A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC0%

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC Author:
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
Category: Arabic Language and Literature

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: HANS WEHR
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A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

Author:
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

ش

ش abbreviation of شارع šāri‘ street (St.)

شاء šā’ (coll.; n. un. شاة šāh) pl. شواة šiwāh, شياه šiyāh sheep; ewe

شؤبوب šu’būb pl. شآبيب ša’ābīb2 downpour, shower

شادر šādir, tent; storehouse, warehouse, magazine

شاذرون šādarūn fountain; a small water-driven gadget adorned with hells, and the like, resembling a mobile

شاروبيم šārūbīm cherubim

شاسي šāsī chassis

شأفة ša’fa root |استأصل شأفته ista’ṣala ša’fatahū to extirpate, root out, eradicate s.th., remove s.th. drastically

شاكوش šākūš and شكوش šakūš pl. شواكيش šawākīš hammer |ابو شاكوش hammerhead (shark)

شال šāl pl. شيلان šīlān shawl

شاليه (Fr. chalet) šālēh pl. -āt hunting cabin, .hooting lodge; beach cabin, cabana

شام VI to perceive an evil omen (من or ب in), regard as an evil portent (من or ب ب s.th.); to foretell calamity (من or ب from); to be superstitious; to he pessimistic X to perceive an evil omen (ب in), regard as an evil portent (ب s.th.); to foretell calamity (ب from)

الشام aš-ša’m, aš-šām the northern region, the North; Syria; Damascus |شاما ويمنا (yamanan) northward and southward

شامي šāmī Syrian; (pl. -ūn, شوام (šuwām) a Syrian

شآمي ša’āmī Syrian (adj. and n.)

شؤم šu’m calamity, bad luck, misfortune; evil omen, portent |لا تملأ الدنيا شؤما (tamla’, dunyā) (don’t fill the world with evil omen!) approx.: talk of the devil and he will appear!

اشأم aā’am2, f. شؤمى šu’mā inauspicious, ill-omened, ominous, portentous, sinister; calamitous, disastrous; unfortunate, fatal, accursed

تشائم tašā’um pessimism

مشؤوم maš’ūm and مشوم mašūm pl. مشائيم mašā’īm2 inauspicious, ill-omened,

ominous, sinister; unfortunate, unlucky |عدد مشؤوم (‘adad) unlucky number

متشائم mutašā’im pessimist

شأن ša’n pl. شؤون šu’ūn matter, affair, concern, business; circumstances, state of affaire, case; nature, character, quality, kind; situation, condition, state; significance; importance, consequence; standing, prestige, rank; cranial future; pl. شؤون tears; ša’na like, as |بشأن bi-ša’ni regarding, with regard or respect to, relating to, pertaining to, concerning, as to, about; جل شأنه (jalla) the Sublime (of God); وزارة الشؤون الاجتماعية Ministry of Social Affairs; الشؤون الخارجية (kārijīya)foreign affairs; ذو الشأن , f. ذات الشأن the responsible man, the man in charge, the man directly concerned with the matter; اولو الشأن ulū š-š. and ذوو الشأن dawū š-š. the influential people, the competent people; the concerned with the matter; شؤون الحياة š. al-ḥayāh worldly affairs; خطير الشأن of great importance; ذو شأن significant, important; رفيع الشأن high-ranking; (formerly, Tun.) title of members of the Bey’s family; صاحب الشأن the one concorned; اصحاب الشأن those concerned; the important, influential people; O مكلف بالشؤون (mukallaf) chargé d’affaires (dipl.); شأنه في ذلك شأن الـ (ša’nuhū … ša’nu l-...) in this matter he fares just as the …, he is, in this respect, in the same situation as the ...; رجل هذا شأنه (ša’nuhū) a man whose situation is this, a man who can be described as ..., a man in this situation; شأنك ša’naka or انت وشأن anta wa-ša’naka please your-self! do as you like! شأنك وما تريد (ša’naka) do as you please! just as you wish! دعني وشأني (da‘nī) let me alone! تركه وشأنه tarakahū wa-ša’nahū to let s.o. alone; to let s.o. go; not to pay any attention to s.o.; هو في شأن he is concerned with a matter; هذا شأنه that’s his affair; ما شأنك what’s the matter with you? what do you want? ما شأنك وهذا what have you got to do with this? what business of yours is this? ما شأنه والأمر (amra) what has he got to do with the matter? ما شأني في ذلك what have I got to do with that? what business of mine is that? اي شأن لك في هذا (ayyu ša’nin) what business of yours is this? what’s that to you? له شأن في ذلك he has s.th. to do with this, he has a hand in this; لا شأن له في ذلك (ša’na) he hasn’t anything to do with this, he has no part in this; ليس لي شأن في ذلك I shall have nothing to do with that, that is none of my business, I shan’t meddle in that; لا شأن لي في ذلك (ša’na) I haven’t anything to do with it, it's none of my business; لي معه شأن آخر (ākar) I still have a bone to pick with him; ذهب لبعض شأنه (li-ba‘ḍi ša’nihī) he attended to a task; he went to do s.th.; انصرف الى شأنه (inṣarafa) he left to do his work; اصلحت من شأنها (aṣlaḥat) she made herself up; اهمل شأنه ahmala ša’nahū he neglected him; ذلك شأنه that is his habit; هذا شأنه دائما he is always that way; شأنه في (ša’nahū) as he used to do in ...; شأنه مع من (ša’nahū) as he used to deal with people who ...; كان من شأنه it was his wont, he used to ...; من شأنه ان it is in his (its) nature that ..., he (it) tends to ...; it is his business to ...; ليس من شأنه ان it is not his affair or business to ...; it is inappropriate for him to ...; it does not tend to …; is not conducive to ...; ان لهذا الرجل شأنا (rajuli) there is a man to keep an eye on, this is an important man; there is s.th. about this

man! لله في خلقه شؤون (kalqihī) God has created all kinds of things (meaning: strange things can happen in this world!)

شانتاج (Fr. chantage) šantāž blackmail

شاه šāh shah; king (chess) | شاه بلوط (ballūṭ) chestnut tree (bot.); شاه مات checkmate (chess)

شاهاني šāhānī the shah’s, pertaining to the shah; imperial | ارادة شاهانية decree of the Sultan (in Ottoman times)

شاهين šāhīn pl. شواهين šawāhīn2 shahin, an Indian falcon (zool.) شآ (شأو ) šā’a u (شأو ša’w) to overtake in running, outrace (ه s.o.)

شأو ša’w highest point, summit, peak; goal, object | بعيد الشأو far-aiming, far-aspiring; very ambitious; بلغ في شأوه (ša’wihī) to get as far in s.th. as s.o. else, match s.o. in s.th.; بلغ شأوا بعيدا في الرقي (ruqīy) to undergo tremendous progress; بلغ الشأو البعيد to carry off the prize, hit the bull’s eye

شاورمة šāwarma, šāwirma (also شورمة ) charcoal-broiled mutton, out in thin slices and arranged conically on a vertical skewer (syr.)

شاوش šāwuš (tun.) pl. شواش šuwwāš sergeant; office boy, handy man; doorman, gate-keeper

شاويش šāwīš a military rank, approx.: staff sergeant (Eg.) | وكيل شاويش a military rank, approx.: sergeant (Eg.)

شاي šāy tea

شب šabba i (شباب šabāb, شبيبة šabība) to become a youth or young man, to adolesce, grow up; -- i u (شب šibāb, شبيب šabīb) to raise the forelegs as if about to jump; to rear; to prance (horse); -- i (شبوب šubūb) to burn, blaze (fire); to break out (fire, war); -- u (šabb, šubūb) to light, kindle (هـ fire) | شبت نيران الحرب (nīrān al-ḥarb) war broke out; شب عن الطوق (ṭauq) to be over the initial stages, with neg.: to be still in its infancy II to rhaplodize about a beloved woman (بها ) and one’s relationship to her, celebrate her in verse; to flirt (بها with a woman) V to rhaplodize about a beloved woman (بها ) end one’s relationship to her, celebrate her in verse; to compose love sonnets; to take fire, blaze up

شب šabb (= شاب šābb) youth, young man

شب šabb alum

شبة šabba (= šābba) young woman, girl

شبة šabba alum

شبب šabab fully grown (steer)

شباب šabāb youth, youthfulness; youths, young men, adolescents, juveniles | تجديد الشباب rejuvenation

شبابي šabābī youthful, juvenile

شبوب šubūb outbreak (of a war)

شبابة šabbāba reed flute

شبيبة šabība youth, youthfulness; الشبيبة the youth (coll.)

شاب šābb pl. شبان šubbān, شباب šabāb, شببة šababa youthful, juvenile, young; youth, young man

شابة šābba pl. -āt, شواب šawābb2, شبائب šabā’ib2 young woman, girl

مشبوب mašbūb lighted, kindled, ignited, flaming, burning; beautiful

شبت šibitt dill (هـ nethum graveolens; bot.)

1 شبث šabita a (šabat) and V to cling, cleave, hold fast, hang on, attach o.s. adhere (ب to)

شبث šabat pl. شبثان šibtān spider

شبث tašabbut tenacity; attachment, adherence, fidelity; stubbornness, obstinacy

متشبث mutašabbit tenacious; attached, adherent; stubborn, obstinate

2 شبث šibitt (هـ nethum graveolens; bot.)

شبح šabaḥ pl. شبوح šubūḥ, اشباح ašbāḥ blurred, indistinct shape; apparition; phantom; ghost, specter, spirit; nightmare; figure, person

1 شبر šabara u i (šibr) to measure (هـ s.th.) with the span of the hand II do.; to gesticulate, make gestures, to gesture

شبر šibr pl. اشبار ašbār span of the hand | شبرا فشبرا (fa-šibran) inch by inch; شبر من الأرض (arḍ) a foot of ground; قلده شبرا بشبر وذراعا بذراع (qalladahū) to imitate s.o. or s.th. religiously; to follow s.th. literally

2 شبور šabbūr pl. شبابير šabābīr2 trumpet

3 شبورة šabbūra and شابورة šābūra (eg.) fog, mist

شبرق šabraqa to tear to pieces, to shred (هـ s.th.)

شبرقة šabraqa pocket money

شبشب šibšib pl. شباشب šabāšib2 slipper

1 شبط šabaṭa to cling, cleave, hold on (في to)

2 شباط šubāṭ(2) February (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.)

3 شبوط šabbūṭ (syr.) large fish found in the Euphrates and Tigris rivers

شبع šabi‘a a (šab‘, šiba‘) to satisfy one’s appetite (من or هـ with s.th.), eat one’s fill (من or هـ of s.th.); to be or become sated, satisfied in one’s appetite; to be full (من or هـ of); to be or become fed up, surfeited (من with), be or become sick and tired (من of), have enough (من of) II to sate, satiate, fill (ب, هـ, ه s.o., s.th. with); to satisfy, gratify (هـ the appetite, one’s desires, the senses); to load, charge (هـ s.th., ب with electricity) IV to sate, satiate, fill (ه ب s.o. with); to satisfy, gratify (هـ the appetite, the senses); to saturate (هـ s.th., e.g., with a dye); to load, charge (هـ s.th., ب with electricity); to go in (هـ for s.th.) thoroughly; (gram.) to lengthen (هـ a vowel) by writing it plane; pass. ušbi‘a to be replete, full (ب with, of) | اشبع الكلام فيه (kalāma) to speak in great detail, at great length about s.th., describe or explain s.th. elaborately; اشبعه ضربا (ḍarban) to give s.o. a sound beating V to be sated, saturated (ب with); to be filled (ب with), be full (ب of); to be loaded or charged (ب with, el.)

شبع šab‘ sufficiency, satiety, satiation, saturation, repletion, fullness

شبع šib‘, šiba‘ s.th. that fills or satisfies the appetite, fill

شبع šaba‘ saturation (chem.)

شبعة šub‘a fill

شبعان šab‘ān f. شبعى šab‘ā, pl. شباعي šabā‘ā, شباع šibā‘ sated, satisfied, full; rich

اشباع išbā‘ satiation, saturation, repletion, filling; satisfaction, gratification

مشبع mušabba‘, mušba‘ satiated, saturated (ب with); replete, filled (ب with), full (ب of) | مشبع بالكهرباء (kahrabā’) electrically charged

2 شبق šabiqa a (šabaq) to be lewd, lecherous, lustful

شبق šabaq lewdness, lechery, licentiousness, lust

شبق šabiq lewd, lecherous, lustful, licentious

2 شبق šubuq chibouk

1 شبك šabaka i (šabk) to interjoin, intertwine, interlace, interweav., entangle (هـ s.th.); to fasten, tighten, attach (هـ s.th. or في to) II to interjoin, intertwine, interlace, interweave, entangle, complicate (بين or هـ s.th.); to crochet V to be interjoined, intertwined, interlaced, interwoven, entangled; to b. or become complicated, involved, intricate, confused VI to be intertwined, interlaced, interwoven, entangled; to be intermeshed, be interwoven like a net VIII to be or become interjoined, interlaced, interwoven, net-like, reticulate; to be intertwined (branches), be interlocked (hands); to be or become entangled, snarled; to get entangled, involved, ensnared, embroiled, implicated, mixed up (في in); to com. to blows or to gripe (ب or مع with s.o.); to be or become complicated, involved, intricate, confused (matter); to join, unite, combine, coalesce, merge, fuse (ب with); to meet (eyes, glances) | اشتبك في حديث to be drawn into a conversation, become engrossed in a discussion; اشتبك في حرب (ḥarb) to become involved in a war

شبكة šabaka pl. شبك šabak, شباك šibāk, شبوكات šubūkāt net; netting, network; snare; -- (pl. شباك šibāk) O grid (radio) شبكة شائكة barbed-wire entanglement, concertina; شبكة لاسلكية (lā-silkīya) radio network

شبكي šabakī reticulate, reticular, netted, net-like; retinal; of framework

شبكية šabakīya retina (anat.)

شباك šubbāk pl. شبابيك šabābīk2 netting, network; plaitwork; grid, grill; window; wicket (post office, box office, etc.) | شباك العرض š. al-‘arḍ show window, showcase, glass case

مشبك mišbak pl. مشابك mašābik2 hook; clasp, pin; hairpin, bobby pin | مشبك الورق m. al-waraq paper clip

تشابك tašābuk confusion, intricacy, obscurity, abstruseness

اشتباك ištibāk entanglement, involvement (في in); complication; hand-to-hand fight, scuffle, melee (مع with), clash (ب with) | عدم الااشتباك في القتال (‘adam al-išt.) nonintervention in battle

مشبك mušabbak plaited, resembling plaitwork; (pl. -āt) window (or door) adorned with plaited latticework

مشتبك muštabik entangled, involved, complicated, intricate

مشتبك muštabak plaitwork; thicket (of branches)

2 شبك šubuk chibouk

3 شوبك look up alphabetically

شبل IV to take care (على of s.o.), look (على after s.o.), take s.o. (على ) in hand

شبل šibl pl. اشبال ašbāl lion cub

شبين šabīn, šibin pl. شباين šabāyin2 godfather, sponsor (Chr.); best man, groomsman (Chr.)

شبينة šabīna, šibīna pl. -āt godmother, sponsor (Chr.); bridesmaid (Chr.)

اشبين išbīn pl. اشابين ašābīn2 godfather, sponsor (Chr.); best man, groomsman (Chr.)

اشبينة išbīna godmother, sponsor (Chr.); bridesmaid (Chr.)

شبه II to make equal or similar (ب or هـ هـ s.th. to s.th. else); to compare (ب هـ s.th. with), liken (ب هـ s.th. to); pass. šubbiha to be doubtful, dubious, uncertain, obscure (على to s.o.) III to resemble (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), bear a resemblance, be similar (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.), be like s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه ), look (exactly) like s.o. (ه) | وما شابه ذلك and the like IV to resemble (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), bear a resemblance, be similar (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.), be like s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه ); to look (exactly) like s.o. (ه) | وما اشبه ذلك and the like V to compare o.s. (ب with); to imitate, copy (ب s.o., s.th.) VI to resemble one another, be similar to one another; to be equal to one another, be identical; to be ambiguous, unclear VIII to resemble one another, be similar to one another; to be in doubt (في about), doubt (في s.th.); to suspect (في امره or في s.o., s.th.); to be doubtful, dubious, obscure (على to s.o.) |اشتبه في الأمر the matter appeared doubtful to him

شبه šibh pl. اشباه ašbāh resemblance, similarity, likeness; image, picture; analogue; similar, (a)like; -like, quasi-, semi- (with foll. genit.) | شبه šibhu jazīratin peninsula; شبه حربي š. ḥarbī semi-military; شبه المنحرف š. al-munḥarif trapezoid (geom.); شبه رسمي š. rasmī semi-official, officious (dipl.); شبه الظل š. aẓ-ẓill penumbra; شبه قارة subcontinent; شبه المعين š. al-mu‘ayyan rhomboid (geom.); اشباهه ašbāhuhū the likes of him, his kind; وشبههم and the likes of them, and their sort (of people); في شبه عزلة تامة (‘uzlatin tāmma) all but completely isolated, as good as completely isolated

شبه šabah pl. اشباه ašbāh resemblance, similarity, likeness; image, picture; analogue; similar, (a)like; brass

شبهة subha pl. شبهات šubhāt, šubahāt, šubuhāt obscurity, vagueness, uncertainty; doubt; suspicion; specious argument, sophism; judicial error (Isl. Law) | ذوو الشبهات dawū š-šubuhāt or اصحاب الشبهات dubious persons, people of ill repute; تحت الشبهة suspicious, suspect

شبهان šabahān brass

شبيه šabīh pl. شباه šibāh similar (ب to), like, resembling (ب s.o., s.th.) | شبيه بالمنحرف (munḥarif) trapezoid (geom.); شبيه بالرسمي (rasmī) semi-official, officious (dipl.); شبيه بالمعين (mu‘ayyan) rhomboid (geom.)

اشبه ašbah2 more similar, more resembling, more like | هو اشبه ب he resembles … more than anything else, he is just like …

مشابه mašābih2 similarities, related traits

تشبيه tašbīh comparison; allegory, simile, parable; ascription of human characteristics to God, anthropomorphization (of God, theol.)

مشابهة mušābaha pl. -āt resemblance, similarity, likeness

تشبه tašabbuh imitation (ب of)

تشابه tašābuh resemblance, similarity, likeness; vagueness, haziness, indistinctness, obscurity

اشتباه ištibāh resemblance, similarity, likeness; dubiousness, doubtfulness, obscurity, inscrutability; doubt, misgiving, suspicion

مشبوه mašbūh suspicious, suspect; dubious, doubtful; notorious; a suspect

مشابه mušābih similar

متشابهات mutašābihāt obscure, not clearly intelligible passages in the Koran

مشتبه فيه (muštabah) or مشتبه في امره (amrihī) suspicious, suspect; a suspect; مشتبه فيه ب suspected of s.th. | مشتبه في صنعه (ṣan‘ihī) of doubtful make

شبا šaban tip, point | فل من شباه (falla) to weaken s.o.

شباة šabāh pl. شبوات šabawāt tip, point; sting, prick

شت šatta i (šatt, شتات šatāt, شتيت šatīt) to be scattered, be dispersed, be dissolved; -- šatta i to scatter, disperse, break up (هم a crowd, etc., هـ s.th.) | شت شملهم (šamlahum) to disperse or break up the gathering of people, dissolve their unity II to disperse, scatter, break up (هم a crowd, etc., هـ s.th.) | شتت شملهم (šamlahum) = شت شملهم IV = II V to be scattered, be dispersed, be dissolved, scatter, disperse, breakup

شت šatt pl. اشتات aštāt dispersed, separate(d), scattered, dissolved; pl. اشتات manifold, variegated, diverse; scattered fragments, single pieces, sections (من of)

شتات šatāt dispersed, separate(d), scattered, dissolved

شتيت šatīt pl. or شتى šattā dispersed, separate(d), scattered, dissolved; pl. شتى diverse, sundry, various, different, manifold, miscellaneous, all kinds of | شتى بينهما or what a difference between the two of them! how different they are!

شتان šattāna: شتان بينهما, شتان ما بينهما, شتان بين – و what a difference between … and ...! how different they are!

تشتيت taštīt dispersion, scattering, dissolution; disruption, splitting, splintering

1 شتر šatara i to cut off, tear off, rip off (هـ s.th.); to tear (up) (هـ s.th.)

