A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC0%

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC Author:
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
Category: Arabic Language and Literature

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: HANS WEHR
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
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A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

Author:
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

ع

عب ‘abba u (‘abb) to drink in large draughts, gulp down (هـ s.th.); to pour down, toss down (ه a drink); to lap up, drink avidly (هـ s.th.)

عب ‘ubb, ‘ibb breast pocket

عباب ‘ubāb f. torrents, floods; waves, billows

يعبوب ya‘būb torrential river

عبأ ‘aba’a a with negation; ما عبأ ب not to care about, not to give a hoot for, pay no attention to, attach no importance to, not to insist on | لا يعبأ به (yu‘ba’u) unimportant, insignificant; غير عابئ indifferent, unconcerned II to prepare, arrange (هـ s.th.); to array, set up (هـ s.th.); to mobilize, call up (جيشا jaišan an army); to fill, pack (ب هـ s.th. with); to load, charge (ب هـ s.th. with); to draw off, decant (في هـ s.th. into), bottle (هـ s.th.)

عبء ‘ib’ pl. اعباء a‘bā’ load, burden (على on), encumbrance (على to) | عبء الإثبات ‘i. al-itbāt burden of proof (jur.); نهض or قام الأعباء كلها to take all burdens upon o.s., carry all burdens

عباء ‘abā’ pl. اعبئة a‘bi’a aba, cloak-like, woolen wrap (occasionally striped)

عباءة ‘abā’a pl. -āt aba, a cloak-like, woolen wrap (occasionally striped)

تعبئة ta‘bi’a mobilization; drafting, conscription; filling, drawing off, bottling

عابئ ‘ābi’ see under verb I

عبث ‘abita a (‘abat) to fool around, indulge in horseplay, commit a folly; to play, joke, jest (ب with); to toy, play a frivolous game (ب with), mock (ب s.o., s.th.); to play (absent-mindedly), fidget, fuas, dawdle, fiddle (ب with s.th., e.g., while talking); to handle, manipulate (ب s.th.), tinker (ب with); to abuse (ب s.th.); to commit an offense (ب against), violate (ب s.th.), infringe, encroach (ب upon); to impair, injure (ب s.th.) III to amuse o.s., make fun, play around, banter, dally (ه with s.o.), tease (ه s.o.), play a trick, prank or joke (ه on s.o.)

عبث ‘abat (frivolous) play; pastime, amusement; joke, jest; mockery; عبثا ‘abatan in vain, futilely, to no avail,

Uselessly, fruitlessly | من العبث ان it is foolish and useless to ...; ولكن عبثا استطاع ان يجيبه (iataṭā‘a, yujībahū) but he couldn’t give him an answer

عبث mu‘ābata pl.-āt teasing, joke or prank played on s.o.; funmaking, jesting, banter, raillery

عابث ‘ābit joking, jocular; mocking, scornful; frivolous; wanton, wicked, outrageous; offender, transgressor, evildoer, sinner

1 عبد ‘abada u (عبادة ‘ibada, عبودة ‘ubūda, عبودية ‘ubādīya) to serve, worship (ه a god), adore, venerate (ه s.o., a god or human being), idolize, deify (ه s.o.) II to enslave, enthrall, subjugate, subject (ه s.o.); to improve, develop, make serviceable, make passable for traffic (هـ a road) V to devote o.s. to the service of God X to enslave, enthrall, subjugate (ه s.o.)

عبد ‘abd pl. عبيد ‘abād, عبدان ‘ubdān, ‘ibdān slave, serf; bondsman, servant; -- (pl. عباد ‘ibad) servant (of God), human being, man; العباد humanity, mankind | العبد لله = I (form of modesty); العبد الضعيف do.

عبد اللاوي, عبدلاوي ‘abdallāwī (eg.) a variety of melon

عبدة ‘abda pl. -āt woman slave, slave girl, bondwoman

عباد ‘abbād: عباد الشمس and عبادة الشمس ‘a. aš-šams sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

عبادة ‘ibāda worship, adoration, veneration; devotional service, divine service (Chr.); pl. -āt acts of devotion, religious observances (Isl. Law)

عبودة ‘ubūda humble veneration, homage, adoration, worship; slavery, serf-dom; servitude, bondage

عبودية ‘ubūdīya humble veneration, homage, adoration, worship; slavery, serfdom; servitude, bondage

معبد ma‘bad pl. معابد ma‘ābid2 place of worship; house of God, temple

تعبيد ta‘bīd enslavement, enthrallment, subjugation, subjection; paving, pavement | تعبيد الطرق t. aṭ-ṭuruq road construction

تعبد ta‘abbud piety, devoutness, devotion, worship; hagiolatry, worship or cult of saints (Chr.)

استعباد isti‘bād enslavement, enthrallment, subjugation

عابد ‘ābid pl. -ūn, عباد ‘ibād, عبدة ‘abada worshiper, adorer,

معبود ma‘būd worshiped, adored; deity, godhead; idol

معبودة ma‘būda ladylove, adored woman

معبد ma‘bad passable, smooth, improved (road)

متعبد muta‘abbid pious, devout; pious worshiper (Chr.)

عبدان ‘abadān2 Abadan (island and town in W Iran, oil center)

عبر ‘abara u (‘abr, عبور ‘ubūr) to cross, traverse (هـ s.th.); to ford (هـ s.th.), wade (هـ through s.th.); to swim (هـ s.th. or across s.th.); to pass (هـ over s.th.); to ferry (هـ a river, and the like); عبر به هـ to carry s.o. across or over s.th.; to pass, elapse (time), fade, dwindle; to pass away, die, depart; -- ‘abira (‘abar) to shed tears II to interpret (هـ a dream); to state clearly, declare, assert, utter, express, voice (عن s.th.), give expression (عن to a feeling); to designate (عن ب s.th. with or by); to determine the weight of a coin (هـ ), weigh (هـ a coin) VIII to be taught a lesson, be warned; to learn a lesson, take warning, to learn, take an example (ب from); to consider, weigh, take into account or consideration (هـ s.th.), allow, make allowances (هـ for s.th.); to acknowledge a quality (هـ ) in s.o. (ل ); to deem, regard, take (هـ هـ, ه s.o. s.th. as), look (هـ هـ, ه at s.th. as); to esteem, honor, revere, value, respect, hold in esteem (ه s.o.), have regard (ه for s.o.) | to shed tears, weep

عبر ‘abr crossing, traversing, transit; passage; fording; ‘abra (prep.) across, over; beyond, on the other side of

عبور ‘ubūr crossing, traversing, transit; passage; fording

عبير ‘abīr fragrance, scent, perfume, aroma; bouquet (of wine)

عبري ‘ibrī Hebrew, Hebraic; (pl. -ūn) a Hebrew; العبري or العبرية Hebrew, the Hebrew language

عبرة ’abra pl. ’abarāt, عبر ‘ibar tear

عبرة ‘ibra pl. عبر ‘ibar admonition, monition, warning; (warning or deterring) example, lesson, advice, rule, precept (to be followed); consideration befitting s.th.; that which has to be considered, be taken into consideration or account, that which is of consequence, of importance, s.th. decisive or consequential | موطن العبرة mauṭin al-‘i. the salient point, the crucial point; لا عبرة به (‘ibrata) it deserves no attention, it is of no consequence; في or العبرة ب the crucial factor(s) is (are) ..., decisive is (are) ...; لا عبرة لمن (li-man) it is of no consequence if s.o. …

عبارة ‘ibāra pl. -āt explanation, interpretation; mode of expression, diction; word; sentence, clause, phrase, idiom, expression | بعبارة اخرى (ukrā) in other words, expressed otherwise; عبارة فعبارة ‘ibāratan fa-‘ibāratan sentence by sentence, word by word; عبارة عن consisting in; tantamount to, equivalent to, meaning ...

عبراني ‘ibrānī Hebrew, Hebraic; a Hebrew; العبراني or العبرانية Hebrew, the Hebrew language

معبر ma‘bar pl. معابر ma‘ābir2 crossing point, crossing, traverse, passage(way); ford; pass, pass road, defile; O lobby

معبر mi‘bar pl. معابر ma‘ābir2 medium for crossing, ferry, ferryboat; bridge

تعبير ta‘bīr interpretation (of a dream); assertion, declaration, expression, utterance (عن of a feeling); (pl. -āt) expression (in general, also artistic); (pl. – تعابير ta‘ābīr2) (linguistic) expression, phrase, term | بتعبير آخر (ākar) in other words, expressed otherwise

تعبيري ta‘bīrī expressional, expressive, emotive

اعتبار i‘tibār respect, regard, deference, esteem; (pl. -āt) consideration, regard; reflection, contemplation; approach, outlook, point of view, view | اعتبارا ل (ب ) (itibāran) with respect to, with regard to, in consideration of, considering in view of (s.th.); اعتبارا من from, as of, beginning ..., starting with ..., effective from (with foll. indication of time); باعتبار الشيء with respect to, with regard to, in consideration of, considering in view of (s.th.); باعتبار ان bi-‘tibāri an considering (the fact) that ..., with regard to the fact that ..., in view of the fact that ...; provided that ..., with the proviso that ...; باعتباره as, in terms of, in the opacity of, e.g., وزير الخارجية باعتباره اقدم الوزراء (aqdama l-wuzarā’i) the Foreign Minister in his capacity of senior-ranking minister; بهذا الاعتبار from this standpoint, from this viewpoint; على اعتبار ان considering (the fact) that ..., with regard to the fact that ..., in view of the fact that ...; on the assumption that ...; على هذا الاعتبار from this standpoint, from this viewpoint; في كل اعتبار in every respect; اعتبارا او حقيقة (ḥaqīqatan) from a subjective point of view or in reality

اعتباري i‘tibārī based on a subjective approach or outlook; relative | شخصية اعتبارية (šakṣīya) legal person (jur.)

عابر ‘ābir passing; crossing, traversing, etc. (see I); fleeting (smile); transient, transitory, ephemeral; bygone, past, elapsed (time); (pl. -ūn) passerby | O صاروخ عابر القارات intercontinental ballistic missile, ICBM

معبر mu‘abbir interpreter (عن of feelings); expressive, significant | رقص معبر (raqṣ) interpretative dancing

عبرود (ḥiعلى ) musket, gun

عبس ‘abasa i (‘abs, عبوس ‘ubs) to frown, knit one’s brows; to glower, lower, scowl, look sternly | عبس في وجهه to give s.o. an angry look, scowl at s.o. II = I

عبوس ‘abūs frowning, scowling; gloomy, dismal, melancholy; stern, austere; ominous

عبوس ‘ubūs gloominess, gloom, dreariness; sternness, austerity, severity, gravity

عبوسة ‘ubūsa frown, scowl; glower, gloomy look, a gloomy, morose, sullen or stern mien

عباسي ‘abbāsī Abbaside; (pl. -ūn) an Abbaside

عابس ‘ābis frowning, scowling; gloomy, morose, sullen; austere, stern, severe

عبيط ‘abīṭ pl. عبطاء ‘ubaṭā’2 stupid, imbecile, idiotic, silly, foolish

اعتباطا i‘tibāṭan at random, haphazardly, arbitrarily

عبق ‘abiqa a (‘abaq) to cling (ب to), linger (ب on, of ascent); to be fragrant, exhale fragrance; to be filled, be redolent (ب with a scent, etc.)

عبق ‘abiq fragrant, redolent, exhaling fragrance

عبقة ‘abqa pressure (on the chest), feeling of suffocation

عابق ‘ābiq fragrant, redolent, exhaling fragrance

عبقر ‘abqar legendary place inhabited by jinn; fairyland, wonderland

عبقري ‘abqarī multicolored, colorful carpet; ingenious, genial; (pl. -ūn, عباقرة ‘abāqira) ingenious person, genius

عبقرية ‘abqarīya ingenuity, genius

عبك ‘abak camlet (woolen fabric)

عبل 'abl pl. عبال ‘ibāl plump, well rounded, chubby, fat (e.g., arms)

عبال ‘abāl (coll.; n. un. ة ) a variety of wild rose, eglantine

اعبل a‘bal granite

عبو II = عبأ II; to fill, pack (ب هـ s.th. with); to load, charge (ب هـ s.th. with)

عبوة ‘ubūwa pl. -āt package, pack (of an article, of a commodity); container with its contents

عباية ‘abāya = عباءة ‘abā’a q.v.

عتب ‘ataba i u (‘atb, معتب ma‘tab) to blame, censure, reprove, scold (على s.o.); -- عتب بابه ‘ataba bābahū to cross the threshold of s.o. II to hesitate, be slow, be tardy III to blame, censure, reprove, scold (على ه s.o. for)

عتب ‘atb censure, blame, rebuke, reproof, reprimand

عتبة ‘ataba pl. عتب ‘atab, اعتاب a‘tāb doorstep, threshold; (door) lintel, also العتبة العليا (‘ulyā); step, stair | الأعتاب السنية (sanīya) (formerly:) His Highness the Bey (Tun.); رفعه لأعتاب الملك rafa‘ahū li-a. l-malik to present s.th. (e.g., a gift) most obediently to the king

عتاب ‘itāb censure, blame, rebuke, reproof, reprimand

معاتبة mu‘ātaba censure, blame, rebuke, reproof, reprimand

عتد ‘atuda u (عتاد ‘atād) to be ready, be prepared IV to prepare, ready, make ready (هـ s.th.)

عتاد ‘atād pl. اعتد a’tud, اعتدة a‘tida equipment; (war) material, matériel, ammunition | عتاد حربي (ḥarbī) war material, materiel, ammunition

عتيد ‘atīd ready, prepared; future, forthcoming; venerable; solemn

معتر mu‘attar (< معثر ) slovenly, floppy; stupid; unfortunate

عتق ‘atuqa u (عتاقة ‘atāqa) and ‘ataqa i (‘atq, ‘itq) to grow old, age; to mature, mellow (wine); -- ‘ataqa i to be emancipated, be free (slave) IV to free, set free, release, emancipate, manumit (ه s.o., esp. a slave) VII to free o.s., rid o.s. (من of)

عتق ‘itq age, vintage (esp. of wine); liberty (as opposed to slavery); emancipation, freeing, manumission (of a slave)

عتيق ‘atīq old, ancient, antique; matured, mellowed, aged (wine); of ancient tradition, long-standing; antiquated, outmoded, obsolete; free, emancipated (slave); noble | عتيق الطراز old-fashioned

عتاقة ‘atāqa age, vintage (esp. of wine)

اعتاق i‘tāq freeing, liberation, manumission (of a slave)

عاتق ‘ātiq pl. عواتق ‘awātiq2 shoulder | اخذه على عاتقه (akadahū) to take s.th. upon o.s., take over, assume s.th; القى المسؤولية على عاتقه (alqā l-mas’ūliyata) to place the responsibility on s.o.; وقع على عاتق فلان to be at s.o.’s expense, fall to s.o.

معتق mu‘attaq mellowed, matured (wine); old, ancient

معتق mu‘tiq emancipator, liberator, manumitter (of slaves)

عتك ‘ataka i to attack

عاتك ‘atik clear, pure, limpid (esp. wine)

عتل ‘atala u i (‘atl) to carry (هـ s.th.)

عتال ‘attāl porter, carrier

عتلة ‘atala pl. عتل ‘atal crowbar

عتالة ‘itāla porter’s or carrier’s trade; porterage

عتم ‘atama i (‘atm) to hesitate II to darken, obscure, cloud, black out (هـ s.th.); to hesitate (esp. with neg.) | لا يعتم ان, ما عتم ان, لم يعتم ان it does not (did not) take long until …, before long ..., presently IV to hesitate, waver

عتم (coll.; n. un. ة ) wild olive tree

عتمة ‘atma dark, gloom, darkness

عتمة ‘atama first third of the night

عتامة ‘atāma opacity, opaqueness; (pl. -āt) darkness

تعتيم ta‘tīm darkening, obscuring, clouding

معتم mu‘tim dark

عته pass. ‘utiha (‘uth, ‘atah, عتاهة ‘atāha) to be or become· idiotic, imbecile, dimwitted, feeble-minded, demented, insane, mad, crazy

عته ‘uth, ‘atah idiocy, imbecility dimwittedness, feeble-mindedness

عتاهة ‘atāha idiocy, imbecility, dimwittedness, feeble-mindedness

معتوه ma‘tūh pl. معاتيه ma‘ātīh2 idiotic, insane, mad, crazy; idiot, lunatic, imbecile, demented person, insane person

(عتو and عتي) عتا ‘atā u (عتو ‘utūw, عتي ‘utīy, ‘itīy) to be insolent, refractory, recalcitrant, unruly; to be violent, fierce, strong, wild, furious, raging (e.g., storms) V do.

عتو ‘utūw presumption, haughtiness, insolence, impertinence, arrogance; recalcitrance, unruliness, wildness, ferocity

عتي ‘utīy presumption, haughtiness insolence, impertinence, arrogUC8; recalcitrance, unruliness, wildness, ferocity | بلغ من العمر عتيا (‘umr) to attain great age; to be far advanced in years

عتي ‘atīy pl. اعتاء a‘tā’ haughty, impertinent, insolent; recalcitrant, refractory, unruly, intractable, wild

عات ‘ātin pl. عتاة ‘utāh presumptuous, impudent, impertinent, insolent, arrogant; violent, fierce, strong, wild, furious, raging (storm)

عث ‘utt (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. عثث ‘utat moth worm, moth larva; moth

معثوث ma‘tūt moth-ridden, fall of moths, moth-eaten

عثر ‘atara u i (‘atr, عثير ‘atīr, عثار ‘itār) to stumble, trip; عثر به to trip s.o., make s.o. stumble, make s.o. fall, fell s.o., topple s.o.; -- ‘atara u (عثور ‘utūr) to come (ب or على scroll), hit, light, strike, stumble (ب or على upon), find, discover, detect (ب or على s.o. s.th.) II to cause (ه s.o.) to stumble, trip (ه s.o.), make (ه s.o.) fall, topple (ه s.o.) IV = II; to acquaint (على ه s.o. with s.th.); to lead (على ه s.o. to s.th.) V to stumble, trip; to stutter, stammer, speak brokenly | تعثر بأذيال الخيبة (bi-adyāl l-kaiba) to fail, meet with failure

عثرة ‘atra pl. ‘atarāt stumbling, tripping; false step, slip, fall | حجر عثرة ḥajar ‘a. stumbling block; وقف عثرة في سبيله (‘atratan) to be a stumbling block for s.o., obstruct s.o.’s way

عثور ‘atūr discovery, detection (على of)

عثير ‘ityar dust, fine sand

عاثور ‘ātūr pl. عواثير ‘awātīr2 pitfall; difficulty

متعثر muta‘attir stumbling, tripping; speaking (a foreign language) brokenly; broken (of a foreign language)

عثماني ‘utmānī Ottoman; (adj. and n.)

عثنون ‘utnūn pl. عثانين ‘atānīn2 beard

عثو ) and عثي) عثا ‘atā u (عثو ‘utūw), عثى ‘atā a i (‘utīy, ‘itīy) to act wickedly, do harm, cause mischief

عج ‘ajja i (‘ajj, عجيج ‘ajīj) to cry, yell, roar; to cry out for help (الى to); to rage, roar; to thunder, resound (ب with); to swarm, teem (ب with) II to raise, swirl up (الغبار al-gubāra the dust; of the wind)

عج ‘ajj crying, yelling; clamor, roar

عجة ‘ujja omelet

عجيج ‘ajīj crying, yelling; clamor, roar

عجاج ‘ajāj (swirling) dust; smoke

عجاجة ‘ajāja pl. -āt cloud of dust; billow of smoke

عجاج ‘ajjāj crying, yelling, clamoring, roaring, boisterous, vociferous; raging (esp. sea)

عجب ‘ajiba a (‘ajab) to wonder, marvel, be astonished, be amazed (ب or ل at, over) II to strike with wonder or astonishment, amaze, astonish, surprise (ه s.o.) IV = II; to please, delight (ه s.o.), appeal (ه to s.o.); -- pass. IV u‘jiba to admire (ب s.o., s.th.), have a high opinion (ب of); to be proud (ب of), be vain (ب about), glory (ب in) | اعجب بنفسه (u‘jiba) to be conceited, be vain V to wonder, marvel, be astonished, be amazed (من at, over) X = V

عجب ‘ujb pride (ب of, in), vanity (ب in), conceit

عجب ‘ajab astonishment, amazement; (pl. اعجاب a‘jāb) wonder, marvel; عجبا ‘ajaban how strange! how odd! How astonishing! how remarkable! يا للعجب yā la-l-‘ajab oh, how wonderful! لا عجب (‘ajaba) no wonder! امر عجب amrun ‘ajabun a wonderful, marvelous thing; عجب عجاب (ujāb) most prodigious happening, wonder of wonders

عجاب ‘ujāb wonderful, wondrous, marvelous, astonishing, amazing; see ‘ajab

عجيب ‘ajīb wonderful, wondrous, marvelous, admirable; astonishing, amazing, remarkable, strange, odd

عجيبة ‘ajība pl. عجائب ‘ajā’ib wondrous thing, unheard of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder; pl. remarkable things,

curiosities, oddities | من عجائب الأمر ان the remarkable thing about the matter is that ...

اعجب a’jab2 more wonderful, more marvelous; more astonishing, more remarkable

اعجوبة u‘jūba pl. اعاجيب a‘ājīb2 wondrous thing; unheard-of thing, prodigy, marvel, miracle, wonder

تعجيب ta‘jīb arousing of admiration (من for s.th.), boosting (من of s.th.), publicity (من for s.th.)

اعجاب i‘jāb admiration (ب for); pleasure, satisfaction, delight (ب in); acclaim; pride; self-complacency, conceit

تعجب ta‘ajjub astonishment, amazement

استعجاب isti‘jāb astonishment, amazement

معجب mu‘jib causing admiration, admirable

معجب mu‘jab admirer (ب of s.o., of s.th.); proud (ب of), vain (ب about) | معجب بنفسه (bi-nafsihī) conceited, vain

متعجب muta‘ajjib amazed, astonished

عجر ‘ajar outgrowth, protuberance, excrescence, projection

عجر ‘ajr (eg.) green, unripe

عجرة ‘ujra pl. عجر ‘ujar knot, knob, hump, protuberance, excrescence | عجره وبجره ‘ujaruhū wa-bujaruhū his (its) obvious and hidden shortcomings, all his (its) faults

عجور ‘aggūr (coll.; n. un. ة ) a variety of green melon, (eg.)

عجرف II ta‘ajrafa to be presumptuous, arrogant, haughty

عجرفة ‘ajrafa presumption, arrogance, haughtiness

عجز ‘ajaza i (‘ajz) and ‘ajiza a to be weak, lock strength, be incapable (عن of), be unable (عن to do s.th.); -- ‘ajaza u (عجوز ‘ujūz) and ‘ajuza u to age, grow old (woman) | ما عجز ان (‘ajaza, ‘ajiza) not to fail to II to weaken, debilitate, disable, incapacitate, hamstring, cripple, paralyze (ه s.o.) IV to weaken, debilitate, disable, incapacitate, hamstring, cripple, paralyze (. s.o.); to be impossible (ه for s.o.); to speak in an inimitable, or wonderful, manner | اعجزه عن الدب والمشي (dabb, mašy) to paralyze s.o.’s every move; اعجزه عن الفهم (fahm) to make comprehension impossible for s.o. X to deem (ه s.o.) incapable (عن of)

عجز ‘ajz weakness, incapacity, disability, failure, impotence (عن for, to do s.th.); deficit

عجز 'ajuz, ‘ajz pl. اعجاز a‘jāz backside, rump, posteriors | اعجاز النخل a. an-nakl stumps of palm trees; رد العجز على الصدرعجز (ṣadr) to bring the rear to the fore, i.e., to reverse conditions, make up for a deficiency

عجوز ‘ujūz old age

عجوز ‘ajūz pl. عجائز ‘ajā’iz2, عجز ‘ujuz old woman; old man; old, advanced in years

عجيزة ‘ajīza posteriors, buttocks (of a woman)

اعجز i‘jāz inimitability, wondrous nature (of the Koran)

عاجز ‘ājiz pl. عواجز ‘awājiz2 weak, feeble, powerless, impotent; incapable (عن of), unable (عن to do s.th.); -- (pl. عجزة ‘ajaza) physically weak; physically disabled; decrepit | اسعاف العجزة is‘āf al-‘a. care for the aged

معجز mu‘jiz miracle (esp. one performed by a prophet)

معجزة mu‘jiza pl. -āt miracle (esp. one performed by a prophet)

عجعج ‘aj‘aja to bellow, bawl, roar

عجعجة ‘aj‘aja clamor, roar, bellowing

اعجف a‘jaf 2, f. عجفاء ‘ajfā’2 pl. عجاف ‘ijāf slender, slim, svelte; lean, emaciated

عجل ‘ajila a (‘ajal, عجلة ‘ajala) to hurry, hasten, speed, rush, be in a hurry; to rush, hasten, hurry, come quickly (الى to) II to hurry, hasten, speed, rush, be in a hurry; to bring about quickly, hasten on (ب s.th.), bring or take quickly (ل ب s.th. to); to hurry, rush, urge, impel, drive (ه s.o.), expedite, speed up, accelerate (ه s.th.); to pay in advance; to pay spot cash (هـ ل to s.o. for) III to hurry in order to catch up (هـ, ه with s.o., with s.th.), rush, hurry (هـ, ه after s.o., after s.th.); to catch up (ه with s.o.), overtake (ه s.o.; esp. death), descend swiftly (هـ, ه upon); to anticipate, forestall (ب ه s.o. in or with) IV to hurry, rush, urge, impel, drive (ه s.o.) | اعجله الوقت عن (waqtu) the time was too short for him to V to hurry, hasten, speed, rush, be in a hurry; to seek to get ahead in a hurry; to hurry, rush, urge (الى ه s.o. to); to anticipate, forestall (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to be ahead (هـ of s.th.), precede (هـ e.g., events); to receive at once, without delay (هـ a sum), receive spot cash | تعجله الجواب (jawāba) to demand a quick reply from s.o. X to hurry, hasten, rush, speed, be in a hurry; to wish to expedite (هـ s.th.); to hurry, rush, urge, impel, drive (ه s.o.), expedite, speed up, accelerate (هـ s.th.)

عجل ‘ijl pl. عجول ‘ujūl, عجلة ‘ijala calf | عجل البحر ‘i. al-baḥr sea calf, seal

عجل ‘ajal hurry, haste | على عجل in a hurry, hurriedly, speedily, quickly, fast, rapidly

عجل ‘ajil quick, fast, swift, speedy, rapid

عجلة ‘ajala hurry, haste; precipitance, precipitation

عجلة ‘ajala pl. -āt wheel; bicycle | O عجلة سيارة (sayyāra) motorcycle; عجلة القيادة steering wheel; O عجلة نارية (nārīya) motorcycle

عجيل ‘ajīl pl. عجال ‘ijāl quick, fast, swift, speedy, rapid

عجول ‘ajūl pl. عجل ‘ujul quick, fast, swift, speedy, rapid; hasty, precipitate, rash

عجالة ‘ujāla work quickly thrown together, hastily prepared work, rush job; O sketch (lit.); quickly compiled report

عجلان ‘ajlān2, f. عجلى ‘ajlā, pl. عجالى ‘ajālā, عجال ‘ijāl quick, fast, swift, speedy, hurried, rapid, hasty, cursory

اعجل a‘jal2, f. عجلى ‘ujlā, pl. عجل ‘ujl quicker, faster; hastier; more cursory

تعجيل ta‘jīl speeding-up, expediting, acceleration

استعجال isti‘jāl hurry, haste; precipitance, precipitation | على وجه الاستعجال (wajhi l-ist.) expeditiously, speedily

استعجالي isti‘jālī speedy, expeditious; temporary, provisional

عاجل ‘ājil pertaining to this world, worldly; temporal; immediate; عاجلا ‘ājilan soon, presently, before long; at once, immediately, instantly | حكم عاجل (ḥukm) summary judgment (jur.); عاجلا او آجلا sooner or later; في العاجل والآجل now and in the future; في عاجله او آجله sooner or later; في القريب العاجل in the immediate future

عاجلة ‘ājila fast train, express train; العاجلة life in this world, temporal existence

معجل mu‘ajjal urgent, pressing; premature | معجل الرسم m. ar-rasm prepaid, postpaid (mail item); حكم بالنفاذ المعجل (ḥukm, nafād) summary judgment, sentence by summary proceedings (jur.)

دفع معجل dafa‘a mu‘ajjalan to pay in advance

متعجل muta‘ajjil hasty, rash, precipitate

مستعجل musta‘jil hurried, in a hurry

مستعجل musta‘jal expeditious, speedy; urgent, pressing; precipitate, premature | قاضي الأمور المستعجلة magistrate of summary justice

عجم ‘ajama u (‘ajm) to try, test, put to the test (ه s.o.) | عجم عوده (‘ūdahū) to try, test s.o., put s.o. to the test IV to provide (هـ a letter) with a diacritical point (with diacritical points) VII to be obscure, incomprehensible, unintelligible (على to s.o.; language) X to become un-Arabic

عجم ‘ajam (coll.) barbarians, non-Arabs; Persians; العجم or بلاد العجم Persia

عجم ‘ajam (coll.; n. un. ة ) stone, kernel, pit, pip, seed (of fruit)

عجمي ‘ajamī pl. اعجام a‘jām barbarian, non-Arab; Persian (adj. and n.)

عجمة ‘ajma barbarism, incorrectness (in speaking Arabic)

عجماء ‘ajmā’2 pl. عجموات ‘ajmawāt (dumb) beast

اعجم a‘jam2, f. عجماء ‘ajmā’2, pl. اعاجم a‘ājim2 speaking incorrect Arabic; dumb, speechless; barbarian, non-Arab, foreigner, alien; a Persian

اعجمي a‘jamī non-Arabic; non-Arab, foreigner, alien; a Persian

معجم mu‘jam incomprehensible, unintelligible, obscure (language, speech); dotted, provided with a diacritical point (letter); (pl. معاجم ma‘ājim2) dictionary, lexicon | حروف المعجم the letters of the alphabet

عجن ‘ajana i u (‘ajn) to knead (هـ s.th.); to soak (هـ s.th.) | لت وعجن في مسألة (latta, mas’ala) to bring up a problem time and again, harp on a question

عجان ‘ijān perineum (anat.)

عجان ‘ajjān, f. ة dough kneader

عجين ‘ajīn dough, batter, paste; pastes (such as noodles, vermicelli, spaghetti, etc.)

