Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas were in Makkah at the time when Amir Mu’awiyya passed away. They were coming towards Madina. Between the road from Makkah to Madina they met Imam Husain and when they found out that Imam Husain was intending to leave for Kufa, they dissuaded him form undertaking this journey. They reminded him of the flick-mindedness and betraying mentality of Kufans. Imam Husain maintained that it was important to tear the mask of Islam from the face of unIslamic rulers, and to alienate the Muslims from their misguided rulers. He asserted that it was incumbent to uphold the banner of Islam and defend the fundamental principles of Islamic political system. They had a long conversation on this subject, and after a while they each carried on with their journey. When Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas reached Madina they swore allegiance to Yazid.

THE NEW GOVERNOR OF MADINA

Meanwhile, Yazid found out that The governor of Madina had not forced Imam Husain or Abdullah bin Zubair to accept Yazid as the true ruler of the Muslims. He terminated his position as governor and appointed a new governor, Umar bin Sa'id al-Ashraq. The new governor was appointed in the month of Ramadan in the 60th Hijra. As soon as he became The governor he found out that Abdullah bin Zubair and his brother Umar bin Zubair had a conflict between them. He saw an opportunity to exploit their conflict for his own benefit and appointed Umar bin Zubair the chief of the police force, and told him to arrest all of his brother’s supporters. Some of the people he arrested were regarded as very pious and holy men and some of them were the companions or sons of the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). He arrested all of them and punished them with 40 to 60 lashes per person.

The governor then called a meeting to discuss who should be sent to Makkah to arrest Abdullah bin Zubair. Umar bin Zubair volunteered to go to Makkah to his brother. The governor gave him an army of 700 men and ordered him arrest Abdullah bin Zubair and his followers. When Umar bin Zubair was ready to leave with his army the friend of the old governor (Marwan) said to Umar bin Zubair, “Makkah is a city where even hunting a bird is Haram (forbidden), so how are you going to fight in Makkah? Your brother Abdullah bin Zubair is a fragile old man of sixty. What risk can he pose to somone in your position? Umar Bin Zubair said, “I swear by Allah Most High that I will fight with my brother even if he is in the Ka’bah itself.”

While this conversation was taking place, Abu Shureah Khuzaei, a companion of our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), said to The governor, “I have heard a Hadith from our Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), that fighting in Makkah is Haraam, even for him it was only allowed for a very short time and then it was made Haraam again. So you should not go to Makkah and fight.” Upon hearing this, The governor replied to Abu Shureah, “We know more about the respect of Makkah than you.”

Nevertheless, Umar bin Zubair left towards Makkah with his army. When they neared Makkah they camped outside and Umar bin Zubair sent a messenger to his brother. The messenger said to Abdullah bin Zubair, “ I have been sent to you by The governor of Madina to arrest you and take you back with me, so that you may swear allegiance to him in person as he will not accept it in writing or verbally. If you give yourself up to me I will put a very thin collar round your neck so that it cannot be noticed by your people and they will not lose respect for you. I will then take you back to Syria to King Yazid. You and I both know it is forbidden to shed blood in Makkah.”

When Abdullah bin Zubair received this message from his brother he replied by saying, “ You have come here with the intention to fight so we will fight, I will send my people to fight with you outside Makkah.” Umar bin Zubair’s army was defeated in the battle; some of his army men either escaped or were killed, and others, including Umar bin Zubair, were captured. Abdullah bin Zubair told his brother that all of his followers would be lashed in the same way as Abdullah’s supporters were lashed in Madina previously. After the lashing took place Abdullah bin Zubair’s brother, Umar bin Zubair, died.

IMAM HUSAIN IN MAKKAH

While on his way to Makkah Imam Husain also met Abdullah bin Muti’; when he discovered that imam Husain may undertake a journey to Kufa, he warned Imam Husain about the Kufans, “Do not go near the city of Kufa under any circumstances because the people of Kufa are very disloyal. The people of Kufa martyred your father, Sayyiduna Ali, and also contested with your brother, Sayyiduna Hasan.” He advised Imam Husain not to leave the surroundings of Makkah under any circumstances. “You are the leader of the Arabs, therefore whoever loves you and accepts you as their leader will come to you without you having to go to them. Unless the people of Makkah tell you to leave, do not leave Makkah”, He added.