2 شترات šitrāt citrate, salt of citric acid

شتل šatala i to plant, transplant (هـ a plant)

شتلة šatla pl. شتول šutūl, شتائل šatā’il2 seedling, set, transplant

مشتل maštal pl. مشاتل mašātil2 (plant) nursery, arboretum

شتم šatama i u (šatm) and III to abuse, revile, vilify, scold (ه s.o.) VI to vilify one another, abuse one another, heap curses upon one another

شتم šatm abuse, vilification

شتام šattām one who indulges in frequent abuse or vilification; impudent, insolent, impertinent, abusive

شتيم šatīm abused, reviled, vilified, insulted

شتيمة šatīma pl. شتائم šatā’im2 abuse, vilification, vituperation, insult

مشاتمة mušātama vilification, vituperation

شتا (شتو ) šatā u (šatw) to pass the winter, to winter (ب at a place); to hibernate II = I; to rain V to pass the winter, to winter, hibernate (ب at a place)

شتاء šitā’ pl. اشتية aštiya, شتى šutīy winter; rains, rainy season

شتوي šatwī, šatawī wintery, hibernal, winter (adj.)

مشتى maštan pl. مشات mašātin winter residence, winter quarters; winter resort

شات šātin wintery, hibernal

مشتى mušattan winter residence, winter quarters; winter resort

شتى šattā pl. of شتيت šatīt (see شت )

شج šajja i (šajj) to break, split, cleave, fracture, bash in (هـ s.th., esp. the skull)

شجة šajja pl. شجاج šijāj head wound which lays open the skull; skull fracture

شجب šajaba u (šajb) and II to doom to destruction, to min, destroy (ه s.o.); to condemn morally, criticize sharply (هـ s.th.) IV to afflict, grieve (ه s.o.)

شجب šajb destruction, routing, crushing

شجب šajab sorrow, grief, worry; distress, affliction

شجاب šijāb pl. شجب šujub clothes hook (attached to the wall)

مشجب mišjab pl. مشاجب mašājib2 clothes hook, clothes rack

شجر šajara u (šajr) to happen, occur; to break out, develop (unrest) III to quarrel, argue, dispute (مع or ه with s.o.) VI to quarrel, fight, dispute (with one another); to quarrel, argue, fight (مع with) VIII do.

الحروف الشجرية al-ḥurūf aš-šajrīya the sounds j, š, ḍ (phon.)

شجر šajar (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. اشجار ašjār trees; shrubs, bushes

شجرة šajara pl. -āt tree; shrub, bush | شجر النسب š. an-nasab genealogical tree

شجر šajir woody, wooded, abounding in trees

شجير šajīr pl. شجراء šujarā’2 bad companion, bad company

شجيرة šujaira pl. -āt shrub, bush

شجار šijār (wooden) bar, bolt

اشجر ašjar2, f. شجراء šajrā’2 woody, wooded, abounding in trees

تشجير tašjīr afforestation

شجار šijār fight, quarrel; dispute, argument; see also above

مشاجرة mušājara fight, quarrel; dispute, argument

مشجر mušajjar figured with designs of plants, branched (cloth)

مشجر musjir abounding in trees, wooded

2 شجران šajarān shagreen (leather)

شجع šaju‘a u (شجاعة šajā‘a) to be courageous, brave, valiant, hold II to encourage, embolden, hearten (على ه s.o. to); to favor, support, hack, promote, further (هـ ه s.o., s.th.) V to take heart, pluck up courage; to show o.s. courageous; to be encouraged

شجاع šujā‘, šijā‘ pl. شجعة šaja‘a, شجعان šuj‘ān courageous, brave, valiant, bold; hero; الشجاع Hydra (astron.)

شجيع šajī‘ pl. m. شجعاء šuja‘ā’2, شجعان šuj‘ān, pl. f. شجائع šajā’i‘2, شجاع šijā‘ courageous, brave, valiant, bold, audacious

شجاعة sajā‘a courage, bravery, valor, valiance, boldness, audacity

اشجع ašja‘2, f. شجعاء šaj‘ā’2 courageous, brave, valiant, bold, audacious

اشجع ašja‘, išjā‘ pl. اشاجع ašāji‘2 (proximal or lint) phalanx of the finger

تشجيع tašjī‘ encouragement, heartening, animation (على to); favoring, furtherance, promotion, advancement

مشجع mušajji‘ encourager; promoter, supporter, advocate, proponent

شجن šajina a to be sad, grieved, distressed, worried; to coo (pigeon); -- šajana u (šajn, شجون šujūn) to sadden, grieve, distress, worry (ه s.o.) II and IV = šajana

شجن šajan pl. شجون šujūn, اشجان ašjān worry, anxiety, apprehension; sorrow, grief, distress, sadness; (pl. šujun) twig, branch |الحديث شجون conversation drifts from one topic to another

(شجو and شجى) شجا šajā u (شجو šajw) to worry, trouble, grieve, sadden, distress, fill with anxiety (ه s.o.); -- شجى šajiya a (شجا šajan) to be or become worried, troubled, grieved, sad, distressed, anxious, apprehensive II to move, touch, grip (ه s.o.) IV to grieve, worry, trouble, sadden, fill with anxiety (ه s.o.)

شج šajin, f. شجية šajiya worried, troubled, grieved, sad, anxious, apprehensive

شجو šajw grief, worry, distress, anxiety, apprehension, sadness; fear; affectedness, emotion; wailing, plaintive, moving strain (of a tune, of a song, of an instrument)

شجوى šajawī worried, troubled, grieved, distressed, sad

شجا and شجى šajān foreign body in the throat which inhibits breathing; شجا affectedness, emotion, being moved, a touching, pathetic mood; also = شجو šajw

شجى šajīy worried, troubled, grieved, distressed, sad; anxious, apprehensive, fearful; gripping, heart-rending, touching, moving (vocal part, music)

مشج mušajjin moving, touching, gripping, pathetic

شح šaḥḥa (1st pers. perf. šaḥaḥtu) u i (šuḥḥ) to be or become stingy, tight-fisted, avaricious, miserly, niggardly; to stint, economize (على or ب with or in s.th., على toward s.o.); to be covetous, greedy (على or ب for); to become short, run out, decrease, dwindle III to stint, be niggardly, be sparing; to withhold (ب from s.o. على s.th.)

شح šuḥḥ stinginess, avarice, niggardliness; greed, covetousness; scarcity, paucity, sparsity; ebb

شحيح šaḥīḥ pl. شحاح šiḥāḥ, اشحة ašiḥḥa, اشحاء ašiḥḥā’2, pl. f. شحائح šaḥā’iḥ2 stingy, tight-fisted, niggardly, miserly, avaricious (على or ب with, على toward): short, scarce, meager, sparse; greedy, covetous (على or) | الأيام الشحائح (ayyām) the rainless days, the dry season

مشاحة mušāḥḥa: لا مشاحة في ذلك .(mušāḥḥata) that is incontestable; لا مشاحة ان it is incontestable that ..., indisputably ...; ولا مشاحة incontestably, indisputably

شحب šaḥaba u a (شحوب šuḥūb), šaḥūba u (شحوبة šuḥūba) and pass. šuḥiba to be or become pale, wan, sallow, emaciated, lean, haggard; to look ill, sickly

شحوب šuḥūb paleness, pallor, wanness, sallowness, emaciation

شاحب šāḥib pl. شواحب šawāḥib2 pale, wan, sallow; emaciated, lean, haggard; dim, pale (e.g., light); dull, faded (color); wan (smile)

شحت šaḥata (= شحذ ) to beg, ask for alms

شحات šaḥḥāt pl. ة beggar | شحات العين š. al-‘ain sty (med.)

شحذ šaḥada a (šaḥd) to whet, sharpen, practice, train, strengthen (هـ s.th., also, e.g., the intellect, one’s forces); to hone, strop (هـ a knife); to beg, ask for alms (ه s.o.)

شحاذ šaḥḥād (importunate) beggar | شحاذ العين š. al-‘ain sty (med.)

شحاذة beggary

مشحذ mišḥad, مشحذة mišḥada whetstone, hone

شحر II to soot, besmut, blacken with soot (هـ s.th.)

شحار šuḥḥār soot

مشحر mašḥar charcoal kiln, pile

مشحري mašḥarī charcoal burner

شحرور šuḥrūr pl. شحارير šaḥārīr2 thrush, blackbird (zool.)

مشحر mušaḥḥar sooty

شحط šaḥṯa a (šaḥṯ) to be far away, distant, remote; to strike (هـ a match); to strand, be stranded, run aground (ship); to ground on a sandbank II to strand, be stranded, run aground (ship); to ground on a sandbank; to strand (هـ a ship)

شحطة šaḥṭa pl. -āt stripe, braid (on a uniform)

شحاطة šaḥḥāṭa pl. -āt (syr.) match, lucifer

شحيطة šuḥḥaiṭa (syr.) match, lucifer

شاحط šāḥiṭ far (away), distant, remote, outlying, out-of-the-way; stranded

شحم šaḥuma u (شحامة šaḥāma) to be or become fat II to grease, lubricate (هـ s.th.)

شحم šaḥm pl. شحوم šuḥum, شحومات šuḥūmāt fat, suet, grease; axle grease, lubricant; tallow, sebum; lard; pulp (of fruit)

شحمة šaḥma (n. un.) a piece of fat, etc. (see شحم) | شحمة الأذن š. al-udun earlobe; شحمة الأرض s. al-arḍ truffle; شحمة العين š. al-‘ain eyeball

شحمي šaḥmī fatty, sebaceous, stearic

شحم šaḥim pulpy, mushy, pappy (fruit)

شحيم šaḥīm fat, fatty

O مشحمة mišḥama pl. مشاحم mašāḥim2 grease box (of a wheel)

تشحيم tašḥīm lubrication, greasing, oiling (of a machine) | زيوت التشحيم lubricating oils, lubricants

تشحم tašaḥḥum fatness, obesity

مشحم mušaḥḥam fat, fatty, greasy

مشحم mušḥim pulpy, mushy, pappy (fruit)

شحن šaḥana a (šaḥn) to fill up (هـ ب s.th. with); to load, freight (هـ ب so ship with); to ship, freight, consign (هـ goods); to load, charge (ب هـ s.th. with, el.); to drive away, chase away, repel (ه s.o.) III to hate (ه s.o.); to quarrel, argue, fight (ه with s.o.) IV to fill up (ب هـ s.th. with); to load, freight (ب هـ s.th. with) VI to hate one another; to quarrel, have a feud

شحن šaḥn loading, freighting; shipment, freightage; cargo, lading, load, freight | بوليسة الشحن būlīsat aš-š. sill of lading; سيارة شحن sayyārat š. truck, lorry

شحنة šaḥna pl. šaḥanāt cargo, lading, load, freight; charge (el.)

شحنة šiḥna police, police force

شحناء šaḥnā’2 grudge, rancor, hatred, enmity

مشاحنة mušāḥana pl. -āt grudge, rancor, hatred, enmity; quarrel, feud, controversy

شاحن šāḥin loaded, laden, freighted (esp. ship) | O شاحن المركم š. al-markam battery charger

شاحنة šāḥina pl. -āt truck, lorry; baggage car

مشحون mašḥūn loaded, laden, freighted (esp. ship); charged (el.); pl. مشحونات cargo, lading, load, freight

شحور šaḥwara to soot, besmut, blacken with soot (هـ s.th.)

شحور šaḥwar blackbird (zool.)

شحور šaḥwār soot, smut

شخ šakka u (šakk) to urinate, piss, make water

شخ šakk urine, piss

شخاخ šakāk urine, piss

مشخخة miškaka public lavatory

شخب šakaba u a (šakb) to flow, stream, run, pour forth, gush forth

شخبط šakbaṭa to scribble, scrawl (in writing)

شختور šaktūr, شختورة pl. شخاتير šakātīr large, flat-bottomed (wooden) barge; punt

شخر šakara i (شخير šakīr) to snore; to snort; to neigh, whinny; to bray (donkey)

شخشخ šakšaka to rattle, clatter, clank

شخشخية (eg.) šukšēka pl. شخاشخ šakāšik rattle (toy); toy, plaything; skylight

شخص šakaṣa a (شخوص šukūṣ) to rise, tower up; to become high, lofty; to rise, ascend (star); to appear (ل to s.c.); to stare, gaze (الى at, of the eye), be fixed (الى on, of the glance); to be glazed (eyes of a dying person); to start out, leave, depart (الى to see s.o., for a place), travel, journey (الى to s.o., to a place); to pass (من الى from one state or condition into another) | شخص بصره (baṣarahū) or شخص ببصره to fix one’s eyes, one’s glance (الى on), look fixedly (الى at s.o.), stare, gaze (الى at) II to represent as a person or individual, personify (هـ s.th.); to specify (هـ s.th.), identify (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to act, play (هـ a part, of the actor); to perform (actor) | شخص مرضا (maraḍan) to diagnose a disease IV to send off, send out, dispatch (ه s.o.) V to appear, be revealed, show o.s. (ل to s.o.)

شخص šakṣ pl. اشخاص aškāṣ, شخوص šukūṣ individual, person; figure; character (of a play); someone, somebody

شخصي šakṣī personal, private, of one’s own; شخصيا šakṣīyan personally | قانون (نظام) الأحوال الشخصية personal statute

شخصية šakšīya pl. -āt individuality, personality (also = personage); distinctive way of life, peculiarity, distinctive character, personal stamp; identity | شخصية اعتبارية (i‘tibārīya) legal person (jur.); تحقيق الشخصية identification of a person; شهادة تحقيق الشخصية šahādat t. aš-š. identity card; قلم تحقيق الشخصية qalam t. aš-š. bureau of identification

شخصاتي šakṣātī (comic) actor, comedian

تشخيص taškīṣ personification; exact designation, specification; identification; diagnosis; acting, performance (on stage), play(ing) (of an actor)

تشخيصي diagnostic | طبيب تشخيصي diagnostician

شاخص šākiṣ fixed, glazed (glance); pole, stake (eg.)

مشخص mušakkiṣ actor, player; representative

مشخصة mušakkaṣa pl. -āt actress, player; personality

مشخصات mušakkiṣāt qualities or factors lending s.th. its distinctive character, peculiarities, characteristics

شخط šakaṭa (eg.) to shout, bark, bellow (في at s.o.)

شخلل šaklala (eg.) to jingle, tinkle; to clatter, rattle (ب with); to coquet, flirt

شخليلة šaklīla (eg.) jingle, jangle, tinkling

شد šadda i (شدة šidda) to be or become firm, fast, solid, hard, strong, vigorous, rosust, vehement, violent, intense; -- šadda u i (šadd) to make firm, hard, strong, solidify, harden, srace (هـ s.th.), strengthen, fortify (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to tighten, pull taut, draw tight (هـ s.th., e.g., the sow); to fasten, tie, sind (الى or على هـ s.th. on, to), lash (على هـ s.th. on); to saddle (على an animal); to put emphasis (على كلمة ‘alā kalimatin on word), emphasize, stress (على كلمة a word); to pull, drag (ه من s.o. sy the coat); to charge, launch an attack (على against, on), assault, attack (على s.o., s.th.); to press (على s.th. or upon s.th.), exert pressure (على on); to insist (في on s.th.) | شد ما šadda-mā and لشد ما (la-šadda) (with foll. vers) how much ...! very often ...; very much, exceedingly, vehemently, violently; لشد ما كان سرورنا اذ tremendous was our joy when …; شد ازره (azrahū) or شد من ازره to help, support, encourage, sack up s.o.; شد ازره (azruhū) to be energetic, vigorous, courageous; شد الزمام to tighten the reins, master the situation; شد من عزائمه to strengthen s.o.’s determination; شدعضده (‘aḍudahū) to strengthen, support, solster, assist s.o.; شد على راحلته (be saddled his female riding camel =) he started out on the journey; شد على راحلته to start out, depart, leave (الى for); شد وثاقه (watāqahū) to shackle, fetter s.o.; شد يده على (yadahū) to adhere, cling to s.th.; شد على يديه (yadaihi) to clasp s.o.’s hands II to strengthen, intensify (هـ s.th.), make (هـ s.th.) strong, hard, harsh, severe; (gram.) to intensify, dousle, geminate (هـ a consonant); to exert pressure ( على on), press (على upon); to be hard, strict, stern (على في toward s.o. in); to impress (على ب upon s.o. s.th.) | شدد في طلبه (ṭalasihī) to demand s.th. emphatically or inexorasly; شدد من عزيمته (šuddida) he was strengthened in his determination III to argue, have an argument, an exchange of words (ه with s.o.) V to be hard, harsh, strict, severe, stern (على toward); to be or become violent, vehement, intense, strong; to show o.s. stem, harsh, hard, inexorasle, be relentless, remain unmoved, unrelenting VI to argue with one another VIII to be or become hard, harsh, rigorous, intense, forceful, severe, strong, vehement, violent, passionate; to become harder, harsher, more rigorous, more intense, more forceful, severer, stronger, more vehement, more violent, more passionate; to intensify, increase, grow; to become aggravated, more critical; to become tormenting, excruciating, distressing, unbearable (على for s.o.), take a turn for the worse (disease, على with s.o.); to be advanced (time of the day); to run, race, dash | اشتد ساعده (sā‘iduhū) to become strong, vigorous

شد šadd: شد الحبل š. al-ḥabl tug of war

شدة šadda (n. vic.) strengthening, intensification; stress, emphasis; pulling, dragging, tugging; tightness, tautness; stress, strain; doubling sign over a consonant (gram.) | شدة ورق اللعب š. waraq al-la‘b deck of cards

شدة šidda strength, forcefulness, power, vehemence, violence, intensity, severity, force, high degree, (pl. شدائد šadā’id2) misfortune, calamity, misery, adversity, distress, hardship, affliction, discomfort

شداد šadād pl. اشدة ašidda riding saddle (of a camel)

شديد šadīd pl. اشداء ašiddā’2, شداد šidād strong, powerful, forceful, vigorous, stem, severe, rigorous, hard, harsh, violent, vehement, intense; bad, evil, ominous, calamitous, difficult (على for s.o.); with foll. subst. frequently corresponding to Engl. “very”, e.g., شديد الاعتناء very attentive, very careful | ارض شديدة (arḍ) solid or firm ground; شديد البأس š. al-ba’s courageous, stouthearted, bold, audacious, brave, valiant; شديد الشكيمة stubborn, obstinate, unbending, unyielding, relentless; شديد اللهجة š. al-lahja strongly worded, vehement in language, sharp in tone; شديد الوطأة š. al-waṭ’a cruel

شديدة šadīda pl. شدائد šadā’id2 misfortune, calamity, misery, adversity, distress, hardship, affliction, discomfort

اشد ašadd2 stronger, more intense, severer, harder, worse | used with foll. indeterminate abstract substantives as paraphrase of simple elatives, e.g., اشد سوادا (sawādan) blacker, اشد غضبا (gaḍaban) more wrathful, angrier; اشد ما يكون extremely, exceedingly, very much, e.g., روحهم اشد ما يكون تعطشا الى العلم (rūḥuhum, ta‘attušan, ‘ilm) they are extremely eager for knowledge

اشد ašudd physical maturity, virility | بلغ اشده to attain full maturity, come of legal age; to reach its climax

مشد mišadd pl. -āt corset, stays

تشديد tašdīd intensification, strengthening; (gram.) intensified pronunciation, germination, doubling (of a consonant); doubling sign over a consonant; pressure (على on)

مشادة mušādda exchange of words, squabble, argument, quarrel, fight, controversy, conflict

اشتداد ištidād aggravation, intensification, increase; deterioration

مشدود mašdūd tense, tight, taut

مشدد mušaddid: ظروف مشددة aggravating circumstances

مشدد mušaddad doubled (letter; gram.); emphatic, intense; severe, stern

متشدد mutašaddid pl. -ūn stem zealot, bigot, proponent of a stern viewpoint

شدح šadaka a (šadk) to break, shatter, smash, crush (هـ s.th.) II do.

شادر šādir pl. شوادر šawādir2 tent; storehouse, warehouse, magazine

شادوف šādūf pl. شوادف šawādīr (eg.) shadoof, counterpoised sweep for raising irrigation water

شدق V to announce (ب s.th.) in a boastful, bragging, loud-mouthed manner, to vaunt (ب s.th.); to chatter, prattle | تشدق بالكلام (kalām) to enunciate overcarefully, speak affectedly; to be agape

شدق šidq pl. اشداق ašdāq corner of the mouth; jawbone | ضحك بملء (ملء) شدقيه ḍaḥika bi-mil’i (mil’a) šidqaihi to grin from ear to ear

اشدق ašdaq2, f. شدقاء šadqā’2 having a large mouth, largemouthed

متشدق mutaš8addiq pl. -ūn braggart, boaster, bigmouth

شدن šadana u to be weaned, be on its own feet (young animal)

شادن šādin pl. شوادن šawādin2 gazelle fawn

شده šadaha a to confuse, perplex, baffle (ه s.o.)