عجينة ‘ajīna a piece of dough; dough; soft mass, soggy mixture; pl. عجائن ‘ajā’in2 plastics

عجيني ‘ajīnī doughy, doughlike, pasty, paste-like

معجن mi‘jan pl. معاجن ma‘ājin2 kneading trough; kneading machine

معجون ma‘jūn pl. معاجين ma‘ājīn2 paste, cream (cosmet.); putty; electuary; majoon (confection made of hemp leaves, henbane, datura seeds, poppy seeds, honey and ghee, producing effects similar to those of hashish and opium) | معجون الأسنان tooth paste

معجنات mu‘ajjanāt (pot) pies, pasties

عجوة ‘ajwa pressed dates | اقراص عجوة a pastry made of rich dough with almonds and date paste (syr.)

عد ‘adda u (‘add) to count, number, reckon (هـ s.th., من .s.o. among); to enumerate (هـ s.th.); to compute, calculate (هـ s.th.); to regard (هـ هـ, ه s.o., s.th. as), look (هـ هـ, ه at s.o., at s.th. as), consider, think, deem (هـ هـ, ه s.o., s.th. to be s.th.); pass. ‘udda to be considered, go (هـ as s.th.), pass (هـ for s.th.); to amount (ب to) | عد الأنفاس عليه (to count s.o.’s breathing =) to watch closely over s.o., keep a sharp eye on s.o., watch s.o.’s every move; عد هـ على to put down, or charge, s.th. to s.o.’s disadvantage; لا يعد (yu‘addu) numberless, countless, innumerable II to count off, enumerate (هـ s.th.); to make numerous, multiply, compound (هـ s.th.) | عدد الميت (mayyita) to enumerate the merits of a dead person, eulogize s.o. IV to prepare (ل هـ, ه s.o., s.th. for); to ready, make ready, get ready (ل هـ, ه s.o., s.th. for); to prepare, finish, fit, fix up, adapt, adjust, dress, arrange, dispose, set up, make (ل ه

s.th. for), draw up, draft, work out (هـ e.g.. a report); to prepare (هـ one’s lesson) | اعد عدته ل (‘uddatahū) to make one’s preparations for, prepare o.s. for V to be or become numerous, be manifold, be multifarious, be multiple; to multiply, increase in number, proliferate, be compounded VIII to regard (هـ هـ, ه s.o., s.th. as), look (هـ هـ, ه at s.o., at s.th. as), consider, think, deem (هـ هـ, ه s.o., s.th. to be s.th.); to reckon (ب with), rely (ب upon); to put down (هـ, ب s.th., ل to s.o.’s credit, على to s.o.’s disadvantage); to hold (ب على against s.o. s.th.), take exception (ب على to s.o. because of s.th.); to provide o.s., equip o.s. (ب with); (of a woman) to observe the iddat, or legally prescribed period of waiting, before contracting a new marriage X to get ready, ready o.s.; to stand prepared, keep in readiness, stand by; to prepare o.s.; to be ready, willing, prepared (ل for, to do s.th.)

عد ‘add counting, count; enumeration, listing; computation, calculation

عدة ‘udda readiness, preparedness; -- (pl. عدد ‘udad) equipment, outfit; implement, instrument, tool; gadget, device, appliance, contrivance; rigging, tackle, sails; harness (of a horse) | أخذ (اعد) عدته ل (a‘adda) to make one’s preparations for, prepare o.s. for; s.th. أخذ عدة الشيء to make preparations for s.th.; عدة الساعة clockwork, watchwork

عدة ‘idda number; (attributively:) several, numerous, many, e.g., رجال عدة (‘iddatun) many men, عدة مرات ‘iddata marrātin several times; iddat, legally prescribed period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced (Isl. Law)

عدد ‘adad pl. اعداد a‘dād number, numeral; figure, digit, cipher; quantity; number, issue (of a newspaper) | عدد خاص (kāṣṣ) special number, special issue (e.g., of a periodical)

عددي ‘adadī numerical, numeral, relative to a number or numbers

عديد ‘adīd (with foll. genit.) counted among or with; numerous; number; large quantity; equal) | عدد عديد (‘adad) enormous quantity, great multitude; هذا عديد ذاك this equals that

عداد ’adād pl. -āt counter, meter (for electricity, gas, etc.)

معداد mi‘dād pl. معاديد ma’ādīd2 abacus

تعداد ta‘dād counting, count; enumeration, listing; computation, calculation | تعداد الأنفس t. al-anfus census

عداد ‘idād number, quantity | لا عداد له (‘idāda) innumerable, countless; في عداد among, e.g., هو في عدادهم he is counted among them, he is one of them

اعداد i‘dād preparation, readying, arranging, setting up, making, drawing up, drafting

اعدادي i‘dadī preparatory | شهادة اعدادية (šahāda) certificate granted after completing four years of secondary school (eg.)

تعدد ta‘addud variety, diversity, multiplicity, plurality, great number, multitude | تعدد الآلهة polytheism; تعدد الزوجات t. az-zajāt polygamy

اعتداد i‘tidād confidence, reliance, trust (ب in) | الاعتداد بنفسه (bi-nafsihī) self-confidence, self-reliance

استعداد isti‘dād readiness, willingness, preparedness; (pl. -āt) inclination, tendency, disposition, propensity; predisposition (ل for a disease), susceptibility (ل to a disease); pl. conveniences, amenities, comfort | كان على استعداد ل to be prepared, be set for ...; to be ready, willing, inclined, in a position to ...

استعدادي isti‘dādī preparatory

معدود ma‘dūd countable, numerable, calculable; limited in number, little, few, a few, some

معددة mu‘addida (hired) female mourner

معد mu‘add destined, intended (ل for); ready, prepared (ل forو to do s.th.), willing (ل to do s.th.)

معدات mu‘addāt equipment, material, materiel, gear; appliances, devices, implements, gadgets) معدات حربية (عسكرية ) (ḥarbīya, ‘askarīya) war material; معدات الحريق m. al-ḥarīq fire-fighting equipment

متعدد muta‘addid manifold, multiple, plural, numerous, varied, variegated, various, diverse, different; multi-, many-, poly- (in compounds) متعدد الخلايا m. al-kalāya multicellular (biol.); متعدد النواحي m. an-nawāḥī multifarious, variegated, varied, manifold

مستعد musta‘idd prepared, ready (ل for); inclined, in a position (ل to, to do s.th.); predisposed (ل for), susceptible (ل to, esp. to a disease)

عدس ‘adas (coil.; n. un. ة ) lentil(s)

عدسة ‘adasa pl. -āt lens; magnifying glass; object lens, objective

عدسي ‘adasī lenticular

عدل ‘adala i (‘adl, عدالة ‘adāla) to act justly, equitably, with fairness | عدل بينهم to treat everyone with indiscriminate justice, not to discriminate between them; -- ‘adala i to be equal (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.), be equivalent (هـ to s.th.), be on a par (هـ, ه with), be the equal (ه of s.o.), equal, match (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), counterbalance, outweigh (هـ s.th.); to make equal, equalize, level (ب ه s.o. with another), place (ه s.o.) on the same level or footing (ب with another); -- ‘adala i (عدول ‘udūl) to deviate, swerve, deflect, turn away (الى عن from -- toward); to digress, depart, refrain, desist, abstain, avert o.s., turn away (عن from), leave off, relinquish. abandon, renounce, disclaim, give up, forego, waive, drop (عن s.th.) | عدل به عن to make s.o. desist, abstain or turn away from; عدل ببصره الى (bi-baṣarihī) to let one’s eyes stray to or toward; -- ‘adula u (عدالة ‘adāla) to be just, fair, equitable II to straighten, make or put straight, set in order, array (هـ s.th.); to balance, right, rectify, put in order, straighten out, fix, settle, adjust (هـ s.th.); to make (هـ s.th.) just; to adapt (هـ s.th.); to change, alter, commute, amend, modify, improve (هـ s.th.); to modulate (هـ current, waves; el.) III to be equal (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.), be equivalent (هـ to s.th.), be on a par (هـ, ه with), be the equal (ه of s.o.), equal, match (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), counterbalance, outweigh (هـ s.th.); to equate, treat as equal (بين -- وبين two persons or things) IV to straighten, make or put straight (هـ s.th.) V to he changed, be altered, be commuted, be modified, undergo modification, change or alteration VI to be in a state of equilibrium, be balanced; to be equal, be on a par; to offset one another, strike a balance VIII to straighten (up), tense; to draw o.s. up, sit straight, sit up; to be straight, even, balanced; to be moderate, be temperate

عدل ‘adl straightness, straightforwardness; justice, impartiality; fairness, equitableness, probity, honesty, uprightness; equitable composition, just compromise; -- (pl. عدول ‘udūl) just, equitable, fair, upright, honest; person of good reputation, person with an honorable record (Isl. Law); juristic adjunct assigned to a cadi (Magr.); عدلا ‘adlan equitably, fairly, justly | وزير العدل minister of justice

عدلي ‘adlī forensic, legal, judicial, juridical, juristic

عدل ‘idl equal, tantamount, corresponding; -- (pl. اعدال a‘dāl, عدول ‘udūl) either of the two balanced halves of a load carried by a beast of burden; sack, bag

عديل ‘adīl equal, like, tantamount, corresponding; (with foll. genit.) equal (to s.o.), on a par (with s.o.); (eg.; pl. عدائل ‘adā’il) brother-in-law (husband of one’s sister)

عدول ‘udūl refraining, abstention, desistance (عن from), forgoing, renunciation, resignation, abandonment, relinquishment (عن of s.th.)

عدالة ‘adāla justice, fairness, impartiality; probity, integrity, honesty, equitableness; decency, proper conduct; honorable record (Isl. Law)

عدلية ‘adlīya justice, administration of justice, jurisprudence | وزير العدلية minister of justice

اعدل a‘dal2 more regular, more uniform; more balanced; juster, fairer, more equitable; more upright, more honest, more righteous

تعديل ta‘dīl straightening, straightening out, settling, setting right; -- (pl. -āt) change, alteration, commutation, amendment, modification; settlement, adjustment, regulation; improvement; reshuffle (of the cabinet); modulation (el.) | تعديل وزاري (wizārī) cabinet reshuffle

معادلة mu‘ādala assimilation, approximation, adjustment, equalization, leveling, balancing, equilibration; balance, equilibrium; equality; equivalence; evenness, proportion, proportionateness, proportionality; equation (math.)

تعادل ta‘ādul balance, equilibrium; equality; equivalence; evenness, proportion, proportionateness, proportionality; draw, tie (in sports) | تعادل الأصوات tie vote, equal number of votes

اعتدال i‘tidāl straightness, erectness, tenseness; evenness, symmetry, proportion (e.g., of stature, of growth); moderateness, moderation, temperance, temperateness; equinox | سمت الاعتدال simt al-i. equinoctial colure (astron.)

اعتدالي i‘tidālī equinoctial

عادل ‘ādil just, fair, equitable; upright, honest, straightforward, righteous

معدل mu‘addal average; average amount or sum | معدل السرعة m. as-sur‘a average speed; بمعدل as an average, on the average

معادل mu‘ādil equal, of equal status, having equal rights

متعادل muta‘āadil balanced, neutral

معتدل mu‘tadil straight, even, proportionate, symmetrical, harmonious; moderate, temperate; mild, clement (weather) | المنطقة المعتدلة (minṭaqa) the Temperate Zone

عدم ‘adima a (‘udm, ‘adam) to be deprived, be devoid, be in want, be deficient (هـ of s.th.); to lack, not to have (هـ s.th:); to lose, miss (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); -- pass. ‘udima to be lacking, be missing, be absent, be nonexistent; to be loot, be gone, have disappeared; to disappear, vanish IV to cause (ه s.o.) to miss or lack (هـ s.th.); to deprive (هـ ه s.o. of s.th.); to destroy, annihilate, wipe out (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to execute (ه s.o.); to be or become poor, be reduced to poverty, become impoverished VII = pass. I

عدم ‘adam non-being, nonexistence; nothing, nothingness, nihility; lack, want, absence; loss, privation; (with foll. genit.) non-, un-, in-, dis-; (pl. اعدام a‘dām) nonentity, nullity, banality, trifle | عدم الاهتمام inattention, indifference; عدم الاختصاص noncompetency; عدم الوجود non-being, nonexistence

عدمي ‘adamī nihilist

عدمية ‘adamīya non-being, nonexistence; nihilism

عديم ‘adīm not having, lacking, wanting; deprived (of); devoid (of), without, -less, in-, un- (with foll. genit.) | عديم الحياة ‘a. al-ḥayāh inanimate, lifeless; عديم النظير unequaled, incomparable, unique

اعدام i‘dām destruction, annihilation; execution | الحكم بالإعدام (ḥukm) death sentence

اعدامية i‘dāmīya headcloth without ‘iqāl (as a sign of mourning)

انعدام in‘idām absence, lack, nonexistence

عادم ‘ādim pl. عوادم ‘awādim2 nonexistent, lost; unrestorable, irreclaimable; waste- (in compounds); pl. waste, refuse, scraps | المياه العادمة sewage, sullage, waste water; عوادم الأقطان cotton waste; انبوبة العوادم unbūbat al-‘a. exhaust pipe (automobile)

معدوم ma‘dūm nonexistent, wanting, lacking, absent; missing; lost; gone, vanished

معدوم mu‘dim poor, destitute; impoverished

عدن ‘adn Eden, Paradise; ‘adan2 Aden (city in southern Arabia)

معدن ma‘din pl. معادن ma‘ādin2 mine; lode; metal; mineral; treasure-trove, bonanza (fig.); (place of) origin, source | علم المعادن ‘ilm al-m. mineralogy; امتحن معدنه to probe into s.o.’s very nature

معدن ma‘dan (eg.; syr, ma‘din) very good! bravo! well done!

معدني ma‘dinī metallic, mineral; المعدنيات mineralogy | ماء معدني mineral water

تعدين ta‘dīn mining of metals and minerals; mining, mining industry

معدن mu‘addin miner

عدنان ‘adnān2 legendary ancestor of the North Arabs

عدا (عدو ) ‘adā u (‘adw) to run, speed, gallop, dash, race; to pass (هـ, ه or عن s.o., s.th.), go past s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه or عن ); to give up, abandon, leave (هـ, ه or عن s.o., s.th.); to pass over, bypass, omit (ه s. o.), not to bother (ب ه s.o. with), exempt, except (ب ب s.o. from); to cross, overstep, exceed, transcend (هـ s.th.), go beyond s.th. (هـ ); to exceed the proper bounds; to infect (الى s.o.); -- u (عدو ‘adw, ‘udūw, عداء ‘adā’, عدوان ‘udwān, ‘idwān) to engage in aggressive, hostile action, commit an aggression, a hostile act (على against); to act unjustly (على toward), wrong (على s.o.); to assail, assault, attack, raid (على s.o., s.th.); -- u (عدو ‘adw) to handicap, hamper, impede, obstruct (عن ه s.o. in); to prevent, hinder (عن ه s.o. from) | عدا طوره (ṭaurahū) to transcend one’s bounds or limits; لا يعدو ان يفعله not to rail to do s.th.; to do s.th. inevitably; لا يعدو ان يكون it is no more than , it is only or merely II to cause to cross, overstep, exceed or transcend; to ferry (ه s.o., over a river); (gram.) to make transitive (هـ a verb); to give up, abandon, leave (هـ, ه or عن s.o., s.th.); to cross (هـ s.th., e.g., a river) III to treat as an enemy (ه s.o.), show enmity (ه toward s.o.), be at war, feud (ه with s.o.); to fall out (ه with s.o.), contract the enmity (ه of s.o.); to act hostility (ه toward s.o.); to counteract, disobey (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), act in opposition (هـ, ه to), contravene, infringe (هـ s.th.) IV to infect (ه s.o., من with a disease) V to cross, overstep (هـ s.th.); to traverse (هـ s.th.); to exceed, transcend, surpass (هـ s.th.). go beyond s.th. (هـ ); to go beyond s.th. (هـ ) and turn one’s attention to s.th. else (الى ), not to be limited to s.th. (هـ ) but also to comprise (الى s.th. else), extend beyond s.th. (هـ ) to s.th. else (الى ); to overtake, pass, outstrip, outdistance, leave behind (هـ s.th.); to overcome, surmount (هـ s.th., e.g., a crisis); to pass on, shift, spread (الى to); to transgress, infract, violate, break (هـ s.th., e.g., laws); to engage in brutal, hostile action, commit aggression, a hostile act (على against); to act unjustly (على toward s.o.); to assail, assault, attack, raid (على s.o., s.th.); to infringe, encroach, make inroads (على upon) | تعدى عليه بالضرب (ḍarb) to come to blow, with s.o., lay hands upon s.o. VI to harbor mutual enmity, be hostile to one another, be enemies VII to be infected (ب with a disease), catch an infection (من by, from) VIII to cross, overstep (هـ s.th.); to exceed, transcend, surpass (هـ s.th.), go beyond s.th. (هـ ); to act outrageously, brutally, unlawfully (على against); to commit excesses (على against); to engage in aggressive, brutal, hostile action (على against), commit an aggression, a hostile act (على against); to act unjustly (على toward); to violate (على a woman); to assail, assault, attack, raid (على s.o., s.th.), infringe, encroach, make inroads (على upon), make an attempt on s.o.’s (على ) Iif. X to appeal for assistance (ه to s.o. على against); to stir up, rouse, incite (على ه s.o. against)

عدا ‘adā, ما عدا or فيما عدا fī-mā ‘adā (with foll. acc. or genit.) except, save, with the exception of, excepting ...; فيما عدا ذلك besides

عدو ‘adw running, run, race (also in sports)

عدوة ‘udwa side, slope (of a volley), bank, embankment (of a river), shore

عدو ‘aduw pl. اعداء a‘dā’, عدى ‘idan, ‘udan, عداة ‘udāh, اعاد a‘ādin, f. عدوة ‘adūwa enemy | عدو لدود (لديد، الد ) (ladūd, aladd) foe, archenemy

عدوة ‘adūwa fem. of عدو ‘adūw

عدى ‘adīy acting hostilely, aggressive

عداء ‘adā’ enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity; aggression

عدائي ‘adā’ī hostile, inimical, antagonistic, aggressive

عداء ‘adā’ runner, racer

اعدى a‘dā: اعدى الأعداء a. l-a‘dā’ the worst of enemies

عدوى ‘adwd infection, contagion; -- ‘udwā hostile action

عداوة ‘adāwa pl. -āt enmity, hostility, antagonism, animosity

عدواء ‘udawā’2 hindrance, handicap, impediment; inconvenience, nuisance, discomfiture | ذو عدواء rough, rugged, uneven; adverse, discomfiting, inconvenient; bad, poor (mount)

عدوان ‘udwān, ‘idwān enmity, hostility, hostile action, aggression

عدواني ‘udwānī: سياسة عدوانية policy of aggression

معدى ma‘dan escape, way out, avoidance | لا معدى منه (ma‘dā) inevitable, unavoidable, inescapable

معدية ma‘diya pl. معاد ma‘ādin ferry, ferryboat

تعدية ta‘diya ferrying, ferry service; conversion into the transitive form (gram.)

تعد ta‘addin crossing, overstepping, exceeding, transcending; overtaking, passing (e.g., of an automobile); -- (pl. تعديات ta‘addiyāt) infraction, violation, breach (e.g., of laws), transgression, encroachment, inroad (على on), infringement of the law; offense against law, tort, delict (Isl. Law); attack, assault; aggression

اعتداء i‘tidā’ pl. -āt attack, assault, raid, inroad (على on), attempt (على on s.o.’s life), criminal attack (على on); outrage (على upon); aggression (على against; esp. pol.) معاهدة (اتفاق) عدم الاعتداء mu‘āhadat (ittifāq) ‘adam al-i‘t. pact of nonaggression

عاد ‘ādin pl. عواد ‘awādin aggressive, attacking, assailing, raiding; (pl. عداة ‘udāh) enemy | عواد الوحوش beasts of prey, predatory animals

عادية ‘ādiya pl. -āt, عواد ‘awādin wrong, offense, misdeed, outrage; adversity, misfortune, reverse; obstacle, impediment, obstruction; pi. vicissitudes | عدت عليهم عواد (‘adal) fate dealt them heavy blows, they fell on evil days

معاد mu‘ādin hostile, inimical, antagonistic

معد mu‘din contagious, infectious | امراض معدية contagious diseases

متعد muta‘addin transitive (gram.); aggressor, assailant

معتد mu‘tadin pl. -ūn assailant, assassin; aggressor (pol.)

عذب ‘aduba u (عذوبة ‘udūba) to be sweet, pleasant, agreeable; -- ‘adaba i to hinder, handicap, impede, obstruct (ه s.o.) II to afflict, pain, torment, try, agonize, torture, rack (ه s.o.); to punish, chastise, castigate (ه s.o.) V to be punished, suffer punishment; to feel pain, suffer; to torment s.o., be in agony, be harassed X to find (هـ s.th.) sweet, pleasant, or agreeable; to think (هـ s.th.) beautiful, nice

عذب ‘adb pl. عذاب ‘idāb sweet; pleasant, agreeable | مياه عذب fresh water; عذب الحديث entertaining, amusing, companionable, personable

عذاب ‘adāb pl. -āt, اعذبة a‘diba pain, torment, suffering, agony, torture; punishment, chastisement, castigation

عذوبة ‘udūba sweetness

اعذب a‘dab2 sweeter, more pleasant, more agreeable

تعذيب ta‘dīb affliction, tormenting, agonizing, torture, torturing; punishment, chastisement, castigation

عذر ‘adara i (‘udr, عذر ma‘dira) to excuse, absolve from guilt (ه s.o.), forgive (عن or في ه s.o. s.th.) | لم يعذرني he wouldn’t let me give any excuses, he wouldn’t take no for an answer, he kept insisting; -- ‘adara i (‘adr) to circumcise (ه s.o.) IV = I; to have an excuse | اعذر من انذر (man a‘dara) he who warns is excused V to be difficult, impossible, impracticable, unfeasible (على for) VIII to excuse o.s. apologize (من ل or الى to s.o. for s.th.); to give or advance (ب s.th.) as an excuse (عن or من for), plead s.th. (ب ) in defense of (عن or من ) X to wish to be excused; to make an apology, excuse o.s., apologize

عذر ‘udr pl. اعذار a‘dār excuse | ابو عذر abū ‘u. (with foll. genit.) responsible for, answerable for; هو ابو عذر هذا التطور (taṭawwur) he is the originator of this development

عذرة ‘udra virginity, virginhood; name of an Arab tribe | ابو عذرة = ابو عذر see above

عذري ‘udrī belonging to the tribe of ‘udra (see above)

الهوى العذري (hawā) platonic love

عذار ‘idār pl. عذر ‘udur cheek; fluff, first growth of heard (on the cheeks); cheekpiece (of a horse’s harness) | خلع عذاره to throw off all restraint, drop all pretenses of shame; خالع العذار unrestrained, wanton, uninhibited

عذراء ‘adrā’2 pl. عذارى ‘adārā virgin; العذراء Virgo (astron.); the Virgin Mary (Chr.) | فتاة عذراء (fatāh) maiden, virgin

معذرة ma‘dira pl. معاذر ma‘ādir2 excuse, forgiveness, pardon

معذار mi‘dār pl. معاذير ma’ādīr2 excuse, plea

تعذر ta‘addur difficulty, impossibility, impracticability, unfeasibility

اعتذار i‘tidār apology, excuse, plea

معذور ma‘dūr excused, justified, warranted; excusable

متعذر muta‘addir difficult, impossible, impracticable, unfeasible

عذق ‘idq pl. اعذاق a‘dāq bunch, cluster (of dates, of grapes)

عذل ‘adala u (‘adl) to blame, censure, reprove, rebuke, reproach (ه s.o.) II = I

عذل ‘adl blame, censure, reproof, reproach

عذول ‘adūl stem censurer, rebuker, severe critic

عاذل ‘ādil pl. عذال ‘uddāl, f. عاذلة ‘ādila pl. عواذل ‘awādil2 censurer, reprover, critic

(عذو and عذى) عذا ‘adā u and عذى ‘adiya a to be healthy (country, city; due to its climate, air, etc.)

عر ‘arra u to be a shame, be a disgrace (هـ, ه for s.o., for s.th.); to bring shame or disgrace (هـ, ه upon s.o., upon s.th.), disgrace, dishonor (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.)

عرة ‘urra scabies, mange; dung; a disgraceful, shameful thing

عرر ‘arar scabies, mange

معرة ma‘arra shame, disgrace, ignominy; stain, blemish, stigma

معتر mu‘tarr miserable, wretched; scoundrel, rogue

عرب II to Arabicize, make Arabic (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.): to translate into Arabic (هـ s.th.); to express, voice, state clearly, declare (عن s.th.); to give earnest money, give a handsel, make a down payment IV to Arabicize, make Arabic (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), give an Arabic form (هـ to s.th.); to make plain or clear, state clearly, declare (عن or هـ s.th.), express (unmistakably), utter, voice, proclaim, make known, manifest, give to understand (عن s.th., esp. a sentiment), give expression (عن to s.th., esp. to a sentiment); (gram.) to use desinential inflection, pronounce the i‘rāb V to assimilate o.s. to the Arab, become an Arab, adopt the custom, of the Arabs X = V

عرب ‘arab (coll.) pl. عروب ‘urūb, اعرب a‘rub, عربان ‘urbān, اعراب a‘rāb Arabs; true Arabs, Arabs of the desert, Bedouins

عربي ‘arabī Arab, Arabic, Arabian; truly Arabic; an Arab; العربية the ‘Arabīya, the language of the ancient Arabs; classical, or literary, Arabic

عربة ‘araba a swift river; (pl. -āt) carriage, vehicle, wagon, cart; (railroad) car, coach; araba, coach | عربة الأجرة ‘a. al-ujra cab, hack, hackney; عربة الأكل ‘a. al-akl dining car, diner; عربة رش ‘a. rašš water wagon, sprinkling wagon; عربة ركوب cab, hack, hackney; عربة الشحن ‘a. aš-šaḥn wagon, lorry; freight car; عربة مطعم (maṭ‘am) dining car, diner; عربة الأطفال baby carriage; عربة النقل ‘a. an-naql wagon, lorry, van; freight car; عربة النوم ‘a. an-naum sleeping car, sleeper; عربة يد ‘a. yad handcart, pushcart; wheelbarrow

عربية ‘arabīya pl. -āt carriage, vehicle; araba, coach; see عربي

عربجي ‘arbajī pl. -īya coachman, cabman

عربخانة ‘arbakāna car shed, coach house

عراب ‘arrāb godfather, sponsor

عرابة arrāba godmother, sponsor

اعرابي a‘rābī pl. اعراب a‘rāb an Arab of the desert, a Bedouin

عروبة ‘urūba Arabism, Arabdom, the Arab idea, the Arab character

تعريب ta‘rīb Arabicizing, Arabization; translation into Arabic; incorporation (of loanwords) into Arabic

اعراب i‘rāb manifestation, declaration, proclamation, pronouncement, utterance; expression (عن of a sentiment); desinential inflection (gram.)

معرب mu‘arrib translator into Arabic

معرب mu‘arrab Arabicized; translated into Arabic

معرب mu‘rab desinentially inflective (gram.)

مستعرب musta‘rib Arabist

عربد ‘arbada to be quarrelsome, be contentious, pick quarrels; to be noisy, boisterous, riotous, raise a din

عربد ‘arbada quarrelsomeness, contentiousness; noise, din, uproar, riot

عربيد ‘irbīd quarrelsome, contentious; noisy, boisterous, riotous

معربد mu‘arbid quarrelsome, contentious; noisy, boisterous, riotous

عربس ‘arbasa to upset, disturb, confuse (ه s.o.)

عربن ‘arbana to give earnest money, give a handsel, make a down payment (ه to s.o.)

عربون ‘urbūn, ‘arabūn pl. عرابين ‘arābīn2 handsel, earnest money, down payment; pledge, pawn, gage

عرج ‘araja u (عروج ‘urūj) to ascend, mount, rise; -- ‘arija a (‘araj) to be lame, walk lamely, limp, hobble II to turn (على to, toward); to stop, halt, stop over (على in, at); to turn (عن off s.th.), swerve (عن from); to lame, cripple, paralyze (ه s.o.); to zigzag, make zigzag (هـ s.th.) IV to lame, cripple, paralyze (ه s.o.) V to zigzag, follow a zigzag course VII to incline, lean, bend, curve; to be or become crooked, curved, bent, sinuous, winding

عرج ‘araj lameness

اعرج a‘raj2, f. عرجاء ‘arjā’2, pl. عرج ‘urj, عرجان ‘urjān lame, limping; -- jack (in a deck of cards)

معرج ma‘raj pl. معارج ma‘ārij2 place of ascent; (route of) ascent

معرج mi‘raj pl. معارج ma‘ārij2 ladder, stairs

معراج mi‘rāj; pl. معاريج ma‘ārīj2 ladder, stairs; المعراج the midnight journey to the seven heavens (made by Mohammed on the 27th of Rajab, from Jerusalem) | ليلة المعراج lailat al-m. the night of Mohammed’s ascension to the seven heavens

تعاريج ta‘ārīj2 (pl.) curves, curvatures, bends, turns, twists, windings, sinuosities; wavy lines, serpentines

تعرج ta‘arruj zigzag (course)

متعرج muta‘arrij winding, twisting, tortuous, sinuous; zigzag

منعرج mun‘arij crooked, curved, bent, winding, twisting, tortuous, sinuous

منعرج mun‘araj pl. -āt bend, turn, curve, twist, angle (of roads, etc.)

عرزال ‘irzāl hut or shack of the rural warden (usually in a tree or on top of a roof)

عرس II (nejd.) to marry (ب ه s.o. to) IV to arrange a wedding feast

عرس ‘urs, ‘urus pl. اعراس a‘rās, عرسات ‘urusāt marriage; wedding, wedding feast

عرس ‘irs pl. اعراس a‘rās husband; wife | ابن عرس ibn ‘irs pl. بنات عرس banāt ‘irs weasel (zool.)

عرسة ‘irsa weasel

عروس ‘arūs pl. عرس ‘urus bridegroom; f. (pl. عرائس ‘arā’is) bride; doll; العروسان al-‘arūsān bride and groom, the newlyweds | عرائس النيل ‘a. an-nīl lotus

عروسة ‘arūsa pl. عرائس ‘arā’is2 bride; doll, baby doll | عروسة البرقع ‘a. al-burqu‘ metal tubes ornamenting the veil of Muslim women

عريس ‘arīs bridegroom

عريس ‘irrīs lair of a lion, lion’s den

عرش ‘araša i u to erect a trellis (هـ for grapevines), train on a trellis or espalier, to trellis, to espalier (هـ vines) II to roof over (هـ s.th.)

عرش ‘arš pl. عروش ‘urūš, اعراش a‘rāš throne; tribe (magr.)