After listening to this advice Imam Husain carried on with his journey to Makkah and remained and settled there. Time and time again people used to come to him and tell him about the situation of Kufa and the evil ways of Yazid. At that time Abdullah bin Zubair was also settled in Makkah and spent much time in the Ka’bah praying and worshiping Allah. Abdullah bin Zubair recognised the higher religious status and elevated rank of Imam Husain and knew that whilst Imam Husain was in Makkah nobody was going to swear allegiance to him as the leader of the Muslims.

INVITATION TO IMAM HUSAIN FROM THE PEOPLE OF KUFA

When the people of Kufa heard that Imam Husain had migrated to Makkah, they gathered in Sulaiman bin Surad’s house and discussed how to invite Imam Husain to Kufa from Makkah. It was decided that a letter of invitation would be sent to Imam Husain. In the letter they wrote: “Yazid has appointed Nu'man bin Bashir as The governor of Kufa and none of us has sworn allegiance to him; nor do we pray any salah, Friday prayer or Eid prayer behind him. If you come to us we shall swear allegiance to you and we will remove him from his post.” Signatures of many people supported the letter. Within two days of sending this letter another letter was sent again with similar contents to Imam Husain and this time backed by 150 signatures. After that a third letter then a fourth, and so on; every two days a letter was sent to Imam Husain. Some people even went to invite Imam Husain to Kufa in person. On receiving all the letters and personal invitations, Imam Husain’s opinion of the people of Kufa began to change.

Imam Husain wrote a letter to the people of Kufa, stating that he appreciated the situation in Kufa and was sending one of his cousins, Muslim bin Aqeel, to them, so he could assess the situation of Kufa and inform him of his opinion. He further added that he would himself come to Kufa soon because only he who follows the book of Allah Most High and establishes justice in the country could be the leader of the Muslims.

MUSLIM BIN AQEEL GOES TOWARDS KUFA

Muslim bin Aqeel left for Kufa with the letter. He reached Madina, which was on his journey; he prayed salah in the Prophet’s Mosque. After saying the prayer he acquired two guides to go to Kufa with him. It seems that misfortune overtook Muslim bin Aqeel’s journey to Kufa; they ran out of water and the two guides passed away due to dehydration. Muslim bin Aqeel survived and reached an oasis and found water. Later, he wrote a letter to Imam Husain explaining all the difficulties that he had encountered during the journey to Kufa. In addition, he wrote that the journey was cursed and requested for a proxy to be sent in his place.

When Imam Husain received the letter from Muslim bin Aqeel he replied by telling him to stop being so cowardly and continue with the journey to Kufa. Upon receiving this letter, Muslim continued with his journey to Kufa. It was 1st of Zil-Hijjah 60 A.H. when he reached Kufa. He settled in Kufa and the Shi'ah people used to come and visit him. Muslim bin Aqeel used to read the letters from Imam Husain to them. When the people would hear these letters, they would weep and pledge to support Imam Husain to their last breath.

THE GOVERNOR OF KUFA WAS INFORMED

Nu’man bin Bashir was The governor of Kufa at the time and he had found out that Imam Husain had sent Muslim bin Aqeel as his representative and that the Shi’ah people of Kufa were visiting him and swearing allegiance to him. Upon hearing this The governor gathered the people of Kufa and gave a a speech warning the people of the consequences of opposing the government. He asserted, “Causing trouble, disturbance and fighting amongst ourselves is not right. I will not fight, arrest or cause any kind of hardship to any of you, even for suspicion, unless any of you start a conflict or cause trouble. Also I will fight with the person who breaks the allegiance with our King Yazid even if it means that I would personally have to fight with him.” After he had given this speech some of the members of his group started saying to him, “You did not give strong indications in your speech and because of this the enemy will be encouraged rather than frightened.” The governor replied to them saying, “I can show weakness and at the same time be obedient to Allah Most High. I did not want to show the kind of strength with which Allah Most High is not pleased with me.”