مشدوه mašdūh perplexed, appalled, baffled

شدا (شدو ) šadā u (šadw) to sing; to chant (هـ s.th.); to acquire or have education, become or be educated (في in a field) | شدا شيئا من العربية to know a little Arabic, have a smattering of Arabic

شدو šadw song, chant

شاد šādin pl. شادون šādūn educated, trained (e.g., في اللغة linguistically) |ليلة شادية laila šādiya soirée of vocal music

شادية šādiya songstress, singer

شدياق šidyāq pl. شدايقة šadāyiqa sub deacon (Chr.)

شذ šadda i u (šadd, شذوذ šudūd) to segregate, separate, isolate o.s. (عن from), be separated, isolated (عن from), be outside s.th. (عن ), elude (عن s.th.); to be alone; to be irregular, deviate, stand out (على or عن from), be an exception (على or عن to); to be wanting, lacking; to decrease, dwindle

شذ šadd irregularity, deviation, anomaly, exception (عن to)

شذوذ irregularity, deviation, anomaly, exception (عن to); curiosity, eccentricity, eccentric character

شاذ šādd pl. شذاذ šudād, شواذ šawādd2 isolated, separate(d), detached, alone; irregular, abnormal, anomalous, unusual, extraordinary, exceptional, singular, curious, queer, odd, peculiar, strange, eccentric; noncanonical (version); pl. شواذ exceptions | شاذ الأخلاق of deviant (= inferior) character; شاذ الطبع š. aṭ-ṯab‘, شاذ الطبع, شاذ الأطوار eccentric, extravagant, crazy; شذاذ الآفاق the foreigners, the strangers

شواذات šawāddāt peculiarities, idiosyncrasies

شذب šadaba i u (šadb) to out off, sever (هـ s.th.); to trim, clip, prune, lop (هـ hedges, trees); to adept, doctor, modify (هـ s.th.) II do.

شذر V to be scattered, be dispersed; to scatter, disperse

شذرة šadra pl. šadarāt, شذور šudūr particle, bit, tiny piece; fragment, section

تفرقوا شذر مذر tafarraqū šadara madara, šidara midara they scattered in all directions

شذو šadw fragrance of musk

شذا šadan flagrance, scent, aroma

شذى šadīy fragrant, aromatic

شر šarra (1st pers. perf. šarirtu) a, (1st pers. perf. šarurtu) u (šarr, شرة širra) to be bad, evil, wicked, vicious, malicious, malignant

شر šarr pl. شرور šurūr evil, ill, mischief; calamity, disaster; iniquity, injustice; harm, damage, injury; wickedness, viciousness, malice; vice, sin; -- (pl. اشرار ašrār) bad, evil, wicked, vicious, malicious; evildoer, culprit; -- šarr (as elative) worse, more evil | هزمهم شر هزيمة (šarra hazīmatin) he brought utter defeat upon them

شراني šarrānī evil, vicious, malicious

شرة širra evil, ill, mischief; calamity, disaster; iniquity, injustice; harm, damage, injury; wickedness, viciousness, malice; vice, sin; vivacity enthusiasm, fire of youth

شرير šarīr pl. اشراء aširrā’2 bad, evil, wicked, vicious, malicious

شرير širrīr very bad, very evil, very wicked, very vicious, very malicious; scoundrel; الشرير the Evil One (= Satan)

شرر šarar (coll.; n. un. ة ) sparks

شررى šararī spark (used attributively)

شرار šarār (coll.; n. un. ة ) sparks

شرارة šarāra pl. -āt spark | شمعة الشرارة šam‘at aš-š. spark plug; مفتاح الشرارة miftāḥ aš-š. ignition key (automobile)

شراري šarārī spark (used attributively)

شرار šarrār sparkling, scintillating, emitting sparks

اشرأب išra’abba to stretch one’s neck in order to see s.th. (ل or الى ), crane one’s neck for (ل or الى ); to carry one’s head high (out of vanity); to leer (الى at)

شراب šurrāb pl. -āt stocking, sock

شراس širās glue, paste

1 شرب šariba a (šurb, مشرب mašrab) to drink (هـ s.th.); to sip (هـ s.th.) | شرب في حبه (ḥubbihī) to drink s.o.’s health, toast s.o.; شرب الدخان (dukāna) to smoke; شرب نخبه (nakbahū) to drink s.o.’s health, toast s.o. II to give (ه هـ s.o. s.th.) to drink, make or let drink (ه هـ s.o. s.th.); to drench, soak, saturate, impregnate (ب هـ s.th. with); to inculcate, imbue (ه هـ s.o. with s.th.) III to drink in s.o.’s (ه ) company, have a drink (ه with s.o.) IV to give (ه هـ s.o. s.th.) to drink, make or let drink (ه هـ s.o. s.th.); to drench, soak, saturate, impregnate (ب or هـ هـ s.th. with); to inculcate, imbue (هـ ه s.o. with); pass. ušriba to be or become full (هـ of s.th.), be filled, imbued, infused (هـ with s.th.), be dominated, permeated (هـ by s.th.) | اشربه ما لم يشرب (yašrab) to attribute s.th. wrongly to s.o. V to soak up, absorb, imbibe (هـ s.th.); to be permeated, imbued, infused (هـ, ب with s.th.) ; to be full

(ب of), be filled, replete (ب with)

شرب šurb drinking, drink; absorption

شربة šarba drink; sip, draught, swallow; dose, potion (of a medicine); laxative, purgative, aperient

شربة šurba drink; sip, draught, swallow; dose, potion (of a medicine)

شراب šarāb pl. اشربة ašriba beverage, drink; wine; fruit juice, fruit syrup, sherbet | شراب التفاح š. at-tuffāḥ apple juice; cider; شراب البرتقال š. al-burtuqāl orangeade

شراب šarrāb drunkard, heavy drinker

شريب šarīb drinkable, potable

شرابة šarrāba, šurraba pl. شراريب šarārīb2 tassel, tuft, bob | شرابة الراعي š.

ar-rā‘ī (European) holly (Ilex aquifolium; bot.)

شريب širrīb drunkard, heavy drinker

مشرب mašrab drink (as opposed to food); (pl. مشارب mašārib2) drinking place, water hole, drinking trough, drinking fountain; restaurant, bar; inclination, taste; movement, school (e.g., in philosophy)

مشربة mašraba pl. مشارب mašārib2 drinking place, water hole, drinking trough, drinking fountain

مشربية mašrabīya, mušrabīya and مشربة mašraba moucharaby, projecting oriel window with a wooden latticework enclosure; wooden oriel; attic room; mašrabīya a kind of drinking vessel; vase, pot for flowers

تشرب tašarrub absorption, soaking up, imbibing

شارب šārib pl. -ūn, شرب šarb, شروب šurūb drinking; drinker; (pl. شوارب šawārib2) mustache, frequently dual: شاربان

مشروب mašrūb pl. -āt drink, beverage | مشروبات روحية (rūḥīya) alcoholic beverage, liquors

2 شربة šorba soup

شوربة šorba (eg.), شوربا šōraba (syr.) soup

3 شراب šurrāb pl. -āt stocking, sock

شربك šarbaka to (en)tangle, snarl (هـ s.th.), to complicate (هـ s.th.)

شربين šarbīn a variety of larch (bot.)

1 شرج šaraj pl. اشراج ašrāj loop, ring, eyelet; buttonhole; anus

شرجي šarajī anal

2 شيرج look up alphabetically

شرح šaraḥa a (šarḥ) to cut in slices, slice, cut up (هـ s.th.); to cut open, rip open (هـ s.th.); to bare, expose, make clearly visible or discernible (هـ s.th.), to expound (هـ s.th.); to explain, elucidate, illustrate, make plain, set forth, describe, depict (هـ s.th.); to comment (هـ on), interpret (هـ s.th.), to open, lay open (صدره s.o. ṣadrahū s.o.’s heart, ل to or for the acceptance of) | شرح خاطره (kāṭirahū) to gladden, delight s.o. II to cut in slices, slice, cut up (هـ s.th.); to dissect, dismember, anatomize (هـ a corpse) VII to be opened (heart); to be relaxed; to be glad, happy | انشرح صدره (ṣadruhū) and انشرح خاطره (kāṭiruhū) to be or become glad, happy or delighted, rejoice

شرح šarḥ expounding, presentation, explanation, illustration, elucidation, exposition, setting forth; commentation; (pl. (شروح šurūḥ) commentary

شرحي šarḥī explanatory, explicatory, illustrative

شرحة šarḥa long, thin slice, rasher

شريحة šarīḥa pl. شرائح šarā’iḥ long, thin slice (e.g., of fruit, etc.), rasher; girth, cinch; O (microscope) slide

O مشرحة mašraḥa operating room; operating table; autopsy room

تشريح tašrīḥ dissection; anatomy; autopsy, post-mortem examination | علم التشريح ‘ilm at-t. anatomy, O تشريح المقابلة t. al.muqābala comparative anatomy

تشريحي tašrīhī dissecting, anatomizing, dissective, dissectional, anatomic(al)

انشراح inširāḥ relaxedness, relaxation, joy, delight, glee, gaiety

شارح šāriḥ pl. شراح šurrāḥ explainer, expounder, interpreter, commentator, expositor

مشرح mušarriḥ anatomist

1 شرخ šaraka u (شرخ šurūk) to become a youth. grow from childhood to maturity

شرخ šark prime of youth, spring of life

2 شرح šaraka a (eg.) to crack, splinter, become cracked

شرخ šark pl. شروخ šurūk (eg.) crack, break, fissure, fracture

شرد šarada u (شراد šarrād, شرود šurūd) to bolt (horse), to run away, flee, take to flight, take to one’s heels, break loose, escape; to roam, rove, wander, stray, go astray; to be distracted (thoughts) | شرد ذهنه (dihnahū) to be absent-minded شرد به الفكر (fikru) he became lost in thought II to frighten away, chase away, drive away (ه s.o.); to scare (ه s.o.), frighten (ه s.o.) into a panic IV to chase away, drive away (ه s.o.) V to roam, tramp about, lead a vagabond life

شرود šarūd pl. شرد šurūd running away; straying; astray, deviant, aberrant, strange, peculiar

شرود šurūd roaming, straying, wandering | شرود الفكر š. al-fikr absent-mindedness, distractedness

شريد šarīd fugitive, expatriated, displaced, expelled; loafer, tramp, vagrant, vagabond

تشريد tašrīd expulsion, banishment, eviction; vagrancy, vagabondage | حياة التشريد ḥayāt at-t. the unsettled life, life of a vagabond

تشرد tašarrud vagrancy, vagabondage

شارد šārid pl. شرد šurud, šurrad, شوارد šawārid2 fugitive, straying, astray; intimidated, frightened, helpless at a loss; a fugitive, runaway, deserter; defector; vagrant, tramp, vagabond | شارد الفكر š. al-fikr absent-minded, distracted; شوارد اللغة š. al-luga irregularities of the language, linguistic anomalies; شارد النظر (النظرات ) š. an-naẓar (an-naẓarāt) with a blank stare; gazing into the void

شاردة šārida pl. شوارد šawarid2 peculiarity, anomaly, exception | لا تفوته شاردة ولا واردة (tafūtuhū) nothing escapes him, he doesn’t miss a thing

مشرد mušarrad fugitive, refugee, displaced person; neglected, unkempt | مشرد البال confused, disconcerted

متشرد mutašarrid pl. -ūn homeless person, tramp, vagrant, vagabond; adventurer

شردق II tašardaqa to swallow the wrong way; to choke (to death)

شرذم II tašardama to be jagged, indented

شرذمة širdima pl. شراذم šarādim 2, شراذيم šarādīm2 small group, gang, party, troop; little band

1 شرس šarisa a (šaras, شراسة šarāsa) to be vicious, malicious, mischievous, ill-tempered, unsociable, quarrelsome, petulant, peevish VI to be cross, quarrel (مع with)

شرس šaras = شراسة

شرس šaris vicious, malicious, mischievous, ill-tempered, unsociable, quarrelsome, petulant, peevish; wild, ferocious, fierce

شريس šarīs = شرس šaris

شراسة šarāsa wickedness, malice, viciousness, meanness, baseness, villainy; ill-temperedness, unsociableness, querulousness, petulance, peevishness

2 شراس širās glue, paste, see سراس, سيراس

شرسوف šursūf pl. شراسيف šarāsīf2 rib cartilage

شراسيفي šarāsīfī epigastric, pertaining to the anterior walls of the abdomen

شرش II to take root

شرش širš شرش pl. شروش šurūš root | شرش اللبن š. al-laban whey

شرشور šuršur pl. شراشير šarāšīr chaffinch (zool.)

شرشير šaršīr (eg.) wild duck (zool.)

شراشير šarāšīr2 soul, self, nature (of a person)

شرشف šaršaf pl. شراشف šarāšif bedsheet

شرط šaraṭa i u (šarṭ) to tear (هـ s.th.); to make incicions (هـ in), scratch, scarify (هـ s.th.); to slit open, rip open (هـ s.th.); to impose as a condition, as an obligation (هـ على on s.o. s.th.), make conditional (هـ على for s.o. s.th.); to stipulate (هـ s.th.) II to tear to shreds (هـ s.th.); to scratch, scarify (هـ s.th.); to make incisions (هـ in) III to fix mutual conditions.; to make a contract, conclude an agreement; to bet, wager (ه with s.o.) V to impose severe oonditiono or terms | تشرط في عمله (‘amalihī) to be meticulous in one’s work, do one’s work painstakingly VIII to impose as a condition, as an obligation (على هـ on s.o. s.th.); to make conditional (على هـ for s.o. s.th.); to stipulate (هـ s.th.); pass, ušturiṭa to be prerequisite, preconditional (ل for)

شرط šarṭ pl. شروط šurūṭ incision (in the skin); long cut, rip, clash, slit; condition, precondition; provision, proviso, clause; stipulation (of a contract) | شرطا ان (šarṯan), على شرط, بشرط on the condition that ..., provided that ...; من دون (بدون) شرط unconditional; بلا شرط او قيد (au qaidin) with no strings attached; unconditional (obedience, surrender, etc.); شرط الخيار proviso of the right of withdrawal (from a contract, a commercial transaction, an obligation, and the like, Isl. Law)

شرط šaraṭ pl. اشراط ašrāṭ sign, portent | اشراط الساعة the portents of the Day of Judgment

شرطي šarṭī conditional | جملة شرطية (jumla) conditional clause (gram.)

شرطية šarṭīya contract, agreement

شرطة šarṭa pl. شرط šuraṭ stroke, line; hyphen; dash

شرطة šurṭa police, policemen | دار الشرطة police station; تقرير الشرطة police report

شرطي šurṭī, šuraṭī pl. -ūn policeman, officer

شريط pl. شرائط šarā’iṭ, اشرطة ašriṭa band, ribbon, tape; cord, string; leash, line; thong, strap; braid, galloon, chevron, stripe; ribbon (of an order), medal ribbon, service ribbon; (railway) track, line; film strip; film (also شريط سينمائي ); (magnetic) tape | شريط مصغر (muṣaggar) microfilm; شريط القياس tape measure; measuring tape; شريط ناطق pl. شرائط ناطقة sound film; sound track; magnetic tape; شريط النار fuse; دودة الشريط dūdat aš-š. tapeworm

شريطة šarīṭa condition | على شريطة on the condition that ...

مشرط mašraṭ program

مشرط mišraṭ pl. مشارط mašāriṭ2 lancet, scalpel

تشريط tašrīṭ scarification, incision

مشارطة mušāraṭa agreement, arrangement

اشتراط ištirāṭ pl. -āt condition, provision, proviso; stipulation

شرطن šarṭana to consecrate, ordain (ه s.o., Chr.) II to be ordained (Chr.)

شرط šarṭana = شرطونية

شرطونية šarṭūnīya ordination of a priest, and any ordination of persons by laying on of hands (Chr.); simony (Copt.-Chr.)

شرع šara‘a a (šar‘, شروع šurū‘) to go (في into), enter (في s.th.); to begin, start, commence (في or y with; with foil. imperf.: to do s.th.); to point a weapon (هـ ) at s.o. (على ); to untie, unbind, unlace (هـ s.th.); to fix (هـ bayonets, على on rifles); -- šara‘a a (šar‘) to introduce, enact (o laws), prescribe, give (هـ ل to s.o. laws), make laws (هـ ) for s.o. (ل) | شرع مشروعا to devise a plan II to draw a weapon (هـ ) on s.o. (على ); to legislate, make laws IV to draw or train a weapon (هـ ) on s.o. (على) | اشرع عينه الى (‘ainaihi) to cast one’s eyes on …, turn one’s glance toward ...; اشرع قلمه (qalamahū) to draw one’s pen = to prepare to write VIII to introduce, enact (هـ laws); to prescribe, give (ل هـ to s.o. laws), make laws (هـ ) for s.o. (ل )

الشرع aš-šar‘ the Revelation, the canonical law of Islam | شرعا وفرعا šar‘an wa-far‘an with full right, with good cause, by rights; هم في هذا شرع واحد they are alike in this

شروق šurūq rise (of the sun)

شراقي šarāqī (eg.) unirrigated land not reached by the Nile floods

شراق šarrāq suctorial device; part of a suction pump

شراقوة šarāquwa (pl. of شرقاوي ) Levantines (eg.)

مشرق mašriq pl. مشارق mašāriq2 place of sunrise, east; place of rise; the Orient, the East; المشرقان East and West | مشارق الأرض ومغاربها m. al-arḍ wa-magāribuhā or المشرقان والمغربان (magribān) the whole world; في الغربين وفي المشرقين all over the world

مشرقي mašriqī eastern, easterly, oriental; (pl. مشارقة mašāriqa) an Oriental; المشرقيات orientalia, oriental studies

تشريق tašrīq easternization; development of domestic production (esp. in local industry, with the gradual elimination of Europe), drive for (economic) independence | ايام التشريق ayyām at-t. the old name of the three days following the day of Immolation (10th of Zu’lhijja)

during the hadj festival

اشراق išrāq radiance; radiation, eradiation, emanation; Illuminism (mysticism deriving from Neoplatonism)

الاشراقيون al-išrāqīyūn the Illuminists, adherents of Illuminism

الاستشراق al-istišrāq oriental studies

مشرق mašriq resplendent, radiant, shining

مستشرق mustašriq having oriental manners; (pl. -ūn) orientalist

شرقرق šaraqraq, شرقراق šarāqrāq green woodpecker

شرك šarika a (širk, شركة širka, šarika) to share (ه في with s.o s.th.), participate (في ه with s.o. in), be or become partner, participant, associate (في ه of s.o. in) III to share (في or هـ ه with s.o., s.th.), participate (في or هـ ه with s.o. in), be or become partner, participant, associate (في or هـ ه of s.o. in); to associate o.s. (ه with s.o.), enter into partnership (ه with s.o.), form a partnership, join, combine (في or هـ ه with s.o. in); to sympathize (ه with s.o.) | شاركه رأيه (ra’yahū) to share s.o.’s opinion IV to make (ه s.o.) a partner, participant, associate (في in), give (ه s.o.) a share (في in), have (ه s.o.) share (في in); to tie s.th. (هـ ) closely to s.th. (ب ), associate (هـ ب s.th. with s.th.) | اشركه بالله to make s.o. the associate or partner of God (in His creation and rule); اشرك بالله to set up or attribute associates to God. i.e. to be a polytheist, an idolator VI to enter into partnership (مع with s.o.); to participate together (في in), share with one another (في s.th,) VIII to enter into partnership, to cooperate (مع with s.o.); to participate (مع في with s.o. in), share (مع في with s.o., s.th.), collaborate, take part (في in), contribute (في to); to subscribe (في to); to partake of the Lord’s Supper, communicate (Copt.-Chr.)

شرك širk polytheism, idolatry | اهل الشرك ahl aš-š. the polytheists, the idolators

شرك šarak pl. شرك šuruk, اشراك ašrāk, شراك širāk net, snare, gin; trap | نصب له شركا to lay a trap for s.o., trap s.o.

شرك spurious, unsound, phony, false

شركة širka, šarika partnership; communion (Chr.); (pl. -āt) association, companionship; company, corporation (com.); commercial enterprise (Isl. Law); establishment, firm; شركة التأمين insurance company; شرك تجارية (tijārīya) trading company, firm; شركة الاذاعة broad- casting corporation; شركة المساهمة š. al-musāhama joint-stock company, corporation; شركة سهامية (sihāmīya) do.; شركة الشركات trust (com.)