عريش ‘arīš pl. عرش ‘uruš, عرائش ‘arā’iš2 arbor, bower; hut made of twigs; booth, shack, shanty; trellis (for grapevines); shaft, carriage pole

العريش El Arish (town in N Egypt, on Mediterranean)

تعريشة ta‘rīša pl. تعاريش ta‘ārīš2 trellis, lattice-work; arbor, bower

عرص ‘araṣa a (‘araṣ) to be lively, gay, merry

عرص ‘arṣa pl. ‘araṣāt, اعراص a‘rāṣ vacant lot; courtyard, court of a house

معرص mu‘arraṣ pimp, procurer; cuckold

1 عرض ‘aruḍa u to be or become wide, broad, to widen, broaden; -- ‘araḍa i (‘arḍ) to become visible, appear (ل to s.o.); to get in s.o.’s (ل ) way; to happen (ل to s.o.), befall (ل s.o.); to occur (ل to s.o.), come to s.o.’s (ل ) mind; to turn (ل to s.o., to s.th.); to take care (ل of), concern o.s. (ل with), turn one’s attention, put one’s mind, apply o.s., attend (ل to), go in (ل for), go into s.th. (ل ), enter, embark (ل upon), take up, treat (ل s.th.), deal (ل with); to show, demonstrate, present, set forth, display, exhibit, lay open, submit, turn in (على هـ s.th. to s.o.), lay, put (على هـ s.th. before s.o.); to show (هـ e.g., a film), stage (هـ e.g., a play); to offer, suggest, propose (على هـ s.th. to s.o.); to subject (على هـ s.th. to a critical examination, and the like); to inspect (هـ s.th.); to review (هـ troops), pass in review (هـ s.th., also before one’s mental eye); pass. ‘uriḍa to be or go mad, insane | عرض له عارض an obstacle arose in his path; عرض له خاطر a thought occurred to him, he had an idea II to make wide or broad, widen, broaden, extend (هـ s.th.); to expose (ل هـ, ه s.o., s.th. to s.th., esp. to risk: ل هـ s.th. to the sun); to intimate, insinuate (ل or ب s.th.), allude (ل or ب to), hint (ل or ب at) | عرضه للنور to hold s.th. against the light III to offer resistance (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.), resist (هـ , s.o., s.th.), work against s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه ); to contradict, oppose (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), raise objections, protest, remonstrate (هـ, ه against s.o., against s.th.); to be against s.o. or s.th. (هـ , .); to avoid, shun (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to compare (ب هـ s.th. with) IV to turn away, avert o.s. (ب from), avoid, shun (عن s.o., s.th.), shirk (عن s.th.), give up, abandon, relinquish, discard, renounce, disclaim (عن s.th.); not to mention (عن s.th.): اعرض عن الى to turn away from s.th. and to s.th. else V to resist, oppose (ل s.o., s.th.), stand up (ل against), raise objections, object (ل to); to face (ل s.th., e.g., a problem); to interfere (ل with), meddle (ل in); to put one’s mind, turn one’s attention (ل to), go into s.th. (ل , e.g., a topic): to undertake (ل s.th.), embark (ل upon s.th.); to expose o.s., be exposed, be subjected (ل to s.th.); to run the risk (ل of), risk (ل doing or being s.th.); to dare, venture, risk (ل s.th.) VI to oppose one another; to be contradictory, conflict, be incompatible (مع with) VIII to betake o.s., go, present o.s. (ه to s.o.); to raise an objection, make objections, object (على to). veto (على s.th.), remonstrate, protest (على against); to resist, oppose (على s.o., s.th.); to stand up (ل or هـ, ه against s.o., against s.th.), stand in, or obstruct, the way of s.o. or s.th. (ل or هـ, ه ); to hinder impede, obstruct (ل s.o.); to happen (ه to s.o.), befall (ه s.o.) | اعترض سبيله to block s.o.’s way X to ask to be shown (ه s.o., هـ s.th.); to pass in review (هـ s.th., esp. in one’s imagination, before one’s mental eye), call up, conjure up, call to one’s mind, picture to o.s., visualize (هـ s.th.); to weigh, consider, examine (هـ s.th.); to inspect, review (هـ troops); to expound, set forth (هـ s.th.); to proceed ruthlessly; to massacre without much ado (هم the enemy)

عرض ‘arḍ pl. عروض ‘urūḍ breadth; width; presentation, demonstration, staging, show(ing), performance; display, exposition, exhibition; submission, filing (e.g., of an application); proposition, proposal, offer, tender; parade; review (mil.); merchandise, goods | بالعرض across, crosswise, in breadth; العرض والطلب (ṭalab) supply and demand; عرض الأزياء ‘a. al-azyā’ fashion show; عرض حال ‘a. ḥāl or عرضحال pl. عرضحالات ‘arḍuḥālāt application, petition, memorial; خط (درجة) العرض kaṭṭ (darajat) al-‘a. degree of latitude; شباك العرض šubbāk al-‘a. show window; يوم العرض yaum al-‘a. the Day of Judgment, Doomsday

عرضي ‘arḍī cross- (in compounds), transverse, horizontal | خط عرضي (kaṭṭ) latitudinal degree, geographical latitude

عرض ‘urḍ pl. اعراض a‘rāḍ honor, good repute; dignity | انا في عرضك I rely on your generosity, have mercy upon me!

عرض ‘urḍ side; middle | في عرض البحر (‘u. il-baḥr) at sea, on the high seas; القى (ضرب) به عرض الحائط to undervalue, scorn, disdain, despise, reject s.th.; to ruin, thwart, foil s.th.; to throw s.th. overboard, jettison s.th.; نظر اليه عن عرض (‘an ‘urdin) he looked askance at him, he gave him a slanting glance (contemptuously); في عرض الناس amid the crowd of people; هو من عرض الناس he belongs to the common people

عرضاني ‘arḍānī transversal, transverse, latitudinal; measured crosswise

عرض ‘araḍ pl. اعراض a‘rāḍ accident (philos.); contingent, nonessential characteristic; s.th. nonessential, a contingent, s.th. accidental: symptom, manifestation of disease; عرضا ‘araḍan, بالعرض incidentally, by chance

عرضي ‘araḍī accidental (philos.), non-essential, unessential; incidental, accidental, contingent, fortuitous, casual; عرضيات ‘arādīyāt unessential incidents, unessentials; accidentals | خطيئة عرضية venial sin (Chr.)

عرضة ‘urḍa target; (object of) intention, intent, design; object (ل of): exposed, subject(ed), liable (ل to s.th.); (with foll. genit.) suitable for, fitting for, appropriate for

عروض ‘arūḍ prosody; (pl. اعاريض a‘ārīḍ2) last foot of the first hemistich | علم العروض ‘ilm al-‘a. metrics, prosody

عروضي ‘arūḍī prosodic(al), metrical

عريض ‘arīḍ pl. عراض ‘irāḍ broad, wide; extensive, vast

عريضة ‘arīḍa pl. عرائض ‘arā’iḍ2 petition, application, memorial

معرض ma‘riḍ pl. معارض ma‘āriḍ2 place where s.th. is exhibited or displayed; showroom, stage; exposition, exhibition; show; fair (com.); (with foll. genit.) time, occasion for s.th. | في معرض (with foll. genit.) in the form of ..., in manner; on the occasion of, at the occurrence or appearance of; لسنا الآن في معرض (lasnā) with foll. verbal noun: this is not the place for us to ...; لسنا في معرض الكلام عن let us not speak of now, this is not the place to speak of ...; معرض الأزياء m. al-azyā’ fashion show; معرض الصحف m. aṣ-ṣuḥuf press review

معرض mi‘raḍ wedding gown

معراض mi‘rāḍ: قال في معراض كلامه (m. kalāmihī) to mention casually, say among other things

تعريض ta‘rīḍ intimation, allusion, hint, indication

معارضة mu‘āraḍa opposition (esp. pol.); resistance, contradiction, remonstrance, objection, exception, protect; O resistance (el.)

اعراض i‘rāḍ shunning, avoidance, evasion; reluctance | في اعراض reluctantly

تعارض ta‘āruḍ conflict, clash, antagonism, contradiction, contrariety

اعتراض i‘tirāḍ pl. -āt resistance, opposition, objection, exception, counterargument, counterassertion, counterblast, riposte, rebuttal, rejoinder, expostulation, remonstrance, protest; (right of) veto (Isl. Law) | حق الاعتراض ḥaqq al-i‘t. (right of) veto (pol.)

استعراض isti‘rāḍ examination, survey; parade, review; revue, musical show

استعراضي isti‘rāḍī revue-, show- (in compounds), revue-like | فرقة استعراضية (firqa) Show troupe; revue troupe; فلم استعراضي film musical

عارض ‘āriḍ pl. -ūn exhibitor (e.g., at a fair); demonstrator; -- (pl. عوارض ‘awāriḍ) obstacle, impediment, obstruction; temporary disturbance, anomalous condition (physically); attack, fit, spell; s.th. accidental, s.th. nonessential, an accidcnt; side of the face; -- العارضان the cheeks | خفيف العارضين k. al-‘āriḍain having a sparse beard; في عارض الطريق in the middle of the road

عارضة āriḍa pl. -āt woman demonstrator, woman exhibitor; -- (pl. عوارض ‘awāriḍ2) side of the face; doorpost, jamb; crossbeam, transom; joist, girder; purlin; O anode (el.) | قوة العارضة qūwat al-‘ā. eloquence; عارضة الأزياء mannequin

عارضي ‘āridī accidental, casual, occasional

معروض ma‘rūd pl. معاريض ma‘ārīḍ2 exposition, report; memorial, petition, application; -- pl. -āt propositions, proposals, offers, tenders; exhibits, exhibited articles

معارض mu‘āriḍ adversary, opponent, antagonist, opposer; contradicter

معترض mu‘tariḍ running or lying across, transversal, transverse; adversary, opponent, antagonist, opposer; contradicter; resistance (el.) | جملة معترضة (jumla) parenthetical clause, parenthesis

2 عرضي ‘urḍī (from Turk. ordu) military encampment, army camp

عرف ‘arafa i (معرفة ma‘rifa, عرفان ‘irfān) to know (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to recognize, perceive (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to be cognizant, be aware (هـ of s.th.), be acquainted (هـ with s.th.), to discover, experience, find out (هـ s.th.); to recognize, acknowledge (ب s.th., هـ s.th. as being right; هـ هـ s.th. as); to concede, acknowledge (ل هـ s.th. to s.o.), allow (ل هـ for s.th. in s.o.); to approve (هـ of); to distinguish, differentiate (من هـ, ه s.o., s.th. from); pass. ‘urifa to be known (ب as, by the name of) | عرف حق المعرفة (ḥaqqa l-m.) to know for sure, be sure (of), be positive (about); عرفت له الجميل she was grateful to him, she appreciated his service, she gratefully acknowledged his service II to announce (هـ ه to s.o. s.th.), inform, advise, apprise (هـ ه s.o. of), acquaint (هـ ه s.o. with s.th.); to introduce (الى or ب ه s.o. to s.o. else), have (ه s.o.) meet (الى or ب s.o. else), present (ب ه s.o. to s.o. else); to define (هـ s.th.); to determine, specify, characterize, explain (هـ s.th.); (gram.) to make definite (هـ a noun); (Chr.) to confess (ه a penitent), hear the confession (ه of s.o.) V to become acquainted (ب or الى also على with s.o.), meet (ب or الى s.o.), make the acquaintance of s.o. (ب or الى ); to make o.s. known, disclose one’s identity, reveal o.s. (الى to s.o.); to acquaint o.s., familiarize o.s. (ل or الى with), get to know (على or الى s.th.); to sound, explore (هـ s.th.); to trace, discover, uncover (هـ s.th.); (gram.) to be or become definite (noun) VI to become acquainted with one another, become mutually acquainted, get to know each other; to become acquainted (ب with); to come to know (هـ s.th.), learn (هـ about) VIII to confess, admit, acknowledge, own, avow (هـ s.th.); to recognize (ب s.o., s.th.), grant recognition (ب to s.o., to s.th.); to concede, acknowledge (ل ب s.th. to s.o.); to make a confession, to confess (Chr.) | اعترف بالجميل to be grateful X to discern, recognize (هـ s.th.)

عرف ‘arf fragrance, perfume, scent, aroma

عرف ‘urf beneficence, kindness; custom, usage, practice, convention, tradition, habit; legal practice; custom, customary law (jur.); (pl. اعراف a‘rāf) crest, comb (or a rooster), mane (of a horse) | في عرفه as was his wont, according to his habit; in his opinion; العرف السياسي (siyāsī) protocol

عرفي ‘urfī traditional, conventional, usual, common, customary, habitual; pertaining to secular legal practice (as opposed to šar‘ī); private, unofficial (as opposed to rasmī) | الحكم العرفي (ḥukm) martial law; الأحكام العرفية do.; محكمة عرفية (maḥkama) court-martial

عرف ‘arīf pl. عرفاء ‘urafā’2 knowing (ب s.th.), cognizant, aware (ب of s.th.); expert, authority, specialist; teaching assistant, monitor (an older pupil assisting the teacher of a Koran school); sergeant (Ir.); corporal (U.A.R); رئيس العرفاء a military rank, approx.: master sergeant (Ir., Syr.); نائب عريف approx.: corporal (Ir.); (pl. عرفان ‘irfān) teacher, esp. a teacher and precentor of congregational singing (Copt.-Chr.)

عراف ‘arrāf diviner, fortuneteller

عرافة ‘arrāfa pl. -āt (woman) fortuneteller

عرافة ‘irāfa fortuneteller’s trade; fortunetelling, divination

عرفات ‘arafāt Arafat, name of a mountain and adjacent plain, located four hours’ distance east of Mecca, where the Mecca pilgrims spend the9th day of Zu’lhijja

عرفان ‘irfān cognition, knowledge, perception; recognition, acknowledgment | عرفان الجميل gratitude, thankfulness; عرفان الفضل ‘i. al-faḍl do.

اعرف a‘raf2 knowing better (ب s.th.), more cognizant. more knowledgeable (ب of), better acquainted. more conversant (ب with), more expert, more versed (ب in); a better connoisseur (ب of); (f. عرفاء ‘arfā’2) having a crest or mane, crested, maned

معرفة ma‘rifa pl. معارف ma‘ārif2 knowledge, learning, lore, information. Skill, know-how; cognition, intellection, perception, experience, realization; gnosis; acquaintance, cognizance, conversance, versedness; an acquainted person, an acquaintance, a friend; (gram.) definite noun; pl. المعارف cultural affairs, education | بمعرفة by, through (after the passive); مع المعرفة knowingly, deliberately (jur.); وزير المعارف العمومية (‘umāmīya) minister of education; لم يكن معرفة في قومه (qaumihī) he was unknown among his people

معارف ma‘ārif2 face, countenance, features

تعريف ta‘rīf pl. -āt, تعاريف ta‘ārīf2 announcement, notification, communication, information; instruction, direction; (social) introduction; definition, determination, identification, specification, characterization; a rendering definite (gram.) | اداة التعريف adāt at-t. (gram.) the definite article; بطاقة التعريف identity card

تعريفة ta‘rīfa notification, information, apprising; -- (pl. -āt, تعاريف ta‘ārīf2) tariff; price list

تعرف ta‘arruf acquaintance (ب or الى with); exploration, study; cognition, knowledge, perception, realization

اعتراف i‘tirāf recognition, acceptance; acknowledgment, avowal, admission, confession; (Chr.) confession | اعترافا ب in recognition of; الاعتراف بالجميل (bi-l-jamīl) gratitude, thankfulness; ابو الاعتراف father-confessor, confessor (Chr.); سر الاعتراف sirr al-i‘t. sacrament of penance (Chr.); معلم الاعتراف mu‘allim al-i‘t. father-confessor, confessor (Chr.); من الاعتراف ان it must be admitted that ..., admittedly ...

عارف ‘ārif acquainted, conversant, familiar (ب with); connoisseur, expert; master (tun.)

عارفة ‘ārifa (syr.) sage, wise man (of a village or tribe)

معروف ma‘rūf known, well-known; universally accepted, generally recognized; conventional; that which is good, beneficial, or fitting, good, benefit; fairness, equity, equitableness; kindness, friendliness, amicability; beneficence; favor rendered, courtesy, mark of friendship; active voice (gram.) | بالمعروف or بمعروف in (all) fairness; with appropriate courtesy, in a friendly manner, amicably; ناكر المعروف ungrateful; المعروف ان it is (well-) known that ..., as is well-known ..., it is commonly held that ..., it is generally understood that ...

متعارف muta‘āraf or متعارف عليه common, usual, customary; commonplace, trivial, trite, hackneyed, banal

معترف mu‘taraf confessor (in the hierarchy of saints; Chr.)

معترف به mu‘taraf bihī recognized, accepted, admitted, granted, approved-of, licensed, authorized هـ ‘ariqa a (‘araq) to sweat, perspire II to make or let (ه s.o.) sweat, promote perspiration; to add water (هـ to a drink), dilute (هـ a drink); to take root, strike roots; to be deeply rooted; to vein, marble (هـ s.th.) IV to take root, strike roots V = IV

عرق ‘irq pl. عروق ‘urūq root; stem (of a plant, of a leaf); vein (bot., anat.); hereditary disposition; race, stock, descent | عرق الذهب ‘i. ad-dahab ipecac, ipecacuanha (bot.); عرق سوس ‘i. sūs licorice root; عرق النسا ‘i. an-nasā sciatica (med.); طيب العرق ṭīb al-‘i. noble descent; طيب العرق ṭayyib al-‘i. of noble descent, high born; العرق دساس (dassās) blood will tell, what ill bred in the bone will come out in the flesh; ضرب فيه بعرق to have a share in s.th., participate in s.th.

عرق ‘araq sweat, perspiration; arrack, a strong colorless liquor made of raisins, milky white when diluted with water

(esp. syr.; = eg. zabīb) | عرق القربة ‘a. al-qirba pains, toil, exertion; عرق زحلاوي (zaḥlāwī) a well-known brand of arrack made in Zahlé (Lebanon)

عرقة ‘araqa transom between two layers of stone or brick

عرقية ‘araqīya (eg.) white cotton skullcap often worn under the tarboosh)

عراقة ‘arāaqa deep-rootedness; ancient ancestral line, old family | عراقة في النسب (nasab) noble descent

عراقية ‘arrāqīya (eg.) white cotton skullcap (often worn under the tarboosh)

عريق ‘arīq deep-rooted | عريق في القدم (qidam) ancient; centuried, centuries-old; من عائلة عريقة from an old, respectable family; عريق النسب ‘a. an-nasab of noble descent, highborn

العراق al-‘irāq Iraq; العراقان al-‘irāqān Basra and Kufa

عراق ‘irāqī Iraqi, Iraqian; (pl. -ūn) an Iraqi

اعرق a’raq2 more deep-rooted

معروق ma‘rūq gaunt, emaciated, lean (face, hand, etc.)

معرق mu‘arriq sudorific, promoting perspiration

معرق mu‘arraq veined; mu‘riq firmly rooted | معرق في القدم (mu‘riq, qidam) very old, ancient, centuried, centuries-old

عرقب ‘arqaba to hamstring (هـ an animal)

عرقوب ‘urqūb pl. عراقيب ‘arāqīb2 Achilles’ tendon; hamstring; ‘urqūb name of a famed liar | اكذب من عرقوب a greater liar than ‘Urqūb

عرقوبي ‘urqūbī false, deceitful (promise)

عرقل ‘arqala to render difficult, complicate, handicap, hinder, hamper, encumber, impede, obstruct, delay (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), throw obstacle, in the way of s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه ); (tun.) to seize, confiscate, impound (هـ s.th.) II ta‘arqala to be aggravated, rendered difficult, be or become complicated, be hindered, hampered, encumbered, impeded, obstructed, handicapped, delayed

عرقلة ‘arqala impeding, hindering, encumbering; -- (pl. عراقيل ‘arāqīl2) encumbrance, impediment, hindrance; obstacle, difficulty, handicap

عرك ‘araka u (‘ark) to rub (هـ s.th.); to turn, adjust (هـ the knobs of a radio, and the like) ; to play havoc (هـ with), damage severely (هـ s.th.); -- ‘arika a to be strong in battle, be a tough fighter III to fight, struggle, contend (ه with s.o.) VI to engage in a fight, fight one another VIII = VI

عرك ‘ark experience (gained through suffering)

عركة ‘arka fight, struggle, battle, combat

عريكة ‘arīka disposition, frame of mind, temper, nature

معركة ma‘raka, ma‘ruka pl. معارك ‘arik2 battlefield; battle

عراك ‘irāk struggle, fight, strife, battle, combat

معاركة mu’āraka struggle, fight, strife, battle, combat

عرك mu’tarak fighting ground, battle ground

عرم II to heap up, pile up, stack (هـ s.th.) VIII to be vicious; to be stubborn, obstinate, headstrong

عرم ‘arim vicious; strong, violent, vehement, powerful, terrific; dam, dike | جيش عرم (jaiš) numerous, huge army

عرام ‘urām viciousness (of character); violence, vehemence | سيل عرام (sail) huge quantity, tremendous flood

عرمة ‘urma pl. عرم ‘uram heap, pile, bulk, mass, large amount, multitude

عرمة ‘arama pl. عرم ‘aram heap, pile, bulk, mass, huge amount, multitude

عارم ‘ārim vicious; tempestuous, violent, vehement, strong; tremendous, enormous, huge

عرمرم ‘aramram strong, violent, vehement | جيش عرمرم (jaiš) a numerous, huge army

عرين ‘arīn pl. عرن ‘urun thicket; lair of a lion, lion’s den

عرينة ‘arīna pl. عرائن ‘arā’in2 lair of a wild animal

عرنين ‘irnīn pl. عرانين ‘arānīn2 upper part of the nose, bridge of the nose

عرناس ’irnās pl. عرانيس ‘arānīs2 distaff | عرناس ذرة ‘i. dura corncob (syr.)

عرا (عرو ) ‘arā u (‘arw) and VIII to befall, grip, seize, strike, afflict (ه s.o.), come, descend (ه upon s.o.), happen (ه to s.o.); to take possession (ه of s.o.)

عروة ‘urwa pl. عرى ‘uran buttonhole; loop, noose, coil; ear, handle (of a jug, and the like); tie, bond, e.g., عرى الصداقة ‘u. aṣ-ṣadāqa bonds of friendship; support, prop, stay | العروة الوثقى (wutqā) the firm, reliable grip or hold, the firm tie

عري ‘ariya a (‘ury, عرية ‘urya) to be naked, nude; to be free, be bare (عن of) | عري عن (من) ثيابه to take off one’s clothes, strip (naked), undress, have no clothes on; عرى عن كل اساس (asās) to be completely unfounded, be without any foundation II to disrobe, unclothe, undress (ه s.o.); to bare, denude, lay bare, uncover (ه s.th.); to strip (من ثيابه ه s.o. of hill clothes); to deprive, divest, strip (ه من s.o. of s.th.)

عري ‘ūry nakedness, nudity; unsaddled (horse)

عرية ‘urya nakedness, nudity

عراء ‘arā’ nakedness, nudity; bareness; open space, open country | في العراء in the open air, under the open sky, outside, outdoors; مسرح في العراء (masraḥ) open-air theater

عريان ‘uryān pl. عرايا ‘arāyā naked, nude, undressed, bare | عريان ملط (malṭ)`stark-naked (eg.)

O عريانية ‘uryānīya nudism

المعاري al-ma‘ārī the uncovered parts of the body (hands, feet, face)

عار ‘ārin pl. عراة ‘urāh naked, nude, undressed, bare; free, devoid, destitute, bare, deprived, stripped, denuded (من or عن of s.th.); blank, bare (e.g., a room), stark (e.g., a narrative) | عاري الأقدام barefoot(ed), unshod

عز ‘azza i (‘izz, عزة ‘izza عزازة ‘azāza) to be or become strong, powerful, respected; to be or become rare, scarce, be scarcely to be found; to be or become dear, cherished, precious (على to s.o.); عز عليه ان he is sorry that ...; to be hard, difficult (على for s.o.); to hurt, pain (على s.o.), be painful (على for s.o.), be hard (على on s.o.) II to make strong. strengthen, reinforce, fortify, corroborate, confirm, solidify, invigorate, harden, advance, support (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to consolidate (هـ s.th,); to honor (ه s.o.); to raise in esteem, elevate, exalt (ه s.o.); to make dear, endear (ه s.o.) | عزز جانبه to strengthen, reinforce, fortify, solidify, consolidate s.th., make s.th. strong, powerful, mighty IV to make strong, strengthen, fortify, reinforce, invigorate, harden, steel (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to love (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to honor (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to esteem, value, prize (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to make dear, endear (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) V to be or become strong, powerful, mighty, forceful, strengthened, fortified, reinforced, invigorated, hardened, solidified, consolidated; to be proud, boast (ب of), pride o.s., glory, exult (ب in) VIII to feel strong or powerful (ب due to, because of); to be proud, boast (ب of), pride o.s., glory, exult (ب in); to arrogate to o.s. (ب s.th.) X to overwhelm, overcome (على s.o.); to become powerful, mighty, respected, honored, be exalted; to make or hold dear, value highly, esteem (ه s.o.)

عز might, power, standing, weight; strength, force; honor. glory, high rank, fame, celebrity, renown | عزها Her Highness (title); في عز شبابه (šabābihī) in the prime of his youth

عزة ‘izza might, power, standing, weight; strength. force; honor, glory, high rank, fame, celebrity. renown; pride | عزة الجانب power, might; العزة القومية (qaumīya) national pride; عزة النفس ‘i. an-nafs sense of honor, self-respect, self-esteem; صاحب العزة title of a bey

عزيز ‘azīz pl. اعزاء a‘izzā’2, اعزة a‘izza mighty, powerful, respected, distinguished, notable; strong; noble, esteemed, venerable, august; honorable; rare, scarce, scarcely to be found; difficult, hard (على for); precious, costly, valuable; dear, beloved (على to), cherished, valued (على by); friend; ruler, overlord | عزيزي my dear! (esp. as a salutation in letters); عزيز الجانب mighty, powerful, strong

اعز a‘azz2 mightier, more powerful; stronger; dearer, more beloved; العزى al-‘uzzā a goddess of the pagan Arabs

معزة ma‘azza esteem, regard, affection, love

تعزيز ta‘zīz pl. -āt strengthening, consolidation, support, backing

اعزاز i‘zāz strengthening, fortification, reinforcement, consolidation; love, affection, esteem, regard

اعتزاز i‘tizāz pride (ب in)

معتز mu‘tazz proud; mighty, powerful

عزب ‘azaba i u (عزوب ‘uzūb) to be far, be distant (عن from); to slip, escape (عن s.o.’s mind) | عزب عن الأذهان to be forgotten, sink into oblivion; -- ‘azaba u (عزبة ‘uzba, عزوبة ‘uzūba) to be single, unmarried

عزب ‘azab pl. عزاب ‘uzzāb, اعزاب a‘zāb celibate, single, unmarried; bachelor

عزبة ‘izba pl. عزب ‘izab (eg.) country estate, farm; rural settlement

عزبة ‘uzba celibacy; bachelorhood

عزوبة ‘uzūba celibacy; bachelorhood

اعزب a‘zab2 celibate, single, unmarried; bachelor

معزب mu‘azzab sheik, emir (Nejd)

عزر ‘azara i (‘azr) to censure, rebuke, reprove, reprimand (ه s.o.); to refuse to have anything to do with s.o.; -- ‘azara i to curb, restrain, subdue (ه s.o.’s pride, and the like) II to censure, rebuke, reprove. reprimand (ه s.o.); to refuse to have anything to do with s.o.

عزر ’azr censure, blame, rebuke, reproof, reprimand

تعزير ta‘zīr censure, blame, rebuke, reproof, reprimand; chastisement, castigation

اعتزار i‘tizār self-discipline

عزرائيل ‘izrā’īl2 Azrael, the angel of death

عزف ‘azala i (‘af) to play (على on a musical instrument, هـ tunes); to play (ل to or for s.o.), make music (ل for s.o.); -- i u (‘azf, عزوف ‘uzūf) to turn away (عن from s.th.), become averse (عن to s.th.), avoid, shun (عن s.th.), abstain, refrain (ان from doing s.th.)

عزوف ‘azūf disinclined, averse (عن to s.th.)

معزف mi‘zaf pl. معازف ma‘āzif2 stringed instrument; O piano

عازف ‘āzif player, (musical) performer

معزوفة ma‘zūfa pl. -āt piece of music, performance, recital (on an instrument)

عزق ‘azaqa i (‘azq) to hoe, dig up, break up, loosen (الأرض al-arḍa the soil)

معزقة mi‘zaqa pl. معازق ma‘āziq2 hoe, mattock

عزل ‘azala i (‘azl) to remove, set aside, isolate, separate, segregate, detach, cut off (عن هـ, ه s.o., s.th. from); to depose (ه s.o.), release, dismiss, discharge (ه s.o. عن منصبه ‘an manṣibihī of his office) IV اعزل منصبه (manṣibahū) to give up one’s position, resign VII to be or become isolated, cut off, separated, segregated, detached (عن from) VIII to keep away, stand aloof, leave, withdraw; to retire, seclude o.s., segregate, secede, detach o.s., dissociate o.s., separate o.s., isolate o.s. (عن or هـ, ه from s.o., from s.th.), part (عن or هـ, ه with s.o., with s.th.); to be or get deposed | اعتزل الخدمة (kidmata), اعتزل العمل (‘amala) to retire from service, from work, go into retirement

عزل ‘azl removal, dissociation, detachment, setting aside, isolation (also, e.g., in case of contagious disease), cutting-off, segregation, separation; deposition, discharge, dismissal | حائط عزل الحرق (ḥarq) fire wall; غير قابل للعزل irremovable, appointed for life tenure (judge)

عزل ‘azal unarmedness, defenselessness

عزل ‘uzul unarmed, defenseless

عزلة ‘uzla retirement, seclusion, retreat, privacy; segregation, reparation, detachedness; insulation, insularity, isolatedness; isolation; solitude | في عزلة عن secluded, segregated, cut off, detached, separated, insulated, isolated from

عزلة ‘izla pl. عزل ‘izal subdistrict of a nāḥiya (Yemen)

عزال ‘izāl (eg.) furniture, household effects, movable goods, luggage

اعزل a‘zal2, f. عزلاء ‘azlā’2, pl. عزل ‘uzl unarmed, defenseless | السماك الأعزل star α in the constellation Virgo, Spica Virginia (astron.)

معزل ma‘zil pl. معازل ma‘āzil2 place of retirement, house of retreat; seclusion, segregation, isolation; isolation ward (in a hospital) | بمعزل عن separated, detached, apart, secluded, segregated, isolated from

انعزال in‘izāl detachedness, seclusion, segregation, insularity, insulation; isolation

انعتزالية in‘izālīya isolationism

اعتزال i‘tizāl retirement, seclusion, retreat, privacy | اعتزال الخدمة i‘tizāl al-kidma retirement from service

O عازل ‘āzil insulator (el.)

