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Publisher: www.data.nur.nu

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


ظاء ẓā’ name of the letter ظ

ظئر ẓi’r wet nurse

ظبي ẓaby pl. ظباء ẓibā’ gazelle (Gazella dorcas)

ظبية ẓabya pl. ẓabayāt female gazelle

ظر ẓirr sharp-edged stone, flint

ظربان ẓaribān, ẓirbān pl. ظرابين ẓarābīn2, ظرابي ẓarābīy polecat, fitchew

ظرف ẓarufa u (ẓarf, ظرافة ẓarāfa) to be charming, chic, nice, elegant, neat; to be witty, full of esprit II to adorn, embellish, polish (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), impart charm (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.); to put (هـ s.th.) into an envelope, cover or wrap, to envelop, wrap up, cover (هـ s.th.) V to affect charm or elegance, display affectedness; to show o.s. elegant, witty, full of esprit VI = V; I to deem or find (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) elegant, charming, adroit, witty, etc.

ظرف ẓarf elegance, gracefulness, grace, charm; cleverness, resourcefulness; wittiness, esprit; -- (pl. ظروف ẓurūf) vessel, receptacle, container; covering, wrap, cover; (letter) envelope; capsule, case; (gram.) adverb denoting place or time; pl. ظروف circumstances, conditions | بظرف or في ظرف within, in a (given) period of; ظروف مخففة (mukaffifa) and ظروف التخفيف extenuating circumstances; ظروف مشددة (mušaddida) aggravating circumstances; بحسب الظروف bi-ḥasabi aẓ-ẓ. according to circumstances, depending on the circumstances

ظرفي ẓarfī adverbial | بينة ظرفية (bayyina) or دليل ظرفي dalīl circumstantial evidence

ظريف ẓarīf pl. ظرفاء ẓurafā’2, f. ظرائف ẓarā’if elegant, graceful, charming; full of esprit, witty, nice, fine

ظرافة ẓarāfa elegance, gracefulness, grace, charm; esprit, wittiness

تظريف taẓrīf wittiness, brilliant and witty manner

تظرف taẓarruf gracefulness, grace, elegance, charm, wittiness, esprit

مظروف maẓrūf pl. مظاريف maẓārīf2 envelope

متظرف mutaẓarrif elegant, dandy, fop

مستظرف mustaẓraf elegant | اصناف مستظرفة luxury articles, fancy goods

ظعن ẓa‘ana a (ẓa‘n) to move away, leave, depart

ظعن ẓa‘n departure, start, journey, trek (esp. of a caravan)

ظعينة ẓa‘īna pl. ظعن ẓu‘un, اظعان aẓ‘ān camel-borne sedan chair for women; a woman in such a sedan

ظاعن ẓā‘in ephemeral, transient, transitory

ظفر ẓafira a (ẓafar) to be successful, succeed, be victorious, be triumphant; to gain a victory (على or ب over), conquer, vanquish, defeat, overcome, surmount, overwhelm (على or ب s.o., s.th.), get the better (على or ب of s.o., of s.th.); to seize (على or ب s.o., s.th.), take posession (على or ب of s.o., of s.th.); to get, obtain, attain, achieve, gain, win (على or ب s.th.) II to grant victory (على or ب ه to s.o. over), make (ه s.o.) triumph, render (ه s.o.) victorious (على or ب over) IV = II; VI to ally, enter into an alliance or confederacy, join forces (على against)

ظفر ẓufur, ẓufr, ẓifr pl. اظفار aẓfār, اظافر aẓāfir2, اظافير aẓāfīr2 nail, fingernail; toenail; claw, talon | من (منذ) نعومة اظفاره from (the days of) his earliest youth, since his earliest youth or adolescence; ناعم الظفر youthful, of tender age

ظفر ẓafar victory, triumph

ظفر ẓafir victorious, successful, triumphant; (pl. ظفران ) young man, youth (ḥij.)

اظفور uẓfūr pl. اظافير aẓāfīr2 nail, fingernail, toenail; claw, talon

ظافر ẓāfir victorious, triumphant; successful; victor, conqueror

مظفر muẓaffar victorious, successful, triumphant

ظل ẓalla (1st pers. perf. ẓaliltu) a (ẓall. ظلول ẓulūl) to be; to become, turn into, grow into; (with foll. imperf., participle or على :) to continue to do s.th., go on doing s.th., persevere in doing s.th.,

stick to s.th., remain, persist in, e.g., ظل يسكن البيت (yaskunu l-baita) he continued to live in the house; ظل صامتا he remained silent, persisted in his silence; ظل على موقف (mauqif) to persist in a standpoint or attitude II to shade, overshadow (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), cast a shadow (هـ, ه over s.o., over s.th.); to screen, shelter, protect (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to preserve, guard, maintain, keep up