شراك širāk pl. شرك šuruk, اشرك ašruk, اشراك ašrāk shoelace

شريك šarīk pl. شركاء šurakā’2, اشراك ašrāk sharer, participant, partner, copartner; associate, companion, confederate, ally; co-owner, coproprietor (Isl. Law); accomplice, accessory (in a crime) | O شريك موص (mūṣin) silent partner (com.)

شريك šuraik (eg.) sesame cake

شريكة šarīk pl. شرائك šarā’ik woman partner, woman participant, etc. (see

شريك )

تشريك tašrīk: سياية التشريك siyāsat at-t. policy of alliances

مشاركة mušāraka partnership, copartnership, participation (في in); cooperation, collaboration; communion (Chr.); complicity, accessoriness (jur.)

اشنراك ištirāk partnership, copartnership, coparcenary; participation, sharing, joining, co-operation, collaboration (في in); interference (في in); subscription (في to); jointness, community; communion (Chr.) ; (pl. -āt) subscription rate; participation fee |بالاشتراك jointly, in concurrence, together (مع with); اشتراك شهري (šahrī) monthly subscription; monthly fee or contribution

اشتراكي ištirākī socialist, socialistic; (pl. -ūn) a socialist

اشتراكية ištirākīya socialism

مشرك mušrik pl. -ūn polytheist

مشترك muštarik pl. -ūn participant; subscriber

مشترك muštarak common, joint, combined, concurrent, collective, co- | الأمن المشترك (amn) collective security; بلاغ مشترك (balāg) joint communiqué; السوق المشترك (sūq) the Common Market; الشعور المشترك community spirit, communality, solidarity; الضمان المشترك (ḍamān) collective security

شركسي šarkašī Circassian; (pl. شراكسة šarākisa) a Circassian

شرم šarama i (šarm) to split, slit, slash (هـ s.th.)

شرم šarm pl. شروم šurūm cleft, crack, split, rift, slit, slot; small hay, inlet

اشرم ašram2, f. شرماء šarmā’2 having a disfigured nose; harelipped

شرمط šarmaṭa (eg., syr.) to shred, tear to shreds (هـ s.th.)

شرموطة šarmūṭa pl. شراميط šārāmīṭ rag, shred, tatter; whore, slut, prostitute

شرنقة šarnaqa pl. شرانق šarāniq2 cocoon (of the silk worm); chrysalis (of an insect); slough (of a snake), snakeskin; -- šarāniq2 hemp (Cannahis sativa; bot.); hemp seed

شره šariha a (šarah) to be greedy (الى or على for food); to eat greedily, gormandize, gluttonize, be gluttonous

شره šarah gluttony, gourmandism, ravenousness, voracity; greediness, greed, covetousness, avidity

شره šarih greedy (على for food), gluttonous; voracious, ravenous; ravenous eater, glutton; greedy, covetous, avid

شراهة šarāha gluttony, gourmandism, ravenousness, voracity; greediness, greed, covetousness, avidity

شرو šarw, širw honey

شروال širwāl pl. شراويل šarāwīl 2 trousers, pants; drawers

شروة , شروى see شري

شرى šarā i (širan, شراء širā’) to sell, vend (ب هـ s.th. for a certain price); to buy, purchase (هـ s.th.); to bring upon o.s., to ask for (e.g., المتاعب troubles, inconveniences) -- šarā i (širan) to expose (هـ s.th.) to the sun for drying II to expose (هـ s.th.) to the sun for drying VIII to buy, purchase (هـ s.th.); to buy up, acquire, obtain by commercial transaction (هـ s.th.); to sell, vend (هـ s.th.) X to become worse, worsen, deteriorate

شرى šary (coll.; n. un. ة ) colocynth

شرى širan pl. اشرية ašriya purchase, buy(ing), bargain

شرى šaran an itching skin eruption

شراء širā’ purchase buy(ing) | راغب الشراء eager to buy; O المقدرة على الشراء (maqdura) or O قوة الشراء qūwat aš-š. purchasing power

شروة šarwa purchase buy(ing)

شروى šarwā: لا يملك شروى نقير lā yamliku š. naqīrin he hasn’t a red cent to his name, he has absolutely nothing; لا يجدي شروى نقير (yujdī) it is of no use at all

O الحمى الشروية al-ḥummā aš-šarawīya nettle rash, urticaria (med.)

شريان širyān pl. شرايين šarāyīn2 artery | تصلب الشرايين taṣallub aš-š. arteriosclerosis

شرياني širyānī arterial | السدة الشريانية (sudda) embolism (med.)

اشتراء ištirā’ purchase buy(ing)

شار šārin pl. شراة šurāh seller, salesman, vendor; purchaser, buyer, customer; -- O lightning rod (also شارى الصواعق); الشراة aš-šurāh designation of the Khawārij

مشتر muštarin purchaser, buyer, customer; seller, vendor

المشترى al-muštarī Jupiter (astron.)

مشترى muštaran pl. مشتريات muštarayāt, that which is purchased, purchased

goods; purchase, buy(ing), acquisition

شزرا sażran: نظر اليه شزرا to look askance at s.o.

عين شزراء ‘ain sazrā’2 an eye looking askance, distrustfully or maligrantly; نظرة شزرا (naẓra) distrustful, suspicious glance

شست (Fr. chiste) slate (min.)

شاسع šāsi' far (away), distant, remote; wide, large, great (distance); huge, vast, enormous (difference)

ششخان šašakān rifled (gunbarrel)

اسلحة الششخانة aṣliḥat aš-š. firearms

مششخن mušaškan rifled (gunbarrel)

1 ششم šišm seed of the Cassia absus (bot.), used as eye powder

2 ششمة šašma, šišma toilet, lavatory, privy

ششنى šišnī sample, specimen; sampling

ششنجي (eg.) šišnagī assayer (of precious metals)

شص šiṣṣ pl. شصوص šuṣūṣ fishhook

شصر šaṣara a kind of gazelle

شط šaṭa i u (شطط šaṭaṭ) to go to extremes, go too far, exceed the proper hounds, be excessive (في in, with); to deviate (عن from), digress, stray (عن الموضوع from the topic) VIII to go to extremes, go too far, exceed the proper bounds, be excessive (في in, with)

شط šaṭṭ pl. شطوط šuṭūṭ bank, shore, coast, seashore, beach, strand | شط العرب š. al-‘arab Shatt-al-Arab, river in SE Iraq formed by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; the region traversed by this river on the Persian Gulf

شطة šaṭṭa a variety of pepper (Capsicum conicum Mey.; bot.)

شطط šaṭaṭ that which is excessive or exceeds the proper bounds, excess; inroad, encroachment, infringement

شطيطة šaṭīṭa a variety of pepper (Capsicum conicum Mey.; bot.)

مشط mušiṭṭ excessive

شاطئ šāṭi’ pl. شواطئ šawāṭi’2, شطآن šaṭ’ān shore, coast, seacoast, beach, strand

شطب šaṭab u (šaṭb) to out into slices or strips (هـ s.th.); to strike out, cross out, scratch out, write off (على or هـ s.th.); to erase, efface (على or هـ s.th., e.g., a word, a sentence); to cancel, release (على or هـ a mortgage); to drop, nonsuit (دعوى da‘wā a case) II to make an incision, a longitudinal cut, a slit, a slash (في in s.th.); to strike out, cross out, scratch out, write off (على or هـ s.th.); to erase, efface (على or هـ s.th., e.g., a word, a sentence); to cancel, release, (على or هـ a mortgage); to book, enter, post (هـ an item, an account); to finish off, terminate, wind up (على s.th.)

شطب šaṭb cut, slash; incision, scratch; crossing out, striking out, writing off; erasure, effacement; annulment, cancellation

شطب šaṭb pl. شطوب šuṭūb tall, strapping, sturdy, husky

تشطيب tašṭīb: تشطيب الحساب posting of an account (to the ledger); ساعة التشطيب curfew

شطح šaṭaḥa (šaṭḥ) to roam, rove, stray

شطحة šaṭḥa pl. شطحات šaṭaḥāt escapade

شطر šaṭara ū (šaṭr) to halve, divide into two (equal) parts, bisect, cut through (هـ s.th.); to out off, sever (هـ s.th.); -- شطر بصره (baṣaruhū) u (شطور šuṭūr) to be squint-eyed; -- šaṭara u (شطور šuṭūr, شطورة šuṭūra, شطارة šaṭāra) to withdraw, separate, disassociate o.s. (عن from); - - šaṭara u, šaṭura u (شطارة šaṭāra) to be sly, cunning, artful, shrewd; to be clever, smart, bright, skillful, adroit II to halve, divide into two (equal) parts, to bisect, out through (هـ s.th.) III to halve, share by halves, share equally (ه with s.o., s.th.), go halves (ه with s.o.); to participate, take part (هـ in s.th.), share (هـ s.th.) | شاطره آراءه، فرحه (ārā’ahū, faraḥahū) to share s.o.’s views, s.o.’s joy V to manifest slyness, cleverness, smartness, adroitness, skill VII to divide, split (هـ into, intrans.)

شطر šaṭr partition, division, separation, halving, bisecting; -- (pl. شطور šuṭūr, اشطر ašṭur) a half, moiety; hemistich; portion, share, lot; direction; šaṭra in the direction of ..., toward | قصد شطره to move toward s.o., walk up to s.o.; ولى انظاره شطره (wallā anẓārahū) to direct one’s glances toward s.o.; ولى وجهه شطره (wajhahū) to turn one’s face toward s.th.

شطرة šiṭra side, half

شطارة šaṭāra slyness cunningness shrewdness, adroitness, skill, cleverness, smartness

شطيرة šaṭīra sandwich; schnitzel, steak

مشاطرة mušāṭara participation, sharing

انشطار inšiṭār fission, splitting, cleavage, division, separation

شطر šāṭir pl. شطار šuṭṭār sly, cunning, shrewd; scoundrel, villain; clever, smart, bright, adroit, skillful

شطرنج šiṭranj, šaṭranj chess | لوحة الشطرنج lauḥat aš-š. chessboard

شطف šaṭafa u (šaṭf) to rinse (under flowing water), clean with water, wash (هـ s.th.)

شطف šuṭfa piece, chunk, lump; (pl, شطف šutaf) flint (of a gunlook. eg.)

شطفة šiṭfa splinter, chip, sliver

1 شطن šaṭana u (šaṭn) to fasten, attach, tie, bind (هـ ب s.th. with a rope)

2 شيطان and تشيطن see شيطن (alphabetically)

شظف šaẓafa u (šaẓf) to castrate

شظف šaẓaf pl. شظاف šiẓāf discomfort, hardship, difficulty; ruggedness of life | اقام على شظف العيش (š. il-‘aiš) to lead a life of hardships

شظف šaẓif hard, harsh, rough, rugged, austere (life, character)

شظي šaẓiya a (šaẓan) to be splintered, be shattered, splinter, shiver V do.

شظية šaẓīya pl. šaẓīy, شظايا šaẓāyā splinter, sliver, chip; shinbone; bone

شع ša‘‘a i (ša‘‘, شعاع ši‘ā’) to disperse, scatter, diffuse, spread; to beam, radiate, flash up IV to emit, spread, diffuse (هـ s.th.); to eradiate (هـ s.th.); to emit rays or beams, radiate, beam V to emit rays or beams, radiate, beam, eradiate

شع šu‘‘ rays, beams; spokes

شعاع ša‘ā’ distracted, confused, bewildered, perplexed | طار فؤاده (روحه) شعاعا his mind became confused, bewildered or perplexed

شعاع šu‘ā’ (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. اشعة aši‘‘a rays, beams; spokes; horizontal wooden crosspieces (on a door or window) | الأشعة فوق البنفسجية (banafsajīya) the ultraviolet rays; الأشعة الي تحت الأحمر the infra-red rays; صورة اشعة X-ray photograph, roentgenogram; O فاعلية الأشعة radioactivity

اشعاع iš‘ā’ pl. -āt radiation, eradiation

اشعاعي iš‘ā‘ī radiative, radiational | O ذو نشاط اشعاعي (našāṭ) radioactive

تشعع taša‘‘u‘ radiation, eradiation | التشعع الحراري (ḥarārī) radiation of heat; التشعع الشمسي (šamsī) solar radiation

مشع muši‘‘ radiating, radiant; emitting rays, radiative; O radioactive

O مشعة muši‘‘a radiator

شعب ša‘aba a (ša‘b) to gather, assemble, rally (هم people, هـ s.th.); to disperse, scatter (هم people, هـ s.th.) II to form branches, to branch; to branch (out), ramify, divide into branches or subdivisions (هـ s.th.) V to branch (out), ramify; to b. subdivided, form subdivisions; to diverge, move in different directions, part company, separate, split, break up, become disunited, disorganized, disrupted; to branch off (عن from); to result (عن from) VIII to branch out, ramify; to branch off

شعب ša‘b pl. شعوب šu‘ūb people, folk; nation; tribe; race

شعبي ša‘bī national, people’s; popular, folksy, folk- (in compounds) | الجبهة الشعبية (jabha) popular front; ديموقراطية شعبية people’s democracy (in Marxist terminology)

شعبية ša‘bīya popularity

شعوبي šu‘ūbī adherent of the شعوبية , see below

الشعوبية aš-šu‘ūbīya a movement within the early Islamic commonwealth of nations which refused to recognize the privileged position of the Arabs

شعب ši‘b pl. شعاب ši‘āb mountain path, mountain trail; gorge, ravine, canyon; gulf, abyss; reef

شعبة ši‘ba reef

شعبة šu‘ba pl. شعب šu‘ab, شعاب ši‘āb branch, bough, limb, ramification; shoot, twig, sprig, spray; prong, tine; (sub-) division, section, department, branch, cell; field of study, discipline (e.g., at a university); part, portion; (pl. شعب šu‘ab) bronchus | التهاب الشعب bronchitis (med.)

شعبي šu‘abī bronchial

شعيب ša‘īb disrupted, disorganized, disunited, scattered, dispersed

شعبان ša‘bān2 Shaban, name of the eighth month of the Mohammedan year

اشعب aš‘ab2 name of a legendary miser, hence, said of s.o. extremely niggardly: اطمع من اشعب greedier than Aš‘ab

اشعبي aš‘abī extremely miserly, avaricious, or greedy; (pl. -ūn) skinflint, miter, niggard | طمع اشعبي (ṭama‘) insatiable greed

تشعب taša‘‘ub ramification, branching, branching off; disruption, split(ting), disunion

انشعاب inši‘āb ramification, branching, branching off; disruption, split(ting), disunion

متشعب mutaša‘‘ib ramified, branching; manifold, diverse; many-sided, versatile (متشعب m. al-janabāt)

شعبذ ša‘bada to practice jugglery, legerdemain, sleight of band, or magic

شعبذة ša‘bada jugglery, legerdemain, sleight of band, magic

شعث ša‘itqa a (ša‘at) to be or become disheveled, unkempt, matted (hair) II to dishevel, ruffle (هـ the hair) V to become disheveled, ruffled (hair); to disintegrate, fall apart, decay (of buildings)

شعث ša‘at: لم شعثه lamma ša‘atahū to straighten out the muddled affairs of s.o., help s.o. to get back on his feet; to struggle back to one’s feet, “pick up”, recover

شعث ša‘it matted, disheveled, unkempt (hair); having matted, unkempt hair

شعوذ look up alphabetically

شعر ša‘ara u (شعور šu‘ūr) to know (ب s.th., ان that), have knowledge, be cognizant (ب of); to come to know, realize, notice (ب s.th., ان that); to perceive, feel, sense (ب s.th., ان that), be conscious, be aware (ب of s.th.); -- (ši‘r) to make or compose poetry, poetize, versify | لم يشعر الا بـ (illā bi-), لم يشعر الا و (illā wa-) and ما شعر الا بـ..., ما شعر الا و before be even realized it, there was all of a sudden ; then, all of a sudden, there was ..., it happened that … IV to let (ه s.o.) know (ب or هـ s.th., of or about s.th.), notify, inform (ب or هـ ه s.o. of or about), give notice or information (ه to s.o., ب or هـ of or about), impart (ه to s.o., ب or هـ s.th.) X to fee), sense, notice, perceive, realize (ب, هـ s.th.), be conscious, be aware (هـ of): to be filled (هـ with a feeling)

شعر ša‘r, ša‘ar (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. اشعار, شعور šu‘ūr, شعار ši‘ār hair; bristles; fur, pelt

شعرة ša‘ra (n. un.) pl. -āt a hair | لا قدر شعرة (qadra š.) not by a hair’s breadth

شعري ša‘rī, ša‘arī hairy, hirsute, hair (adj.)

شعرية ša‘rīya pl. -āt wire grille, wire netting, lattice work; O (without pl.) capillarity | شعرية الشباك š. aš-šabbāk (latticed) window shade, jalousie

شعرية ši‘rīya vermicelli

شعراني ša‘rānī hairy, hirsute, shaggy

شعر ši‘r knowledge | ليت شعري laita ši‘rī I wish I knew ...! would that I knew ...! -- (pl. اشعار aš‘ār) poetry; poem

شعري ši‘rī poetic(al)

شعرى ša‘rā pl. شعارى ša‘ārā scrub country

الشعرى aš-ši‘rā Sirius, Dog Star (astrron.)

شعار ši‘ār pl. شعر šu‘ur, اشعرة aš‘ira password, watchword; slogan; motto, device; mark, token, sign; signal; distinguishing mark or feature, characteristic, emblem, badge | شعار تجاري I ši‘ār (tijārī) trade mark

شعير ša‘īr (coll.) barley; (n. un. ة ) barleycorn | شعير لؤلؤي (lu’lu’ī) pearl barley; شعيرة الجفن š. al-jafn sty (med.)

O شعيرة ša‘īra bead (of a gun sight, mil.; Syr.)

شعيرات دموية šu‘airāt damawīya blood capillaries (biol.)

شعيرية ša‘īrīya vermicelli

شعور šu‘ūr knowledge, cognizance; consciousness, awareness; perception, discernment; perceptive faculty; sensation; sentiment; feeling; perceptiveness, sensitivity, sensibility; mood | على غير شعور منه (gairi šu‘ūrin) without his being aware of it; غاب عن الشعور to lose consciousness; فاقد الشعور unconscious, insensible; الشعور بالنفس (nafs) self-consciousness; الشعور بالذات do.; دقة الشعور diqqat aš-š. sensitivity, sensibility; الشعور المشترك (muštarak) community spirit, communality, solidarity; عديم الشعور unreeling, insensitive

شعوري šu‘ūrī conscious; emotional | لا شعوري unconscious, subconscious

شعارى ša‘ārā (pl.) goats

شعيرة ša‘īra pl. شعائر ša‘ā’ir2 religious ceremony, rite, cultic practice; pl. also: places of worship, cultic shrines

اشعر aš‘ar hairy, hirsute, long-haired, shaggy

شعرور šu‘rūr poetaster, versifier, rhymester

شويعر šuwai‘ir poetaster, venifier, rhymester

شعر maš‘ar pl. مشاعر mašā‘ir2 cultic shrine for ceremonies of the hadj; sensory organ; pl. senses, feelings, sensations | المشعر الحرام (ḥarām) the hadj station of Muzdalifa east of Mecca

اشعار iš‘ār pl. -āt notification, information (ب of, about), notice

شاعر šā‘ir knowing (by instinctive perception), endowed with deeper insight, with intuition; (pl. الشعراء šu‘arā’2) poet

شاعرية šā‘irīya pl. -āt poetry; poetical work, poetization; poetical talent; poet-ship

شواعر šawā‘ir attacks, diatribes, invectives, calumnies, defamations

مشعور maš‘ūr split, cracked; mad, crazy, idiotic

مشعراني muš‘irānī hairy, hirsute, shaggy

شعشع ša‘ša‘a to mix with water, dilute (هـ a beverage); to shine, beam, radiate, glitter

شعشع muša‘ša‘ half drunk, tipsy, fuddled

شعط ša‘aṭa a to scorch, sear, singe

شعفة ša‘fa pl. شعاف ši‘āf summit, top, peak

شعل ša‘ala a (ša‘l), II and IV to light, kindle, ignite, inflame, set on fire (هـ s.th.), set fire (هـ to s.th.); to set ablaze, fan (هـ s.th.) VIII to catch fire, start burning, ignite, bum, flame, blaze, flare up, break out (fire) | اشتعل غضبا (gaḍaban) to be flaming with rage; اشتعل رأسه شيبا (šaiban) his hair was, or turned, white

شعلة šu‘la pl. شعل šu‘al fire, blaze, flame; torch

مشعل maš‘al, مشعلة maš‘ala pl. مشاعل mašā‘il2 torch

مشعال miš‘āl torch

مشاعلي mašā‘ilī pl. مشاعلية mašā‘ilīya torch bearer; hangman, executioner

اشعال iš‘āl lighting, kindling, ignition, setting on fire, fanning

اشتعال išti‘āl ignition, inflammation, combustion, burning

مشتعل mušta‘il burning, ablaze, on fire

شعنينة ša‘nīna pl. شعانين ša‘ānīn2 palm branch | احد (عيد) الشعانين aḥad (‘īd) al-š. Palm Sunday (Chr.)