O عازلة ‘āzila pl. -āt, ‘awāzil2 insulator, nonconductor (el.)

معزول ma‘zūl far, distant, remote (عن from); isolated, insulated

منعزل mun‘azil isolated, single, solitary, sporadic

المعتزلة al-mu‘tazila name of a theological school which introduced speculative dogmatism into Islam

معتزل mu‘tazal pl. -āt (place of) solitude, (place of) retirement

عزم ‘azama i (‘azm, عزيمة ‘azīma) to decide, resolve (على on s.th.); to make up one’s mind, determine, be determined, be resolved (على to do s.th.), be bent (على on s.th.); to adjure (على s.o.); to invite (ه s.o. ان or على to or to do s.th.) II to enchant, spellbind (على s.o., s.th., by magic rites) VIII to decide, resolve (على or هـ on s.th.), make up one’s mind, determine, be determined, be resolved (على or هـ to do s.th.), be bent (على or هـ on s.th.)

عزم ‘azm determination, firm will, firm intention, decision, resolution; energy

عزمة ‘azma decision, resolution; strict order (ب to do s.th.)

عزوم ‘azūm determined, resolved, resolute

عزومة ‘azūma invitation; banquet

عزيمة ‘azīma determination, firm will, firm intention; (pl. عزائم ‘azā’im2) resolution (على to do s.th.), decision; incantation; spell

عازم ‘āzim determined, resolved (على to do s.th.)

معتزم mu‘tazim determined, resolved (على to do s.th.)

(عزو and عزي) عزا ‘azā u (‘azw) and عزى ‘azā i (‘azy) to trace (back) (ل or الى هـ s.th. to an origin), ascribe, attribute, impute, owe (ل or الى A s.th. to s.o., to s.th.); to charge, incriminate (ل or الى هـ with s.th. s.o. or s.th.), blame (الى هـ for s.th. s.o. or s.th.), lay the blame (الى هـ for s.th. on s.o., on s.th.); -- عزي ‘aziya a (عزاء ‘azā’) and عزا ‘azā u (عزاء ‘aza’) to take patience, console o.s. II to persuade (ه s.o.) to bear with equanimity (في or عن s.th., the death of s.o. or the loss of s.th.), comfort, console (عن ه s.o. over), give comfort, express one’s sympathy, offer one’s condolences (ه to s.o.) V to take patience; to console o.s. (عن for) VII to console o.s. (ب with), find solace (ب in) VIII to trace (back) one’s descent (الى to)

عزو ‘azw tracing back, ascription, attribution; imputation, accusation

عزوة ‘izwa: حسن العزوة ḥasan al-‘i. of good ancestry, of good stock

عزاء ‘azā’ composure, equanimity; comfort, consolation, solace; ceremony of mourning

تعزية ta‘ziya pl. تعاز ta‘āzin consolation, solace, comfort; condolence | رفع تعزيته to express one’s sympathy, offer one’s condolences; قدم التعازي (qaddama) do.

معز mu‘azzin comforter, consoler, condoler

عس ‘assa u (‘ass) to make the rounds by night, patrol by night

عسعس patrol (as a body of men)

عسس ‘asas guard | العسة المصونة (maṣūna) (formerly:) the bodyguard of the Bey of Tunisia

عسيب ‘asīb tail bone (of the horse); (pl. عسب ‘usub) a palm branch stripped of its leaves

يعسوب ya‘sūb pl. يعاسيب ya‘āsīb2 male bee, drone; notable, chief, leader

عوسج ‘ausaj boxthorn (Lycium europaeum

L. and Lycium arabicum Schwf.; bot.)

عسجد ‘asjad gold

عسجدي ‘asjadī golden

معسجد mu‘asjad gilded

عسر ‘asura u (‘usr, ‘usur) and ‘asira a (‘asar) to be difficult, hard, trying, adverse (على for s.o.); -- ‘asara i u (‘asr) to press, urge (على ه s.o. to); to force, compel, coerce (على ه s.o. to) II to make difficult or hard (هـ s.th.); to act hostilely (على toward s.o.); to oppress, distress (على s.o.), bear down hard (على on s.o.) III to treat (ه s.o.) roughly or harshly IV to be in distress, be in a fix, in a predicament; to become impoverished, be reduced to poverty, be up against it, be in financial straits, live in straitened circumstances V to be difficult, hard, trying, adverse (على for s.o.) VI = V; X = V; to find (هـ s.th.) difficult, hard, trying, or adverse

عسر ‘usr difficulty, trying or distressful situation, predicament, plight, fix, pinch, press, straits, straightened circumstances, distress, poverty, destitution

عسر ‘asir hard, difficult; trying, distressing, adverse

عسر ‘usra = عسر ‘usr

عسير ‘asīr difficult, hard, harsh, rough; Asir (mountainous district in SW Arabia, between Hejaz and Yemen)

اعسر a‘sar2 left-handed; harder, more difficult

معسرة ma‘sara = عسر ‘usr

اعسار i‘sār poverty; financial straits, insolvency

تعسر ta‘assur difficulty

معسور ma‘sūr (living) in straitened circumstances

معسر mu‘sir (living) in straitened circumstances; poor, impoverished

متعسر muta‘assir hard, difficult, trying, distressing, adverse

عسعس ‘as‘asa to darken, grow dark

عسف ‘asafa i (‘asf) to act recklessly or thoughtlessly (في in s.th.), do (في s.th.) rashly; to treat unjustly, oppress, tyrannize (ه s.o.) II to overburden, overtask, overtax (ه s.o.) IV = II; V to do (هـ s.th.) at random, haphazardly, dispose arbitrarily (في of); to deviate, stray (عن from) VIII to do (هـ s.th.) at random, haphazardly; to deviate, stray (عن from); to go astray; to force, compel, coerce (ب ه s.o. to)

عسف ‘asūf injustice, oppression, tyranny

عسوف ‘asūf oppressor, despot, tyrant

عساف ‘assāf oppressor, despot, tyrant

تعسف ta‘assuf arbitrariness; an arbitrary, liberal, inaccurate manner of using the language; aberration; deviation

تعسفي ta‘assufī arbitrary; despotic, tyrannical

اعتساف i‘tisāf straying, aberration, deviation; coercion, compulsion, force

عسقلان ‘asqalān2 Ashkelon (seaport in SW Palestine)

عسكر ‘askar pl. عساكر ‘asākir2 army, host, troops | عساكر ضابطية (ḍābiṭīya) constabulary, police troops

عسكري ‘askarī military, army- (in compounds); pl. العسكريون the military; -- pl. عساكر ‘asākir2) soldier; private (mil.); policeman; pl. enlisted men, ranks

عسكرية ‘askarīya military service; militarism; soldiership, soldiery, soldierliness

معسكر mu‘askar pl. -āt military encampment, army camp; camp | معسكر الاعتقال concentration camp

عسل II to prepare or mix with honey (هـ s.th.); to sweeten, make sweet or pleasant (هـ s.th.)

عسل ‘asal pl. اعسال a‘sāl, عسول ‘usūl honey | عسل سكر ‘a. sukkar molasses, treacle; عسل اسود do.; شهر العسل šahr al-‘a. honeymoon

عسلي ‘asalī honey-colored, amber, brownish

عسال ‘assāl gatherer of honey; beekeeper, apiculturist

عسالة ‘asāla beehive

عيسلان ‘aisalān hyacinth (bot.)

معسلة ma‘sala beehive

تعسيلة ta‘sīla (eg.) nap, doze

معسول ma‘sūl: prepared with honey; honeyed, honeysweet

معسل mu‘assal: دخان معسل (dukān) a mild-tasting tobacco, due to its preparation with molasses, glycerine, fragrant oils or essences

عسلج ‘usluj pl. عسالج ‘asālij2 tender sprig, small twig, shoot

عسلوج ‘uslūj pl. عساليج ‘asālīj2 tender sprig, small twig, shoot

1 عسى ‘asā with foll. ان an and subjunctive: it might be, it could be that ..., possibly ..., maybe ..., perhaps | ما عسى ان يكون what might be ...?! ماذا عسى ان يكون what should I do! ما عسى ينفع هذا (yanfa‘u) of what use could this possibly be! ماذا عساه يقول what could he possibly say?

عسي ‘asīy appropriate, proper, fitting (with personal construction) | هو عسى ب, هم عسيون ب (ان ) it befits him (them) to or that he (they) it is proper for him (for them) to or that he (they) …

2 عاس ‘āsin dry, withered, wilted

عش II to build a nest, to nest; to take root, become established, settle in VIII to build a nest, to nest

عش ‘ušš pl. عشاش ‘išāš, اعشاش a‘šāš, عششة ‘išaša nest

عش ‘ušša, ‘išša pl. عشش ‘ušaš, ‘išaš hut, shanty, shack, hovel; arbor, bower

عشب ‘ašiba a, ‘ašuba u to be grassy, grass-covered (ground) II do.

عشب ‘ušb (coll.: n. un. ة ) pl. اعشاب a‘šāb (green) grass, herbage, plants; pasture

عشبة ‘ušba plant, herb

عشبي ‘ušbī herbaceous, herbal, vegetable, vegetal, plant- (in compounds) | مجموعة عشبية herbarium

عشب ‘ašib grassy, abundant in grass

عشابة ‘ašāba luxuriant vegetation

معشب mu‘šib grassy, abundant in grass

عشتروت ‘aštarūt2 Astarte

عشر ‘ašara u to collect the tithe (ه from s.o., هـ of s.th.) II = I; to divide into tenths III to be on intimate terms, associate (closely) (ه with s.o.) VI to be on intimate terms, associate with one another, live together

عشر ‘ušr pl. اعشار a‘šār, عشور ‘ušūr one tenth, tenth part; tithe | عشر معشار ‘u. mi‘sār one hundredth

عشري ‘arī decimal (adj.)

اعشاري a‘šārī decimal (adj.)

عشرة ‘išra (intimate) association, intimacy, companionship, relations, (social) intercourse, company; conjugal community, community of husband and wife

عشرة ‘ašara (f. عشر ‘ašar) ten: العشر the first ten days of Muharram

ثلاثة عشر talātata ‘ašara (f. ثلاث عشرة talāta ‘ašrata) thirteen

عشرات ‘ašarāt some tens, tens (of); decades; (with foll. genit.) dozens of ..., scores of ...

عشار ‘išār (eg.) with young, pregnant (animal)

عشار ‘aššār collector of the tithe

عشير ‘ašīr pl. عشراء ‘ušarā’ companion, fellow, associate, friend, comrade

عشيرة ‘ašīra pl. عشائر ‘ašā’ir2 clan, kinsfolk, closest relatives; tribe; pl. العشائر (syr.) the Bedouins | حرس العشائر ḥaras al-‘a. Bedouin police (responsible for surveillance of the nomads)

عشائري ‘ašā’irī (syr.) Bedouin (adj.) | العرف العشائري (‘urf) the customary law of the Bedouins

عاشوراء ‘āšūrā’2, عشوراء ‘ašārā’2, يوم عاشوراء yaum ‘ā., ليلة عاشوراء lailat ‘ā. Ashura, name of a voluntary fast day on the tenth day of Moharram; day of mourning sacred to the Shiites, the anniversary of Husain’s martyrdom at Kerbela (10th of Muharram A. H. 60)

عشرون ‘išrūn twenty

معشر ma‘šar pl. معاشر ma‘āšir2 assemblage, community, company, society, group, troop; kinsfolk | يا معشر الشباب yā ma‘šara š-šabāb oh ye young men!

معشار mi‘šāar one tenth, tenth part

معاشرة mu‘āšara (intimate) association, intimacy, social relations, social intercourse; company, society, companionship; community, jointness

معاشر mu‘āšir companion, fellow, associate, friend, comrade

عشق ‘ašiqa a (‘išq) to love passionately (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), be passionately in love (هـ, ه with s.o., with s.th.) II to fit tightly together, interjoin closely, dovetail (هـ s.th.); to couple, connect (هـ s.th.: techn.) V to court, woo (ها a woman), make love (ها to a woman)

عشق išq love, ardor of love, passion

عشيق ‘ašīq lover, sweetheart (m.)

عشيقة ‘ašīqa beloved, sweetheart (f.)

عشيق ‘iššīq lover

تعشيق ta‘šīq tight interjunction, dovetailing; coupling (techn.)

عاشق ‘āšiq pl. عشاق ‘uššāq lover; fancier, fan, -phile (in compounds); -- (pl. عواشق ‘awāšiq2) knucklebone; (game of) knucklebones

معشوق ma‘šūq lover, sweetheart (m.)

معشوقة ma‘šūqa beloved, sweetheart (f.)

(عشو and عشى) عشا ‘ašā u (‘ašw), and عشو ‘ašiya a (عشا ‘ašan) to be dim-sighted; to be night-blind II to make dim-sighted, make night-blind (ه s.o.); to give a dinner (ه for s.o.) IV to make dim-sighted (ه s.o., ه the eyes) V to have dinner (or supper), to dine, to sup

عشا ‘ašan dim-sightedness; nightblindness, nyctalopia

عشى ‘ašīy evening

عشاء ‘asa’ pl. اعشية a‘šiya dinner, supper | اعشاء السري (sirrī) the Lord’s supper, the Eucharist (Chr.)

عشاء ‘išā’ evening; (f.) evening prayer (Isl. Law)

عشوة ‘ašwa darkness, dark, gloom; dinner, supper

عشاوة ‘ašāwa dim-sightedness; night-blindness, nyctalopia

عشية ‘ašīya pl. -āt, عشايا ‘ašāyā (late) evening | عشية امس ‘ašīyata amsi last night, yesterday in the evening; بين عشية وضحاها (ḍuḥāhā) from one day to the other, overnight, all of a sudden

عشواء ‘ašwā’2 darkness, dark, gloom; also see اعشى a‘šā

اعشى a‘šā, f. عشواء ‘ašwā’ dim-sighted; night-blind, nyctalopic; blind, aimless, haphazard, desultory, senseless | يخبط خبط عشواء yakbiṭu kabṭa ‘ašwā’ he acts blindly, thoughtlessly, at random, haphazardly

عص aṣṣa a (‘aṣṣ, عصص ‘aṣaṣ) to be or become hard, harden

عصص ‘uṣaṣ, ‘uṣuṣ coccyx

عصب ‘aṣaba i (‘aṣb) to wind, fold, tie, bind, wrap (هـ على s.th. around or about s.th.); to bind up, bandage (هـ s.th.); to fold (هـ s.th.); to wrap (هـ the head) with a brow band, sash, or turban | عصب الريق فاه (rīqu fāhu) the saliva dried in hill mouth, clogged his mouth II to wind around, fold around, tie around, wrap around (هـ s.th.); to bind up, bandage (هـ s.th.); to wrap (هـ the head) with a brow band, sash, or turban V to wind the turban round one’s head, put on the turban; to apply a bandage, bandage o.s.; to take sides, to side (مع, ل with; على against); to cling obdurately or fanatically (ل to); to be fanatic, bigoted, be a fanatic, a zealot; to form a league, clique, group, team, gang, or coalition, gang up, team up; to plot, conspire, collude, connive (على against) VIII to form a league, clique, group, team, gang, or coalition, gang up, team up; to go on strike, to strike

عصب ‘aṣab pl. اعصاب a‘ṣāb nerve; sinew

عصبي ‘aṣabī sinewy, nerved, nervy; nervous, neural, nerve-, neuro-, neur- (in compounds); nervous, high-strung | عصبي المزاج nervous, high-strung; الجهاز العصبي (jahāz) the nervous system; حالة عصبية nervousness, nervosity; ~I الضعف العصبي (ḍu‘f) neurasthenia

عصبية ‘aṣabīya nervousness, nervosity; -- (pl. -āt) zealous partisanship, bigotry, fanaticism; party spirit, team spirit, esprit de corps; tribal solidarity, racialism, clannishness, tribalism, national consciousness, nationalism

عصبة ‘aṣba pl. عصب ‘uṣab (eg.) a black headcloth with red or yellow border

عصبة pl. -āt and ‘uṣba pl. عصب ‘uṣab union, league, federation, association; group, troop, band, gang, clique; ‘aṣaba paternal relations, relationship, agnates | عصبة الأمم ‘uṣbat al-umam the League of Nations

عصيب ‘aṣib hot, crucial, critical (time, stage)

عصاب iṣāb band, ligature, dressing, bandage

عصابة ‘iṣāba pl. عصائب ‘aṣā’ib2 band, ligature, dressing, bondage; headcloth, headband, fillet; brow band, frontlet; -- (pl. -āt) union, league, federation, association; group, troop, band, gang | عصابات الخطف ‘i. al-kaṭf bands of robbers; حرب العصابات ḥarb al-‘i. guerilla war(fare)

تعصب ta‘aṣṣub fanaticism, ardent zeal, bigotry, fanatical enthusiasm; party spirit, partisanship; clannishness, racialism, race consciousness, tribalism

اعتصاب i‘tiṣāb pl. -āt strike

معصب muta‘aṣṣib fanatically enthusiastic (ل for); enthusiast, fanatic, bigot, zealot

عصيدة ‘aṣīda a thick paste made of flour and clarified butter

عصر ‘ṣara i (‘aṣr) to press (out), squeeze (out) (هـ s.th., e.g., grapes, olives, etc.); to wring (هـ s.th., esp. wet clothes); to compress (هـ s.th.) III to be a contemporary (ه of s.o.); to be contemporaneous, coeval, or concomitant (هـ with) V to be pressed (out), be squeezed (out) VII = V VIII to press (out), squeeze (out) (هـ s.th., e.g., grapes, olives, etc.) | اعتصر جبينه (jabīnahū) to knit one’s brows (pensively)

عصر ‘aṣr (act of) pressing (out), squeezing (out); (act of) wringing (out); (pl. اعصر a‘ṣur, عصور ‘uṣūr, اعصار a‘ṣār) age, era, time; period; epoch; afternoon; (f.) afternoon prayer (Isl. Law) | العصر الحجري (ḥajarī) the Stone Age; العصر الحاضر the present (time), our time; في كل عصر ومصر (wa-maṣrin) always and everywhere, at any time and any place

عصرى ‘aṣrī modern, recent, present, actual, contemporary; (pl. -ūn) a contemporary

عصرية ‘aṣrīya modernism

عصير ‘asīr that which is pressed or squeezed out, (squeezed-out) juice, extract (also fig.); the best, the pick, the prime of s.th.

عصيرة ‘aṣīra (squeezed-out) juice

عصار ‘uṣār juice, sap

عصارة ‘uṣāra pl. -āt juice, sap (also physiol.)

عصارة ‘aṣṣāra pl. -āt press, squeezer; oil press; cane press (also عصارة القصب ‘a. al-qaṣab); wringer

عصاري يوم ‘aṣāriya yaumin one afternoon

اعصار i‘ṣār pl. اعاصير a‘āṣīr2 whirlwind, tornado, cyclone, hurricane | O ضد الإعصار ḍidd al-i. anticyclone

معصرة mi‘ṣara pl. معاصر ma‘āṣir2 press, squeezer; oil press; cane press

معصري ma‘ṣarī (tun.) a brand of lamp oil

معاصر mu‘āṣir contemporary, contemporaneous; a contemporary

عصعص ‘uṣ‘uṣ, ‘aṣ‘aṣ pl. عصاعص ‘aṣā‘iṣ coccyx

عصف ‘aṣafa i (‘aṣf, عصوف ‘uṣūf) to storm, rage, blow violently (wind); عصف به to blow s.th. away, carry s.th. away (wind); to shake s.o. thoroughly, through and through

عصف ‘aṣf storming, blowing; stalk and leaves of grain

عصف ‘aṣfa (n. vic.) gust of wind, blast

عصافة ‘uṣafa chaff; straw

عاصف ‘āṣif blowing violently | ريح عاصف (rīḥ) or ريح عاصفة violent wind, gale

عصف ‘āṣifa pl. عواصف ‘awāṣif violent wind, gale, tempest, storm, hurricane

1 عصفر ‘uṣfur safflower (Carthamus tinctorius; bot.); the red dyestuff prepared from its flower heads

معصفر mu‘aṣfar dyed with ‘uṣfur

2 عصفور ‘ufūr pl. عصافير ‘aṣāfīr2 sparrow; any small bird | عصفور الجنة ‘u. al-janna swallow; عصفور دوري (dūrī) house sparrow; عصفور مغن (mugannin) warbler; عصفور كناري (kanārī) canary; ضرب (اصاب) عصفورين بحجر (واحد ) (aṣāba, ‘uṣfūrraini bi-ḥajarin) to kill two birds with one stone; عصفور في اليد خير من الف على الشجرة (kairun min alfin, šajara) a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (proverb)

عصفورة ‘uṣfūra female sparrow; dowel, pin, peg

عصفورية ‘uṣfūrīya (syr.) insane asylum, madhouse

عصل ‘aṣala u (‘aṣl) to bend, twist, warp (هـ s.th.); -- ‘aṣila a (‘aṣl) to be twisted; to warp (wood)

عصم ‘aṣama i (‘aṣam) to hold back, restrain, curb, check, prevent, hinder (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to preserve, guard, safeguard, protect, defend (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to immunize, render immune (ه s.o., med.) VIII to cling, keep, adhere (ب to); to seek shelter or refuge (ب with, in), take refuge, resort (ب to) ; to keep up, maintain, guard, preserve (ب s.th., e.g., بالصمت bi-ṣ-ṣamt silence, برباط الجأش bi-r. il-ja’š equanimity) X = VIII; to resist (a temptation)

عصمة ‘iṣma hindering, hindrance, prevention, obviation; preservation, guarding, safeguarding; defense; protection; chastity, purity, modesty, virtuousness; impeccance, sinlessness, infallibility | صاحبة العصمة title of ladies of high social standing; عصمة النكاح the bond of marriage; في عصمة فلان under s.o.’s custody, protection, or power; married to s.o.; جعلت عصمتها في يدها ja‘alat ‘iṣmatahā fī yadihā she made herself independent; she became or remained independent; فك عصمتها من زوجها fakka ‘iṣmatahā min zaujihā to revoke the husband’s matrimonial authority over his wife (jur.)

عصام ‘iṣām pl. اعصمة a‘ṣima, عصم ‘uṣum, عصام ‘iṣām strap, thong

عصامي ‘iṣāmī noble, eminent, distinguished (due to one’s own merits, as opposed to عظامي ‘iẓāmī); self-made; (pl. -ūn) self-made man

عصامية ‘iṣāmīya self-made success

اعصم a‘ṣam2, f. عصماء ‘aṣmā’2, pl. عصم ‘uṣm having a white foot (animal); excellent, valuable, precious | اندر من الغراب الأعصم (gurāb) rarer than a white-footed crow (proverbially of s.th. rare)

معصم mi‘ṣam pl. معاصم ma‘āṣim2 wrist

O معصم ma‘ṣam pl. معاصم ma‘āṣim2 traffic island, safety isle

اعتصام i‘tiṣām clinging, adherence (ب to), maintenance, preservation, guarding, safeguarding

عاصم ‘āṣim protector, guardian

عاصمة ‘āṣima pl. عواصم ‘awāṣim2 capital city, metropolis

معصوم ma‘ṣūm inviolable, sacrosanct, protected by the laws of vendetta (Isl. Law); infallible, sinless, impeccant, impeccable | معصوم من الزلل (zalal) infallible

عصا (عصو ) ‘aṣan (f.) pl. عصى ‘uṣīy, ‘iṣīy, اعص a‘ṣin staff, rod; wand; stick; walking stick, cane; scepter, mace; (field marshal’s) baton | عصا المارشالية ‘a. l-māršālīya field marshal’s baton; لعب العصا la‘b al-‘a. (eg. = تخطيب ) singlestick fencing (a popular game, esp. in rural areas); شق العصا (šaqqa) to dissent, secede from the community; شق عصا الطاعة to rebel, revolt, renounce allegiance; شق عصا القوم (‘aṣā l-qaum) to sow dissension among the people; انشقت عصاهم (inšaqqat) they fell out (with one another), broke with one another

عصاة ‘aṣāh staff, rod; wand; stick

عصاية ‘aṣāya staff, rod; wand; stick; walking stick, cane

عصية ‘uṣayya little stick, little rod; O bacillus

عصى ‘aṣā i (‘aṣīy, معصية ma‘ṣiya, عصيان ‘iṣyān) to disobey, resist, oppose, defy (هـ ه s.o. in s.th.), refuse, or renounce, one’s obedience (هـ, ه to s.o. in s.th.), rebel, revolt (ه against s.o.) III = I; V to be or become difficult, intricate, or involved (affair) VI to be difficult, hard, inaccessible, or impossible (على for s.o.); to refuse (عن to do s.th.) VIII = V X to resist, oppose, withstand, defy (على s.o., s.th.), revolt, rebel (على against s.o.); to be recalcitrant, insubordinate, rebellious; to be difficult, hard (على for s.o.); to be malignant, insidious, incurable (disease); to elude, escape, defy (عن s.th.), be beyond s.th. (عن ); (of an instrument, machine, etc.) to fail, break down (على on s.o.), refuse to work (على for s.o.), fail to operate

عصى ‘aṣīy pl. -ūn, اعصياء a‘ṣiyā’2 rebel; intractable, refractory, recalcitrant | عصي النطق ‘aṣīy an-nuṭq unable to speak, incapable of speech

عصيان ‘iṣyān disobedience, insubordination, refractoriness; insurrection, revolt, rebellion, sedition

معصية ma‘ṣiya disobedience, insubordination, refractoriness; insurrection, sedition, revolt, rebellion; (pl. معاص ma‘āṣin) sin

استعصاء isti‘ṣā’ refractoriness, recalcitrance, obstinacy; impenetrability, unfathomableness; difficulty; malignancy, virulence, insidiousness; mechanical failure, breakdown, malfunction; jam, misfire (of a firearm)

عاص ‘āṣin pl. عصاة ‘uṣāh disobedient, insubordinate, rebellious, mutinous, riotous, seditious, subversive; rebel, insurgent; sinning, sinful

متعص muta‘āṣṣin difficult, intricate, implicated, involved, delicate; incurable, irremediable

مستعص musta‘ṣin difficult, intricate, implicated, involved, delicate; incurable, irremediable

عض ‘aḍḍa (1st pers. perf. ‘aḍiḍtu) a (‘aḍḍ, عضيض ‘aḍīḍ) to grab with the teeth, bite (ب or على or هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to bite into s.th. (هـ ); to hold on, cling, cleave (ب to); to torment (ه s.o., e.g., hunger) | عضه الزمان (zamānu) or عضه الدهر بنابه ‘aḍḍahū d-dahru bi-nābihī time, or fate, gave him a raw deal, heaped trials and tribulations upon him, he suffered reverses II to bite fiercely or frequently (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.)

عض ‘iḍḍ small prickly shrubs, brambles

عضة ‘aḍḍa a bite

عضاض ‘aḍāḍ (given to) biting, snappish, mordacious

عضوض ‘aḍūḍ (given to) biting, snappish, mordacious

عضب ‘aḍb sharp, caustic, acid (tongue)

عضد ‘aḍada u (‘aḍd) to help, aid, assist, support, back (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), stand up (ه for s.o.), advocate (هـ s.th.) II and III = I; VI to help, assist, or support one another, give mutual help, assistance, or support; to work hand in hand, cooperate

عضد ‘aḍud help, aid, assistance, support, backing; helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer

عضد ‘aḍud (m. and f.) pl. اعضاد a‘ḍād upper arm; strength, power, vigor, force | شد عضده (‘aḍudahū) to aid, assist s.o., stand by s.o.; هو عضده المتين he is an indispensable aid to him

تعضيد ta‘ḍīd help, aid, assistance, support, backing

معاضدة mu‘āḍada help, aid, assistance, support, backing

تعاضد ta‘āḍud mutual aid, mutual assistance, cooperation

تعاضدي ta‘āḍudī cooperative (adj.)

معضد mu‘aḍḍid helper, aide, assistant, supporter, backer

عضل ‘aḍila a (‘aḍal) to be or become muscular; -- ‘aḍala IV (‘aḍl) to prevent (ها a woman) from marrying IV to be or become difficult, problematic, puzzling, enigmatic, or mysterious (ب or ه for s.o.) | اعضل الداء الأطباء (aṭibbā’) the disease defied all medical skill, gave the physicians a headache, posed a puzzling problem for the doctors V تعضل الداء الأطباء = اعضل الداء الأطباء

عضل ‘aḍil muscular, brawny

عضلة ‘aḍala pl. -āt, عضل ‘aḍal muscle | عضلة باسطة extensor; عضلة قابضة flexor

عضلي ‘aḍalī muscle-, musculo-, muscul- (in compounds), muscular

عضال ‘uḍāl inveterate, chronic, incurable (disease)

معضل mu‘ḍil difficult, problematic, puzzling, enigmatic, mysterious

معضلة mu‘ḍila pl. -āt, معاضل ma‘āḍil2 difficulty, problem, dilemma, puzzle, enigma

عضاه ‘iḍāh fair-sized thorny shrubs

عضو ‘uḍw pl. اعضاء a‘ḍā’ member, limb, organ (of the body); member (of an organization) | عضو اصلي (aṣlī) regular member; عضو التأنيث pistil (bot.); عضو احتياطي (iḥtiyāṭī) substitute member, alternate member; عضو التذكير stamen (bot.); عضو فخري

(fakrī) honorary member; اعضاء التناسل a. at-tanāsul and الأعضاء الدقيقة the sexual organs, the genitals; الدوا الأعضاء (duwal) the member states; علم وظائف الأعضاء ‘ilm w. al-a. physiology

عضوات ‘aḍawāt female members

عضوي ‘uḍwī organic; لاعضوي or غير عضوي inorganic | كتلة عضوية (kutla) organism

عضوية ‘uḍwīya pl. -āt membership; organism

عطب ‘aṭiba a (‘aṭab) to perish, be destroyed, be ruined II to ruin, destroy, wreck, damage, injure, impair, mar, spoil (هـ s.th.); to spice, mull (هـ s.th.); to brew, mix (هـ a drink) IV to ruin, destroy, wreck, damage, injure, impair, mar, spoil (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) V to be damaged VIII = I

عطب ‘aṭab perdition; wreck (e.g., of ships); destruction, ruin; damage, injury

تعطيب ta‘ṭīb damaging, ruin(ing), wreck, destruction

تعطب ta‘attub a suffering of damage, impairment, ruin

عطر II to perfume, scent (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) V to perfume o.s.