(هـ s.th.) IV = II; V to be shaded (ب by), sit in the shadow (ب of) X = V; to protect o.s. from the sun (ب by or through s.th.), hide in the shadow (ب of s.th.), seek the shadow (ب of s.th.); to place s.o. under the protection or patronage of s.o. (ب ), seek shelter or refuge with s.o. (ب ), be under the patronage or protection of s.o. (ب )

ظل ẓill pl. ظلال ẓilāl, ظلول ẓulūl, اظلال aẓlāl shadow, shade, umbra; shelter, protection, patronage; shading, hub; slightest indication, semblance, trace, glimpse (of s.th.); tangent (geom.) | في ظل (with foll. genit.) under the protection or patronage of, under the auspices of; under the sovereignty of; تحت ظل under the protection or patronage of, under the auspices of; ثقيل الظل insufferable, repugnant (of a person); خفيف الظل likable, nice (of a person); استثقل ظله (istatqala) to dislike s.o., find s.o. in sufferable, unbearable, a bore; تقلص (قلص) ظله taqallaṣa ẓilluhū his prestige or authority faded, diminished; it decreased, diminished, dwindled away, waned

ظلة ẓulla pl. ظلل ẓulal awning. marquee, canopy, sheltering hut or tent, shelter; shack, shanty; kiosk, stall; beach chair

ظليل ẓalīl shady, shaded, umbrageous

مظلة miẓalla, maẓalla pl. -āt, مظال umbrella, parasol, sunshade; lamp shade; awning; O veranda, porch | عيد المظلة ‘īd al-m. Feast of Tabernacles, Sukkoth (Jud.); مظلة واقية (wāqiya) parachute; مظلة هابطة do.; جندي المظلة jundī al-m. pl. جنود المظلات (المظلة ) paratrooper

مظلى miẓallī pl. -ūn paratrooper; pl. paratroops, airborne troops

مظلل muẓallil shady, shadowy, umbrageous, shading, causing shadow

مظل muẓill shady, shadowy, umbrageous, shading, causing shadow

ظلع ẓala‘a a (ẓal‘) to limp, walk with a limp, walk lamely

ظلع ẓali‘ lame

ظلف ẓilf pl. ظلوف ẓulūf, اظلاف cloven hoof

ظلم ẓalama i (ẓalm, ẓulm) to do wrong or evil; to wrong, treat unjustly, ill-treat, oppress, beset, harm, suppress, tyrannize (ه s.o.), commit outrage (ه upon s.o.); to act the tyrant, act tyrannically (ه toward or against s.o.); -- ẓalima a and IV to be or grow dark, dusky, gloomy, murky, tenebrous, darken, darkle V to complain (من of, about) VII and VIII اظلم iẓẓalama to suffer injustice, be wronged

ظلم ẓulm wrong; iniquity; injustice, inequity, unfairness; oppression, repression, suppression, tyranny; ظلما ẓulman unjustly, wrongfully

ظلمة ẓulma pl. -āt, ẓulumāt, ẓulamāt, ظلم ẓulam darkness, duskiness, gloom, murkiness | بحر الظلمات baḥr aẓ-ẓ. the Atlantic Ocean

ظلماء ẓalmā’2 darkness | ليلة ظلماء (laila) pitch-dark night

ظلام ẓalām darkness, duskiness, gloom, murkiness

ظلام ẓalām evildoer, villain, malefactor, rogue, scoundrel, tyrant, oppressor

ظليم ẓalīm pl. ظلمان ẓilmān male ostrich

ظلامة ẓulāma pl. -āt misdeed, wrong, iniquity, injustice, outrage

ظلامة aẓlam2 darker, duskier, gloomier, murkier; a viler, more infamous, more heinous villain

مظلمة maẓlima pl. مظالم maẓālim2 misdeed, wrong, iniquity. act of injustice, outrage

اظلام iẓlām darkness, gloom

ظالم ẓālim pl. -ūn, ظلام ẓullām, ظلمة ẓalama unjust, unfair, iniquitous, tyrannical, oppressing; tyrant, oppressor; offender, transgressor, sinner

مظلوم maẓlūm wronged, ill-treated, unjustly treated, tyrannized

مظلم muẓlim dark, dusky, gloomy, tenebrous, murky

ظمئ ẓami’a a (ظمأ ẓama’, ظماء ẓamā’, ظماءة ẓamā’a) to thirst, be thirsty II to make (ه s.o.) thirst