شعواء ša‘wā’2 (used attributively with غارة gāra, حرب ḥarb, حملة ḥamla, and the like) large-scale, devastating everything (over a wide area)

شعوذ šawada to practice jugglery, legerdemain, sleight of band, or magic arts

شعوذة ša‘wada pl. -āt jugglery, legerdemain, sleight of hand; magic, magic arts; humbug, swindle, tricks

مشعوذ muša‘wid juggler, conjurer, magician, practitioner of legerdemain; swindler, trickster (f. مشعوذة )

شغب šagaba, šagiba a (šagb, šagab) to disturb the peace, make trouble, stir up riots, cause an uproar, riot; to provoke discord, dissension, or controversy (among ب, على, ه ) III to make trouble, disturb the peace; to rebel (على against), mutiny

شغب šagab, šagb unrest, trouble, disturbance, discord, dissension; riot, commotion, uproar, strife, tumult; brawl, fight, broil, fracas; row, wrangle, contention, quarrel, controversy

شغب šaggāb troublemaker, agitator, subverter

شغوب šagūb causing much noise and unrest, riotous, turbulent, troublous

مشاغب mašāgib2 troubles, disorders, disturbances

مشاغبة mušāgaba pl. -āt disorder, disturbance, trouble, riot, uproar; rebellion (على against); discord, dissension, row, wrangle, quarrel, controversy

مشاغب mašāgib pl. -ūn troublemaker, agitator, subverter, rioter, mischief-maker

شغر šagara II (شغور šugūr) to be devoid of fortifications, be unprotected (country); to be free, vacant, unoccupied, open (seat, position)

شغور šugūr vacancy (of a position)

شاغر šāgir empty and unprotected (of a country); free, vacant, unoccupied, open (seat, position); شواغر šawāgir2 vacancies

شغف šagafa a (šagf) (to hit, or affect, the pericardium, i.e.) to infatuate, enamor, fill with ardent passion (ه s.o.); pass. شغف به (حبا ) šugifa bihī (ḥubban) to love s.o. or s.th. passionately, be madly in love with s.o., be infatuated with or enamored of s.o., be extremely fond of s.th. VII انشغف به = šugifa bihī

شغف šagaf pericardium; passionate love, passion, sensual desire; infatuation, enamoredness, amorousness; ardent zeal, craze, love, passion

شغف šagif madly in love, infatuated (ب with), enamored (ب of), fascinated (ب by)

شغاف šigāf pericardium

شغوف šagūf obsessed with fervent affection (ب for); madly in love, infatuated (ب with), enamored (ب of)

مشغوف mašgūf passionately fond (ب of), madly in love, infatuated (ب with), enamored (ب of), fascinated (ب by)

شغل šagala a (šagl, šugl) to occupy, busy (ه ب s.o. with); to preoccupy (ه s.o.), keep (ه s.o.) busy, give (ه s.o.) trouble; to distract, divert, alienate (ه عن s.o. from s.th.).; to occupy, fill, hold, have (هـ office, seat, position); to take up, fill (هـ s.th.), engage, engross (هـ the attention); to engage, tie down (هـ forces of the opponent); -- pass. šugila to occupy o.s., busy o.s. be busy (ب with), be engaged in; to be taken up, occupied (ب by, e.g., ground by buildings); شغل به عن to be distracted by s.th. from | شغل نفسه ب to occupy o.s., busy o.s. with, work at, attend to; شغل البال to disquiet, discomfit, make uneasy, trouble, disturb; شغل الوقت ل (waqt) to devote tim, to II to busy, occupy (ه s.o.), engage, engross (هـ s.th.); to employ (ه s.o.), provide employment (ه for s.o.); to put (ه s.o.) to work, make (هـ a machine) work, put in operation, make run, start (هـ a machine); to make, produce, manufacture, fabricate (هـ s.th.); to invest (هـ money) III to hold in play, keep occupied, divert (ه s.o.); to distract (ه s.o.) IV to occupy, busy, employ (ه s.o.); to occupy, hold, fill, have ( an office, a position); to fill, take up (ه s.th.), engage, engross (هـ the attention); to cover (ب هـ a space with a building or buildings), occupy, take up, fill (ب هـ a space with); to take, take up, require (هـ time); to engage, tie down (هـ forces of the opponent); to distract, divert, alienate, entice away (ه عن from) | اشغل البال to disquiet, discomfit, make uneasy, trouble, disturb, preoccupy VI to occupy o.s., busy o.s. be occupied or busy, be preoccupied (ب with), be engaged (ب in), attend, devote o.s. (ب to s.th.); to pretend to be busy VII to occupy o.s., busy o.s. be occupied or busy, be preoccupied (ب with); to be concerned (ب about) VIII to busy o.s. occupy o.s. be occupied or busy (ب or في with), be engaged (ب or في in), attend, devote o.s. (في or في to s.th.); to work; to study (Jo under or with); to work, run, operate, be in operation, be in motion (machine, and the like) | اشتغل قلبه (qalbuhū) to be uneasy, apprehensive, worried; اشتغل به عن to be distracted by s.th. from

شغل šugl occupancy, filling, taking up; detention, prevention, distraction (عن from); -- (pl. اشتغال ištigāl, شغول šugūl) occupation, activity; work, job; business, concern | شاغل شغل that which ie uppermost in one’s mind, chief or foremost concern; s.th. which preoccupies s.o.’s mind or distracts s.o. (عن from); اشغال شاقة (šāqqa) hard labor; اشغال عامة (‘āmma) or اشغال عمومية (‘umūmīya) public works; شغل يدوي (yadawī) handwork; manual labor; شغل يد š. yad (colloq., used appositionally) handmade; في شغل preoccupied (من with), concerned (من about); في شغل ب busy, occupied with; كان في شغل عن to be too busy or preoccupied (ب with) to be able to attend to s.th.; الزم شغلك ilzam šuglaka mind your own business!

شغال šaggāl very busy; hard-working, industrious, diligent, laborious, active; being in operation, running (of a machine); (pl. -ūn) worker, workman, laborer

شغيل šaggīl pl. ة (syr.) worker, workman, laborer, (lowly) employee

شاغول šāgūl mainsheet (of a sailing vessel)

مشغل mašgal pl. مشا āغل mašāgil2 workshop; workhouse

شغلة pl. مشاغل mašāgil2 occupation, avocation, activity, business, concern, work, job; effort, exertion; diversion, distraction, preoccupation, disturbance

تشغيل tašgīl employment, occupation; providing of employment, provision of work; hiring (of s.o., as a worker); opening, starting, putting into operation; production, manufacture, making; investment (of money)

انشغال inšigāl (state of) being busy or occupied; occupation, activity; overcharge, overwork; apprehension, concern, anxiety

اشتغال ištigāl (state of) being busy or occupied; work, occupation (ب or في with, at); syntactical regimen, government (of a word by another; gram.)

شاغل šāgil pl. شواغل šawāgil that which preoccupies s.o., engrosses s.o.’s attention, takes up s.o.’s time; occupation, activity; object of concern or worry; pl. شواغل distractions, preoccupations | وجد شاغلا عنه في be found distraction from it in …; هو في الف شاغل عن (alfi šāgilin) he had a thousand other things to think of than ...; كان اكبر شاغل له (akbara šāgilin) it was his greatest worry

مشغول mašgūl busy, occupied (ب with); distracted, diverted (عن from); occupied, taken (seat, space); busy, occupied (telephone line, and the like); worked on, processed | مشغول البال anxious, apprehensive, concerned, worried; المشغولات الذهبية والفضية (dahabīya, fiḍḍīya) gold and silver work

مشغولية mašgūlīya anxiety, apprehension, concern

مشغل mušaggal employee, worker

مشتغل muštagil busy, occupied (ب or في with); in operation, running (of a machine)

شفة šafa pl. شفاه šifāh, شفوات šafawāt lip; rim, edge | الشفة العليا (‘ulyā) upper lip, الشفة السفلى (suflā) lower lip; شفة الأرنب š. a1-arnab harelip; بنت شفة bint š. word

شفاهي , شفاها, شفهى and مشافهة see شفه

شفوي see شفو

1 شفائف šafā’if2, شفايف šafāyif2 lips

2 شف šaffa i (شفوف šufūf, شفيف šafīf, شفف šafaf) to be thin, flimsy; to be transparent, diaphanous, translucid, pellucid; to let (عن s.th.) shimmer through, reveal, disclose, betray (عن s.th.) VIII to drink up, drain, empty (هـ s.th.); to eat up, devour (هـ s.th.) X to look (هـ through s.th., e.g.. through a piece of fabric in order to ascertain its quality); to have a glimpse (هـ of s.th.), hope (هـ for s.th.); to try to see (هـ through s.th.), seek to penetrate (هـ s.th.); to perceive, discern, make out (هـ s.th.); to shimmer (من through s.th.), show (من through s.th.); to manifest itself, become tangible, perceptible, noticeable

شف šaff, šiff pl. شفوف šufūf diaphanous fabric, gauze

شفف šafaf transparency, translucence, diaphaneity

شفيف šafīf thin, flimsy, translucent, transparent, diaphanous

شفوف šufūf transparancy, translucence, diaphaneity

شفافة šufāfa the rest in the glass

شفاف šaffāf thin, flimsy, translucent, transparent, diaphanous

شفافية šaffāfīya transparency, translucence, diaphaneity

شفت šift pl. شفوت šufūt (eg.) pincers, tweezers

شفتر šaftara to pout, sulk

شفتورة šaftūra thick lip

شفتشي see جفتجي

شفتلك see جفتلك

1 شفر šafr pl. اشفار ašfār palpebral margin from which the eyelashes grow, (outer) edge of the eyelid; edge, rim, border, fringe

شفر šufr pl. اشفار ašfār palpebral margin from which the eyelashes grow, (outer) edge of the eyelid; edge, rim, border. fringe; -- labium (anat.)

شفرة šafra pl. šafarāt, شفار šifār large knife; blade (of a sword, of a knife); razor blade; (pl. شفار ) brink, edge, verge | على شفرة الهاوية on the brink of the abyas

شفير šafīr palpebral margin from which the eyelashes grow; (outer) edge of the eyelids; edge, rim, border, fringe

مشفر mišfar pl. مشافر mašāfir2 flew, chap; trunk, snout, proboscis

2 شفر (Fr. chiffre) cipher, code

شفري šifrī ciphered, coded, in code

شفرة šifra cipher, code

شفشف šafšafa to dry, dry out, parch, drain (هـ s.th.)

شفط la/ala to suck, suck up, absorb; to empty, drain; to sip

شفاطة šaffāṭa pl. -āt siphon | O شفاطة الغبار š. al-gubār vacuum cleaner

شفع šafa‘a a (šaf‘) to double (هـ s.th.); to attach, add, subjoin (هـ ب to s.th. s.th.), enclose (هـ ب in s.th. s.th.); to give the (right of) pre-emption (ه ب to s.o. on s.th.), grant (ه s.o.) the lint refusal (ب of s.th.); -- (شفاعة šafā‘a) to mediate, use one’s good offices, put in a good word, intercede, intervene, plead (ل or في for or on behalf of s.o., الى with s.o. else) V to mediate, use one’s good offices, put in a good word, intercede, intervene, plead (ل الى or في for or on behalf of s.o. with s.o. else)

شفع šaf‘ pl. اشفاع ašfā‘, شفاع šifā‘ either part of a pair; even number

شفع šaf‘ diplopia, double vision of a single object

شفعي šaf‘ī even (of a number)

شفعة šuf‘a (right of) pre-emption

شفيع šafī‘ pl. شفعاء šufa‘ā’2 mediator, intercessor, advocate; patron saint (Chr.); holder of the right of pre-emption, preemptor

شفاعة šafā‘a mediation, intercession, advocacy

شافع šāfi‘ mediator, intercessor, advocate; holder of the right of pre-emption, pre-emptor

الشافععي aš-šāfi‘ī founder of one of the four orthodox Islamic schools of theology; شافعي Shafiitic; (pl. -ūn, شوافع šawāfi‘) adherent of the Shafiitic school, Shafiite

مشفوع mašfū‘ accompanied (ب by), attended, combined (ب with)

شفق IV to pity, commiserate (على s.o.), feel pity (على for), sympathize (على with); to be concerned (ان that, على about) worry (ان that, على about), fear (ان that, على for, من s.o., s.th.), be apprehensive, feel anxiety (على about, من as a result of); to shun, shirk (من s.th.), beware (من of), be on one’s guard (من against)

شفق šafaq evening glow, twilight, dusk | الشفق الجنوبي (janūbī) aurora australis; الشفق الشمالي (šamālī) aurora borealis; الشفق القطبي (quṭbī) polar light; شفق الآلهة Twilight of the Gods

شفقة šafaqa compassion, commiseration, pity, sympathy, kind(li)ness, tenderness, affectionateness, solicitude, loving care | عديم الشفقة pitiless, merciless

شفوق šafūq compassionate, sympathetic, affectionate, tender, solicitous, kind(ly)

شفيق šafīq compassionate, sympathetic, affectionate, tender, solicitous, kind(ly)

اشفاق išfāq compassion, pity, sympathy; tenderness, affectionateness; care, solicitude; concern, worry, anxiety, apprehension

شافن šāfin proud

شفه III to speak (mouth to mouth) (ه to s.o.)

شفه pl. شفاه, شفوات see 2 شف

شفهي šafahī lip-, labio- (in compounds), labial; oral; الشفهي orals (= oral examination); شفهيا šafahīyan orally | الحروف الشفهية the labials b, f, m, w (phon.)

شفاها šifāhan orally

شفاهي šifāhī oral; الشفاهي the orals (= oral examination); شفاهيا šifāhīyan orally

مشافهة mušāfahatan orally

شفو IV to be very close (على to s.th.), be on the verge, on the brink of s.th. (على) | اشفى به على حافة اليأس (ḥāffat al-ya’s) he brought him to the brink of despair

شفا šafan pl. شفاء ašfā’ edge, rim, border, brink, verge

شفوي šafawī lip-, labio- (in compounds), labial; oral; شفويا šafawīyan orally | الحروف الشفوية the labials b, f, m, w (phon.)

مشف mušfin moribund, doomed to death

شفى šafā i (شفاء šifā’) to cure (ه من s.o. of a disease), heal (ه من s.o. of a disease, هـ a wound), make (ه s.o.) well, restore (ه s.o.) to health; -- pass. šufya to be healed, be cured, be restored to health, recover, convalesce, recuperate; to heal, heal up (wound) | شفي غلته (غليله ) (gullatahū) to quench one’s thirst, gratify one’s desire, satisfy one’s thirst for revenge; شفي غيظه من (gaiẓahū) to vent one’s anger on s.o., take it out on s.o. V and VIII to be cured, be healed, be restored to health (ب by); to take revenge, avenge o.s., satisfy one’s thirst for revenge, vent one’s anger, take it out (من on) X to seek a cure

شفاء šifā’ cure, healing, restoration, recovery, recuperation, convalescence; satisfaction, gratification; (pl. اشفية ašfiyah, اشاف ašāfin) remedy, medicament, medication, medicine | قابل للشفاء curable

شفائي `sifā’ī healing, curative, medicative

مشفى mašfan pl. مشاف mašāfīn2 hospital

تشف tašaffin gratification of one’s thirst for revenge, satisfaction

استشفاء istišfā’ seeking of a cure; cure, (course of) treatment

شاف šāfin healing, curative, medicative, salutary; satisfactory, clear, unquivocal (of an answer)

مستشفى mustašfā pl. مستشفيات mustaštayāt hospital; field hospital; sanitorium | مستشفى المجاذيب insane asylum, mental hospital

شق šaqqa u (šaqq) to split, cleave, part, tear, rend, rip (هـ s.th.); to break (هـ s.th.); to plow, till, break up (هـ the ground); هـ to furrow, traverse, cross (هـ s.th.); to pass go, travel (هـ through a region); to break (dawn); -- (شقوق šuqūq) to break forth, shoot up, sprout (plant), break through, erupt (tooth); -- (šaqq, مشقة mašaqqa) to be heavy, oppressive, burden some unbearable (على for s.o.); to grieve, trouble (على s.o.); to molest, harass inconvenience (على s.o.), be troublesome, cumbersome (على for s.o.); to visit (على s.o.). call (على upon s.o.) | شقت جيبه (jaibahā) to tear the front of the garment as a sign of mourning (woman); شق سبيلا to cut, or open, a way for o.s.; شق السكون to break the silence; شق شارعا (طريقا ) to build a street (a road); شق طريقه to force one’s way, plow ahead; شق طريقا جديدا to open up, or enter upon, a new path

(fig.); شق العصا (‘aṣā) to part from the community, break with the community; شق عصا الطاعة (‘aṣā ṭ-ṭā‘a) to rebel, revolt, renounce allegiance; شق عصا القوم (‘aṣā l-qaum) to sow discord among people; ما شق غبارهم (gubārahum) he did not reach their mark; لا يشق غباره (yušaqqu gubaruhū) he is unsurpassable, he is incomparable, there is no one like him II to split (هـ s.th.); to tear open, rip open, slit open (هـ s.th.) V to be split, be cleft; to split, crack, bunt; to be cracked VII to be split, be cleft; to split, crack, burst; to split off, separate, segregate, secede, break away, withdraw (عن from), break (عن with), renounce (عن s.th.); to become a schismatic (Chr.); to break (dawn) | انشقت عصاهم (‘aṣāhum) they fell out (with one another); انشقت مرارته (marāratuhū) he exploded (with anger), he blew his top VIII to derive (هـ من word from)

شق šaqq pl. شقوق šuqūq fissure, crack, chink, crevice, rift, cleft, crevasse, chasm, split, rent, tear, rip, gap, slit, slot; half, moiety; -- fission, splitting, cracking, cleavage | شق الذرة š. ad-darra atomic fission

شق šiqq half, side, part, portion; trouble, difficulty, hardship | شق المعارضة š. al-mu‘āraḍa opposition party; لا الا بشق الأنفس (illā bi-šiqqi l-anfus), بشق النفس only with great effort, with great difficulty, barely

شقة šaqqa rift, tear, rip, fissure, crack, split, crevice

شقة šiqqa pl. شقق šiqaq, شقاق šiqāq a half, moiety; piece; splinter; trouble, toil, labor, difficulty, hardship; difficult journey; destination of a journey; distance

شقة šiqqa, šaqqa pl. شقق šiqaq apartment, flat, split-level apartment; compertmeut (in a train)

شقة šuqqa pl. شقق šuqaq trouble, toil, labor, difficulty, hardship; difficult journey; destination of a journey; distance | بعد الشقة bu‘d aš-šuqqa (and aš-šiqqa) large or wide distance; بعيد الشقة b. aš-šiqqa (and aš-šiqqa) far away, distant, remote

شقيق šaqīq a half, moiety; (pl. اشقة ašiqqa, اشقاء ašiqqā’) full brother, brother on the paternal and maternal side; (attributively) brother-, sister-; -- anemone | القطر الشقيق (quṭr) the brother country; الدول الشقيقة (duwal) the sister states (esp. with reference to Arab countries)

شقيقة šaqīqa pl. -āt, شقائق šaqā’iq2 full sister, sister on the paternal and maternal side; hemicrania, migraine | شقائق النعمان š. an-nu‘mān red anemones (bot.)

اشق ašaqq2 more troublesome, more tiresome, more difficult, harder

مشقة mašaqqa pl. -āt, مشاق mašāqq2 trouble, toil, labor, difficulty, hardship

شقاق šiqāq disunity, dissension, discord

انشقاق inšiqāq separation, segregation, dissociation, spilt; schism (Chr.); dissension, discord, disunion

اشتقاق ištiqāiq derivation, etymology (of a word)

شاق šāqq troublesome, tiresome, wearisome, cumbersome, tiresome, tedious, fatiguing, arduous, onerous, difficult, hard | اشغال شاقة hard labor

مشاق mušāqq schismatic (Chr.)

مشتق muštaqq pl. -āt derivative (gram.)

شقح IV to send far away, remove to a distant place (ه s.o.)