عطر ‘iṭr pl. عطور ‘uṭūr, عطورات ‘uṭūrāt perfume, scent; essence | عطر الورد ‘i. al-ward attar of roses, rose oil

عطر ‘aṭir sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic | سمعة عطرة (sum‘a) brilliant or excellent reputation

عطري ‘iṭrī sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic

عطرية ‘iṭrīya pl. -āt aromatic, perfume, scent

عطار ‘aṭṭār perfumer, perfume vendor; druggist

عطارة ‘iṭāra drug business; perfumeries; drugs

عطار ‘aṭṭār sweet-smelling, fragrant, aromatic | اثنى عليه عاطر الثناء atnā ‘alaihi ‘āṭira t-tanā’ to extol s.o. to the skies

معطر mu‘aṭṭar perfumed, scented

عطارد ‘uṭārid2 (the planet) Mercury

عطس ‘aṭasa i u (‘aṭs, عطاس ‘uṭās) to sneeze II to cause (ه s.o.) to sneeze

عطسة ‘aṭsa (n. vic.) a sneeze

عطس ‘uṭṭāš sneezing, sneezes

عاطوس ‘āṭūs snuff (tobacco)

معطس ma‘ṭiš pl. معاطس ma‘āṭis2 nose

عطش ‘aṭiša a (‘atāš) to be thirsty, to thirst; to long, languish, thirst (الى for) II to make thirsty, cause to thirst (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) IV = II; V to thirst, languish, long, yearn (الى for)

عطش ‘aṭaš thirst

عاطش ‘āṭiš thirsty; dry, parched (soil)

عطشان ‘aṭšān2, f. عطشى ‘aṭšā pl. عطاش ‘iṭāš thirsty; covetous, desirous (الى of), languishing, yearning, craving (الى for)

عاطش ‘āṭiš thirsty; covetous, desirous (الى of), languishing, yearning, craving (الى for)

متعطش muta‘aṭṭiš thirsty; covetous, desirous (الى of), languishing, yearning, craving (الى for)

عطشجي ‘aṭašjī pl. عطشجيات ‘aṭašjīya stoker, fireman

عطعط ‘aṭ‘aṭa to clamor, yell; to be uproarious, very noisy

عطف ‘at`tafa i (‘at`tf) to bend, incline, bow (هـ s.th.); to incline, lean (الى toward, to); to be favorably disposed (على toward s.o.), be attached (على to s.o.), harbor affection (على for), be fond (على of s.o.), have or feel compassion, sympathize (على with s.o.), feel (على for s.o.); to turn away (عن from); عطف به to incline, dispose s.o. (على toward), awaken affection or sympathy (على for) or interest (على in s.th.); عطف به على to make s.o. appreciate s.th., bring s.th. close to s.o.’s heart; عطف به عن to dissuade, alienate s.o. from II to fold, double, fold up (هـ s.th.); to make (ه s.o.) favorably disposed; to soften s.o.’s (ه ) heart, move s.o.; to awaken affection, sympathy, tenderness (ه in s.o., على for); to fill with affection, love, etc. (ه s.o., هـ s.o.’s heart, على or نحو for) V to be favorably disposed (على toward s.o.), be attached (على to s.o.), be fond (على of s.o.), have or feel compassion, sympathize (على with s.o.), feel (على for s.o.); to deign (ب to do s.th.) | تعطف بالعطاف to put on a coat, wrap o.s. in a coat or cloak VI to harbor mutual affection, be attached to one another VII to be bent, inclined, crooked, or curved; to bend, curve; to bow, make a bow; to turn off (الى toward, to), turn, swing (الى into a road, etc.); to be favorably disposed (الى, على toward), be attached (الى, على to), be fond (الى, على of), have or feel compassion, sympathize (الى, على with), feel (الى, على for s.o.); to turn away, turn around VIII اعتطف بالعطاف = تعطف بالعطاف X to ask for, or seek, s.o.’s (ه ) compassion or sympathy; to entreat, beseech, implore (ه s.o.); to affect winning or conciliatory manners, display affection; to seek to conciliate, propitiate, or win over (خاطره kāṭirahū or ه s.o.); to seek to be friends (ه with s.o.); to try to attract or win (هـ s.th.)

عطف ‘aṭf bond(ing), inclination, curving, curvature; corner; sympathy (على with), affection, attachment, liking (على for) | اداة (حرف) العطف adāt (ḥarf) al-‘a. conjunction (gram.); عطف البيان ‘a. al-bayān explicative apposition (gram.)

عطف ‘iṭf pl. اعطاف a‘ṭāf side (of the body) | لين الأعطاف layyin al-a. tractable, docile, pliant; ترنحت الأعطاف (tarannaḥat) they were carried away, became ecstatic; ضم بين أعطافه to combine, encompass, comprise s.th.

عطفة ‘aṭfa turn, turning, twist, curve, bend; (pl. -āt, عطف ‘uṭaf) blind alley, dead and (eg.)

عطاف ‘iṭāf pl. عطف ‘uṭuf, اعطفة a‘ṭifa coat, cloak

عطوف ‘aṭūf compassionate, sympathetic, affectionate, loving, tender, kind

عطوفة ‘uṭūfa affection, attachment, benevolence, good will; (as an honorific title before the name = صاحب العطوفة His Grace

معطف mi‘ṭaf pl. معاطف ma‘āṭif2 coat, overcoat; smock, frock | معطف مشمع (mušamma‘) (impregnated) raincoat; معطف فرو m. farw fur coat

انعطاف in‘iṭāf inclination, bind(ing), curving, curvature; sympathy, compassion; liking, attachment, affection

استعطاف isti‘ṭāf imploring, entreaty, earnest supplication; tender affection; conciliatory attitude

عاطف ‘āṭif compassionate, sympathetic, affectionate, loving, tender, kind | حرف عاطف (ḥarf) conjunction (gram.)

عاطفة ‘āṭifa pl. عواطف ‘awāṭif2 amorous affection; affectionate benevolence, solicitude, sympathy, compassion, affection, attachment, liking, kind(li)ness; feeling, sentiment

عاطفي ‘āṭifī sentimental; emotional; emotive, feeling; tender, affectionate, loving

عاطفية ‘āṭifīya sentimentality; emotionalism, emotionality

منعطف mun‘aṭaf pl. -āt (road) turn, curve; turn, turning, winding, tortuosity, twist, bend; lane, alley, narrow street

عطف musta‘ṭaf imploring, beseeching, supplicatory; tender, affectionate

عطل ‘aṭala a (‘aṭal) to he destitute, he devoid (من of s.th.), lack (من s.th.); to be idle, not to work, rest; to he without work, he unemployed II to leave without care, to neglect (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to leave without work, leave idle (هـ ه s.o. s.th.); to hinder, hamper, impede, obstruct (هـ s.th.); to interrupt, suspend, defer, discontinue, stop (هـ s.th., esp. some activity); to ban temporarily, suspend (هـ s.th., esp. publication of a newspaper); to damage (gravely), destroy, ruin, wreck, paralyze, neutralize, put out of service or commission, lay up; put out of action, make inoperative (هـ s.th.); to stop, shut off (هـ s.th., e.g., a motor); to shut down, keep closed (هـ s.th., e.g., an office) V to remain without work or employment; to he or become unemployed (also تعطل عن العمل ); to be or become idle, inactive; to be hindered, hampered, impeded, obstructed, delayed, suspended, deferred, or interrupted; to stop, stall (motor, machine); to fail (apparatus); to he (gravely) damaged. be or be put out of action or commission; to be shut down, be or remain closed; to he no longer valid, be ineffective (statutes)

عطل ‘uṭl destitute, devoid (من of s.th.); impairedness, defectiveness, (gravely) damaged state; damage, loss

عطل ‘aṭal unemployment

عطلة ‘uṭla unemployment, also عطلة عن الشغل (šugl); leisure, holidays, vacation(s), recess; (pl. -āt, عطل ‘uṭal) holiday, off day, free day | عطلة رسمية (rasmīya) official, or legal, holiday; ايام العطلات الرسمية (ayyām al-‘u.) official, or legal, holidays; عطلة الأسبوع ‘u. al-usbū‘ weekend; عطلة قضائية (qaḍā’īya) court recess (jur.); عطلة نهاية الأسبوع ‘u. nihāyat al-usbū‘ weekend

عطالة ‘aṭāla unemployment

تعطيل ta‘ṭīl hindering, obstruction, hampering; discontinuance, interruption, deferment, suspension (of some activity); temporary ban, suspension (of a newspaper); impairment, damaging, destruction, ruining, wrecking, injury; paralyzation, neutralization, stoppage (e.g., of traffic); stopping, shutting-off (of a motor); shutdown, closure (of an office); a theological concept denying God all attributes (as opposed to tašbīš; theol.) | تعطيل حركة المرور t. ḥarakat al-murūr traffic congestion

تعطل ta‘aṭṭul unemployment; inactivity, idleness; (mechanical) failure, breakdown; standstill | تعطل عن العمل (‘amal) unemployment

عاطل ‘āṭil destitute, devoid (من of s.th.); inactive. idle, out of work, jobless, unemployed; an unemployed person; useless | عضو عاطل (‘uḍw) functionless organ (biol.)

عواطل ‘awāṭil2 vacations, holidays

معطل mu‘aṭṭil one who denies God all attributes (theol.)

معطل mu‘ṭṭal inactive, idle, out of work, jobless, unemployed; inoperative, out of action, service, or commission, shut-down; stopped, shut-off (motor); closed (office)

عطن ‘aṭan i u (‘aṭn) to soak (الجلد al-jilda the skin or hide so as to remove the hair, in tanning); to macerate (الكتان al-kattāna the flax); -- ‘aṭina a (‘aṭan) to rot, decay, putrefy (skin, hide, in tanning) II = I ‘aṭana

عطن ‘aṭan resting place of camels near a waterhole | ضيق العطن ḍayyiq al-‘a. narrow-minded, parochial; رحب العطن raḥb al-‘a. broad-minded

عطن ‘aṭin putrid, rotten, stinking

عطين ‘aṭīn putrid, rotten, stinking

عطان ‘iṭān tanbark

عطو III to give (هـ ه to s.o. s.th.) IV to give (هـ ل or ه to s.o. s.th.); to present, hand over, offer (هـ ه to s.o. s.th.); to grant, award, accord (هـ ه to s.o. s.th.); to present (هـ ه s.o. with s.th.), bestow (هـ ه upon s.o. s.th.); pass. u‘ṭiya to get, obtain, receive (هـ s.th.) | اعطى دروسا to give lessons; اعطى اقواله (aqwālahū) to give evidence, give one’s testimony (jur.); اعطى له الكلمة (kalimata) to allow s.o. to speak; اعطاه بيده (bi-yadihī) to surrender or submit to s.o. V to ask for charity, ask for alms (ه s.o.); to beg VI to take (هـ s.th.); to swallow, take (هـ a medicine); to take over, assume, undertake, take upon o.s. (هـ a task); to occupy o.s., be occupied or buoy (هـ with s.th.), be engaged (هـ in s.th.), pursue, practice (هـ an activity) X = V

عطا ‘aṭan gift, present

عطاء ‘aṭā’ pl. a‘tiys gift, present; (pl. -āt) offer, tender | قدم عطاء (qaddama) to make an offer or tender

عطية ‘aṭīya pl. عطايا ‘aṭāyā gift, present

معاطاة mu‘āṭāh exercise, practice, pursuit (of an activity)

اعطاء i‘ṭā’ donation; presentation, grant(ing), award(ing)

تعاط ta‘āṭin pursuit, practice (of an activity)

استعطاء isti‘ṭā’ begging, mendicity

معط mu‘ṭin giver, donor

معطى mu‘ṭan given; (pl. -āt) given quantity (math.)

مستعط musta‘ṭin beggar

عظل III عاظل الكلام (kalāma) to be repetitious in one’s speech, use tautologisms, repeat o.s. in speaking

عظم ‘aẓuma u (‘iẓam, عظامة ‘aẓāma) to be or become great, big, large, grand, grandiose, magnificent, imposing, powerful, or mighty; to be huge, vast, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous; to be hard, distressing, painful, agonizing, or oppressive (على for s.o.) II to make, or cause to become, great(er), big(ger), large(r), (more) grandiose, (more) imposing, (more) magnificent, mighty or mightier, (more) powerful (هـ, ه s.o. s.th.), enhance the greatness, grandeur, magnificence, power, or might (هـ, ه of s.o., of s.th.); to enlarge, enhance, magnify (هـ s.th.); to aggrandize, glorify, extol, exalt (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) IV = II; to attach great importance (هـ to s.th.); to regard (هـ s.th.) as huge, vast, tremendous, enormous, immense, or stupendous; to find (هـ s.th.) hard, distressing, or oppressive V to be proud (ب of s.th.); to boast (ب of), vaunt, flaunt (ب s.th.); to he arrogant, presumptuous, haughty VI to be proud, arrogant, presumptuous, haughty, supercilious; to be great, grand, grandiose, imposing, huge, prodigious; to equal in weight, significance or importance (هـ s.th.); to be weighty, grave, serious, portentous (ه for s.o.) | لا يتعاظمه شأن العدو (ša’nu l-‘adūw) the enemy’s importance does not unduly impress him X to be proud, arrogant, presumptuous, haughty, supercilious; to regard as great, significant, or important (هـ s.th.)

عظم ‘aẓm pl. اعظم a‘ẓum, عظام ‘iẓām bone | عظم الساق shinbone; مسحوق العظام bone meal; لين العظام līn al-‘i. softening of the bones, osteomalacia

عظمي ‘aẓmī bone-, osteo- (in compounds) osseous, bony

عظم ‘iẓam, ‘uẓm greatness, magnitude, grandeur, power, might; significance, importance

عظمة ‘aẓma piece of bone; bone

عظمة ‘aẓama majesty; pride, arrogance, haughtiness; exaltedness, sublimity, augustness | صاحب العظمة His Majesty; His Highness; عظمة السلطان ‘a. as-sulṭān His Highness, the Sultan

عظموت ‘aẓamūt greatness, magnitude, grandeur, power, might

عظيم ‘aẓīm pl. عظماء ‘uẓamā’2, عظام ‘iẓām, عظائم ‘aẓā’im2 great, big, large; strong, powerful, mighty; significant, important; grand, grandiose, imposing, stately, magnificent; lofty, exalted, august, sublime, splendid, gorgeous, glorious, superb; huge, vast, prodigious, enormous, tremendous, immense, stupendous; hard, distressing, gruesome, trying, oppressive | فرصة عظيمة (furṣa) golden opportunity; عظائم الأمور great or terrible things; العظماء والكبراء (kubarā’) the great of the world

عظيمة ‘aẓīma pl. عظائم ‘aẓā’im2 a prodigious, terrible thing; great misfortune, calamity, disaster

عظامي ‘iẓāmī of noble descent, highborn, aristocratic, noble, blue-blooded, of or pertaining to nobility; aristocrat, nobleman

اعظم a‘ẓam2, f. عظمى ‘uẓmā, pl. اعاظم a‘āẓim2 greater, bigger; mare significant, more important; greatest, major, supreme; most significant, paramount | اعاظم رجال مصر a. r. miṣr the most outstanding men of Cairo; جريمة عظمى capital crime; الحرب العظمى (ḥarb) World War I; السواد الأعظم (sawād) the great mass, the great majority, the major portion (of the people); الصدر الأعظم (ṣadr) (formerly:) title of the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Ott.-Turk.: ṣadr-i a‘ẓam)

تعظيم ta‘ẓīm aggrandizement, glorification, exaltation; military salute

معظم mu‘aẓẓam glorified, exalted, revered, venerated; sublime, august (esp. of rulers); splendid, gorgeous, glorious, magnificent, resplendent; bony; ossified

معظم mu‘aẓzam most of (them), the majority, major part or portion (of), main part; maximum | في معظمه mostly, for the moot part, largely

متعاظم muta‘āẓim proud, arrogant, presumptuous, haughty, supercilious

عظة ‘iẓa see وعظ

عف ‘affa i (عفة ‘iffa, عفاف ‘afāf) to refrain, abstain (عن from s.th. forbidden or indecent); to be abstinent, continent, virtuous, chaste, modest, decent, pure V = I; to shrink (عن from), be shy (عن of), be ashamed

عف ‘aff chute, modest, virtuous, pure; decent; honest, upright, righteous

عفة ‘iffa abstinence, continence, virtuousness, virtue, chastity, decency; purity; modesty; integrity, probity, honesty, uprightness, righteousness

عفاف ‘afāf = عفة ‘iffa

عفيف ‘afīf pl. اعفاء a‘fā’2, اعفة a‘iffa chaste, modest, virtuous, pure; decent; honest, upright, righteous

اعف a‘aff2 chaster, more virtuous; more decent, of greater integrity

تعفف ta‘affuf abstinence, continence, chastity, modesty; restraint

متعفف muta‘affif chute, modest, virtuous, pure; decent; honest, upright righteous

عفر ‘afara i (‘afr) to cover with dust, to soil, begrime (also بالتراب bi-t-turāb; هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) II = I; to dust, sprinkle with dust or powder (هـ s.th.); to glean

عفر ‘afar pl. اعفار a‘far dust

عفر ‘ufār (eg.) duet

O عفارة ‘afāra pl. -āt spray, atomizer

اعفر a‘far2, f. عفراء ‘afrā’2 dust-colored, earth-colored

يعفور ya‘fūr pl. يعافير ya‘āfīr2 earthcolored gazelle

تعفير ta‘fīr (act of) dusting, sprinkling with dust or powder

عفرت II ta‘frata to behave like a demon or devil

عفريت ‘ifrīt pl. ‘afārīt2 malicious, mischievous; sly, cunning, crafty, wily; afreet, demon, imp, devil; (eg.) naughty child | ولد عفريت (walad) mischievous child, good-for-nothing, ne’er-do-well (eg.)

عفريتة ‘afrīta (lifting) jack (eg.)

عفرتة ‘afrata devilry; dirty trick

عفارم ‘afārim (eg.) bravo! well done!

عفش ’afaša i (‘afš) to gather, collect, heap up, amass (هـ s.th.)

عفش ‘afš refuse, rubbish, trash, junk;

luggage, baggage; household effects, furniture

عفاشة ‘afāša: عفاشة من الناس worthless people

عفص ‘afṣ, galls, gallnuts, oak apples

عفص ‘afṣ sharp, pungent, acrid, astringent and bitter (of taste)

عفوصة ‘ufūṣa sharpness, pungency, acridity, astringence (of taste)

عفن ‘afina a (‘afan, عفونة ‘ufūna) to rot, decay, putrefy, spoil; to be rotten, decayed, putrid spoiled; to be or become moldy, musty, mildewy, decomposed V = I

عفن ‘afan rottenness, putridity, decay, spoiledness

عفن ‘afin rotten, putrid, decayed, decomposed, spoiled, moldy, musty, mildewy; septic | الحمى العفنة (ḥummā) putrid fever

عفونة ‘ufūna rottenness, putridity, decay, spoiledness

تعفن ta‘affun rottenness, putridity, decay, spoiledness

معفن mu‘affan rotten, putrid, decayed, decomposed, spoiled, moldy, musty mildewy; septic

متعفن muta‘affin rotten, putrid, decayed, decomposed, spoiled, moldy, musty, mildewy; septic

عفا (عفو ) ‘afā u (‘afw, عفاء ‘afā) to be or become effaced, obliterated, wiped out, eliminated; -- ‘afā u (‘afw) to efface, obliterate, wipe out, eliminate (عن or هـ s.th.); to forgive (عن s.o.); to excuse, free, relieve, exempt (عن ل s.o. from s.th.); to desist, abstain, refrain (عن from) II to efface, obliterate, wipe out, eliminate (على or هـ s.th.) III and IV to restore to health, heal, cure (ه s.o.); to guard (عن or من ه s.o. against), protect, save (عن or من ه s.o. from); to free, release, relieve, exempt, except (هـ, ه s.o., s.th. عن or من from), excuse, dispense (عن or من ه s.o. from s.th.) IV to dismiss, discharge, fire, depose (ه s.o.) VI to recuperate, recover, regain health VIII to call on s.o. (ه ) in order to obtain s.th. X to ask s.o.’s (ه ) pardon, ask for a reprieve (ه s.o.); to request (ه of s.o.) exemption (من from s.th.); to tender one’s resignation (من from an office); to resign (من from an office)

عفو ‘afw effacement, obliteration, elimination; pardon, forgiveness; waiver of punishment (Isl. Law); amnesty (عن for); boon, kindness, favor; surplus; عفوا ‘afwan I beg your pardon! excuse me! (in reply to “thank you”) you’re welcome! don’t mention it!; of one’s own accord, by o.s., spontaneously; casually; without design, in passing, incidentally I

(شامل) عفو عام (‘āmm) amnesty (عن for); حق العفو عن العقوبة (ḥaqq al-‘a., ‘uqūba) right of granting pardon (jur.); عفو الخاطر ‘afwa l-kāṭir spontaneously, unhesitatingly, casually

عفو ‘afw pl. عفاء ‘afā’ young donkey

عفوي ‘afwī spontaneous

عفي ‘afīy (eg.) strong, vigorous, husky, robust

عفاء ‘afā’ effacement, obliteration, extinction, ruin, fall; dust | ادركه العفاء adrakahū l-‘afā’u to fall into disuse, pass out of use; عليه العفاء it’s all over with him, he is done for

معافاة muāfāh exemption, excuse, dispensation

اعفاء i‘fā’ exemption (from a fee, and the like), excuse, dispensation; remission (of punishment); discharge, dismissal (from an office)

استعفاء isti‘fā’ request for pardon; excuse, apology; resignation (من from an office)

عاف ‘āfin effaced, obliterated, wiped out, eliminated

عافية ‘āfiya (good) health, well-being; vigor, vitality

معافى mu‘āfan exempt(ed), free, excused, dispensed (من from); healthy

عق ‘aqqa u (‘aqq) to cleave, split, rip, rend (هـ s.th.); -- ‘aqqa u (عقوق ‘uqūq) to be disobedient, disrespectful, undutiful, refractory, recalcitrant (اباه abāhu or والده wālidahū toward his father, of a child)

عق ‘aqq disobedient, disrespectful, undutiful, refractory, recalcitrant (child)

عقيق ‘aqīq (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. عقائق ‘aqā’iq2 carnelian; (pl. اعقة a‘iqqa) canyon, gorge, ravine

عقيقي ‘aqīqī carnelian-red

عقوق ‘uqūq disobedience, unruliness, refractoriness, recalcitrance (of a child)

اعق a‘aqq2 more irreverent, more disrespectful, naughtier | ما اعقك (a‘aqqaka) how irreverent you are!

عاق ‘āqq disobedient, disrespectful, undutiful, refractory, recalcitrant (child)

عقب ‘aqaba u (‘aqb) to follow (هـ, ه s.o., s.th. or after s.o., after s.th.), succeed (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to come after, ensue; to continue II to follow (هـ, ه s.o., s.th. or after s.o., after s.th.), succeed (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to pursue, follow, trail (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to expose, compromise, show up (على s.o.); to revise, correct, rectify, amend; to review critically, criticize (على s.th.), comment (على on s.th.) | عقب آثاره to tread in s.o.’s footsteps III to alternate, take turns (ه with s.o.); to punish (على or ب ه s.o. for) IV to follow (هـ ه s.o., s.th. or after s.o., after s.th.), succeed (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to come after, ensue; to have for son (ه s.o.), be the father (ه of a son); to have as offspring, have sired (ه s.o.); to revert from evil to good, mend one’s ways, reform; to end well, succeed, V to pursue, follow, trail (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) VI to be successive or consecutive, succeed one another, follow one after the other; to dart one by one (على upon), launch successive attacks, act successively, embark successively (على upon)

عقب ‘aqib, ‘aqb pl. اعقاب a‘qāb heal; last part of s.th., end; that which follows subsequently or ensues, subsequence (with foll. genit.); grandson; offspring, progeny; ‘aqiba (prep.) immediately after, subsequent to | جاء عقبه (‘aqibahū) or جاء بعقبه, جاء في عقبه he came closely after him; على عقب ‘alā ‘aqibi immediately after ...; رجع (عاد) على عقبيه (‘aqibaihi) pl. رجعوا (عادوا) على اعقابهم to retrace one’s steps, turn back; رده على عقبيه (raddahū) pl. ردهم على اعقابهم to drive s.o. back to where he came from; ارتد على عقبيه (irtadda) pl. ارتدوا على اعقابهم to withdraw, retreat; رأسا على عقب (ra’san) head over heels, topsy-turvy, upside down; from the ground up, radically; ظهرا على عقب (ẓahran) do.; في اعقاب الشهر (a. iš-šahr) at the end of the month; اعقاب الصلوات a. aṣ-ṣalawāt (supererogatory) prayers performed after the prescribed salat; في اعقاب الليلة at daybreak, immediately after night was over

عقب ‘uqb pl. اعقاب a‘qāb end, outcome, upshot; issue, effect, result, consequence; rest, remnant, remainder; (cigarette, etc.) end, butt, stub (of a pencil, of a candle, of a check, etc.); counterfoil

عقب ‘aqaba pl. عقاب ‘iqāb steep road or track, steep incline; pass, mountain road; العقبة or قلعة العقبة qal‘at al-‘a. هـ qaba (seaport in SW Jordan): (pl. -āt, عقاب ‘iqāb) obstacle; difficulty | وقف عقبة دون (‘aqabatan) to stand in the way of s.th., obstruct s.th.

عقيب ‘aqīb one who, or that which, succeeds or is subsequent; following, subsequent | عقيب ذلك (‘aqība) thereafter, afterwards, subsequently

عقاب ‘uqāb (usually f.) pl. اعقب a‘qub, عقبان ‘iqbān eagle; العقاب هـ quila (astron.)

عقابي ‘uqābī eagle, (in compounds), aquiline

عقيب ‘uqayyib a small eagle, Eaglet

عقوبة ‘uqūba pl. -āt punishment, penalty; pl. punitive measures, sanctions | عقوبات اقتصادية (iqtiṣādīya) economic sanctions; قانون العقوبات penal code

عقوبي ‘uqūbī penal, punitive

عقبى ‘uqbā end, outcome, upshot; issue, effect, result, consequence

يعقوب ya‘qūb2 Jacob, James; ya‘qūb (pl. يعاقيب ya‘āqīb2) male mountain quail (zool.) | لحاجة في نفس يعقوب li-hājatin fī nafsi y. for some unknown reason, from secret motives

يعقوبي ya‘qūbī pl. يعاقبة ya‘āqiba a Jacobite, an adherent of Jacob Baradai; Jacobite (adj.; Chr.)

تعقيب ta‘qīb pl. -āt pursuit, chase; investigation; comment(ing); appeal (of a sentence, jur.) | دائرة التعقيب court of review, appellate court (Tun.)

معاقبة mu‘āqaba infliction of punishment, punishment; pl. معاقبات sanctions (pol.)

عقاب ‘iqāb infliction of punishment, punishment; penalty

عقابي ‘iqābī penal, punitive

تعقب ta‘aqqub pl. -āt pursuit, chase; investigation

تعاقب ta‘āqub succession | على تعاقب العصور in the course of centuries

عاقب ‘āqib: على العاقب successively

عاقبة aqiba pl. عواقب ‘awāqib2 end, outcome, upshot; issue, effect, result, consequence | سليم العاقبة benign (disease)

معاقب mu‘āqib alternate; punisher

متعاقب muta‘āqib successive, consecutive, uninterrupted, continuous

عقد ‘aqada i (‘aqd) to knit, knot, tie (هـ s.th.) to fasten with a knot (هـ s.th.); to put together, join, fold, lock (هـ one’s hands, and the like); to contract (هـ the brows, and the like); to fix (هـ one’s eyes, ب on); to arch, vault (هـ a structure); to hold, convene, convoke, summon, call (هـ s.th., e.g., a session, a meeting); to conclude (هـ a contract), effect (هـ a transaction, a sale); to contract (هـ a loan) | عقد املا على ‘aqada amalan) to pin, or set, one’s hope(s) on ...; عقد جبهته (jabhatahū) to knit, or wrinkle, one’s brows, frown; عقد محادثة (muḥādatatan) to strike up a conversation; عقد خطبتها على (‘uqida kiṭbatuhā) she became engaged to; عقد الخنصر (الخناصر) على (kinṣir, kanāṣir) to give s.th. top-rating because of its excellence, put s.th. above everything else; عقد زواجا (zawājan) to contract a marriage; عقد العزم (العزيمة) على (‘azma) to make up one’s mind to do s.th., be (firmly) determined to do s.th.; عقد لسانه to silence s.o.; عقد لواء الشيء to found, start, originate, launch, produce, kindle, provoke s.th.; السفينة المعقود لها لواء القيادة (liwā’u l-q.) the flagship; البارحة المعقود لواؤها للاميرال (liwā’uhā li-l-amīrāl) the admiral’s flagship; عقد ناصيته (nāṣiyatahū) = عقد جبهته; عقد نطاقا (niṭāqan) to form a cordon (حوله around s.o.); عقد النية على (nīyata) to resolve, make up one’s mind to do s.th., decide on s.th.; عقد له لواء المجد (النصر ) ‘uqida lahū liwā’u l-majd (n-naṣr) approx.: he was awarded the laurel of fame (of victory); عقد على المرأة (‘alā l-mar’a) to marry a woman II to knit (tightly), knot, tie (هـ s.th.); to pile up, mass together (هـ e.g., clouds), cluster (هـ e.g., vapors, steam); to complicate, make difficult, intricate, or tangled هـ (s.th.) II and IV to congeal, coagulate, clot, thicken, inspissate (هـ s.th., esp. by boiling) V to be knit (together), knotted, tied with knots; to be or become intricate or complicated; to congeal, coagulate, clot, thicken; to gather (of clouds, etc.) | تعقد لسانه (lisānuhū) to express o.s. with difficulty, speak laboringly; to be unable to speak, be tongue-tied VI to be interknit, interknotted, interjoined, interlinked; to make a contract; to reach agreement, come to mutual agreement (على on, about) VII to be knit (together), knotted, tied with knots, entangled; to contract, become contracted (e.g., brows); to be inhibited (tongue); to congeal, coagulate, clot, thicken; to be concluded (contract), be effected (sale); to convene, assemble, meet (a committee, a conference, and the like) | الاجماع منعقد على ان (ijmā‘) there is general conviction that ...; لم ينعقد له زهر ولا ثمر (zahr, tamar) to remain without blossom and fruit, be without any effect and consequence VIII to believe (firmly) (s.th., ب in)

عقد ‘aqd knitting, knotting, tying; joining, junction, looking; holding, summoning, convocation (of a session, of a meeting); conclusion (of a contract, of a sale); contraction (of a loan, and the like); -- (pl. عقود ‘uqūd) contract, agreement, arrangement; legal act, legal transaction; document, deed; vault, arah; group of ten, half-score; decade, decennium | عقد الفي (alfī) millennium; عقد الزواج ‘a. az-zawāj contraction of marriage, marriage; marriage certificate; عقد القران contraction of marriage, marriage; عقد الملكية ‘a. al-milkīya title deed; انفرط عقدهم (infaraṭa) they broke up, they went their own ways

عقد ‘iqd pl. عقود ‘uqūd chaplet, necklace | واسطة العقد center, focus, highlight, chief attraction, pièce de résistance

عقدة ‘uqda pl. عقد ‘uqad knot (also = nautical mile); inch; joint (anat.); splice; knot, knur, knob, swelling, nodule, node, protuberance, excrescence, outgrowth; compact, covenant, contract; problem, difficulty; puzzle, riddle; complex (psychol.)