After listening to The governor’s reply Abdullah bin Muslim and Ammarah bin Waleed and Amar bin Sa’d wrote a letter to the King Yazid, stating that Imam Husain had sent a representative to Kufa and the Shi’ah people were swearing allegiance to him. The governor gathered the people and gave a lecture and instead of discouraging and frightening them he encouraged the enemies’ hopes. “Therefore, if you feel that you require the city of Kufa, then we suggest that you appoint a governor who can implement your commands firmly, safeguard your city and keep the enemies at bay.” After reading this letter, Yazid asked advice from one of his men named Sarjoon Roomi.

ADVICE OF SARJOON ROOMI

Sarjoon told the King he would give him the same advice he would have offered if his father had been alive. Sarjoon instructed the King to appoint UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, the present governor of Basra, the new Governor of Kufa. Yazid heeded this advice despite the fact that he disliked UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. He wrote a letter to Yazid stating, “I am appointing you as the new governor of Kufa, as well as Basra. You may appoint someone else as your deputy in Basra. I would like you to go to Kufa immediately and take full charge there. The situation is urgent because Imam Husain has sent a representative, Muslim bin Aqeel, to Kufa on his behalf, who is seeking allegiance from the people of Kufa and turning them against the government. I give you full authority to deal with the matter as you see best; you may ask Muslim bin Aqeel to leave Kufa, or you may execute him.”

When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad received this letter from the King he gathered the people of Basra and told them that he had been appointed the new governor of Kufa. He appointed his brother, Uthman, as deputy governor of Basra. He instructed the people of Basra not to cause any friction or rebel against the King since he would not tolerate such actions and would execute anyone, even members of his family, for causing such troubles.

UBAYDULLAH BIN ZIYAD GOES TOWARDS KUFA

UbayduLlah bin Ziyad departed for his journey to Kufa with some of his family members and servants. When they had almost reached Kufa he separated from them and told them to remian at the outskirts of Kufa, as he wanted to enter the city by himself. When the people of Kufa saw UbayduLlah bin Ziyad entering the city they immediately thought that it was Imam Husain, and started to sing a song welcoming him into their city. “ Welcome, son of our Prophet, welcome son of our Prophet.” UbayduLlah bin Ziyad did not respond to their chanting but continued riding his horse towards The governor’s house. When The governor of Kufa, Nu’man bin Bashir, heard all the people singing in celebration of Imam Husain coming to Kufa, he got frightened and locked the doors of his house thinking Imam Husain was here to take his position and kill him. When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad reached his house and knocked on the door, Nu’man would not open it. UbayduLlah bin Ziyad shouted that if he did not open the doors then they would open the doors by force. When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad uttered these words, someone from the crowd recognised his voice and said, “This is not Imam Husain, it is UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, The governor of Basra”. The crowd immediately dispersed. Nu’man also heard this and he opened his doors to let UbayduLlah bin Ziyad enter his house.

The next day UbayduLlah bin Ziyad told Nu'man to gather all the people of Kufa, and he gave a speech telling them that he was the new governor of Kufa appointed by the King. He told the people, “ I will be lenient on the poor, and the people who are loyal to the King, but I will arrest and punish anyone who shows disloyalty to the King. They will feel my sword against their necks. I am here to implement the laws and the orders of the King. I will live amongst you as a law-abiding citizen.” He gave a lengthy speech to the people. People who were in favour of Muslim bin Aqeel began to feel frightened of UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. When Muslim bin Aqeel heard that the people had been so frightened by the speech, he too felt fear of the person whose house has was staying at.

MUSLIM BIN AQEEL MOVES PREMISES

Muslim bin Aqeel began making arrangements to move to someone else’s house. He went to Hani bin Urwah’s house, and knocked on his door, asking whether he could stay there. The expression on Hani bin Urwah’s face told him he was not welcome. He said, “You should not have come here as you might be creating trouble for me and my family.” Muslim bin Aqeel replied, “I have come to your house as a guest and you are telling me that I am not welcome.” Hani told him that if he felt that way, he should come and live with him as his guest. After that Muslim bin Aqeel began living there.