شقذف šuqduf pl. شقاذف šaqādif2 a kind of sedan

شقر šaqira a (šaqar) and šaqura u (شقرة šuqra) to be of fair complexion, be light skinned; to be blond, fair-haired

شقر šaqar fair-complexionedness; blondness

شقرة šuqra fair-complexionedness; blondness; redness

اشقر ašqar2, f. شقراء šaqrā’2, pl. شقر šuqr fair-complexioned, light skinned; blond, fair-haired; reddish

شقرق saqraqa to be gay, cheerful, be exhilarated, amuse o.s.

شقشق šaqšaqa to twitter, peep, chirp; to babble (ب s.th.); to peep, break (dawn) | شقشق بالحديث عن to chat, chatter about s.th.

شقشقة šaqšaqa pl. -āt twitter(ing), peopling), chirp(ing); (silly) prattle; pl. شقاشق šaqāšiq2 rigmarole, rambling talk | شقشقة اللسان (silly) prattle; شقشقة النهار s. an-nahār daybreak, peep of dawn

شقشقة šiqšiqa pl. شقاشق šaqāšiq2 faucal bag of the camel

شقف šaqaf (coll.; n. un. ة ) (pot)sherds

شقافة šuqāfa (pot)sherds

1 شاقل šāqil shekel

2 شاقول šāqūl plumbline, plummet

شقلب šaqlaba to turn things upside down, upset things II tašaqlaba to be upset, be toppled; to turn a somersault

شقلبة šaqlaba pl. -āt somersault

(شقو and شقي) شقا šaqā u (شقو šaqw) to make (ه s.o.) unhappy, miserable, wretched, distress (ه s.o.); -- شقي šaqiya a (شقاء šaqā’, شقاوة saqāwa, شقوة šaqwa) to be unhappy, miserable, wretched, distressed; to have trouble (ب with, in s.th.) IV to make (ه s.o.) unhappy, miserable, wretched, distress (ه s.o.)

شقاء šaqā’ and شقا saqan misfortune, distress, misery, wretchedness, pain, suffering; hardship, trouble, toil, drudgery

شقي šaqīy pl. اشقياء ašqiyā’2 unhappy, unlucky, miserable, wretched, distressed; damned; wretch, villain, culprit, criminal, scoundrel, rogue; nasty, naughty, mischievous

شقوة šaqwa misfortune, distress, misery

شقاوة saqāwa misfortune, distress, misery; mischief, nastiness, naughtiness

1 شك šakka u (šakk) to pierce, transfix (ه s.o. ب with); to impale, spit (هـ ب s.th. on); to prick, stab (هـ s.th.); to doubt (ب or في s.o., s.th.); to distrust, suspect, question (ب or في s.o., s.th.), entertain doubts, have misgivings (ب or في about s.o., about s.th.); to be skeptical II to make (ه s.o.) doubt (في s.th.), fill (ه s.o.) with doubt, misgivings, skepticism, suspicion (في about) V to doubt (ب or في s.o., s.th.), have doubts (ب or في about); to be skeptical, have misgivings

شك šakk pl. شكوك šukūk doubt, uncertainty, suspicion, misgiving | بلا شك (bi-lā), لا شك (šakka), ولا شك wa-lā šakka, من دون شك min dūni šakk without doubt, doubtless, undoubtedly, indubitably, certainly, positively; لا سبيل الى الشك فيه (sabīla) doubtless, indubitable, beyond any doubt; لا يتطرق اليه الشك (yataṭarraqu, šakku) do.

شكة šakka stab, tšhrust, jab (with the point of a weapon)

تشكك tašakkuk doubt; skepticism

شاك šākk doubting, in doubt, skeptical | شاك السلاح or شاك في السلاح armed to the teeth, bristling with arms

مشكوك فيه maškūk fīhi doubtful, dubious, uncertain; مشكوك في امره (amrihī) suspect(ed)

2 شكك šakkaka (eg.) to sell on credit; to buy on credit; to borrow

شكك šukuk (eg.) on credit

3 شك (Fr. chèque) pl. شكات check

1 شكر šakara u (šukr, شكران šukrān) to thank (ل or ه s.o., على or ل or ه for s.th.), be thankful, grateful (ل or ه to s.o., على or ل or ه for s.th.); to praise, laud, extol (ل or ه s.o.) | يشكر عليه (yuškaru) worthy of thanks, deserving acknowledgment, meritorious, praiseworthy V to thank (هـ ل s.o. for s.th.), be thankful, grateful (هـ ل to s.o. for s.th.)

شكر šukr pl. شكور šukūr thankfulness, gratefulness, gratitude; thanks, acknowledgment; praise, laudation | شكرا لك šukran lak I thank you! thanks! شكره شكرا جزيلا to express many thanks to s.o.

شكري šukrī of thanks, thanking

شكران šukrān thankfulness, gratefulness, gratitude; thanks, acknowledgment; praise, laudation

شكور šakūr very thankful

شاكر šākir thankful, grateful

مشكور maškūr worthy of thanks, deserving acknowledgment, meritorious, praiseworthy

2 شكارة šikāra pl. شكائر šakā’ir2 (eg.) sack, gunny sack

3 شوكران look up alphabetically

4 شيكران look up alphabetically

شكس šakusa u (شكاسة šakāsa) and šakisa a (šakas) to be malicious, spiteful, querulous, quarrelsome, peevish, petulant, ill-tempered, morose, surly, sullen, sulky, grumpy, unfriendly III to pick a quarrel, to quarrel (ه with s.o.) VI to quarrel (with one another), be querulous, quarrelsome, petulant; to be incongruous

شكس šakis pl. شكس šuks malicious, spiteful, querulous, quarrelsome, peevish, petulant, ill-tempered, morose, surly, sullen, sulky, grumpy, unfriendly

شكاسة šakāsa malice, spite, querulousness, peevishness, petulance, ill-temperedneess, moroseness, surliness, sullenness, sulkiness, grumpiness, unfriendliness; rudeness

مشاكسة mušākasa pl. -āt quarrel, controversy, dispute, wrangle; plot, conspiracy; moroseness, surliness, grumpiness; petulance, nagging, querulousness

تشاكس tašākus incongruity, absurdity

شاكوش and شكوش look up alphabetically

شكل šakala u (šakl) to hobble (هـ بالشكال an animal with the šikāl, q.v.); to vowel, point, provide with vowel points (هـ a text); to be dubious, ambiguous, equivocal, vague, obscure, intricate, difficult II = I; to shape, fashion, form, create, mold, organize, build up (هـ s.th.); to diversify, vary, variegate (هـ s.th.), bring variety (هـ into s.th.) III to be similar (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.), resemble (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), be like s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه ) IV to be dubious, ambiguous, equivocal, vague, obscure, intricate, difficult (على for s.o.) V to be formed, fashioned, shaped, molded, created, organized, built up, take form, take shape; to be variegated, shaded, graded, form various gradation; to materialize, appear in visible form (ل to s.o.) | تشكل بشكله (bi-šaklihī) to take on the shape of s.o., assume the form of s.th. X to regard as dubious (ه s.th.); = IV

شكل šakl pl. اشكال aškāl, شكول šukūl similarity, resemblance, likeness; outward appearance, figure, form, shape, build; form of perception, perceptual form (as opposed to matter or content; philos.); type, out, pattern; mode, manner; sort, kind, specimen; شكل vowelization, voweling; شكلا formally, in form | هم وأشكالهم they and the like of them

شكلي šaklī formal; pl. شكليات formalities

O شكلية šaklīya formalism

شكل šikl coquetry, coquettishness

شكلة šakila coquettish woman, coquette, flirt

شكلي šuklī quarrelsome, peevish

شكل šikal pl. -āt, شكل šukul fetter, hobble (for shackling the feet of a riding animal)

تشكيل taškīl pl. -āt forming, formation, shaping, molding, fashioning, creation, organization, building up; order of march (mil.); pl. تشكيلات formations; organizations

تشكيلة taškīla assortment, selection, variety; formation

مشاكلة mušākala similarity, resemblance, likeness

اشكال iškāl dubiosity, ambiguity, obscurity, vagueness

تشاكل tašākul similarity, resemblance

شاكلة šākila way, manner, mode; (pl. شواكل šawākil2) flank, side, groin | على شاكلة in the manner of, of the kind of, like, على شاكلتهم of their kind, like them; كان على شاكلتهم to be of the same kind, of the same strain as s.th.

مشكل mušakkal different, diverse, manifold, miscellaneous, variegated; vowel(iz)ed

مشكل muškil turbid, murky (liquid); dubious, ambiguous, equivocal, obscure, vague, hazy; difficult, intricate, involved, problematic; problem, unsolved question, issue; difficulty

مشكلة muškila pl. -āt, مشاكل mašākil2 problem, unsolved question, issue; difficulty

شكم šakama u (šakm) to bridle (هـ an animal); to bribe (ه s.o.); to silence, gag, muzzle (s.o.)

شكيمة šakīma pl. شكائم šakā’im2, شكم šukum, شكيم šakīm bit, curb, snaffle, bridoon; (pl. شكائم ) O brake (of a wheel); unruliness, unyieldingness obstinacy; contempt, disdain, scorn | شديد الشكيمة stubborn, obstinate, unyielding; قوة الشكيمة quwwat aš-š. energy; قوي الشكيمة qawīy aš-š. energetic, vigorous, active

شكه III to resemble (هـ s.th.), he like s.th. (هـ )

شكا (شكو ) šakā u (شكو šakw, شكوى šakwā, شكاة šakāh, شكاية šikāya, شكية šakīya) to complain (من or هـ, ه of, about, ل or الى to s.o., من or هـ of or about s.th.), make a complaint; to raise or lodge a complaint (من or هـ, ه of, about or against s.o., ل or الى with s.o.); to suffer (هـ from s.th.) V = I; VI to complain to one another (هـ of, about s.th.) VIII = I

شكوة šakwa complaint, grievance; (pl. شكوات šakawāt, شكاء šikā’) small skin (for water or milk)

شكوى šakwā pl. شكاوى šakāwā complaint; accusation; suffering, grievance

شكاة šakāh complaint; accusation; suffering, grievance

شكاية šikāya complaint; accusation; suffering, grievance

شكية šakīya complaint; accusation; suffering, grievance

شكاء šakkā’ given to complaining, querulous

مشكاة miškāh pl. مشكاوات miškāwāt, مشاك mašākin niche (for a lamp); lamp, pendent lamp

شاك šākin complainant, plaintiff | شاكي السلاح = شاك السلاح šākk as-s.

(منه) مشكو maškūw complained of, accused, charged; an accused, defendant

مشتك muštakin complainant, plaintiff

مشتكى عليه muštaka ‘alaihi complained of, accused, charged; an accused, defendant

شكوريا šikūriyā chicory

شكولاته šukūlāta (eg.), šikōlāta (syr.), chocolate

شاكوش and شكوش see شاكوش (alphabetically)

شل šalla a (šall, شلل šalal) to dry up, wither, become crippled, stunted; to be paralyzed, be lame; -- šalla u to paralyze (هـ s.th.) | شل حركته (ḥarakatahū) to overwhelm s.o., لا ring s.o. down IV to cause (هـ the hand) to wither; to paralyze (هـ s.th.); to neutralize, bring to a stand-still (هـ s.th.) VII to be paralyzed, be lamed

شلة šalla destination (of a journey)

شلة šilla pl. شلل šilal hank, skein (of yarn); coil, spool; party, group

شلل šalal paralysill, pelsy, paralyzation (also fig.) | شلل الأطفال š. al-aṭfāl, الشلل الطفلي (ṭiflī) infantile paralysis, poliomyelitis; الشلال الاهتزازي (ihtizāzī) paralysis agitans, Parkinson’s disease

شلال šallāl pl. -āt cataract, waterfall, rapids

اشل ašall2, f. شلاء šallā’2 withered, stunted (hand); paralyzed, lame; a paralytic

مشلول mašlūl paralyzed, lame

شلبي šalabī dandyish, foppish; dandy, fop; (pal.) nice, handsome, beautiful

1 شلت II to kick

2 شلتة šalta pl. -āt, شلت šilat mattress

شلح šalaḥa a (šalḥ) to take off (ثيابه tiyābahū one’s clothes); to shed the cloth (هـ ), renounce the ministry (monk, prieat) II to

undress, disrobe, strip (ه s.o.); to roh, plunder (ه s.o.)

مشلح mašlaḥ pl. مشالح mašāliḥ, (syr., nejd.) long, sowing cloak of wool or camel’s hair, also one with gold embroidery

تشليح tašlīḥ robbing, plundering, robbery

مشلح mušallaḥ dressing room (in a public bath)

شلشل šalšala to dribble, trickle

شلفة šilfa (razor) blade

1 شلق šalaqa u (šalq) to split lengthwise (هـ s.th.)

شلق bale (e.g., of hay)

2 شولقي šaulaqī person with a sweet tooth

شليك look up alphabetically

1 شولم look up alphabetically

2 شيلم look up alphabetically

شلن (Engl.) šilin pl. -āt shilling

شلو šilw pl. اشلاء ašlā’ corpse (esp. one in a state of decay); severed member (of the body); part torn off, fragment; remnant; stump of a limb

شليك (Turk. çilek) šilek (eg.) strawberries

شم šamma (1st pers. perf. šamimtu) a and (1st pers. perf. šamamtu) u (šamm, شميم šamīm) to smell, sniff (هـ s.th.); to snulf (هـ s.th.); to emanate, exude (من from) | شم النسيم (الهواء ) (hawā’a) to get a breath of fresh air, take a walk; -- šamma (1st pers. perf. šamimtu) a (شمم šamam) to behave proudly or haughtily, be proud, haughty, supercilious II to give (هـ ه s.o. s.th.) to smell, let (ه s.o.) smell (هـ s.th.) IV – II V to savor the smell of s.th. (هـ ), sniff (هـ s.th.) | تشمم الأخبار to nose about for news VIII to smell, sniff (هـ s.th.); to gather, understand (من هـ s.th. from), read (من ه s.th. into)

شم šamm smelling; sense of smell, olfaction | شم النسيم Egyptian popular holiday on the Monday following the Greek Coptic Easter at the end of March, in April or in early May

شمة šamma pinch (of snuff); smell, odor; slight trace of s.th., whiff

شمي šammī olfactory

شمم šamam pride, haughtiness, superciliousness

شمام šammām pl. -ūn (tobacco) snuffer

شمام šammām (coll.; n. un. ة ) musk-melon, cantaloupe

اشم ašamm 2, f. شماء šammā’2, pl. شم šumm having a sensitive, or good, nose; supercilious, haughty; proud (in a complimentary sense); highborn; most honorable

الإشمام al-išmām the pronunciation of u with a trace of i, as rüdda for rudda, and vice versa, qǖla for qīla (gram.)

شامة šāmma sense of smell, olfaction

مشموم mašmūm musk

اشمأز (شمأز ) išma’azza = to contract, get contracted, shrink; to shrink back, recoil (من from), shudder (من at), abhor, detest (من s.th.), feel disgust (من for), be nauseated (من by)

اشمئزاز išmi’zāz shudder; disgust, aversion, repugnance

مشمئز mušma’izz disgusted, nauseated, revolted (من by)

شمبانيا (Fr.) šambanyā champagne

شمت šamita a (شمات šamāt, شماتة šamāta) to rejoice at the misfortune of s.o. (ب ), gloat over s.o.’s (ب ) mishaps, savor s.o.’s (ب ) bad luck II to disappoint (ه s.o.) IV to cause s.o. (ه ) to take malicious pleasure in the mishaps of another (ب )

شمات šamāt malicious joy, Schadenfreude

شماتة šaamāta malicious joy, Schadenfreude, malice

شامت šāmit pl. شمات šummāt, pl. f. شوامت šawāmit2 enjoying another’s misfortune, malicious, gloating

شمخ šamaka a (samk, شموخ šumūk) to be high, tall, lofty, tower up, loom (mountain, building); to disdain (على s.th.), turn up one’s nose (على at s.th.) | شمخ بأنفه (انفه ) (bi-anfihī, anfahū) to be arrogant, haughty, proud, supercilious VI to be high, tall, lofty, tower up, loom; to be boastful, put on airs; to be proud, haughty, supercilious

تشامخ tašāmuk pride, haughtiness, arrogance

شامخ šāmik pl. شمخ šummak, شوامخ šawāmik2 high, tall, lofty, towering; proud, haughty, supercilious | شامخ الأنف š. al-anf proud, haughty, supercilious, arrogant

متشامخ mutašāmik high, tall, lofty, towering; proud, haughty, supercilious; towering in lofty heights

مشمخر mušmakirr lofty, towering (of buildings)

شمر II to gather up, lift, roll up, tuck up, turn up (هـ a garment); to prepare, get ready | شمر للأمر to embark upon s.th., buckle down to s.th.; شمر عن ساعده to bare the upper arm (by rolling up the sleeve), get to work; شمر عن يد الجد (s. al-jidd) to buckle dawn to a job, rally all one’s forces, put one’s shoulder to the wheel V to set to work briskly

شمر šamar fennel (bot.)

شمرة šumra, šamra fennel

شمار šamār fennel

مشمر mušammir busily at work in (an activity)

شمروخ šumrūk pl. شماريخ šamārīk2 stalk with date cluster; date-palm panicle, branch stripped of its leaves; little stick; detonator, primer cap

اشمأز see شمأز

شمس šamasa u (شموس šumūs, شماس šimās) to be headstrong, balky, restive (of a horse); -- šamasa i u and šamisa a (šamas) to be sunny (day) II to expose (هـ s.th.) to the sun, lay ( هـ s.th.) out in the sun to dry; to perform the office of deacon (Chr.) IV to be sunny (day) V to bask, sun o.s., lie or sit in the sun

شمس šams f., pl. شموس šumūs sun | سمت الشمس samt aš-š. ecliptic (astron.); شروق الشمس sunrise; ضربة الشمس ḍarbat aš-š. sunstroke, heat prostration; عباد الشمس ‘abbād aš-š. sunflower; غروب الشمس sunset

شمسي šamsī sun- (in compounds), solar | الحروف الشمسية (gram.) the sun letters (which assimilate the l of the article); صورة شمسية (ṣūra) photograph, photo; التصوير الشمسي phtoography

شمسية šamsīya pl. -āt (colloq. شماسي šamāsī) sunshade, parasol; umbrella; curtain, screen; stop (of a wind instrument) | شمسية الشباك š. aš-ubbāk window curtain, drape; O شمسية الطيار š. aṭ-ṭayyār parachute

شموس šamūs pl. شمس šumus headstrong, balky, restive (horse)

شماس šammās pl. شممسة šamāmisa deacon of the lower rank of the ministry, nowadays, with unconsecrated persons frequently performing this office, corresponding to the sexton or sacristan (Chr.); acolyte and liturgical cantor of Oriental Christian rites (clerics and laymen)

شامس šamis sunny (day)

مشمس mušmis sunny (day)

شمشم šamšama to sniff (هـ s.th.)

شمط šamiṭa a (šamaṭ) to become gray, haired, turn gray

اشمط ašmaṭ2, f. شمطاء šamṭā’ 2, pl. شمط šumṭ, شمطان gray-haired

شمع II to rub, or smear, with wax, to wax (هـ s.th.) | شمع الفتلة (fatla) to slip away, abscond, make off, decamp

شمع šam‘, šama‘ (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. شموع šumū‘ wax; (wax) candles | الشمع الأحمر sealing wax; شمع الختم š. al-katm do.; شمع لتلميع الأرضية (li-talmī‘ al-araḍīya) floor wax

شمعة šam‘a, šama‘a (n. un.) (wax) candle | O شمعة الشرارة š. aš-šarāra spark plug

شمعي šam‘ī, šama‘ī waxy, waxen, ceraceous, cero- (in compounds), made of wax

شماع šammā‘ chandler, maker or seller of candles

شماعة šammā‘a clothes rack, clothes peg, hat rack

مشمع mušamma‘ waterproof, impermeable (of a garment); -- (pl. -āt) waterproof material; impregnated linen; waterproof cover or coating; oilcloth, wax cloth; linoleum | مشمع بتيومين للسقف (li-s-saqf) bituminous roof covering, roofing felt, tar paper; معطف مشمع (mi‘ṭaf) raincoat

شمعدان šam‘addān pl. -āt, شماعد šamā‘id2, شماعدين candlestick, candelabrum

يشمق look up alphabetically

1 شمل šamila a (šamal) and šamala u (šaml, شمول šumūl) to contain, comprise, comprehend, enclose (هـ s.th.); to imply, implicate, include (هـ s.th.); to touch, affect, fill, overcome, pervade (هـ, ه s.o., s.th., of feelings, emotions); to prevail, be general, universal | شمله بعنايته (bi-‘ināyatihī) to bestow one’s care on s.o., take s.o. under one’s wing V تشمل بالشملة to wrap o.s. in the šamla (q.v.) VIII = V; to wrap o.s. (هـ, ب in s.th.); to contain, comprise, comprehend, enclose, enfold, imply, implicate, include (على s.th.) | اشتمله السواد (sawādu) it was completely black

شمل šaml uniting, gathering, concentration; unity. union | جمع الشمل jam‘ aš-š. reunion, reunification; اجتماع الشمل reunion; unity, union; مزق شمله mazzaqa šamlahū to break up, dismember, dismantle, parcel s.th.; to partition s.th., divide s.th. up

شملة šamla pl. šamalāt cloak; turban | ام شملة ummu šamlata the world, the temporal joys

شمائل šamā’il2 (pl.) good qualities; character, nature

اشمل ašmal more comprehensive; more general, more universal

شامل šāmil comprehensive, exhaustive; general, universal, complete, total

مشمول mašmūl contained, comprised, included, implied | مشمول برعايته (bi-ri‘āyatihī) enjoying the protection or patronage of s.o.; مشمولات الوظيفة the inherent functions of an office

مشتمل muštamal comprising, containing, including (على s.th.)