عقاد ‘aqqād a producer and seller of cords, braiding and tassels, maker of trimmings

عقادة ‘iqāda manufacture of trimmings, braiding, etc.

عقيد ‘aqīd pl. عقداء ‘uqadā’2 contracting party, contractant, contractor; a military rank, approx.: lieutenant colonel (Ir.); colonel (mil., U.A.R.)

عقيدة ‘aqīda pl. عقائد ‘aqā’id2 article of faith, tenet, doctrine; dogma; creed, faith, belief; conviction; O ideology | عقيدة خرافية (kurāfīya) superstition; في عقيدتي according to my conviction, as I believe

عقائدي ‘aqā’idī O ideological

اعقد a‘qad2 (elative) knottier, more knotted; more complicated, more difficult; -- a‘qad2, f. عقداء ‘aqdā’ knotty, knotted, guarded | عصا عقداء (‘aṣan) knotty stick, brier cane

معقد ma‘qid pl. معاقد ma‘āqid2 piece where s.th. is knotted or tied in a knot or knots; point where s.th. joins or meets, a junction, a juncture, a joint, a seam | معقد the object on which s.o. pins his hopes; لا يأخذ الكرى بمعقد جفنه (karā bi-m. jafnihī) no slumber closed his lids

تعقيد ta‘qīd complication, entanglement, involvement; complicatedness, intricacy; complexity, tangledness; pl. -āt intricate, complicated problems

تعقد ta‘aqqud complicatedness, complexity, intricacy

انعقاد in‘iqād meeting, convening, session (of a committee, and the like) | دور الانعقاد daur al-in. session, term (parl.)

اعتقاد i‘tiqād (firm) belief, faith, trust, confidence, conviction; -- (pl. -āt) (religious) creed, faith; article of faith; principle of faith, tenet; doctrine; dogma

اعتقاد i‘tiqād dogmatic; (pl. -ūn) dogmatist | المعهد الاعتقادي (madhab) dogmatism

عاقد ‘āqid legally competent to contract (Isl. Law)

معقود ma‘qūd knit, knotted, etc., see عقد (of milk) curdled | معقود اللسان tongue-tied, incapable of speech | كان الأعمال معقودا ان (amalu) it was hoped that …

معقد mu‘aqqad knotted, knotty, gnarl.d; complicated, intricate, entangled, snarled, involved, difficult

معاقد mu‘āqad contracting party, contractant, contractor

متعاقد muta‘āqid: متعاقدان the two contracting parties

معتقد mu‘taqad believed; المعتقد ان it is believed that ..., it is held that …; -- (pl. -āt) article of faith, principle of faith, tenet; doctrine; dogma; creed, faith; conviction, belief, view, opinion

عقر ‘aqara i (‘aqr) to wound (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); -- ‘aqura u and ‘aqara i (‘uqr, ‘aqr, عقارة ‘aqāra) to be barren, sterile; to be childless III to be addicted, be given (هـ to s.th., e.g., to drinking) IV to stun, stupefy (ه s.o.)

عقر ‘uqr, ‘aqr barrenness, sterility; middle, center | في عقر الدار within the house itself (not outside the house); في عقر داره in his own house; في عقر ديارهم within the country; in their own country, on their own ground

عقر ‘uqr indemnity for illicit sexual intercourse with a woman slave (Isl. Law); childless man

عقار ‘aqār pl. -āt immovable property, immovables, real property, real estate, realty; piece of real estate, landed property

عقار ‘uqār residue

عقاري ‘aqārī of or pertaining to immovable property, immovables, landed property, or real estate; consisting in immovable property, immovables, landed property, or real estate; landed | بنك عقاري real-estate bank, land-mortgage bank; رهن عقاري (rahn) mortgage on landed property, landed security; القسم العقاري (qism) real-estate administration (Tun.); ملك عقاري (milk) landed property

عقور ‘aqūr mordacious, rapacious, voracious (animal)

عقار ‘aqqār pl. عقاقير ‘aqāqīr2 drug; medicament, remedy

عقارة ‘aqāra barrenness, sterility

عقيرة ‘aqīra voice

عاقر ‘āqir (f.) barren, sterile (woman)

عقرب ‘aqrab pl. عقارب ‘aqārib2 scorpion; sting, prick; hand (of a watch or clock); look, curl; العقرب Scorpio (astron.)

معقرب mu‘aqrab crooked, curved, curled

عقص ‘aqaṣa i (‘aqṣ) to braid, plait (هـ the hair)

عقيصة ‘aqīṣa pl. عقائص ‘aqā’iṣ2, عقاص ‘iqāṣ braid, plait (of hair), lock

عقعق ‘aq‘aq pl. عقاعق ‘aqā‘iq2 magpie (zol.)

عقف ‘aqafa i (‘aqf) to crook, hook, bend sharply (هـ s.th.) II = I

عقفة ‘uqfa pl. -āt loop, ring, eyelet (to hold a button, the cords of the ‘iqāl, and the like)

اعقف a‘qaf2, f. عقفاء ‘aqfā’2 crooked, bent, hooked

O معقف ma‘qif square bracket

معقوف ma‘qūf crooked, bent, hooked; bent at the ends, handlebar-shaped (mustache); dual معقوفان square brackets (typ.) | الصليب المعقوف the swastika

منعقف mun‘aqif square bracket | بين منعقفين in square brackets

عقل ‘aqala i (‘aql) to hobble with the ‘iqāl (عقال q.v.; البعير al-ba‘īra the camel); to intern, confine, detain, arrest, put under arrest (ه s.o.); to throw (ه s.o.) in wrestling; to pay blood money or wergild (ه ل for the slain to s.o.); to be endowed with (the faculty of) reason, be reasonable, have intelligence; to be in one’s senses, be conscious; to realize, comprehend, understand (هـ s.th.) | عقل لسانه (lisānahū) to tongue-tie s.o., make s.o. speechless II to make (ه s.o.) reasonable or sensible, bring (ه s.o.) to reason V to be or become reasonable, sensible, rational, intelligent, judicious, prudent, wise; to comprehend, grasp (ه s.th.) VIII to arrest, put under arrest, apprehend, detain (ه s.o.); to intern (ه s.o.); to seize, impound (هـ s.th.)

عقل ‘aql blood money, bloodwite, wergild; (pl. عقول ‘uqūl) sense, sentience, reason, understanding, comprehension, discernment, insight, rationality, mind, intellect, intelligence | مختل العقل muktall al-‘a. mentally deranged, demented, insane, mad; سليم (صحيح) العقل sane; O العقل الباطن (or اللاشعوري , or غير الواعي ) (lā-šu‘ūrī, gairu l-wā‘ī) the unconscious, the subliminal; O العقل الشعوري (or الواعي , or الظاهر ) (šu‘ūrī) the subconscious, the coconscious; O العقل المميز (mumayyiz) the conscious; O عقل الكتروني electronic computer

عقلي ‘aqlī reasonable, rational; ratiocinative; mental; intellectual; (pl. -ūn) rationalist; an intellectual; العقليات al-‘aqlīyāt the mental world | المذهب العقلي (madhab) rationalism; الأمرض العقلية mental diseases

عقلية ‘aqlīya mentality, mental attitude

عقلة ‘uqla pl. عقل ‘uqal knot, knob, node (e.g., of a reed, cane, etc.); joint, articulation; knuckle; layer (hort.); trapeze

عقال ‘iqāl pl. عقل ‘uqul cord used for hobbling the feet of a camel; a headband made of camel’s hair, holding the kūfīya in place | اطلق حربا من عقالها (aṭlaqa ḥarban) to unleash or start a war

عقول ‘aqūl understanding, reasonable, sensible, discerning, intelligent; costive medicine; (and عاقول ‘āqūl) a low spiny shrub of the steppes of North Africa and Western Asia (camel’s-thorn, Alhagi maurorom; Alhagi manniferom Desv.; bot.)

عقيلة ‘aqīla pl. عقائل ‘aqā’il2 the best, the pick; wife, spouse | السيدة عقيلته (sayyida) his wife; عقائل الصفات ‘a. aṣ-ṣifāt the very best qualities

اعقل a‘qal2 brighter, smarter, more intelligent

معقل ma‘qil pl. معاقل ma‘āqil2 refuge, sanctuary; stronghold, fortress, fort; O pillbox, bunker, dugout (mil.); fortified position

معقل ma‘qula pl. معاقل ma‘āqil2 blood money, wergild

تعقل ta‘aqqul understanding, discernment, prudence, judiciousness, wisdom | بتعقل sensibly, intelligently

اعتقال i‘tiqāl pl. -āt arrest, detention, internment; cramp, spasm | معسكر الاعتقال mu‘askar al-i‘t. concentration camp

عاقل ‘āqil pl. -ūn, عقلاء ‘uqalā’2, عقال ‘uqqāl understanding, reasonable, sensible, rational, discerning, intelligent, prudent, judicious, wile; in full possession of one’s mental faculties, compos mentis, sane in mind

عاقلة ‘āqila a clan committed by unwritten law of the Bedouins to pay the

bloodwite for each of its members

معقول ma‘qūl reasonable, sensible, intelligible, comprehensible, understandable, plausible, logical; rational; apprehensive faculty, comprehension, intellect, discernment, judiciousness, judgment; common sense | معقول unintelligible, incomprehensible, nonsensical, incongruous, preposterous, absurd

معقولية ma‘qūlīya, comprehensibility, intelligibility; logicality, rationality, or reasonable character, logicality, rationality, reasonableness

معتقل mu‘taqal pl. -āt concentration camp; prison camp; internment camp, detention camp

عقم ‘aqama u and ‘aquma u (‘aqm; ‘uqm) to be barren, sterile (womb, woman); -- aqama i (‘aqm) to render barren (هـ the womb) II to render sterile or barren, sterilize (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to degerminate (ه s.th.); to pasteurize (ه s.th.); to disinfect (ه s.th.) V to be rendered barren, be sterilized

عقم ‘aqm, ‘uqm, ‘aqam barrenness, sterility

عقمة ‘uqma barrenness, sterility

عقيم ‘aqīm pl. عقم ‘uqum, عقام ‘iqām barren; sterile; useless, unavailing, futile, fruitless, ineffectual, ineffective, unproductive (e.g., work, attempt)

تعقيم ta‘qīm sterilization, degermination, pasteurization; disinfection

O معقم mu‘aqqim disinfector, disinfecting apparatus

معقم mu‘aqqam sterilized, pasteurized, disinfected, degerminated

عك ‘akka i (‘akk) to be sultry, muggy (day)

عك ‘akk sultry, muggy, sweltering

عكة ‘akka2, عكاء ‘akkā’2 and عكا ‘akkkā Acre (seaport in Palestine)

عكيك ‘akīk sultry, muggy, sweltering (day)

عكر ‘akira a (‘akar) to be or become turbid, muddy, roily II to render turbid, to roil, to muddy (هـ or على s.th.); to disturb, trouble (هـ or على s.th.) | عكر الصفو (ṣafwa) to destroy the untroubled state, disturb

the order; عكر صفوه (ṣafwahū) and عكر عليه الصفو (ṣafwa) to kill s.o.’s good spirits, spoil s.o.’s good humor V to become turbid, become muddy; to deteriorate, be aggravated, become worse (situation)

عكر ‘amr turbidity, muddiness; sediment, dregs, lees

عكر ‘akir turbid, muddy, roily; troubled, disturbed

عكارة ‘akāra, ‘ikāra (eg.) sediment, dregs, lees

تعكير ta‘kīr (act of) rendering turbid, roiling, muddying; disturbance, troubling, derangement

معكر mu‘akkar turbid, sedimentous, roiled, muddy; disturbed, troubled

عكز V to lean (على on a staff)

عكاز ‘ukkāz, عكازة ‘ukkāza pl. -āt, عكاكيز ‘akākīz2 staff, stick; crutch

عكس ‘akasa i (‘aks) to reverse, invert (هـ s.th.); to reflect, throw back, cast back, mirror (هـ s.th.) III to counteract, oppose, contradict (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), thwart (هـ s.th.); to disturb, trouble (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to molest, vex, tease, harass (ه s.o.) VI to be reversed, be inverted; to be thrown back, be cast back, be reflected, be mirrored VII to be reversed, be inverted; to turn back (على against); to redound (على to, on); to be thrown back, be cast back (على or عن by), be reflected, be mirrored (على or عن by, in)

عكس ‘aks reversal, reversion, inversion; reflection; opposite, contract, contrary, reverse | عكس ذلك ‘aksa d. and على عكس ذلك in contrast with that, contrary to that; كان على العكس من to be in contrast to, be in opposition to; بالعكس on the contrary, conversely; والعكس بالعكس and vice versa; بحث المسألة طردا وعكسا (mas’alata ṭardan) he studied the problem from all sides or in all its aspects

عكسي ‘aksī contrary, opposite, contrasting, antithetical, adverse

عكيس ‘akīs layer, shoot, cion (hort.)

معاكسة mu‘ākasa pl. as disturbance; molestation, pestering, harassment; struggle, fight, battle | معاكسة الحالة الجوية (jawwīya) inclemency of the weather

انعكاسي in‘ikāsī reflection; (pl. -āt) reflex

انعكاسي in‘ikāsī reflectional, reflexive, reflex (adj.) | حركة انعكاسية (ḥaraka) reflex action, reflex (physiol.)

عاكس ‘ākis screen, lamp shade; reflector

عاكسة ‘ākisa reflector; eye shade; lamp shade

معاكس mu‘ākis counter-, contra-, anti- هجمة معاكسة (hajma) counterattack

متعاكس muta‘ākis contrasting, opposite, opposed, conflicting

منعكس mun‘akis reflected | صورة منعكسة (ṣūra) mirror image, reflected image, reflection, reflex; افعال منعكسة reflex actions

عكاشة ‘akāša awkwardness, clumsiness

عكاشة ‘ukāša, ‘ukāša spider; spider web, cobweb

عكف ‘akafa u i (عكف ‘ukuf) to adhere, cling, stick, keep (على to); to give o.s. over, apply o.s., devote o.s., be addicted (على to s.th.), indulge (على in s.th.), be obsessed (على by), be bent, be intent (على on s.th.); to be busily engaged (على in), busy o.s. (على with); to remain uninterruptedly (في in); to seclude o.s., isolate o.s. (في in, at a place), withdraw, retire (في into, to a place); -- ‘akafa u i (‘akf) to hold back, restrain, keep (ه عن s.o. from) II to hold back, restrain, keep (عن ه s.o. from) V to remain uninterruptedly (هـ in); to seclude o.s., isolate o.s. (في in, at a place; عن from), withdraw, retire (في into, to a place; عن from); to live in seclusion. in retirement (عن from) VIII = V; to devote o.s., apply o.s. assiduously (الى to s.th.), busy o.s. (الى with)

عاكف pl. -ūn, عكوف ‘ukūf, عكف ‘ukkaf given, addicted (على to s.th.); obsessed (على by), bent, intent (على on); busily engaged (على in), busy (على with)

عكم ‘akama i (‘akm) to bundle up, pack, tie in a cloth, and the like (هـ s.th.)

1 عل ‘alu see علو

2 عل ‘alla, لعل la-‘alla (particle; with accusative noun immediately following) perhaps, maybe | من يدري لعل (man yadrī) who knows if …

3 عل ‘alla i and pass. ‘ulla to be or fall ill II to occupy, busy, keep busy, entertain, distract (ب ه s.o. with); to justify, motivate, explain (ب ه s.th. with) | علل نفسه (النفس) ب to indulge in the hope that …, entertain or cherish the hope of or that …, be given to the illusion that ...; علل نفسه بآمال to indulge in hopes; to entertain vain hopes; علل الآمال ب to cherish the hope of ...; علله بالوعود to put s.o. off with promises V to occupy o.s., busy o.s., amuse o.s., distract o.s., divert o.s. (ب with); to make an excuse, offer a pretext; to offer or use as an excuse, offer a pretext (ب s.th.); to use as an expedient, as a makeshift (ب s.th.) | تعلل بعلة (bi-‘illatin) to make a pretext, plead s.th. as an excuse VIII to be or fall ill; to be weak, defective; to make an excuse, offer a pretext; to adduce, give, offer (ب a reason or excuse, على for s.th.); to pretend, purport, allege, feign, dissimulate, offer as a pretext or excuse (ب s.th.)

علة ‘illa pl. -āt, علل ‘ilal illness, sickness, disease, malady; deficiency, defect, weakness; weakness, defectiveness (of a letter or word; gram.); metrical variation or irregularity (prosody); -- (pl. علل ‘ilal) cause, reason, occasion; excuse, pretense, pretext, plea | حروف العلة the weak letters (ا, ي, و ; gram.); على علاته in spite of his weaknesses, such as he is; العلة والمعلول cause and effect; علة العلل في the principal cause of ..., the deeper reason underlying ...

علة ‘alla pl. -āt concubine | بنو العلات banū l-‘a. sons of a man by different mothers

عليل ‘alīl pl. اعلاء a‘illa’ sick, ill, ailing; sick person, patient; soft, gentle, mild, pleasant

علية ‘illīya causality

علية ‘ilya, ‘ullīya and عليون ‘illīyūn see علو

علالة ‘ulāla comfort, consolation; remainder, remnant, rest

تعليل ta‘līl pl. -āt entertainment, diversion, distraction; argumentation, justification, motivation, explanation

تعلة ta‘illa pl. -āt pretext, pretense, excuse; makeshift, expedient, substitute, surrogate

اعتلال i‘tilāl illness, sickness, disease, malady; weakness, defectiveness

معلول ma‘lūl ill, sick, ailing; effect | العلة والمعلول (‘illa) cause and effect; اتخذ المعلول علة ittakada l-ma‘lūla ‘illatan to mistake cause and effect

معل mu‘all ill, sick, ailing

معتل mu‘tall ill, sick, ailing; weak (letter; gram.); defective (word; gram.)

علب II to can, tin, preserve in cans (هـ s.th.)

علبة ‘ulba pl. علب ‘ulab, علاب ‘ilāb box, case; can, tin; etui

علج III to treat (ه s.o., a patient; هـ a disease, also a subject); to occupy o.s., concern o.s., have to do, deal (هـ, ه with s.o., with s.th.), attend, turn (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.); to cultivate (هـ s.th., e.g., a literary genre); to take up (هـ s.th.), go in (هـ for s.th.), apply o.s. (هـ to s.th.); to take upon o.s. (هـ s.th.), undergo (هـ s.th.); to work (هـ s.th. or on s.th.), process, treat, manipulate, handle (هـ s.th.); to endeavor, take pains, try hard (ان or هـ to do s.th.); to palpate, paw, finger, touch (ه s.o.), fumble around (ه on s.o.); to influence (ه s.o.), work (ه upon s.o. by arguments or persuasions), prevail (ه on s.o.) | عالج الرمق الأخير (ramaqa) to be on the verge of death, be dying; عالجه بطعنة (bi-ṭa‘natin) to land a stab on s.o., stab s.o. VI to be under medical treatment, receive or undergo medical treatment VIII to wrestle, struggle, fight (with one another); to be in violent commotion or agitation, heave, surge, tremble

علج ‘ilj pl. علوج ‘ulūj infidel; uncouth fellow, lout

معالجة mu‘ālaja treatment (of a patient, also of a subject); nursing (of a patient); cultivation (of an art); manipulation, handling, processing, treatment (of a material, etc.)

علاج ‘ilāj medical treatment; remedy; cure, therapy

تعالج ta‘āluj curative, therapeutic

علف ta‘āluj medical treatment (which one undergoes)

علف ‘alafa i (‘alf) to feed, fodder (هـ livestock)

علف ‘alaf pl. اعلاف a‘lāf, علاف ‘ilāf, علوفة ‘ulūfa fodder, forage, provender

علاف ‘allaf pl. ة seller of provender

علوفة ‘alūfa pl. علائف ‘alā’if2 stall-fed animal; -- (pl. علف ‘uluf) fodder, forage, provender

معلف mi‘laf pl. معالف ma‘ālif2 manger, trough

معلوف ma‘laf stall-fed, fattened (animal)

علق ‘aliqa a (‘alaq) to hang, be suspended, dangle; to stick, cling, cleave, adhere (ب to); to catch (ب on, في in), get caught or stuck (ب on, في in); to be attached, affixed, subjoined (ب to s.th.); -- (علوق ‘ulūq, علاقة ‘alāqa) to keep (ب to s.o.), he attached, be devoted (ب to s.o.), be fond (ب of s.o.); (with foll. imperf.) to begin, commence to ..., start doing s.th.; -- ‘aliqat (علوق ‘ulūq) to become pregnant, conceive (woman) II to hang, suspend (على or ب ه s.th. on), attach, hitch, fasten, affix, tie (هـ s.th. على or ب to); to leave undecided, keep pending, keep in abeyance (هـ s.th.); to make dependent or conditional (هـ s.th. ب or على on); to comment (على on s.th.); annotate, gloss, furnish with notes or a commentary (على s.th.), remark, state (على with regard to); to make notes (هـ of s.th.), jot down (هـ s.th.) | علق الآمال على to set one’s hopes on; علق اهمية (خطورة) على (ahammīyatan) to attach importance to s.th. IV to hang, suspend (ب هـ s.th. on), attach, hitch, fasten, affix, tie (ب هـ s.th. to); to apply leeches V to hang, be suspended, dangle (ب from); to cling, cleave, adhere (ب to); to keep, stick, hang on (ب to); to be attached, be devoted (ب to), be fond (ب of s.o.); to depend, be dependent or conditional (على or ب on); to refer, pertain, belong,

be related (ب to), be connected, have to do (ب with), concern (ب s.th.) | تعلق بحبه (bi-ḥubbihī) to be fond of s.o., be affectionately attached to s.o.; فيما تعلق ب with regard to, as to, regarding, concerning

علق ‘ilq, ‘alq pl. اعلاق a‘lāq precious thing, object of value

علق ‘alaq (con.; n. un. ة ) pl. -āt medicinal leech; leech; (coagulated) blood, blood clot

علقة ‘alqa (eg.) beating; bastinado; a thrashing, spanking

عليق ‘alīq pl. علائق ‘alā’iq2 fodder, forage, provender

علق 'ullaiq twining and creeping plants or shrubs (of various kinds); the lesser bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis; bot.; common English blackberry, bramble (Rubus fruticosus; bot.); blackberry; raspberry

عليقة ‘ullaiqa: عليقة موسى ‘u. mūsā the Burning Bush

علاق ‘allāq cost hanger

علاقة ‘alāqa attachment, devotion, affection, bond; (pl. -āt, علائق ‘alā’iq2) relation, affiliation, association, contact, bond, connection (ب with) | العلاقات العامة public relations; ذو علاقة ب connected with, related to; السلطات ذات العلاقة (sulṭāt) the competent authorities; قطع العلاقات (العلائق ) qaṭ‘ al-‘a. severance of relations; توتر العلاقات (العلائق ) tawattur al-‘a. tenseness of relations, tension in the relations

علاقة ‘ilāqa pl. علائق ‘alā’iq2 a strap, and the like, for suspending s.th.

علاقة ‘allāqa coat hanger

اعلق a‘laq2: اعلق بالذهن (dihn) that to which the mind is more inclined

معلاق mi‘lāq pl. معاليق ma‘ālīq2 pluck (of an animal)

تعليق ta‘līq hanging, suspending; temporary stay, remission or abrogation, suspension; the oblique, “hanging” ductus (in Arabic calligraphy); (pl. -āt, تعاليق ta‘ālīq2) commentary, comment(s), explanatory remarks; suspended lamp | تعليق الطلاق t. aṭ-ṭalāq conditional repudiation, conditional pronunciation of the talak (Isl. Law); تعليق على الأنباء (anbā’) news commentary (radio)

تعليقة ta‘līqa pl. -āt, تعاليق ta‘ālīq2 marginal note, annotation, note, gloss, scholium

تعلق ta‘alluq attachment, devotion (ب to), affection (ب for); linkage, connection, relationship (ب with)

معلق mu‘alliq commentator (radio, press)

معلق mu‘allaq suspended, hanging; in suspense, in abeyance, pending, undecided; hinging (ب on); depending,

dependent, conditional (ب or على on), conditioned (ب or على by) | جسر معلق (jisr) suspension bridge; حساب معلق suspense account; قاطرات معلقة suspension railways; مسائل معلقة pending questions; رغبته معلقة ب (ragbatuhū) his desire is directed toward …

معلقة mu‘allaqa pl. -āt placard, poster, bill; المعلقات the oldest collection of complete ancient Arabic kasidas

متعلق muta‘alliq attached, devoted (ب to); connected (ب with), related, pertaining (ب to), concerning (ب s.o. or s.th.) | متعلق بحبه (bi-ḥubbihī) affectionately attached to s.o.; من متعلقاته depending on s.o. or s.th., pertaining to s.o.’s authority

علقم ‘alqam pl. علاقم ‘alāqim2 colocynth (bot.) | ذاق العلقم to taste bitterness suffer annoyance, vexation, chicanery or torments (من from)

علك ‘alaka u i (‘alk) to chew, champ (هـ s.th., esp. اللجام the bit, of a horse)

علك ‘ilk mastic

علم ‘alima a (‘ilm) to know (ب or هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), have knowledge, be cognizant, be aware (ب or هـ of s.th.), be informed (ب or هـ about or of s.th.), be familiar, be acquainted (ب or هـ with s.th.); to perceive, discern (ب or هـ s.th.), find out (ب or هـ about s.th., من from), learn, come to know (ب or هـ s.th. or about s.th., من from); to distinguish, differentiate (من هـ s.th. from) II to teach (ب ه or هـ ه s.o. s.th.), instruct, brief (ب ه or هـ ه s.o. in s.th.); to train. school, educate (ه s.o.); to designate, mark, earmark, provide with a distinctive mark (على s.th.); to put a mark (على on) IV to let (ه s.o.) know (ب or هـ s.th. or about s.th.), tell (ب or هـ ه s.o. about), notify, advise, apprise, inform (ب ه or هـ ه s.o. of or about s.th.). acquaint (ب ه or هـ ه s.o. with) V to learn, study (A s.th.); to know (هـ s.th.) X to inquire (عن ه or هـ ه of s.o. about), ask, query (عن ه or هـ ه s.o. about), inform o.s. (هـ ه or هـ ه through s.o. about). gather information (عن ه or هـ ه from s.o. about)

علم ‘ilm knowledge, learning, lore; cognizance, acquaintance; information; cognition, intellection, perception, knowledge; (pl. علوم ‘ulūm) science; pl. العلوم the (natural) sciences | علما وعملا ‘ilman wa-‘amalan theoretically and practically; ليكن في علمه (li-yakun) be it known to him, may he know, for his information; كان على علم تام ب (tāmm) to know s.th. inside out, be thoroughly familiar with s.th.; to have full cognizance of s.th.; علم الجراثيم bacteriology; علم الاجتماع sociology; علم الحساب arithmetic; علم الحياة ‘i. al-ḥayāh biology; علم الأحياء do.; علم الحيوان ‘i. al-ḥayawān zoology; علم الأخلاق ethics; علم الذرات ‘i. ad-darrāt nuclear physics; علم التربية ‘i. at-tarbiya pedagogy; علم الصحة ‘i. aṣ-ṣiḥḥa hygiene; علم الأصوات phonetics; علم المعادن ‘i. al-ma‘ādīn mineralogy; علم اللغة ‘i. al-luga lexicography; علم النباتات ‘i. an-nabātāt botany; علم النفس ‘i. an-nafs psychology; علم وظائف الأعضاء ‘i. w. al-a‘ḍā’ physiology; طالب علم ṭālib ‘ilm student; كلية العلوم kullīyat al-‘u. the Faculty of Science of the Egyptian University

علمي ‘ilmī scientific; erudite (book); learned (society)

علم ‘alam pl. اعلام a‘lām sign, token, mark, badge, distinguishing mark, characteristic; harelip; road sign, signpost, guidepost; flag, banner; a distinguished, outstanding man; an eminent personality, au authority, a star, a luminary; proper name (gram.) اشهر من نار على علم very famous; اسم العلم ismun ‘alamun or ism ‘alamin pl. اسماء الأعلام proper name (gram.); علم الوصول receipt

عالم ‘ālam pl. -ūn, عوالم ‘awālim2 world; universe, cosmos; العالمان al-‘ālamān the two worlds = Europe and America; عالمون ‘ālamūn inhabitants of the world, specif. human beings | عالم الحيوان ‘a. al-ḥayawān the animal kingdom; عالم المعادن ‘ā. al-ma‘ādin the mineral kingdom; عالم النبات ‘ā. an-nabāt the vegetable kingdom; عالم الوجود this world, this life

عالمي ‘ālami worldly, secular, world (adj.); international; world-wide, world-famous, enjoying world-wide renown

عالمية ‘ālamīya internationality; ‘ālimīya see after ‘ālim

علماني ‘almānī, عالماني laic, lay; (pl. -ūn) layman (in distinction from the clergy)

علم ‘alīm pl. علماء ‘ulamā’ knowing; cognizant, informed; learned, erudite; العليم the omniscient (one of the attributes of God)

علام ‘allām knowing thoroughly (with foll. genit.: s.th.), completely familiar (with)

علام ‘alāma see على (prep.) under علو

علامة ‘allāma most erudite, very learned

علامة ‘alāma pl. -āt, علائم ‘alā’im2 mark, sign, token; badge, emblem; distinguishing mark, characteristic indication,

syptom | علامة هذا (‘alāma) in token of that, as a sign of that; علامة تجارية (tijārīta) trade-mark; علامة الرتبة ‘a. rutba insignia of rank; O علامة التأثر ‘a. at-ta’attur and علامة التعجب ‘a. at-ta‘ajub exclamation point; علامة الاستفهام question mark; O علامة التنصيص quotation mark

عيلم ‘ailam tender; (pl. عيالم ‘ayālim2) well with abundant water; sea

اعلومة a‘lūma pl. اعاليم a‘ālim2 road sign, signpost, guidepost

تعلامة ti‘lāma moot erudite, very learned

معلم ma‘lam pl. معالم ma‘ālim2 place, abode, locality, spot; track, trace; landmark, mark, distinguishing mark, characteristic; road sign, signpost, guidepost; peculiarity, particularity; pl. sights, curiosities; characteristic traits; outlines, contours (e.g., of the body), lineaments, features (of the face)

معلمة ma‘lama pl. -āt encyclopedia

تعليم ta‘līm pl. -āt, تعليماتا ta‘līm2 information, advice, instruction, direction; teaching, instruction; training, schooling, education; apprenticeship; pl. تعليمات instructions, directions, directives; information, announcements | تعليم مختلط (muktaliṭ) coeducation; تعليم عال (‘ālin) higher education, academic studies, مراقب تعليم murāqib t. a military rank, approx.: master sergeant (Eg. 1939); صول تعليم ṣol t. do. (Eg.); O فن التعليم fann at-t. pedagogy, pedagogics

تعليمي ta‘līmī instructional, educational

اعلام i‘lām notification, advice; information; notice

تعلم ta‘allum learning, studying, study; education

استعلام isti‘lām inquiry (عن about); (pl. -āt) Information | مكتب الاستعلامات maktab al-i. information office, information desk; news agency, press agency, wire service

عالم ‘ālim knowing; familiar, acquainted (ب with), cognizant (ب of); expert, connoisseur, professional, (pl. علماء ‘ulamā’2) learned, erudite; scholar, savant, scientist | عالم طبيعي (ṭabī‘ī) physicist, natural scientist; العلماء المختصون (muktaṣṣūn) the specialists, the experts

عالمة ‘ālima woman of learning, woman scholar; (eg.) singer, chanteuse

عالمية ‘ālimīya learnedness, scholarliness, erudition, rank or dignity of a ‘ālim; rank of scholarship, conferred by diploma, of the Great Mosque in Tunis and of Al Azhar in Cairo

اعلم a‘lam2 having more knowledge; more learned | الله اعلم God knows best

معلوم ma‘lūm known; fixed, determined, given; of course! certainly! sure! no doubt! (as an affirmative reply); known quantity (math.); المعلوم the active voice (gram.); -- (pl. معاليم ma‘ālim) fixed sum, fixed rate (money); fixed income; tax, duty; fee; sum, amount, cost(s) | معلوم الحيوانات m. al-ḥayawānāt impost on livestock (Tun.); -- pl. معلومات ma‘lūmāt knowledge, lore, learning, perceptions, discoveries, findings; known facts; information, data; news, tidings

معلم mu‘allim pl. -ūn teacher, instructor; master (of a trade, etc.) | معلم الاعتراف father-confessor, confessor

معلمة mu‘allima pl. -āt woman teacher, woman instructor

معلم mu‘allam taught, instructed, trained, schooled; معلم عليه designated, marked | معلم عليه بالأحمر marked with red pencil

متعلم muta‘allim apprentice; educated; an educated person

علن ‘alana u, ‘aluna u (علن ‘alāniya) to be or become known, manifest, evident III to indicate, make known, reveal, disclose (ه ب to s.o. s.th.) IV to manifest, reveal, make known (هـ s.th.); to make public, publicize, publish, disclose, declare, announce, proclaim, promulgate (هـ s.th.); to state frankly (هـ الى to s.o. s.th.); to announce (ان that); to issue a summons (الى to s.o.); to give notice (عن of); to advertise (عن s.th., e.g., the rent or sale of s.th. in a newspaper); to give evidence (عن of), indicate, show, betray, bespeak (عن s.th.) | اعلن الحرب عليه (ḥarba) to declare war on s.o. VIII = I; :x: - I; to seek to bring out or to disclose (هـ s.th.); to bring to light (هـ s.th.)