ظمء ẓim’, ظمأ and ظماء ẓamā’ thirst

ظمآن ẓam’ān, f. ظمأى ẓam’ā thirsty

ظامئ ẓāmi’ thirsty

ظن ẓanna (1st pers. perf. ẓanantu) u (ẓann) to think, believe, assume, presume, suppose (هـ s.th.); to bold, think, deem, consider (هـ or ه ه s.o. to be s.o. or s.th.; هـ هـ s.th. to be s.th.); to suspect (ب or ه s.o.) | ظنه يفعل to think s.o. capable of doing s.th., believe of s.o. that he would do s.th.; لا اظن احدا ينكر (aḥadan yunkiru) I don’t think that anyone can deny; لا اظنك تخالفني (tukālifunī) I don’t believe that you can contradict me; ظن فيه القدرة على (qudrata) he considered him capable of ...; ظن به الظنون (ẓunūna) to think ill of s.o., have a low opinion of s.o.; ظن به الغباء (gabā’a) to suspect s.o. of stupidity IV to suspect (ه s.o.) V to surmise, form conjectures

ظن ẓann pl. ظنون ẓunūn opinion, idea, assumption, view, belief, supposition; doubt, uncertainty | حسن الظن ḥusn aẓ-ẓ. good opinion; سوء الظن sū’ aẓ-ẓ. low opinion, distrust; في اغلب الظن or في اكثر الظن

most probably, most likely; اكثر الظن ان it is very likely that ...; ظنا منه ان (ẓannan) since he believed that ...; ما ظنك ب (ẓannuka) what is one to think of ...; حسن ظنه ب (ḥasuna ẓannuhū) to have a good opinion of s.o., think well of s.o.; احسن الظن ب (aḥsana ẓ-ẓanna) do.; ساء به ظنا to have a low opinion of s.o., think ill of s.o.; اساء الظن ب (asā’a) do.

ظني ẓannī resting on mere assumption, presumptive, supposed, hypothetical

ظنة ẓinna pl. ظنن ẓinan suspicion, misgiving

ظنين ẓanīn suspicious, suspect(ed); unreliable, untrustworthy (على with regard to); a suspect

ظنون ẓanūn suspicious, distrustful

مظنة maẓinna pl. مظان maẓānn2 time or place where one expects s.th.; (with foll. genit. or suffix) place where s.th. or s.o. is presumably to be found, its most likely location, the most likely place for it (or him) to be; suspicion, misgiving | التمسته في مظانه I looked for him where I expected to find him, where he presumably was; في غير مظانه in places where he couldn’t possibly be

مظنون maẓnūn supposed, presumed, assumed; suspicious, suspect(ed)

ظنبوب ẓanbūb pl. ظنابيب ẓanābīb2 shinbone

ظهر ẓahara a (ظهور ẓuhūr) to be or become visible, perceptible, distinct, manifest, clear, apparent, evident, obvious (ل to s.o.), come to light, appear, manifest itself, come into view, show, emerge, crop up; to appear, seem (ل to s.o.); to break out (disease); to come out; to appear, be published (book, periodical); to arise, result (من from); to ascend, climb, mount (هـ s.th.); to gain the upperhand, to triumph (على over), get the better (على of), overcome, overwhelm, conquer, vanquish (على s.o.); to get (على s.th.) into one’s power; to gain or have knowledge (على of), come to know (على s.th.), become acquainted (على with); to know (على s.th.); to learn, receive information (على about); to be cognizant (على of); to learn (على s.th.) II to endorse (هـ a bill of exchange) III to help, assist, aid, support (ه s.o.) IV to make visible, make apparent, show, demonstrate, present, produce, bring to light, expose, disclose, divulge, reveal, manifest, announce, proclaim, make known, expound, set forth (هـ s.th.); to develop (هـ film; phot.); to grant victory (على ه to s.o. over), render victorious (على ه s.o. over); to acquaint (على ه s.o. with s.th.), initiate (على ه s.o. into s.th.), give knowledge or information (على ه to s.o. about), inform, enlighten (على ه s.o. about), explain (على ه to s.o. s.th.); to let (ه s.o.) in on s.th. (على ), make (ه s.o.) realize (على s.th.); to show, reveal (على ه to s.o. s.th.); to articulate fully VI to manifest, display, show outwardly, exhibit, parade (ب s.th.); to feign, affect, pretend, simulate, (ب s.th.), act as if, make out as if (ب ); to demonstrate, make a public demonstration; to help one another, make common cause (على against) X to show, demonstrate, expose (هـ s.th.); to memorize, learn by heart (هـ s.th.); to know by heart (هـ s.th.); to seek help, assistance, or support (ب with), appeal for help, for assistance (ب to س .o.); to overcome, surmount, conquer, vanquish (على s.o., s.th.), have or gain the upperhand (على over), get the better (على of)