مشتمل muštamal cottage (for rent)

مشتملات muštamalāt contents

2 شمال šamāl, šimāl north; north wind; šimāl left hand; left side; left; الشمال the left (pol.); شمال šimāla north of …; شمالا šimālan to the left; northward, to the north | شمال شرقي (šarqī) northeast; شمال غربي (garbī) northwest; كوكب الشمال kaukab aš-š. polar star; اليد الشمال (yad) the left hand

شمالي šamalī, šimālī northern, northerly, north; situated on the left; الشماليون the leftist parties (pol.) | الشفق الشمالي (šafaq) aurora borealis, northern lights

3 شملول šumlūl pl. شماليل šamālīl2 small amount, small quantity; -- (eg.) šamlūl brisk, vivid, agile, lively, nimble

4 مشملة , مشملا look up alphabetically

شمندر šamandar white beet, chard

شمندورة šamandūra buoy

1 شن šanna u (šann): شن غارة (gāratan) to make a raid, an invasion; to make an attack, launch an attack (على against, on) IV = I

شن šann pl. شنون šunūn (water)skin

مشنة mišanna basket without handles

اشنان look up alphabetically

شنأ šana’a a (شنآن šan’ān, šana’ān) to hate

شنب šanab pl. اشنب ašnāb mustache

شنتيان šintiyān pl. شناتين šanātīn2 loose trousers resembling pantalets, worn by women

شنج šanija a (šanaj) to contract, shrink; to suffer from convulsions V = I; to twitch

تشنج tašannuj contraction, shriveling, shrinking (of the skin); convulsive contraction (of a muscle), twitch, jerk, convulsion, spasm, fit, cramp | التشنج الرعشي (ra‘šī) clonic spasm; التشنج الكزازي (kuzāzī) tonic spasm

تشنجي tašannujī spastic, spasmodic, cramplike, paroxysmal, convulsive

شنخوبة šunkūba pl. شناخيب šanākīb2 large rock, boulder

شنر II to blame, censure, revile, slander, abuse (على s.o.)

شنار šanār disgrace, ignominy

شنارق šanāriq2 = شرانق šarāniq2

شنشنة šanšana rustling (of paper); cracking, crackling

شنشنة šinšina pl. شناشن šanāšin2 nature, disposition; habit, custom, practice

1 شنيطة šunaiṭa knot; noose, loop

2 شنطة šanṭa pl. شنط šunaṭ suitcase; satchel; bag, traveling bag | شنطة اليد š. al-yad handbag

شنع šanu‘a u (šana‘, شناعة šana‘a) to be ugly, abominable, repugnant, repulsive, atrocious, hideous, horrid, horrible, disgraceful; -- šana‘a a (šan‘) to dishonor, disgrace (ب or ه s.o.) II to calumniate, slander, revile, defame (على s.o.); to pillory, expose, condemn, denounce (على s.o., s.th.)

شنع šanī‘ ugly, abominable, repugnant, repulsive, disgusting, atrocious, hideous, horrid, horrible, disgraceful, ignominious

شنعة šun‘a ugliness, hideousness, horridness, repulsiveness

شنيع šanī‘ ugly, abominable, repugnant, repulsive, disgusting, atrocious, hideous, horrid, horrible, disgraceful, ignominious

شناعة šanā‘a ugliness, hideousness, horridness, repulsiveness

اشنع ašna‘2, f. شنعاء šan‘ā’2 ugly, abominable, repugnant, repulsive, disgusting, atrocious, hideous, horrid, horrible, disgraceful, ignominious

شنغوبة šungūba pl. شناغيب šanāgīb2 spicate protuberance; thorn, spike

شنف II شنف الآذان (ādāna) to please the ears, to delight (of a voice)

شنف sanf pl. شنوف šunūf earring

شنق šanaqa u (šanq) to hang (هـ s.th., ه s.o. on the gallows)

شنق šanq hanging

شنق šanaq rope

مشنقة mišnaqa pl. مشانق mašāniq2 gallows, gibbet; scaffold, place of execution (by hanging); mašnaqa gallows, gibbet

مشنوق mašnūq hanged

شنقب šunqub bécassine, snipe (zool.)

شنكل šankala (eg.) to trip (ه s.o.) up; to hook up

شنكل šankal pl. شناكل šanākil2 clothes peg; hook

شنهق šanhaqa to bray (donkey)

شهب šahab gray color, gray

شهبة šuhba gray color, gray

شهاب šihāb pl. شهب šuhub, شهبان šuhbān flame, blaze, fire; shooting star, luminous meteor; star

اشهب ašhab2, f. شهباء šahbā’2, pl. شهب šuhb gray; الشهباء epithet of Aleppo (Syria)

شهد šahida a (شهود šuhūd) to witness (هـ s.th.), be witness (هـ of s.th.); to experience personally (هـ s.th.), see with one’s own eyes (ه s.o. in a situation); to be present (هـ at), attend (هـ a celebration); to be present at the public appearance of s.o. (ه ); to see (هـ s.th.); -- (شهادة šahāda) to testify, bear witness; to attest, confirm, certify (ب s.th., ان that), testify, give testimony, give evidence (على against s.o., to or about s.th., ل in s.o.’s favor); to sign as a witness, to witness (J. a document); to acknowledge, adjudge (ب ل to s.o., s.th.) | شهد to swear by God; شهد قانونيا to notarize ill to see (with one’s own eyes), view, inspect, watch, observe, witness (هـ s.th.) IV to call (ه upon s.o.) as a witness (على for s.th.); pass. ušhida to be martyred, die as a martyr X to call (ه or ب upon s.o.) or cite (ه or ب s.o.) as witness (على against or for, في in); to cite, quote (ب s.th.); to attest (e.g., على معنى كلمة ببيت the meaning of a word by a verse); pass. ustušhida to be martyred, die as a martyr

شهد šahd, šuhd pl. شهاد šihād honey; honeycomb

شهدة šahda carbuncle

شهيد šahīd pl. شهداء šuhadā’2 witness; martyr, one killed in battle with the infidels; one killed in action

شهيدة šahīda (woman) martyr

شهادة šahāda pl. -āt testimony, witness, evidence, deposition; statement; certificate, certification, testimonial, affidavit; attestation, attest; credentials, identification; (Muslim) creed (= doftrinal formula); martyrdom, شهادة الإثبات š. al-itbāt evidence for the prosecution; شهادة حسن السير والسلوك (š. ḥusn as-sair) certificate of good conduct; شهادة خلو الطرف عن العمل š. kulūw aṭ-ṭaraf ‘an il-‘amal certificate of discharge (from a position); شهادة الدراسة الثانوية (tānawīya) secondary school diploma; شهادة زور š. zūr false testimony; شهادة على شهادة indirect testimony (Isl. Law); شهادة العالمية š. al-‘ālimīya (Eg.) diploma of higher learning (highest diploma awarded by Al Azhar University); شهادة عالية (‘āliya) diploma; شهادة النفي š. an-nafy evidence for the defense; شهادة الولادة birth certificate

مشهد mašhad pl. مشاهد mašāhid2 place of assembly, assembly, meeting; place where a martyr or hero died; religious shrine venerated by the people, esp. the tomb of a saint; funeral cortege; profession; view, aspect, spectacle, sight, scenery; place or object of interest; scene (e.g., of a crime, of nature); act, number (as part of a program, e.g., in vaudeville), scene (in theater, as part of a play); aspect |مشهد غنائي (ginā’ī) song scene, vocal recital; مشاهد الحياة m. al-ḥayāh aspects of life

مشاهدة mušāhada seeing, viewing, witnessing, inspection; (pl. -āt) view, sight, spectacle; apparition, vision

اشهاد išhād pl. -āt written certification

استشهاد istišhād citation. quotation; death of a martyr; death of a hero, heroic death; martyrdom

شاهد šāhid pl. شهود šuhūd, شهد šuhhad present; -- (pl. شهود šuhūd, اشهاد ašhād) witness (على for); notary public; -- pl. شواهد šawāhid2) (piece of) evidence (على for); attestation; quotation serving as textual evidence; testimony; an oblong, upright tombstone | شاهد الإثبات š. al-itbāt witness for the prosecution; شاهد السمع š. as-sam‘ earwitness; شاهد s. al-‘ain, شاهد عيان š. ‘iyān, شاهد عياني (‘iyānī) eyewitness; شاهد النفي š. an-nafy witness for the defense; على رؤوس الأشهاد in public, for everyone to see

شاهدة šāhida pl. شواهد šawāhid2 an oblong, upright tombstone; index finger; true copy, copy of a letter, duplicate; الشاهدة the Earth

مشهود mašhūd taking place in the presence of spectators or witnesses; happening before a large audience, well-attended; memorable (day, event) | بالجرم المشهود (jurm) in the act, red-handed, flagrante delicto | اليوم المشهود (yaum) the Day of Resurrection; red-letter day, festive public holiday

مشاهد mušāhid pl. -ūn spectator, onlooker, observer

مشاهد mušāhad visible, perceptible; pl. مشاهدات things seen, sights; visible things

شهر šahara a (šahr) to make well-known, famous, renowned, notorious (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to spread, make known, divulge, proclaim, announce (هـ s.th.); to draw, unsheathe (هـ a weapon); pass. šuhira to be or become well-known, famed, famous, renowned, notorious (ب by or for s.th. respectively, by or under a name) | شهر الحرب عليه (ḥarb) to declare war on s.o.; شهر البندقية (bunduqīya) to level a gun (على at s.o.) II to make well-known, famous, renowned, notorious (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to spread, make known, divulge, proclaim, announce (هـ s.th.); to defame, slander, revile publicly, pillory, condemn, denounce (ه s.o.) III to engage or hire (ه s.o.) on a monthly basis, rent (هـ s.th.) by the month IV to make known, proclaim, announce, spread, divulge (هـ s.th.); to unsheathe, draw (ه a weapon); to sell at auction, also اشهر المزاد (mazāda) | اشهر مزاد بيع شيء (mazāda bai‘i š.) to auction s.th. off, put s.th. up at auction VIII to be or become well-known, famed, famous, renowned, notorious (ب by or for s.th. respectively, by or under a name); to be known (عن of s.o., a trait, and the like); to be widespread, common

شهر šahr pl. اشهر ašhur, شهور šuhūr new moon; month | شهر العسل š. al-‘asal honeymoon

شهري šahrī monthly, mensal; شهريا šahrīyan monthly, per month, by the month | اشتراك شهري monthly subscription; monthly fee or contribution; نصف شهري niṣfu šahrīyin fortnightly, semimonthly, appearing biweekly

شهرية šahrīya monthly salary

شهرة šuhra repute, reputation, renown, fame, famousness, celebrity; notoriety; surname (Syr., Leb.) | شهرة عالمية (‘ālamīya) world-wide renown, worldwide fame

شهير šahīr widely known, well-known, famous, renowned, celebrated (ب by a name); notorious, ill-reputed

اشهر ašhar2 better known, more widely known

مشاهرة mušāhara pl. -āt monthly salary; pl. monthly payments, monthly allowances; mušāharatan monthly, per month, by the month

اشهار išhār announcement, proclamation, declaration; public sales, auction; publicity, advertising | اشهار الإفلاس i. al-iflās notice of bankruptcy, declaration of insolvency

اشتهار ištihār repute, reputation, renown, fame, famousness, celebrity; notoriety

مشهور mašhūr pl. مشاهير mašāhīr2 well-known, widely known, renowned, famous, celebrated; notorious, ill-reputed; wide-spread, common; a famous, celebrated personality, a celebrity; accepted, established, canonical (textual variant, version of the Koran) | على المشهور according to the general belief, as it is (was) generally understood

مشهر mušahhar well-known, widely known, renowned, famous, celebrated; notorious, ill-reputed

شهق šahaqa a i (شهيق šahīq) to bray (donkey); -- šahaqa a i and šahiqa a (شهيق šahīq, شهاق šuhāq, تشهاق tašhāq) to inhale; to sigh deeply; to sob, gulp; to moan, groan IV اشهق بالبكاء (bi-l-bukā’) to burst into tears, break out into loud weeping

شهقة šahqa moan(ing), groan(ing); gulping

شهيق šahīq braying, brays (of a donkey); sobbing, sobs; sighing, sighs; inhalation, breathing in

شاهق šāhiq pl. شواهق šawāhiq2 high, lofty, towering (building, mountain) | علو شاهق (‘ulūw) tremendous height

شواهق šawāhiq2 heights

شهل II to accelerate, speed up, expedite (هـ s.th.); to remove quickly, hurry off (ه s.o.)

شهل šahil nimble, swift, quick

شهلة šuhla bluish-black color of the eyes

اشهل ašhal, f. شهلاء šahlā’2 having bluish-black eyes

شهم šahm, pl. شهام šihām perspicacious, sagacious, astute, clever, bold, audacious; energetic; noble, gallant, decent; gentleman

شهامة šahāma perspicacity, sagacity, astuteness, cleverness; audacity, boldness, gallantry, noble-mindedness; energy, vigor, verve; decency, respectability

شاهين pl. شواهين look up alphabetically

شهو ) and شها (شهي šahā u and شهي šahiya a (شهوة šahwa) to desire, wish, covet, crave (هـ s.th.), long (هـ for s.th.) II to make covetous, fill with desire, allure, entice (ه s.o.); to arouse greed, desire, appetite (ه in s.o., هـ for s.th.); to whet the appetite, be appetizing (food) V and VIII to be covetous, greedy, to long (هـ for s.th.), crave, desire, wish (هـ s.th.), ffeel appetite (هـ for s.th.) | شيء لا يشتهى (yuštahā) an undesirable thing

شهوة šahwa pl. šahawāt greed, craving, desire, ardent wish, longing, yearning, eagerness, passion, carnal appetite, lust; appetite

شهوي šahwī sensual, sensuous, lustful, instinctual, uninhibited

شهوان šahwān, f. شهوى šahwā, pl. شهاوى šahāwā covetous, greedy; lewd, lecherous, lascivious, libidinous, dissolute, debauched

شهواني šahwānī covetous, greedy; lewd, lecherous, lascivious, libidinous, dissolute, debauched; sensual, sensuous, lustful, instinctual, uninhibited

شهي šahīy pleasant, agreeable, desirable; appetizing, inviting, tasty

شهية šahīya appetite | فاتح الشهية or ما يفتح الشهية (yaftaḥu) stimulating the appetite, appetizing; قلة الشهية للطعام qillat aš-š. li-ṭ-ṭa‘ām want of appetite

تشه tašahhin greed, avidity, cupidity, craving, desire

اشتهاء ištihā’ greed, craving, desire, dent wish, longing, yearning. eagerness, passion, carnal appetite, lust; appetite

مشه mušahhin stimulating the appetite, appetizing; مشهيات appetizers, relishes, hors d’oeuvres

مشته muštahin covetous, greedy, avid, craving, desirous, lustful

مشتهى muštahan desirable; desired, welcome, agreeable, pleasant; (pl. مشتهيات muštahayāt) that which is coveted, object of desire

شاء šā’ (coll.; n. un. شاة šāh) pl. شواه šiwāh, شياه šiyāh sheep; ewe

شوال šuwāl, šiwāl pl. -āt (large) sack

1 شاب (شوب ) šāba u (šaub, شياب šiyāb) to mix, blend (هـ ب s.th. with); to adulterate, vitiate, contaminate, spoil, corrupt, pollute, tarnish, sully, stain, spot (هـ s.th.); to mix, blend, intermix (هـ with) |لا تشوبه شائبة blameless, flawless, unblemished, immaculate

شوب šaub mixture; tarnishing, sullying, roiling, rendering turbid; impairment, blemish, flaw; hot wind

شائبة šā’iba pl. شوائب šawā’ib dirt, stains, spot, flaw, blemish, defect, fault; suspicion, reason for suspicion, suspicious fact

مشوب mašūb mixed; adulterated, vitiated| مشوب بالهموم troubled with worries

2 شابة look up alphabetically

شوبق šaubaq pl. شوابق šawābiq2 rolling pin

شوبك šaubak: pl. شوابك šawābik2 rolling pin

1 شوح II (eg.) to grill, broil, roast (هـ s.th.)

2 شوح šūḥ (coll.; n. un. ة ) fir, sapin

3 شوحة šūḥa kite (zool.)

4 مشاحة see شح

شور II to make a sign, beckon, signal, wink, blink (الى to s.o.); to point out (الى s.th.), point (الى at) III to ask s.o.’s (ه ) advice, seek s.o.’s (ه ) advice, consult (ه s.o.); to consult, take counsel (ه with s.o.),

شاور نفسه (nafsahū) to take counsel with o.s., reflect, bethink o.s. IV to make a sign, beckon, signal, wink, blink (ل or الى to s.o.), motion (ل or الى s.o., ب to do s.th.); to ask, invite, urge (الى s.o.); to point, allude (الى to), hint (الى at), indicate, point out (على or الى s.th.), call s.o.’s (ل ) attention to (على ); to advice (ب على s.o. of s.th., على ان s.o. to do s.th.), suggest (ب على to s.o. s.th., على ان to s.o. to do s.th.), command, order ان or على ب s.o. to do s.th.); to state, indicate (ب s.th.) | ما يشار اليه بالبنان (yušāru, banān) that which is pointed at with the finger tips, i.e., s.th. very remarkable, s.th. outstanding; ما اشار بطرف (bi-ṭarfin) he did not bat an eye VI to take counsel, deliberate, consult (في مع with s.o. about) X to ask for advice (ه s.o.), take counsel (ه with s.o.), consult (ه s.o.)

شارة šāra pl. -āt sign, token, distinguishing mark, badge; guile, outward appearance | شارة الصليب sign of the cross

شورى šūrā consultation, deliberation, taking counsel; counsel; advice | مجلس الشورى majlis š-šūrā and مجلس شورى الدولة m. š. d-daula state council

شوري šūrī consultative, advisory

مشوار mišwār pl. مشاوير mašāwīr2 errand; O stroke, (of an internal-combustion engine; techn.) | محرك ثنائي المشوار muḥarrik tunā’ī l-m. two-cycle engine; محرك رباعي المشوار (rubā‘ī l-m.) four-cycle engine

مشورة mašwara, mašūra pl. -āt consultation, deliberation, conference; counsel, advice, suggestion

مشاورة mušāwara pl. -āt consultation, deliberation, conference

اشارة išāra pl. -āt sign, motion, nod, wink, wave; gesture; signal; indication; allusion, hint, intimation; symbolic expression; (silent) reminder; advice, counsel, suggestion; instruction, order, command | اشارة برقية (barqīya) telegram, wire, dispatch, cable(gram); اشارة تلغرافية telegram, wire; اشارة الخطر i. al-kaṭar air-raid warning, alert; اشارة الصليب sign of the cross (Chr.); اشارة ضبط الوقت i. ḍabt al-waqt (radio) time signal; اشارة لا سلكية (lā-silkīya) radio message; محطة الإشارات maḥaṭṭat al-i. signal post; اسم الإشارة ism al-i. demonstrative pronoun; وحدات الإشارة waḥdat al-i. signal corps units (mil.); رهن اشارته (rahna) at s.o.’s beck and call, at s.o.’s disposal

اشاري išārī (mil.) signalman, member of the signal corps (Eg. 1939)

اشارجي išargī (mil.) signalman, member of the signal corps (Eg.)