علنا ‘alanan openly, overtly, publicly, in public

علني ‘alanī open, overt, public

علن ‘alin open, overt, public; evident, patent

علانية ‘alānīya openness, overtness, publicness, publicity (as opposed to secrecy); ‘alāniyatan openly, overtly, publicly, patently, in public

اعلان i‘lān pl. -āt publication, promulgation; revelation, manifestation; proclamation; declaration, statement, pronouncement; announcement, notice; advertising, publicity (عن for); advertisement, ad; poster, bill, placard | اعلان حضور i. ḥuḍūr summons; اعلان الحرب i. al-ḥarb declaration of war; اعلان عدم الثقة i. ‘adam at-tiqa vote of “no confidence”; اعلانات مبوبة (mubawwaba) classified ads; اعلانات ضوئية (ḍau’īya) electric signs, sky signs

معلن mu‘lin announcer, master of ceremonies (e.g., in a cabaret)

معلن mu‘lan: معلن اليه summoned (before a court)

علو ) and على) علا ‘alā u (‘ulūw) to be high, elevated, rise high, loom, tower up; to rise, ascend; to ring out (voice); to heave (chest); to be higher or taller (عن or هـ, ه than s.o., than s.th.), (over)top (عن or هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), tower (عن or هـ, ه over s.o., over s.th.), be located or situated higher (عن or هـ than s.th.); to be attached, fixed or fastened above or on top of s.th. (هـ ); to rise (عن or هـ above s.th.); to exceed, excel, surpass (هـ, ه or عن s.o., s.th.); to be too high (هـ, ه or عن for s.o., for s.th.); to overcome, overwhelm (على or ه s.o.), get the better of s.o. (ه ); to turn upward; to ascend, mount, climb, scale (هـ s.th.); to overspread, cover (هـ s.th.), come, descend (هـ, ه upon s.o., upon s.th.), befall, seize (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) | علا به to raise s.th. or s.o.; to exalt, extol s.o.; علت به السن (sinnu) be bad attained great age, he was an old man; علا صوته ب (ṣautuhū) hie voice rang out with ..., he exclaimed aloud; -- على ‘aliya a (علاء ‘alā’) to be high, elevated; to excel, stand out, surpass; -- على ‘alā i (‘aly) to climb (السطح as-saṭḥa to the roof) | علا الأداة الصدأ (adāta, ṣada’u) rust has covered the tool; علت وجهه صفرة الأموات ‘alat wajhahū ṣufrat l-a. deathly pallor suffused his face; علته السآمة ‘alathu s-sa’āma he was overcome by fatigue; علت شفتيه رغوة ‘alat šafataihi ragwa foam appeared on his lips II to raise, raise aloft, lift, hoist, lift up, elevate, uplift, exalt (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) IV = II | اعلى شأنه (ša’nahū) to play up, stress, emphasize s.th., put emphasis on s.th.; to further, promote, advance s.th.; to raise s.o.’s prestige V to rise, become high VI to rise, lift, ascend, rise aloft; to resound, ring out; to be high, exalted, sublime (esp. of God); to deem o.s. above s.o. or s.th. (على ), look down (على on s.o. or s.th.); to stay away (عن from); تعال ta‘āla come (here)! come on! Let’s go! forward! VIII to rise, lift, ascend, rise aloft; to rise high, tower up; to mount, ascend, climb, scale (هـ s.th.); to step (up) (هـ on s.th.); to be enthroned, be perched (هـ on s.th.); to tower (هـ above s.th.); to ascend the throne; to accede to a high office X to rise, to tower (على above); to master (على s.th.); to take possession (على of s.th.), appropriate (على s.th.)

عل ‘alu: من عل min ‘alu from above

علو ‘ulūw height, tallness, elevation, altitude; greatness, grandeur, highness, exaltedness, sublimity | علو الصوت ‘u. aṣ-ṣaut sound volume, sound intensity; علو الكعب ‘u. al-ka‘b high, outstanding position

علوي ‘ulwī upper; heavenly, divine | ارادة علوية (irāda) supreme will, divine decree

علوي ‘alawī upper; heavenly, celestial; Alawi (adj. and n.); pl. العلويون the Alawis (official name of the Nusairis inhabiting the coastal district of Latakia in NW Syria)

على ‘ulan height, tallness, elevation, altitude; highness, exaltedness, augustness, sublimity; high rank

على ‘alā (prep.) on, upon, on top of, above, over (place, rank); at, on, by; in, in the state of, in the manner of, in possession of; to, toward, for; in addition to; to the debit of, to the disadvantage of; against, in spite of, despite; on the basis of, on the strength of, by virtue of, due to. upon; by, through; according to. in accordance with, pursuant to; to (one’s taste, one’s mind, one’s liking, etc.); during; (as to syntactical regimen see under respective verb) | من على from above from upon ..., from the top of …; على ان (an, anna) on the condition that …, provided that ...; although, though, albeit; على ان (anna) (introducing a main clause) however, but, on the other hand, nevertheless, yet, still, though; على انه (in the subjective notion or view that …, i.e.) as, e.g.: جنى ثمرات الأرض على انها نعمة الآلهة janā tamarāti l-arḍi ‘alā annahā ni‘matu l-āliha he reaped the fruits of the earth (accepting them) as a boon bestowed by the grace of the gods; على ظهر الخيل (ẓahr l-kail) on horseback; على ظهر الباخرة aboard the steamer; السلام عليكم (salāmu) may peace be upon you | على الرأس والعين ‘alā r-ra’s wa-l-‘ain very gladly! with pleasure! على رؤوس الأشهاد publicly, for everyone to see; جلس على النار he was sitting by the fire; على يمينه (yamīnihī) to (at) his right; على كل حال (kulli) or على كل (kullin) in any case, at any rate; على الخصوص especially, particularly, specifically; على الإطلاق (iṭlāq) absolutely, unrestrictedly, without exception, in any respect, under any circumstances; على التقريب approximately, almost, nearly, about, circa; على التوالي (tawālī) continuously, incessantly, in uninterrupted succession; على ضوء (ḍau’i) or على نور (nūri) in the light of ...; كان على حق (ḥaqqin) or كان على الحق to be on the right way, have hit on the right thing, be right; كان على الباطل or كان على خطأ (kaṭa’in) to be on the wrong way, be wrong, be mistaken; هو على احسن ما يرام (aḥsani, yurām) he is as well as you can possibly wish (for him); هو على شيء من he has certain ...; هو على شيء من الذكاء (dakā’) he has a good deal of intelligence; ليس هذا على شيء there is nothing in it, it’s worthless; ليس من هذا كله على شيء all this is unfamiliar to him; he doesn’t understand a thing about it; كان على دين المسيح (dīni l-m.) to belong to the Christian religion, be a Christian; كان على علم ب (‘ilmin) to be informed about. be acquainted with ...; كان على انتظاره to wait for s.o. or s.th.; على غير شيء for no reason; على بصيرة من الأمر in cognizance of the matter, knowing the matter; على غير معلافة منه (ma‘rifatin) without his knowing about it, without his knowledge, unwittingly; عليك ب (هـ, ه or) take ...! help yourself to ...! make use of ...! عليك بالصبر (bi-ṣ-ṣabr) you must have patience! علينا به he is the one we must have! علي به (‘alayya) bring, give him (or it) to me! I must have him (or it)! عليه ان it is incumbent on him to …; it’s his duty to ...; he must …, he will have to ...; لا عليك don’t worry! لا عليه never mind! It’s nothing! no harm done! (indicating forgiveness, indulgence); ماعلينا what of it! what does it matter! let’s forget it! ما عليك من don’t worry about ..., don’t mind …’ don’t give … a thought; ما عليه ان he doesn’t care if ; it’s of little importance to him that …; علي حساب (ḥisābihī) at his expense; عليه دين (dain) he is in debt(s); هو على سنه قوي (sinnihī qawīy) he bears his years well; علام ‘alāma wherefore? what for? why? استيقظ علي الاذان istaiqaẓa ‘alā l-adān he awoke over the call to prayer, he was awakened by the azan; قيل على لسانه ما (qīla, lisānihī) he was supposed to have said things which …, statements were ascribed to him which ...; على يده (yadihī) through him, by him, at his hand; على ذلك in this manner, thus; accordingly, hence; على ما يقال (yuqālu) as they say, as it is said; على حسب ‘alā ḥasabi (prep.) according to, in accordance with, commensurate with, depending on; علي طوع منها (‘alā) with her obeying, without opposition on her part; على عادته according to his habit, as was his wont, as he used to do; علي ما يقال (yuqālu) suddenly, all of a sudden, unawares, unexpectedly; على عهد (‘ahdi) at the time of

علي ‘alīy high, tall, elevated: exalted, sublime, lofty, august, excellent: العلي the Most High, the Supreme (one of the attributes of God) | الدولة العلية (daula) name of the old Ottoman Empire

علية ‘ilya (pl. of علي ‘alīy): علية الناس, علية القوم upper class, people of distinction, prominent people

علية ‘ullīya, ‘illīya pl. علالي ‘alālīy upper room, upstairs room

عليون ‘illīyūn the uppermoot heaven; loftiest heights

علاء ‘alā’ high rank, high standing, nobility

علاة ‘alāh pl. علا ‘alan anvil

علياء ‘alyā’2 loftiness, exaltedness, sublimity, augustness; lofty height; heaven(s) | اهل العلياء ahl al-‘a. people of highest social standing

علاوة ‘ilāwa addition; increase, raise, extra allowance, subsidy | علاوة على (‘ilāwata) in addition to

علاية ‘alāya height, loftiness

اعلى a‘lā, f. عليا ‘ulyā, pl. على ‘ulan, اعال a‘ālin higher, highest; upper, uppermost; اعال a‘ālin the highest portion of s.th.; heights, peaks (fig.) | اعلاه a‘lāhu further up, above; مذكور اعلاه above-mentioned; مؤتمر (منعقد) على اعلى مستوى (mu’tamar mun‘aqid, mustawan) top-level conference; بأعلى صوت bi-a‘lā ṣautin very loud, at the top of one’s voice; سفينة اعالي البحار seagoing vessel; اعالي النيل a. n-nīl the upper course of the Nile

معال ma‘ālin (pl.): معالى الأمور noble things; صاحب المعالي or معاليه ma‘ālīhi His Excellency, معالي الوزير His Excellency the Minister (title of cabinet ministers)

تعلية ta‘liya elevation, enhancement, uplift, exaltation; raising (e.g., of the voice)

اعلاء i‘lā’ elevation, enhancement, uplift, exaltation; raising, lifting | اعلاء شأن الشيء i. ša’ni š. boosting, furtherance, promotion, or advancement of s.th.

اعتلاء i‘tilā’ ascension (e.g., to the throne); accession to office (e.g., of a cabinet minister)

استعلاء isti‘lā’ superiority

عال ‘ālin high, tall, elevated; loud, strong (voice); higher (as opposed to elementary); lofty, exalted, sublime, high-ranking, of high standing; excellent, first-class, first-rate, outstanding, of top quality (commodity) | الباب العالي the Sublime Porte; ضغط عال (ḍagṭ) high voltage, high tension (el.); تواتر عال (tawātur) high frequency (el.); عاليه ‘āliyahū above, above-mentioned (in letters; esp. in official and business style); مذكور بعاليه (bi-‘ālīhi) above-mentioned; (eg.) عال العال ‘āl al-āl excellent, first-rate, top-quality, A-l (merchandise)

متعال muta‘ālin high, elevated, lofty, exalted; resounding, ringing; المتعالي the Most High, the Supreme Being (one of the attributes of God)

علوان = عنون

علوان = عنوان

على , علية, عليون, علياء, علاية see علو

1 عم abbreviation of the formula عليه السلام (salāmu) may peace be upon him!

2 عم ‘amma = (عن ما>) عما

3 عم ‘amma u (عموم ‘umūm) to be or become general, universal, common, prevalent, comprehensive, all-embracing, to spread, prevail; -- ‘amma u to comprise, include, embrace, encompass, pervade (هـ s.th.), extend, stretch, be spread, be diffused, be prevailing (هـ all over s.th.) عمت البلوى به (balwā) it has become a general necessity II to generalize (هـ s.th.); to spread universally, universalize, popularize, democratize (هـ s.th.); to make (هـ s.th.) universally accessible, open (هـ s.th.) to the public at large; to introduce (هـ s.th.) universally; to attire (ه s.o.) with a turban V to put on or wear a turban VIII = V

عم ‘amm pl. عموم ‘umūm, اعمام a‘mām father’s brother, paternal uncle | ابن العم ibn al-‘amm cousin on the father’s side; بنت العم bint al-‘amm female cousin on the father’s side

عمة ‘amma pl. -āt paternal aunt

عمة ‘imma turban

عميم ‘amīm general, universal, common, prevalent; all-comprehensive

عموم ‘umūm generality, universality, prevalence; whole, total, totality, aggregate; العموم the (general) public, the public at large; عموما ‘umūman in general, generally | عموما -- خصوصا in general in particular; علي العموم in general, generally; بوجه العموم bi-wajhi l-‘u. generally speaking, in general; في عموم القطر (‘u. il-quṭr) throughout the country; مجلس العموم majlis al-‘u. the House of Commons, the Lower House; ‘umūm frequently replaces عمومي ‘umūmī in compound terms of administrative language, e.g.: جامعة عموم العمال j. ‘u. al-‘ummāl general federation of labor; ادارة عموم الجمارك General Administration of Customs and Tariffs (Eg.); ديوان عموم المصلحة (dīwān ‘u. al-maṣlaḥa) administration headquarters, chief administration office; ديوان عموم المالية d. ‘u. al-mālīya General Administration of Finances (Eg.); تفتيش عموم الري t. ‘u. ar-riyy General Inspectorate of Irrigation (Eg.); مفتش عموم النيل الجنوبي mufattiš ‘u. an-nīl al-janūbī Inspector General for the Southern Nile (Eg.)

عمومي ‘umūmī public; universal; general; common; state, civil, public | جمعية عمومية (jam‘īya) plenary session; general assembly; دار الكتب العمومية (dār al-kutub) public library; اشغال عمومية public works; الصندوق العمومي (ṣundūq) public treasure

عمومة ‘umūma uncleship, unclehood; pl. of عم ‘amm

عمامة ‘imāma pl. عمائم ‘amā’im2 turban

تعميم ta‘mīm generalization, universalization, general propagation or diffusion, popularization, democratization; vulgarization

عام ‘āmm public; universal, prevalent; general; common | الأمن العام (amn) public security; مدير عام (mudīr) director general, general manager; الرأي العام (ra’y) public opinion; الصالح العام or المصلحة العامة (maṣlaḥa) public welfare, the commonweal; الخاص والعام (kāṣṣ) high and low, all men, all, everybody (also العام والخاص )

عامة ‘āmma generality; commonalty; the masses, the people; عامة ‘āmmatan in general; genera.lly; oommonly, altogether, in ths aggregate, collectively | خاصة -- عامة (kāṣṣatan) in particular -- in general; عامة الناس the common people, the masses, the populace; الخاصة والعامة (kāṣṣa) high and low, all men, all, everybody

العوام al-‘awāmm (pl. of عامة ‘āmma) the common people, the populace; the laity (Chr.)

عامي ‘āmmī common, vulgar, plebeian, ordinary, popular: ordinary person, man in the street; العامية al-‘āmmīya popular language, colloquial language

معمم mu‘ammam wearing a turban, turbaned

4 عما ‘ammā = عن ما

عمد ‘amada i (‘amd) to support, prop, shore, buttress (هـ s.th.); to intend, purpose (ل or الى or هـ s.th.); to betake o.s., repair, go (ل or الى or A to); to approach, undertake (ل or الى s.th.), go, set (ل or الى about s.th.), proceed, apply o.s., turn, attend (ل or الى to), embark (ل or الى upon); to take up (الى s.th.); to be intent (الى on s.th.): -- ‘amada i to baptize, christen (ه s.o.) II to baptize, christen (ه s.o.) IV to support, prop, shore, buttress (هـ s.th.); to baptize, christen (ه s.o.) V to intend, purpose, do intentionally, do on purpose (هـ s.th.); to approach (هـ s.th.) with a definite aim in mind; to single out (هـ s.o.), aim (هـ, ه at); to be baptized, be christened | ما تعمدها باهانة (ihāna) he was not out to insult her, he had no intention of offending her VIII = V; to lean (على against), support one’s weight (على on); to rely, depend (هـ or ه on s.o., on s.th.); to use as a basis (هـ or على s.th.); to employ, use, apply (هـ s.th., e.g., a new method); to confirm (هـ s.th.); to sanction, authorize (هـ s.th.); to loan, give on credit (هـ ل to s.o. a sum)

عمد ‘amd intention, intent, design, purpose; premeditation, willfulness (jur.); عمدا ‘amdan intentionally, deliberately, on purpose; willfully, premeditatedly (jur.) | شبه العمد šibh al-‘a. quasi-deliberate intent (Isl. Law)

عمدي ‘amdī intentional, deliberate; premeditated, willful (jur.)

عمدة ‘umda support, prop, shore; main subject, main issue, basic issue (e.g., of a controversy); (pl. عمد ‘umad) chief of a village, chief magistrate of a small community (eg.); mayor

عماد ‘imād pl. عمد ‘amad support, prop, stay (also fig.); bracket, buttress, post, pole, pillar; -- ‘imād baptism

عميد ‘amīd pl. عمداء ‘umadā’2 support; head, chief; dean (of a faculty); principal, headmaster, director (of a secondary school); doyen, dean (as, of a diplomatic

corps); high commissioner (also العميد السامي ), resident general; military ranks, approx. major (Eg. 1939), approx. lieutenant commander (Eg. 1939), approx. commanding) general (Ir.), lieutenant colonel (U.A.R.) | عميد ثان (tānin) a military rank intermediate between those of major and captain, Brit.: adjutant-major (Eg. 1939); a naval rank intermediate between those of lieutenant commander and lieutenant (Eg. 1939)

عميدة ‘amīda principal, headmistress, directress (of a secondary school for girls)

عمود ‘amūd pl. اعمدة a‘mida, عمد ‘umud flagpole, shaft (of a standard); pale, post, prop, shore, pier, buttress; lamppost; (telephone, telegraph) pole; column, pillar, pilaster; stem (of a glass); -- (pl. اعمدة ) column (of a newspaper); O element, cell (el.) | العمود الشوكي (šaukī) the vertebral column, the spine; العمود الفقري (faqrī) do.; O عمود كهربائي (kahrabā’ī) electrode

عامود ‘āmūd pl. عواميد ‘awāmīd2 = عمود ‘amūd | O عامود القيادة steering column, steering mechanism (of an automobile)

عمودي ‘amūdī columnar, pillar-shaped; vertical, perpendicular, upright | طائرة عمودية helicopter

يوحنا المعمدان yūḥannā l-ma‘madān John the Baptist

تعميد ta‘mād baptism

تعمد ta‘ammud intention, intent, design; resolution, determination, purpose; تعمدا ta‘ammudan and بتعمد intentionally, deliberately, willfully, on purpose, premeditatedly

تعمدي ta‘ammudī intentional, deliberate, premeditated, willful

اعتماد i‘timād reliance, dependence (على on), confidence, trust (علي in); confirmation; sanction, approbation, authorization; accreditation (of diplomats); (pl. -āt) credit, loan | الاعتماد على النفس (nafs) self-confidence, self-reliance; كتب الاعتماد kutub al-i‘t. or اوراق الاعتماد aurāq al-i‘t. credentials (of diplomats); اعتماد اضافي (iḍāfī) supplementary loan

معمودية ma‘mūdīya baptism; baptismal font

معمد mu‘ammad baptizee, one receiving baptism

متعمد muta‘ammid deliberate, premeditated, willful; intentional

معتمد mu‘tamad reliable, dependable; object of reliance, support; sanctioned, approved, authorized; accredited; commissioner, authorized agent, proxy, envoy, representative; commissary, commissar | المعتمد السامي (sāmī) the High Commissioner; معتمد قنصلي (qunṣulī) consular agent (dipl.)

معتمدية mu‘tamadīya legation (dipl.)

عمر ‘amara u i (‘amr, ‘umr) to live long, be longevous; -- u i, ‘amura u (عمارة ‘amāra) to thrive, prosper, flourish, flower, bloom; to be or become inhabited, peopled, populated, civilized, cultivated; to be full, filled, filled up; -- ‘mara u to fill with life, cause to thrive, make prosperous; to inhabit (هـ s.th.), live, dwell (هـ in s.th.); to fill, pervade (جوانحه s.o.’s heart), reign (جوانحه in s.o.’s heart); to build, erect, construct, raise, rebuild, reconstruct, restore (هـ s.th.) II to let (ه s.o.) live, preserve (ه s.o.) alive; to prolong s.o.’s (ه ) life, grant long life (ه to s.o.; of God); to populate, people (ه s.th.); to build, erect, construct, raise, rebuild, reconstruct, restore, repair, overhaul, refurbish, recondition (هـ a building); to provide, furnish, supply, fill (ب هـ s.th. with, e.g., the lamp with oil, the censer with charcoal, the goblet with wine); to load (هـ a gun); to fill (هـ a pipe); to fill in (هـ a form, a blank; tun.) | عمر وقته (waqtahū) to take up, or claim, s.o.’s time IV to populate, people (هـ s.th.); to perform the ‘umra (q.v.) VIII to visit (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to perform the ‘umra (q.v.) X to settle (في s.o. in); to settle, colonize (هـ s.th.); to turn (هـ a country) into a colony

عمر ‘umr (‘amr in oaths) pl. اعمار a‘mār life, duration of life, life span, lifetime; age (of a person) | لعمري la-‘amrī upon my life! لعمر الله la-‘amru llāhi by the everlasting existence of God! by the Eternal God! ذات العمرين dāt al-‘umrain amphibian (n.); عمره عشرين سنة (‘išrīna sanatan) he is twenty years old

عمرة ‘amra headgear (e.g., turban); (eg.) repair, repair work

عمرة ‘amra pilgrimage to Mecca (the so-called “minor hadj” which, unlike the hadj proper, need not be performed at a particular time of the year and whose performance involves fewer ceremonies)

عمرى ‘umrā donation for life (Isl. Law)

عمارة ‘amāra (naval) fleet

عماارة ‘imāra pl. -āt, عمائر ‘amā’ir2 building, edifice, structure; real estate, tract lot; العمارة or فن العمارة fann al-‘i. or هندسة العمارة handasat al-‘i. architecture, art of building

عمران ‘umrān inhabitedness, activity, bustling life, thriving, flourishing, prosperity (as opposed to خراب karāb); populousness and prosperity (of a country); culture, civilization; building, edifice, structure

عمراني ‘umrānī cultural, civilizational; serving, or pertaining to, cultural development

عمارية ‘ammārīya camel-borne sedan and the virgin riding in it into battle

اعمر a'mGrl more inhabited, more populated, more populous; more cultivated, more civilized; more flourishing, more thriving

معمار mi‘mār builder, architect; mason

معماري mi‘mārī architectonic, architectural; - (pl. .IIP) builder, architect; mason | مهندس معماري (muhandis) builder, architect; الفن المعماري (fann) art of building, architecture

تعمير ta‘mīr building, construction, election; restoration, repair, overhauling, refurbishing, reconditioning; filling, filling-up

تعميرة ta‘mīra filling, fiIling-up

استعمار isti‘mār colonizing, colonization, foundation of colonies; imperialistic exploitation; imperialism, colonialism

استعماري isti‘mārī colonial; colonizer; imperialistic

استعمارية isti‘mārīya imperialism, colonialism

عامر ‘āmir inhabited; peopled, populated, populous; full, filled, filled up; jammed, crowded, filled to capacity (ب with); amply provided, splendidly furnished; civilized; cultivated (land); flourishing, thriving, prosperous; العامر is a frequent epithet of castles, palaces, etc., of ruling houses | عامر بالأمل (amal) full of hope; عامر الجيب ‘a. al-jaib with a full pocket; عامر الذمة ل (‘ā. ad-dimma) obliged to s.o., committed to s.o.; عامر النفس (‘ā. an-nafs) obsessed by, possessed by; ام عامر umm ‘āmir hyena (zool.); نهوض عامر voluptuous bosoms

معمور ma‘mūr inhabited, populated, populous; المعمور or المعمورة the (inhabited) world | في كل انحاء المعمور (المعمورة ) all over the world, throughout the world

معمر mu’ammir pl. -ūn colonist

معمر mu‘ammar pl. -ūn senior (in sports)

مستعمر musta‘mir colonial, imperialistic; settler, colonist; foreign conqueror, invader; imperialist

مستعمرة musta‘mara pl. -āt colony, settlement | O مستعمرة مستقلة (mustaqilla) dominion

اعمش a‘maš2 affected with an eye disease, blear-eyed

عماص ‘umāš (eg.) mucous discharge of the eye, rheum

عمق ‘amuqa u (‘umq, عماقة ‘amāqa) to be or become deep, profound II to deepen, make deep or deeper (هـ s.th.) IV = II V to penetrate deeply, go deeply (هـ or في into s.th.), become absorbed (هـ or في in)

عمق ‘amq, ‘umq pl. اعماق a‘māq depth, profoundness, profundity; bottom | من اعماق قلبه (a. qalbihī) from the bottom of his heart, from the depth of his soul; من اعماق النفس (a. in-nafs) do.