ظهر ẓahr cast iron | ظهر الحديد and حديد الظهر see زهر

ظهر ẓahr pl. ظهور ẓuhūr, اظهر aẓhur back; rear, rear part, rear aide, reverse; flyleaf; deck (of a steamer); upper part, top, surface; ظهورات ẓuhūrāt (as a genit.; eg.) pro tempore, provisional, temporary | سلسلة الظهر silsilat aẓ-ẓ. spine, vertebral column; ظهرا لبطن ẓahran li-baṭnin upside down, topsy-turvy; ظهرا على عقب (‘aqib) from the ground up, radically, entirely, completely; بظهر الغيب bi-ẓ. il-gaib behind s.o.’s back, insidiously, treacherously; secretly, stealthily, clandestinely; بين اظهرهم in their midst, among them; من بين اظهرنا from our midst, from among us; على ظهر on (e.g., on the ground, on the water. etc.), على ظهر الباخرة on board the steamer; عن ظهر القلب (ẓ. al-qalb), عن ظهر قلب (ẓ. qalbin) or عن ظهر الغيب (ẓ. il-gaib) by heart; مستخدم ظهورات (mustakdam) temporary employee

ظهر ẓuhr pl. اظهار aẓhār noon, midday; (f.) midday prayer (Isl. Law) | بعد الظهر in the afternoon, p.m.; قبل الظهر in the forenoon, a.m.

ظهري ẓihrī: نبذه (طرحه) ظهريا to pay no attention to s.th., not to care about s.th. disregard s.th.

ظهير ẓahīr helper, assistant, aid, supporter; partisan, backer; back (in soccer); (mor.) decree, edict, ordinance

ظهور ẓuḥūr appearance; visibility, conspicuousness; pomp, splendor, show, ostentation, window-dressing | حب الظهور ḥubb aẓ-ẓ. ostentatiousness, love of pomp; عيد الظهور ‘īd aẓ-ẓ. Epiphany (Chr.)

الظهران aẓ-ẓahrān Dhahran (town in extensive oil region of E Saudi Arabia)

بين ظهرانيهم baina ẓahrānaihim in their midst, among them

ظهارة ẓahāra outside, right side (of a garment); blanket (e.g., of a mule)

ظهيرة ẓahīra noon, midday, midday heat

اظهر aẓhar2 more distinct, more manifest, clearer

مظهر maẓhar pl. مظاهر maẓāhir2 (external) appearance, external make-up, guise; outward bearing, comportment, conduct, behavior; exterior, look(s), sight, view; semblance, aspect; bearer or object of a phenomenon, object in which s.th. manifests itself; phenomenon; symptom (med.); pl. manifestations, expressions | مظاهر الحياة m. al-ḥayāh manifestations of life (biol.); في المظهر externally, in outward appearance, outwardly

تظهير taẓhīr endorsement, transfer by endorsement (of a bill of exchange; com.)

ظهار ẓihār pre-Islamic form of divorce, consisting in the words of repudiation: you are to me like my mother’s back (انت علي كظهر امي anti 'alayya ka-ẓahri ummī)

مظاهرة muẓāhara assistance, support, backing; (pl. -āt) (public) demonstration, rally

اظهار iẓhār presentation, exposition, demonstration, exhibition, disclosure, exposure, revelation, announcement, declaration, manifestation, display; developing (phot.)

تظاهر taẓāhur dissimulation, feigning, pretending, pretension; hypocrisy, dissemblance; (pl. -āt) (public) demonstration, rally

ظاهر ẓāhir (of God) mastering, knowing (على s.th.); visible, perceptible, distinct, manifest, obvious, conspicuous, clear, patent, evident, apparent; external, exterior, outward; seeming, presumed, ostensible, alleged; outside, exterior, surface; outskirts, periphery (of a city); (gram.) substantive; (pl. ظواهر ẓawāhir2) external sense, literal meaning (specif., of Koran and Prophetic Tradition); ظاهرا ẓāhiran externally, outwardly; seemingly, presumedly, ostensibly, allegedly | ظاهر اللفظ ẓ. al-lafẓ the literal meaning of an expression; الظاهر ان it seems, it appears that ...; حسب الظاهر ḥasaba ẓ-ẓ. in outward appearance, externally, outwardly; في الظاهر apparently, obviously, evidently; في الظاهر and في ظاهر الأمر (ẓ. il-amr) seen outwardly, externally; outwardly; من الظاهر from outside

ظاهري ẓāhirī outer, outside, external, exterior, outward; superficial; Zahiritic, interpreting the Koran according to its literal meaning

ظاهرة ẓāhira pl. ظواهر ẓawāhir2 phenomenon, outward sign or token, external symptom or indication | ظواهر الحياة ẓ. al-ḥayāh biological phenomena (biol.); علم الظواهر الجوية ‘ilm aẓ-ẓ. al-gawwīya meteorology; ستر الظواهر (ẓawāhira) to keep up appearances

متظاهر mutaẓāhir pl. -ūn demonstrator

ظاء ẓā’ name of the letter ظ