تشاور tašāwur joint consultation, deliberation (مع with)

استشارة istišāra pl. -āt a seeking of advice, consultation; guidance, advice (one receives)

استشاري istišārī consultative, advisory

مشاور mušāwar adviser, counselor, consultant

مشير mušīr indicative (الى of); adviser, counselor, consultant; field marshal (Eg.; 1933); Fleet Admiral (Eg. 1939)

المشار اليه al-mušār ilaihi the aforementioned, the aforesaid, the said

مستشار mustašār adviser, counselor, consultant, councilor; chancellor; approx.: justice (title; Eg.) | مستشار السفارة counselor of embassy; مستشار المفوضية m. al-mufawwaḍīya counselor of legation

دار المستشارية dār al-mustašārīya office of the chancellor, chancellery

1 شورب šaurab flycatcher (zool.)

2 شوربة šōrba (eg.), šōraba (syr.) and شوربا soup

شورت (Engl.) šort short, short feature (motion pictures)

شورمة

اشوس ašwas2, f. شوساء šausā’2, pl. شوس šūs, اشاوس ašāwis2 proud; bold, audacious, daring, venturesome | شوس الحرب š. al-ḥarb war heroes

1 شوش II to muddle, confuse, confound, jumble (هـ s.th.), disturb (على or هـ s.th.), complicate (هـ s.th.) V to be confused, confounded, muddled, jumbled, deranged, disturbed; to feel indisposed, be ill

شاش šāš muslin; white cloth

شاشة šāša white cloth; الشاشة aš-šāša and الشاشة البيضاء (baiḍā’) (motion picture) screen

شاشية šāšiya, šāšīya pl. شواشي šawāšī a kind of headgear, cap, skullcap

شوش šūš Maria Theresa dollar (Nejd)

شوشة šūša tuft of hair, lock; crest (of birds)

شواش šawāš confusion, muddle, (state of) disorder, disturbance, derangement (e.g., of the mind)

شواشي šawāšī pl. شواشية šawāšīya a maker of šāšiya’s (see above)

تشويش tašwīš confusion, confounding, muddling; disturbance, derangement; ailment

مشوش mušawwaš muddled, jumbled, befuddled, confused; disturbed, deranged (e.g., of a sensorial function); ailing, ill | مشوش الفكر m. al-fikr bewildered, confused, baffled

2 شاوش pl. شواش look up alphabetically

3 شاويش look up alphabetically

شوشبرك šušbarak (eg.) small pastry stuffed with meat and served with milk rice

شوط šauṭ pl. شوط ašwāṭ to a goal; state, phase; round, game, half, course (in sports and games); goal, aim |قطع شوطا كبيرا (بعيدا) في التقدم (الرقي ) (taqaddum, ruqiy) and قطع في ميدان الرقي اشواطا (maidān r-ruqīy) to make good progress or headway, advance in great strides, قطع اشواطا شاسعة do.; يفوقه اشواطا (yafūquhū) he surpasses him by far

شواظ šuwāẓ flame; fire, fervor, ardor, passion

2 شوف II to polish (هـ s.th.); to adorn, deck out (ها a woman) V to look out expectantly, longingly (الى for), look forward (الى to), expect, anticipate (الى s.th.)

شوف šauf harrow

الشوف aš-šūf name of an administrative district of Lebanon

شوفة šaufa (colloq.) sight, spectacle, view

شوفان šūfān oats

شاق (شوق ) šāqa u (šauq) to please delight (ه s.o.), give joy (ه to s.o.); to fill (ه s.o.) with longing, craving, desire, arouse longing, craving, desire (ه in s.o.) II to fill (ه s.o.) with longing, craving, desire, arouse longing, craving, desire (ه in s.o.) V and VIII to long, yearn (الى or ه, هـ for), crave, covet, desire ardently (الى or هـ s.th.)

شوق šauq pl. اشواق ašwāq longing, yearning, craving, desire, wish

شيق šayyiq longing, yearning, craving, desirous, covetous; brilliant, gorgeous, splendid

تشويق tašwīq arousing of desire, of longing; fascination, thrilling, awakening of excitement, of eagerness

تشوق tašawwuq longing, yearning, desire, inclination, craving, eagerness

اشتياق ištiyāq longing, yearning, desire, inclination, craving, eagerness

شائق šā’iq arousing longing, stimulating desire; brilliant, gorgeous, splendid, beautiful

مشوق mušawwiq arousing desire or longing; thrilling, exciting, fascinating, absorbing, stimulating, stirring, attractive, interesting; -- mušawwaq filled with longing (الى for), desirous, covetous (الى of)

مشتاق muštāq longing, yearning, craving, desirous, covetous

شاك (شوك ) (šauk) to sting, prick, hurt, injure, pierce (ب ه s.o. with a thorn, a needle, and the like) II to be thorny; to stud (. s.th.) with thorns or spikes; to sting, prick, hurt, injure, pierce (ب ه s.o. with a thorn, with a needle) IV to sting, prick, hurt, injure

شوك šauk (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. اشواك ašwāk thorns, spikes, pricks, prickles, spines; fishbone; forks | على الشوك on tenterhooks, on pins and needles

شوكة šauka (n. un.) thorn, spike, prick, prickle, spine, sting, point; tine, prong; spur (of a rooster); fork; fishbone; furor of fighting, bravura, bravery, valor, verve, dash, élan; might, power

شوكي šaukī thorny, spiky, prickly, spiny; spinal | الطين الشوكي (ṭīn) fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Haw.; bot.); الحبل الشوكي (ḥabl) spinal cord; الحمى الشوكية المخية (ḥummā, mukkīya) cerebrospinal meningitis (med.); العمود الشوكي (‘amūd) vertebral column, backbone; spine; النخاع الشوكي (nukā‘) spinal cord

شوك šawik thorny, spiky, prickly, spiny

شائك šā’ik thorny, spiky, prickly, spiny; delicate, ticklish, critical, difficult | سلك شائك (silk) pl. اسلاك شائكة barbed wire

شوكران šaukarān poison hemlock (Conium maculatum; bot.)

1 شال (شول ) šāla u (šaul) to rise, be raised, elevated; to raise, lift (هـ or ب s.th.); to carry (هـ or ب s.th.) | شالت نعامته (na‘āmatuhū) he went away, departed; he died, be is dead II to become sparse, scarce, short in supply III to attack, assail (ه s.o.) IV to raise, lift (هـ s.th.); to carry (هـ s.th.)

شول šawil nimble, adroit, swift, quick, expeditious (at work)

شوال šawwāl pl. -āt شواويل šawāwīl2, الشوال Shawwal, name of the tenth month of the Muslim year

مشال mašāl carrying, carriage, conveyance, transportation (of loads); porterage, carrying charges

2 شال pl. شيلان look up alphabetically

3 شوال look up alphabetically

شولقى šaulaqī person with a sweet tooth

شولم šaulam darnel (Lolium temulentum; bot.); a variety of vetch

1 شام , شامي pl. شوام, مشوم see شأم

2 شومة šuma stick, cudgel

شون II to garnmer, store (هـ s.th., esp. grain)

شون šūna pl. -āt, شون šuwan (eg.) storehouse, granary, shed, barn

شوندر šawandar white beet, chard

1 شوه šawiha a (šawah) and شاه šāha u (شوه šauh) to be or become ugly, misshapen, deformed, defaced, disfigured, distorted, malformed II to disfigure, deform, deface, distort, mar, mutilate (ه s.o., هـ s.th., esp. the face); to revile, slander, defame (ه s.o.); to jam (اذاعة a broadcast) | شوه وجه الحقيقة (wajah l-ḥ) to distort the truth; شوه وجه وظيفته to disgrace one’s profession V = I

شوه šawāh ugliness, misshapenness, malformation, deformity, disfigurement, distortion, perversion

اشوه ašwah2, f. شوهاء šauhā’2, pl. شوه šūh misshapen, malformed, ugly, disfigured, deformed, disfeatured, defaced; distorted, perverted

تشويه tašwīh deformation, disfigurement, defacement, mutilation; defamation; crippledness

تشوه tašawwuh ugliness, misshapenness, malformation, deformity, disfigurement, distortion, perversion

شائه šā’ih misshapen, malformed, ugly, disfigured, deformed, disfeatured, defaced; distorted, perverted

مشوه mušawwah disfigured, defaced, deformed; mutilated, maimed; misshapen, malformed, ugly; distorted, perverted | مشوه الحرب m. al-ḥarb disabled (inactive service); disabled veteran

2 شاه look up alphabetically

3 شاة (n. un.) see شوء

شواه pl. of شاء see شوء

شوى šawā i (شي šayy) to broil, grill, rout (هـ meat)

شواء šiwā’ broiled, or grilled, meat, and the like | شواء السجق š. sujuq grilled sausage

شوى šawīy broiled, grilled, rosted

شواة šawāh pl. شوى šawan scalp

شواية šawāya gridiron, grill

مشواه mišwāh pl. مشاو mašāwin gridiron, grill

1 شى see شوى

2 شية , شيات see وشي

شاء (شيأ ) šā’a a (مشيئة mašī’a) to want; to wish (هـ s.th., ان that) | ان شاء الله (in) God willing; it is to be hoped; I (we) hope so; ما شاء الله whatever (howsoever, how long soever) God intend (used to express an indefinite quantity, amount, number, or period of time); various, sundry, all kinds of, God knows what; also, exclamation of surprise: amazing! that’s right! good! bravo! الى ما شاء الله forever and ever, for all time and time to come; لفق ما شاء له التلفيق (laffaqa, talfīqu) to fabricate the moot outrageous lies

شيء šai’ pl. اشياء ašyā’2 thing; something; (with neg.) nothing | شيء من some

a little, a certain (amount of), a considerable ...; شيء من النشاط (našāṭ) some activity; شيء من القلق (qalaq) some uneasiness, some anxiety; بدون شيء من الجهد (jahd) without any effort at all; هذا شيء وذاك شيء آخر (ākar) this and that are two entirely different things (or matters); في الأمر شيء there is s.th. wrong, there is a fly in the ointment; بعض الشيء ba‘ḍ š. to a certain extent, a little, somewhat; بشيء, في شيء in negative sentences: not in any way; in no way, by no means, not at all, not in the least; على شيء كثير من very, extremely, e.g., على شيء كثير من البساطة (basāṭa) very simple; الشيء الكثير the most; اشبه شيء ب (ašbahu šai’in) very much like ...; شيئا بعد شيء or شيئا فشيئا (fa-šai’an) bit by bit, one after the other, by and by, gradually; لا شيء a nothing, nil, nonentity; nothing (in sport scoring); اللاشيء the nothing; لا شيء nothing (as object); لا غير الشيء اليسير (gair š-šai’ l-yasīr) only very little; ليس بشيء it is nothing, it is of no consequence; ليس هذا في شيء من ذلك this has absolutely nothing to do with that

شيئي šai’ī objective, factual

لاشيئية lā-šai’īya nonexistence, nothingness, nihility, nullity

شيئ šuyyai’ a little thing, trifle

شوية šuwayya (colloq.) a little, a bit, somewhat

مشيئة mašī’a volition, will; wish, desire |بمشيئة الله God willing

2 شاب (شيب ) šāba i (šaib, شيبة šaiba, مشيب mašīb) to become white-haired, gray-haired; to turn white or gray (hair); to grow old, to age; to make white-haired; to bleach (هـ s.th.) II to make (ه s.o.) white-haired, cause s.o.’s (ه ) hair to turn white (grief) IV = II

شيب šaib grayness of the hair, gray or white hair; old age

شيبة šaiba a variety of Artemisia (Artemisia arborescens L.; bot.)

اشيب ašyab2, f. شيباء šaibā’2, pl. شيب šīb white, gray (hair); white-haired, gray-haired (person); old, aged; old man

مشيب mašīb grayness of the hair, gray or white hair; old age

شائب šā’ib white, gray (hair); white-haired, gray-haired (person); old, aged; old man

2 شابة look up alphabetically

شيت šīt pl. شيوتات šuyūtāt chintz. Printed calico (eg.)

1 شيح II (tun.) to dry, blot (هـ s.th.) IV to turn away, avert (ب the eyes, one’s face, عن from)

شياح šayyāḥ blotting paper

2 شيح šīḥ an oriental variety of wormwood (bot.)

شاخ (شيخ ) šāka i (شيخ šayak, شيوخة šuyūka, شيخوخة šaikūka) to age, grow old; to attain a venerable age

شيخ šaik, pl. شيوخ šuyūk, اشياخ ašyāk, مشيخة mašyaka, مشايخ mašāyik2, مشائخ mašā’ik2 an elderly, venerable gentleman; old man; elder; chief, chieftain, sheik, patriarch, head (of a tribe); title of the ruler of anyone of the sheikdoms along the Persian Gulf; title of native scholars trained in the traditional sciences such as clerical dignitaries, members of a religious order, profesors of spiritual institutions of higher learning, etc.; master; master of an order (Sufism); senator (parl.) | الشيخ ارز اسمر (aruzz asmar), الشيخ ارز ابيض (abyaḍ) (eg.) popular names for certain rice dishes; شيخ البحر š. al-baḥr sea calf (zool.); شيخ البلد š. al-balad chief of a village, village mayor; شيخ السجادة š. as-sajjāda title of the leaders of certain dervish orders in their capacity of inheritors of the founder’s prayer rug; شيخ الإسلام š. al-islām sheikh ul-Islam, formerly, esp. in medieval Egypt, title of the Grand Mufti, the spiritual head of Islam, later being bestowed more and more exclusively upon the Mufti of Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire; title of the chief mufti in Tunisia; شيخ المدينة inspector of police (Magr.); مشيخة الجامع الأعظم professoriate, or faculty, of the Great Mosque in Tunis; الشيوخ (pl. of majesty) title of a ruler among the inhabitants of Nejd; مجلس الشيوخ majlis aš-š. senate

شيخة šaika pl. -āt an old, or elderly, woman, a matron

شياخة šiyāka position, or dignity, of a sheik

شيخوخة šaikūka old age, senility

شيخوخي šaikūkī senile, characteristic of old age

مشيخة mašyaka pl. -āt, مشايخ mašāyik2 office, or dignity, of a sheik; sheikdom (in general, specif., anyone of the semi-independent territories on the Persian Gulf); an administrative subdivision (Tun.); professoriate (e.g., of Al Azhar)

شاد (شيد ) šāda i (شيد šaid) to erect, set up, construct, build (هـ an edifice, and the like) II = I; IV = I; به or اشاد بذكره (bi-dikrihī) to celebrate, praise, commend s.o. or s.th., speak in glowing terms of s.o. or s.th.

شيد šīd plaster (of a wall); plaster of Paris; mortar

تشييد tašyīd erection, setting up, construction, building (of an edifice)

اشادة išāda praise, commendation, extolment (ب of)

مشيد mušayyad high, lofty, imposing (of a structure)

شيراز šīrāz2 Shiraz (city in SW Iran)

شيرج šīraj sesame oil

شيرة šīra a refreshment (made of fruit juice)

شيزوفرانيا šīzofrāniyā schizophrenia

1 شيش šīš foil, rapier; jalousie, Venetian blind | معلم الشيش mu‘allim aš-š. fencing instructor; لعبة الشيش la‘bat aš-š. fencing, swordplay

2 شيشة šīša bottle of the narghile; narghile, hookah

شاط (شيط ) šāṭa i (شيط šaiṭ) to burn (esp. food) II to burn slightly, singe, scorch, sear (هـ s.th.) IV = II; V = I; X استشاط غضبا (gaḍaban) to be or become fuming with rage, flare up, fly off the handle

شيطان II tašaiṭana to behave like a devil

شيطان šaiṭān pl. شياطين šayāṭīn2 Shaitan, Satan, devil, fiend

شيطاني šaiṭānī satanic, devilish, fiendish; demonic, demoniac, hellish, infernal

شيطنة šaiṭana devilry, villainy, dirty trick

شاع (شيع ) šā‘a i (شيع šai‘, شيوع šuyū‘) to spread, be divulged, become known, become public (news); to spread (out), diffuse (في over); to fill, pervade, dominate (في s.o., s.th.; of a feeling); شاع في to be generally attributable, be generally applicable to s.th.; شاع به to spread, divulge, publicize, circulate s.th.; make s.th. known, bring s.th. to public notice II to see (ه s.o.) off, escort, accompany (ه s.o.); to bid farewell (ه to s.o.); to pay (ه the deceased) the last honors; to send (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to adhere (هـ to a faction) | شيعت الجنازة šuyyi‘at il-janāzatu the deceased was escorted to his final resting place, the funeral took place III to follow (على ه s.o. in), adapt o.s. (على ه to s.o. in); to conform, fall in (على ه with s.o. in); to side (على هـ, ه with s.o., with s.th. in), take sides (على هـ, ه for s.o., for s.th. in) IV to spread, divulge, publish, publicize, make known, bring to public notice, circulate (ب or هـ s.th.) V to side (ل في with s.o., with s.th. in), take sides (ل في for s.o., for s.th. in), join (ل s.o., s.th., a faction), make common cause, hold (ل with s.o.); to become a Shiite; to pretend to be a Shiite VI to come to an agreement (على in, about)

شيعة šī‘a pl. شيع šiya‘ followers, adherents, disciples, faction, party, sect; الشيعة the faction of Ali, the Shiah, the Shiites (that branch of the Muslims who recognize Ali, the Prophet’s son-in-law, as his rightful successor), pl. اشياع ašyā‘ adherents, followers, partisans

شيعي šī‘ī Shiitic, (pl. -ūn) Shiite

شياع šiyā‘ community (of property) (jur.)

شيوع šuyū‘ publicity, spread, circulation (of news) | على الشيوع in common, jointly, in joint possession

شيوعي šuyū‘ī communistic, communist; (pl. -ūn) a communist

شيوعية šuyū‘īya communism

تشييع tašyī‘: تشييع الجنازة ṯ al-janāza funeral, burial

مشايعة mušāya‘a partisanship, partiality

اشاعة išā‘a spreading, publication, circulation (of news); rumor; news, information

O اشاعية išā‘īya collectivism (pol.)

تشيع tašayyu‘ partisanship, partiality, bias (ل for)

شائع šā’i‘ widespread, (well-)known, public; general, universal; common, joint | الشائع ان it is rumored that ...; شائع الذيوع widely known, widespread, common; شائع الاستعمال in general use, commonly used, generally accepted; ملك شائع (milk) joint property

شائعة šā’i‘a pl. -āt, شوائع šawā’i‘ rumor

مشايع mušāyi‘ partial, adherent, partisan

مشاع mušā‘ widespread; (well-)known, public; general, universal; common, joint; joint (or collective) ownership, joint tenancy (Isl. Law); public property, public domain

متشيع mutašayyi‘ partial; partisan

مشتاع muštā‘ partner, co-partner, co-owner

شاف II to cut up, chop or slice (هـ fruit)

اشياف ašyāf (pl.) cuts, slices

شيون šīfūn chiffon (fabric)

شيق see شوق

1 شيك (Fr.) šīk chic

اشيك ašyak2 very chic

2 شيك (Fr. cheque) šēk, šīk pl. -āt check | شيك السياحة traveler's check

شيكوريا (It. cicoria) šīkōriyā chicory

شيكولاته šīkōlāta (syr.) chocolate

1 شال (شيل ) šāla , to carry, convey, transport (هـ s.th.); to raise, elevate, lift (هـ s.th.)

شيلة šaila pl. -āt load, burden

شيالة šiyāla carrying, carriage, conveyance, transportation (of loads); porterage, carrying charges

شيال šayyāl pl. -ūn, شيالة šayyāla porter, carrier

شيالة šayyāla suspender

مشال mašāl carrying, carriage, conveyance, transportation (of loads); porterage, carrying charges

2 شال pl. شيلان look up alphabetically

شيلام šailām darnel (Lalium temulentum; bot.); a variety of vetch

شيلمان šīlmān (coll.; n. un. ة ) steel girders (ir.)

شيلي šīlī Chile

شام (شيم ) šāma i to look out (هـ for), be on the lookout, watch; to expect (هـ s.th.), hope (هـ for)

شيمة šīma pl. شيم šiyam nature, temper, disposition, character; habit, custom, practice

شامة šāma pl. -āt, شام šām mole, nevus, birthmark

شيمية šīmīya pl. شيامي šayāmī (eg.) vortex, whirlpool, eddy

مشيمة mašīma pl. مشيم mašīm, مشايم mašāyim2 placenta

1 شان (شين ) šāna i (شين šain) to disfigure, disfeature, mar, .dishonor, disgrace (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) | شان سمعته (sum‘atahū) to detract from s.o.’s good reputation II = I

شين šain disfigurement, marring, dishonoring, disgracing; disgrace, shame

شائن šā’in dishonorable, scandalous, disgraceful

مشين mušayyin dishonorable, scandalous, disgraceful

1 شين šīn name of the letter ش

شاي look up alphabetically

شياخ pl. of شاء , see شوء