عميق ‘amīq deep (also of feelings), profound

عمل ‘amila a (‘amal) to do, act, operate, be active, work (also: في in a field); to make, produce, manufacture, fabricate, perform, carry out, execute (هـ s.th.); to act (ب according to, in accordance with, on the strength of, on the basis of); to operate, put into operation, set going (ب s.th.); to plan, contrive, seek to accomplish, practice, pursue (على s.th.), aim, work away (ل or على at), be out, strive (ل or على for), apply o.s. (على to), take pains, endeavor, exert o.s. (على to do s.th.), be active (على in the service of s.th.); to process, work, treat (في s.th.); to act (في upon s.th.), affect (في s.th.); (gram.) to govern (في a syntactical member) | يعمل به (yu‘malu) it is valid, is effective, is in force (e.g., an ordinance); عمل ترتيبات to make arrangements or preparations; عمل اعماله (a‘mālahū) to behave, or act, like s.o.; لا به يعمل ولا علي يعول (yu‘malu, yu‘awawalu) null and void II to appoint as vicegerent or governor (ه على s.o. over, of); to fester, suppurate, be purulent (wound) III to apply (ه ب toward s.o. s.th.); to treat (ب ه s.o. in a manner), proceed, deal (ب with s.o. in a manner); to trade, do business (ه with s.o.) | عامله بالمثل bi-l-mitl) to repay s.o. like for like, treat s.o. in like manner IV to make (هـ s.th.) work, put to work, operate, put into operation, bring to bear, employ, woe (هـ s.th.); ب or اعمل هـ في to putter, or tinker, with s.th. about s.th. else, work with s.th. on s.th. else | اعمل الفكر (fikra) to busy the mind, think, reflect, ponder, muse; اعمل السيف في رقابهم (saifa) he caused a massacre among them, had them massacred V to go to a lot of trouble, take great pains, spend much effort VI to trade, do business (with one another); to trade, do business (مع with) VIII to work, be active, operate X to apply (هـ s.th.), use, employ (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to put into operation, operate, run (هـ s.th.); to place s.o. (ه ) at the head of s.th. (على ), install, instate (على ه s.o. over) | استعمل معه وسائل القسوة (wasā’il l-qaswa) he brought severe measures to bear upon him

عمل ‘amal doing, acting, action, activity; work, labor; course of action, way of acting, practice; achievement, accomplishment; activity (على for), work (على in the service of s.th.); making, production, manufacture, fabrication; performance, execution; make, workmanship; practical work, practice; -- (pl. اعمال a‘māl) act, action; operation (mil.); work, job, chore, labor; deed, feat, achievement, exploit; occupation, business; trade, craft, handicraft; vicegerency, province, district; administrative district (e.g., Eg., Tun.); العمل ب validity, effectiveness of s.th. (e.g., of an ordinance, and the like) | اجراء العمل ب (ijrā’ al-‘a.) enforcement, implementation of s.th.; ما العمل what’s to be done now! what’s there to be done? what can you do? عملا ب (‘amalan) in execution of, in pursuance of, according to, pursuant to, is stipulated by; اعمال حربية (ḥarbīya) belligerent, or warlike, acts, military operations; الأعمال الأربعة (arba‘a) the first four rules of arithmetic; اعمال منزلية (manzilīya) household chores, household work; اعمال يدوية (yadawīya) handiwork(s), manual work; صاحب العمل employer

عملي ‘amalī work-, working- (in compounds); serving practical purposes, practical; applied; عمليا ‘amalīyan practically, in practice | الحياة العملية practical life, workaday life, professional life; المذهب العملي (madhab) pragmatism; السياسة العملية practical policy, “Realpolitik”

عملية ‘amalīya pl. -āt work, job; action, activity; making, manufacture, fabrication, production; procedure, method, technique; operation (as an action done as part of practical work; med.; mil.); process | عملية قيصرية (qaiṣarīya) Caesarean section

عملة ‘amla evil deed | بعملة in the very act, red-handedly, flagrante delicto

عملة ‘umla wages, pay; currency; current money, currency in circulation; money | عملة زائفة counterfeit money; عملة سهلة (sahla) soft currency; عملة صعبة (ṣa‘ba) hard currency; مزيف العملة muzayyif al-‘u. counterfeiter; تهريب العملة currency smuggling

عميل ‘amīl pl. عملاء ‘umalā’2 (business) representative; agent (also pol.); commission merchant (com.); customer, patron; patient; client

عمي ‘amīla woman customer, woman client

O عميلة ‘umaila pl. -āt erg (unit of energy or work; phys.)

عمالة ‘amāla pl. -āt wages, pay; brokerage, commission; department, district, province; (Alg.) prefecture, administrative district

عمولة ‘amūla brokerage, commission

عمالي ‘ummālī labor, workers’ (in compounds) | صحيفة عمالية labor organ, labor (news)paper

معمل ma‘mal pl. معامل ma‘āmil2 factory, mill; workshop, plant, works, establishment; institute; laboratory; pl. معامل industrial plant | معمل البحث ma‘mal al-baḥt research institute; معمل التكرير refinery; معمل اللبن m. al-laban dairy

معاملة mu‘āmala pl. -āt treatment; procedure; social intercourse, social life, association (with one another); behavior, conduct (toward others); business; transaction; (esp. in pl.) mutual relations, business relations; pl. معاملات handling (of freight, luggage, etc.) | المعاملة بالمثل (mitl) reciprocity (in international trade); شرط معاملة الدول الأكثر رعاية m. id-duwali l-akaṭari ri‘āyatan most-favored nation clause (dipl.)

تعمل ta‘ammul affectedness, affectation, finicality, mannerism

تعامل ta‘āmul commercial intercourse, trade relations, trade, dealings, transactions; business transactions (stock exchange); (pl. -āt) O reaction (chem..)

استعمال isti‘māl application, use, employment; utilization, exploitation; operation, handling (e.g., of a machine) | سهل الاستعمال sahl al-ist. easy to handle; سوء الاسعتمال sū’ al-ist. abuse, misuse; شائع الاستعمال in general use, commonly used, generally accepted; اساء استعماله asā’a sti‘mālahū to abuse, misuse, misemploy s.th.

عامل ‘āmil active; effective; -- (pl. عوامل ‘awāmil2) factor, constituent, element, (causative) agent, motive power; word governing another in syntactical regimen, regent (gram.); -- (pl. عمال ‘ummāl) maker, producer, manufacturer; doer, perpetrator, author; worker, workman, workingman, laborer; wage earner, employee; governor, vicegerent, lieutenant; administrative officer at the head of a ‘amal (Tun.); (Alg.) district president, prefect (of a ‘amala) | الجيش العامل (jail) the regular, or active, army; تحت عامل الغضب (‘a. il-gadab) in wrathful agitation, infuriated; حزب العمال ḥizb al-‘u. labor party (specif., the Brit. Labour Party); عضو عامل (‘uḍw) active member

معمول به ma‘mūl bihī in force, effective, valid; in use, applied

المعاميل al-ma‘āmīl the coffee implements (Bedouin)

معامل mu‘āmil O coefficient (math.)

مستعمل musta‘mil user

مستعمل musta‘mal employed, used also = not new, secondhand); in use applied

عملاق ‘imlāq pl. عمالقة ‘amāliqa Amalekite; gigantic, giant, huge; a giant | عمالقة البحار huge ocean liners

1 عمن ‘ammān = عن من ‘an man

2 عمان ‘umān Oman, sultanate in SE Arabia

عماني ‘umānī Omani, Oman (adj.)

3 عمان ‘ammān2 Amman (the ancient Philadelphia, capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan)

عمه ‘amiha a (‘amah) to wander about, stray, rove; to stray (عن from)

عمي ‘amiya a (‘aman) to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight; to be blind (عن to s.th.); to be obscure (على to s.o.) II to blind, render blind (ه s.o.); to blindfold (ه s.o.); to obscure, render cryptic, enigmatic or mysterious, mystify (هـ s.th.) IV to blind, render blind (ه s.o.); to blindfold (ه s.o.); to make (ه s.o.) blind (عن to a fact) V to be or become blind, lose one’s eyesight VI to shut one’s eyes (عن on s.th.), pretend not to see (عن s.th.); to be blind (عن to)

عمى ‘aman blindness

عمية ‘amīya ignorance, folly

عماء ‘amā’ heavy clouds

عماية ‘amāya ignorance, folly

اعمى a‘mā, f. عمياء ‘amyā’2, pl. عمي ‘umy or عميان ‘umyān blind

معماة ma‘māh pl. معام ma‘āmin roadless desert, roadless area

تعام ta‘āmin blindness, (state of) delusion

معمى mu‘amman pl. معميات mu‘ammayāt riddle, puzzle

1 عن ‘an (prep.) off, away from; from (designating the source); out of (a feeling); about, on (a topic); according to, as attested or declared by, from what says, on the authority of; on the basis of, on the strength of; for, in defense of; as a substitute for; (as to syntactical regimen see under respective verb) | عن يمينه (yamīnihī) to (or at) his or its right, at (or on) his or its right side, to the right of him or it; على ارتفاع الف قدم عن سطح البحر (alfi qadamin, saṭḥI l-baḥr) 1000 feet above see level; عن طريق (ṭarīqi) by way of, via; by means of, through; اليك عني ilaika ‘annī away from me! عن امره (amrihī) by s.o.’s order(s). at s.o.’s instigation, on s.o.’s initiative; عن بصيرة consciously, fully aware of the situation; عن حسن نية (ḥusni nīya) in good faith, bona fide; عن حق (ḥaqq) justly, rightly, by rights; عن حوف (kauf) for fear; عن دراية, عن علم (‘ilm) on the basis of sound knowledge, in full cognizance of the situation; عن سرور gladly, happily, joyfully; عن قناعة وجدانية (qanā‘atin wijdānīya) out of absolute inner conviction; عن قريب or عما قريب, عن قليل or عما قليل (‘ammā) shortly, presently, after a (little) while, soon; عن وساطة فلان through the good offices of ...; يوما عن يوم (yauman) day after day, from day to day; قتلوا عن آخرهم (qutilū) they were killed to the last man; مات عن ثمانين سنة (tamānīna sanataan) he died at the age of eighty; مات عن تركة كبيرة (tarika) he died leaving a large fortune

2 عن ‘anna i u (‘ann, عنن ‘anan) to present itself, offer itself (ل to s.o.); to take shape, to form, arise, spring up (ل in s.o.’s mind), suggest itself (ل to s.o.; of an opinion); to appear (ل to, before) | عن له ان it occurred to him that ...

عنة ‘unna impotence (of the male)

عنان ‘anān (coll.; n. un. ة ) clouds

عنان ‘inān pl. اعنة a‘inna rein(s); bridle | اطلق له العنان (aṭlaqa, ‘inān) to give free rein to s.o. or s.th., give vent to s.th.; جرت الأمور في اعنتها (jarat, a‘innatihā) things took a normal course, developed as scheduled

عنين ‘anīn impotent (male)

عنب ‘inab (coll.; n. un. ة ) pl. اعناب a‘nāb grape(s) | عنب الذئب ‘i. ad-di’b black nightshade (Solanum nigrum; bot.)

عناب ‘unnāb (coll.; n. un. ة ) jujube (Zizyphus vulgaris Lam.; bot.); (its fruit) jujube

عنبر ‘anbar ambergris; (pl. عنابر ‘anābir2) sperm whale, cachalot (zool.)

عنبري ‘anbarī perfumed with ambergris; liqueur (also نبيذ عنبري ); a variety of pigeon

عنبرة الشتاء ‘anbarat aš-šitā’ the severity of winter

2 عنبر ‘anbar pl. عنابر ‘anābir2 storehouse, magazine, depot, warehouse; factory hall; hold (of a ship); ward. section (of a hospital); quarters (of a ship’s crew); barrack(s)

عنت ‘anita a (‘anat) to fall on evil days, come to grief, meet with hardship, be in distress, suffer adversity; to commit a sin, specif., commit fornication II to force s.o. (ه ) to perform a difficult task IV to distress, afflict, harass (ه s.o.), bring hardship (ه upon s.o.); to treat s.o. (ه ) harshly, deal with s.o. (ه ) roughly V to cause vexation, annoyance or distress (ه to s.o.), bring trouble (ه upon s.o.), harass, pre molest (ه s.o.); to seek to confuse s.o. (ه ) with questions; to pick a quarrel, be out for a fight (مع with s.o.); to stickle, be pigheaded, insist stubbornly

عنت ‘anal distress, affliction, hardship, misery, adversity; pains, trouble, inconvenience; constraint, coercion

اعنات i‘nāt torment, harassment, molestation, chicanery, constraint, coercion

تعنت ta‘annut obstinacy, obduracy, pigheadedness, stubborn zeal, stickling

متعنت muta‘annit obstinate, obdurate, pigheaded, stubborn

عنتر ‘antara to display heroism

عنتر ‘antar Antar (the hero of a well-known romance of chivalry)

عنترى ‘antarī pl. -īya popular reciter of the Antar romance

عنترى ‘antarī pl. عناترة ‘anātira brassiere; bodice, corsage

عنترية ‘antarīya Antar, the romance of Antar, cycle of stories relating the deeds of Antar

عنجهية ‘unjuhīya haughtiness, self-importance, pride

عند ‘anada u i (عنود ‘unūd), ‘anida a (‘anad) and ‘anuda u to swerve, deviate, diverge, depart (عن from); to resist stubbornly; to be headstrong, obstinate, stubborn III to resist or oppose (ه s.o., doggedly), offer (stubborn) resistance (ه to s.o.) X to cling stubbornly (ه to s.th.)

عند ‘inda (prep.) at, near, by, with, on (of place, time and possession); upon; in the opinion of, in the view of; من عند min ‘indi from; from the home of; away from; من عنده in his turn, for his part; اضاف شيئا من عنده he added s.th. of his own; عندها then, at that moment, with these words; على عندي (‘indī) against me; عند البيت (bait) near the house, at the house; عند التحقيق to be exact …, strictly speaking …; عند طلوع الشمس (ṭ. iš-šams) at sunrise; عندي دينار واحد (‘indī dīnār) I have only one dinar (with me); عند ذلك then, thereupon, at that moment; ملوك الأرض عند الله تراب (m. ul-arḍ, turāb) the kings of this world are mere dust in comparison with God; عندي in my opinion, as I think; ما عندك what do you think? what is your opinion? لم يكن عند رأيهم (yakun, ra‘yihim) he was not what they had expected; كان عند حسن ظنه (ḥusni ẓannihī) to meet, or be up to, s.o.’s high expectation; كان عند حسن الظن به (ḥusni ẓ-ẓanni) to have a good opinion of s.o.; كان عند نصحه (nuṣḥihī) to follow s.o.’s advice

عندما ‘indamā as soon as, whenever; when, as

من عندياته min ‘indīyātihī sprung from his own mind, his own brain child; of one’s own accord, on one’s own initiative

عندئذ ‘inda’idin then, at that time; at that moment, thereupon, then; with that, thereby

عنيد ‘anīd pl. عند ‘unud resisting stubbornly (ل s.o., s.th.); stubborn, obstinate, obdurate, pigheaded, headstrong, opinionated, willful, pertinacious

عناد ‘inād resistance, opposition; stubbornness, obstinacy, obduracy, pigheadedness, headstrongness, opinionatedness, willfulness, pertinacity

معاندة mu‘ānada resistance, opposition; stubbornness, obstinacy, obduracy, pigheadedness, headstrongness, opinionatedness, willfulness, pertinacity

معاند mu‘ānid resisting stubbornly (ل s.o., s.th.); stubborn, obstinate, obdurate, pigheaded, headstrong, opinionated, willful, pertinacious

عندلة ‘andala song of the nightingale

عندليب ‘andalīb pl. عنادل ‘anādil2 nightingale

عندم ‘andam brazilwood, sapanwood (used for dyeing); red dyestuff

عندم ‘andamī deep-red

عنز ‘anz pl. اعنز a‘nuz, عنوز ‘unūz, عناز ‘ināz goat

عنزة ‘anza (n. un.) pl. -āt goat

عنزة ‘anaza a short spear, iron-tipped at its lower end

عانس ‘ānis pl. عوانس ‘awānis spinster, old maid

عنصر ‘unṣur pl. عناصر ‘anāṣir2 origin; race, stock, breed; ethnic element; element (chem., pol.); component, constituent, ingredient; pl. also: nationalities

عنصري ‘unṣurī race, racial; ethnic; elemental, of or pertaining to the elements | التباغض العنصري (tabāguḍ) or الأحقاد العنصرية race hatred المسألة العنصرية (mas’ala) the nationality problem, the problem of ethnic minorities

عنصر ‘unṣurīya race, nationality; racial theory

العنصرة al-‘anṣara Whitsuntide; Whitsunday, Pentecost (Chr.) | عيد العنصرة īd al-‘a. Whitsuntide, Pentecost (Chr.); Shabuoth, Feast of Weeks, Pentecost (Jud.)

عنصل ‘unṣul pl. عناصل ‘anāṣil2 squill, sea onion

عنعنات ‘an‘anāt (pl.) traditions

معنعن mu‘an‘an transmitted, handed down

عنف II to treat severely, harshly, with rigor (ب or على or ه s.o.), deal with s.o. (ب or على or ه ) roughly; to reprimand, rebuke, censure sharply, berate, chide, scold (ب or ه s.o.) IV to treat severely, harshly, with rigor (ه s.o.), deal with s.o. (ه ) roughly

عنف ‘unf, ‘anf sternness, severity, rigor; harshness; bluntness, gruffness; ruggedness, roughness; violence, vehemence; fierceness, bitterness, embitterment, toughness; use of force

عنيف ‘anīf stern, severe, drastic, rigorous; harsh, hard; ungentle, rough, rude; blunt, gruff; rugged, rough; violent, vehement; fierce, embittered, tough; strenuous, exacting, difficult (e.g., reading)

عنفوان ‘unfuwān vigor, prime, bloom | في عنفوان شبابه (‘u. šabābihī) in the prime of his youth

اعنف a‘naf2 sterner, severer, harsher, harder, fiercer

تعنيف ta‘nīf stern censure, reprimand, rebuke

عنق II to grab by the neck, to collar (ه s.o.) III to embrace, hug (ه s.o.); to associate closely (ه with), attach o.s. closely (ه to) VI to embrace each other VIII to embrace, hug (ه s.o.); to adopt, embrace (هـ s.th., esp. a religion or doctrine), be converted (هـ to s.th.), take up (هـ s.th.); to combine (هـ with s.th.; chem.); to embrace each other

عنق unuq, unq pl. اعناق a‘nāq neck, nape

عناق ‘anāq pl. اعنق a‘nuq, عنوق ‘unūq she-kid, young she-goat | عناق الأرض ‘a. al-arḍ caracal, desert lynx (Lynx caracal; zool.)

عنقاء ‘anqā’2 a legendary bird, griffon

عناق ‘ināq embrace, hug, accolade

معانقة mu‘ānaqa embrace, hug, accolade

اعتناق i‘tināq embracement (of a religion or doctrine), adoption, acceptance (of a doctrine)

عنقود ‘unqūd pl. عناقيد ‘anāqīd2 cluster, bunch; bunch of grapes

عنقاش ‘inqāš peddler, hawker

عنكبوت ‘ankabūt pl. عناكب ‘anākib2 spider | بيت (نسيج) العنكبوت bait al-‘a. cobweb, spider web

عنا (عنو ) ‘anā u (‘unūw) to be humble, submissive, subservient, servile (ل toward, before), be obedient, yield, submit (ل to s.o.), obey (ل s.o.); -- u (عنوة ‘anwa) to take by force (هـ s.th.); -- u to be on s.o.’s (ه ) mind, disquiet, discomfort, worry, preoccupy (ه s.o.); to concern, affect, regard, interest (ه s.o.)

عنوة ‘anwa force, compulsion; forcibleness, violence; ‘anwatan forcibly, by force

معنوي see عنى

عان ‘ānin humble, subservient, submissive, servile, obedient; captive; miserable, distressed, in trouble

عنون ‘anwana to furnish with an address or title, entitle, address (هـ s.th.)

عنوان ‘unwān pl. عناوين ‘anāwīn2 address; title, heading; model, epitome; sign, token | على or عنوانا ل in token of s.th., as a sign of s.th.

معنون mu‘anwan addressed (الى to), inscribed; entitled (ب as)

عنى ‘anī i (عناية ‘ināya) to be on s.o.’s (ه ) mind; to disquiet, discomfort, worry, preoccupy (ه s.o.); to concern, affect, regard, interest (ه s.o.); -- ‘aniya a (عناء ‘anā’) to be worried, concerned, anxious; to toil, labor, drudge; -- ‘anī i (‘any) to have in mind (هـ s.th.), mean (ب هـ, ه s.o., s.th. by); يعني ya‘nī or اعني a‘nī that is, i.e.; -- pass. ‘uniya (عناية ‘ināya) to worry, be concerned (ب about), take an interest (ب in); to take care (ب of), see (ب to) II to torment, agonize, distress, harass, (ه s.o.) III to be preoccupied (هـ with s.th.); to take pains (هـ with s.th., in doing s.th.), spend effort (هـ on s.th.); to see to it, make efforts, bear in mind, make sure (ان that); to undergo, incur, endure, suffer, sustain, bear (هـ s.th.); to suffer (هـ from), be afflicted (هـ with) V to toil, labor. drudge VIII to be solicitous (ب about, for, of), go to trouble (ب for), be concerned, anxious (ب about), feel concern (ب for); to take care (ب of), care. provide (ب for), look (ب after), see (ب to), tend (ب s.th.), put one’s mind, devote one’s attention (ب to); to attend (ب to), nurse (ب s.o., s.th., e.g., a patient)

عناء ‘anā’ pains, trouble, toil, hardship, difficulty, distress

عناية ināya concern; care, solicitude, providence (ب for); care(fulness), painstaking, meticulousness (ب in); heed, notice, regard, attention (ب to); interest (ب in) | العناية الإلهية (ilāhīya) divine providence; عناية طبية (ṭibbīya) medical care

معنى ma‘nan pl. معان ma‘ānin sense, meaning, signification, import; concept, notion, idea, thought; thematic purport (e.g., of a work of art, as distinguiohed from its form); a rhetorical, figurative, or allegorical expression; المعاني the good qualities (of a person) | اسم معنى ism ma‘nā abstract noun (gram.); علم المعاني ‘ilm al-m. rhetoric; ذو معنى significant, meaningful, telling, tell-tale; بكل معنى الكلمة bi-kull m. l-kalima in the full sense of the word; لا معنى له (ma‘nā) meaningless, without meaning; وما في معناه and the like; نظرات كلها معان (naẓarāt kulluhā) telling glances, glances full of meaning

معنوى ma‘nawī relating to the sense or import (of a word or expression; as opposed to لفظي lafẓī); semantic, significative, of or pertaining to meaning; ideal, ideational, ideative; abstract; mental; spiritual (as opposed to material) | شخص معنوى (šakṣ) artificial, conventional, or juristic, person, a body corporate as a subject of rights and duties

معنوبات ma‘nawīyāt ideal, immaterial thing.; morale, spirit (of an army)

معاناة mu‘ānāh effort(s)

تعن ta‘annin pains, trouble, toil, drudgery

اعتناء i‘tinā’ providing, solicitude, concern (ب for), attendance (ب to), maintenance, nursing, cultivation (ب of), care (ب of, for), carefulness, painstaking (ب in); attention (ب to), interest (ب in)

عان ‘ānin miserable, distressed, in trouble

معني ma‘nīy concerned, affected; interested (ب in)

معنى mu‘annan (syr.) unmetrical poem with end rhyme

معتن mu‘tanin concerned, solicitous, careful, heedful, mindful, thoughtful, attentive

عهد ‘ahida a (‘ahd) to know (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.; هـ s.th., e.g., a quality, a trait, ب of

s.o.), be acquainted, familiar (هـ, ه with); to observe closely, heed (هـ s.th.), adhere (هـ to s.th.); to attend (هـ to), look after s.th. (هـ ); to delegate, entrust, assign, commit (ب الى to s.o., s.th.), vest (ب الى in s.o. s.th.), communion, charge, authorize, empower. entrust (ب الى s.o. with, or s.o. with the task of ...); to impose, enjoin (ب الى on s.o s.th., or on s.o. the obligation to ...), obligate, commit (ب الى s.o. to do s.th.) | فيما اعهد (a‘hadu) to my knowledge, as far as I know; عهد ووعد (wa‘dahū) to fulfill, or keep, one’s promise III to make a contract, compact, or covenant (على ه with s.o. concerning); to promise (على ه to s.o. s.th. also ب s.th.); to engage, undertake, bind o.s. pledge o.s. commit o.s. obligate o.s. (على ه to s.o. to do s.th.) V to advocate, support (s.th.), stand up (هـ for s.th.); to observe, heed, keep in mind (هـ s.th.), pay attention, see, attend (هـ to s.th.), take care (هـ of s.th.); to care (هـ for s.th.), maintain, keep up, service (هـ s.h.); to be liable for the maintenance or upkeep (هـ of s.th.); to assume. take upon o.s. (ب s.th.); to engage, undertake, bind o.s. pledge o.s., commit o.s. obligate o.s. (ب ل to s.o. to do s.th., also ان على to do s.th.); to promise (ب ل to s.o. s.th.) X to exact a written pledge or commitment (من from s.o.); to have s.o. (من ) sign a contract

عهد ‘ahd knowledge; acquaintance, contact (ب with); the well-known, familiar nature (of s.o.); close observance, strict adherence (to), keeping, fulfillment (of a promise); delegation, assignment, committing (الى ب of s.th. to s.o.), vesting (ب الى in s.o. of s.th.), commissioning, charging, entrusting (ب الى of s.o. with s.th.); commission; -- (pl. عهود ‘uhūd) commitment, obligation, liability; responsibility; pledge, vow; promise; oath; contract, compact, covenant, pact, treaty, agreement; time, epoch, era | بعد العهد bu‘d al-‘a. the fact that s.th. is long pact, that s.th. belong, to the remote past; حديث العهد recent, late, new, young; قريب العهد do.; حديث العهد or حديث عهد ب (ḥ. ‘ahdin) having adopted or acquired (s.th.) recently; not long accustomed to (s.th.), inexperienced at (s.th.), new at (s.th.), newly, e.g., حديث عهد بعرس (bi-‘ursin) newly wed, حديث العهد بالولادة newborn; كان حديث عهد بأوربا he had not known Europe until recently; قديم العهد of an early date, long past, long-standing; قديم العهد ب of long experience in, long acquainted with; قريب عهد ب (q. ‘ahdin), قريب العهد ب = حديث عهد ب, حديث العهد ب; قريب عهد بالفطام (fiṭām) just weaned. newly weaned; ...-I,} ¥ <J- for a abort time (past), of late; recent, late; recently, lately, the other day; منذ عهد بعيد a long time ago; لا عهد له (‘ahda) not to know s.th.; not having experienced s.th., being unacquainted with ...; عهدنا بهذه المسألة (‘ahdunā, mas’ala) our long-standing knowledge of this question; اخذ عهدا عليه to exact a promise from s.o., pledge s.o.; قطع عهدا to conclude a treaty, make a contract; to make a promise; قطع نفسه عهدا على to assume an obligation, commit o.s. obligate o.s. pledge o.s.; to vow, make a vow (ب to do s.th.); عهد الأمان ‘a. al-amān (formerly:) an order bestowed by the Bey of Tunis; عهد الأمان المرصع (muraṣṣa‘) a higher class of the afore-mentioned order; العهد الجديد the New Testament; العهد القديم the Old Testament; ولي العهد walīy al-‘a. heir-apparent, crown prince; على عهده at or in his time; في عهد فلان during s.o.’s lifetime; in s.o.’s epoch; عهده his familiar nature or manner, his nature as it had always been known; ظل كعهده (ẓalla) he remained as he had always been, as everybody used to know him; عهدهم the nature or manner that they know (knew) of him (or of it), that they are

(were) used to; كعهدهم به such as they used to know him; ما زلت انت كعهدي بك yon are still the same! ما زال على عهده to be unchanged, be as always; طال به العهد (‘ahdu) to last, or have lasted, a long time

عهدة ‘uhda contractual obligation (Isl. Law); responsibility; charge, custody, guardianship; guaranty | في عهدته in his care, custody, or charge, entrusted to him; عهدته له (‘uhdatuhū) he is responsible for it

عهيد ‘ahīd ally, confederate

معهد ma‘had pl. معاهد ma‘āhid2 place, locality (which one had known before or which one revisits); public institute or institution; (scientific) institute; seminar | معاهد الذكريات m. ad-dikrayāt places fraught with memories; معهد اصلاحي (iṣlāḥī) reformatory

معاهدة mu‘āhada pl. -āt agreement, arrangement, accord.; alliance, treaty, pact | معاهدة السلام (الصلح ) m. as-salām (aṣ-ṣulḥ) peace treaty; معاهدة عدم الاعتداء m. ‘adam al-i‘tidā’ nonaggression pact

تعهد ta‘ahhud advocacy, support; care; charge, custody, guardianship, tutelage (with foll. genit.: over); care, maintenance, servicing, upkeep; assumption, undertaking (ب of s.th.); (pl. -āt) promise, pledge, commitment, engagement, obligation, liability, contractual duty

معهود ma‘hūd well-known; المعهود the said ..., the … in question

متعهد muta‘ahhid pl. -ūn contractor, entrepreneur; concessionaire | متعهد فني (fannī) impresario

متعاهد muta‘āhid: المتعاهدان the two contracting parties

عهر ‘ahara a (‘ahr, ‘ihr) and ‘ahira a (‘ahar) to commit adultery, whore (اليها with a woman) III = I (ها with a woman)

عهر ‘ihr adultery, fornication, whoredom; prostitution

عهر ‘ahr adulterer, whoremonger, fornicator

عهارة ‘ahāra adultery, fornication, whoredom; prostitution

عاهر ‘āhir committing adultery, fornicating, whoring; (pl. عهار ‘uhhār) adulterer, fornicator, whoremonger; -- (pl. عواهر ‘awahir2) adulteress; whore, harlot, prostitute

عاهرة ‘āhira pl. -āt, عواهر ‘awāhir2 adulteress; whore, harlot, prostitute

عاهل ‘āhil pl. عواهل ‘awāhil2 sovereign, prince, ruler, monarch

عهن ‘ihn (colored) wool

عواهن ‘awāhin2 (pl. of عاهن ‘āhin) limbs, extremities (of the body); palm branches | القى (رمى) الكلام على عواهنه (alqā, kalāma) to talk without restraint, ramble

عوج ‘awija a (‘awaj) to be crooked, curved, twisted, tortuous, bent, bowed, stooping; to bend, twist, curve; -- عاج ‘āja u to turn off the road (while traveling); to stop (over). put up (على at, in) II to bend, crook, curve, twist (هـ s.th.) V and IX = I

عوج ‘iwaj, ‘awaj crookedness, twistedness, curvature, bend(ing), tortuosity; unevenness; deviation (from that which is right)

عاج ‘āj ivory

عاجي ‘ājī ivory (adj.)

اعوج a‘waj2, f. عوجاء ‘aujā’2, pl. (عوج ‘ūj crooked, curved, bent, twisted, tortuous, sinuous; stooping, bowed; wry; odd, queer

اععجاج i‘wijāj crookedness, twistedness, curvature, bend(ing), tortuosity; unevenness; deviation (from that which is right); crooked ways

معوجه mu‘awwaja pl. -āt retort (chem.)

معوج mu‘wajj crooked, curved, bent, twisted, tortuous, sinuous; stooping, bowed; wry; odd, queer

عاد (عود ) ‘āda u (‘aud, عود ‘auda, معاد ma‘ād) to return, come back (ل or الى to); to flow back; to go back. be traceable, be attributable (الى to); to revert, redound, accrue (على to); to refer, relate (على to); to be due. go back (الى to); to fall to s.o.’s (الى ) lot or share, fall in s.o.’s ((الى bailiwick; to belong, (ap)pertain, be proper (الى or ل to); to give up, abandon, relinquish (عن s.th.), withdraw, resign (عن from); عاد ب to return with = to lead back, bring back, take back, return, reduce, revert s.o. or s.th. (الى to); عاد عليه ب to bring about, entail s.th. for s.o s. result in s.th. for s.o., yield, bring in, return s.th. to s.o.; (with predicate adjective or noun in acc.) to become, grow (into), turn into; (with foil. imparf. or الى ) to resume, renew (an activity); (with neg. and foil. imparf.) to do s.th. no more or no longer; with foil. finite verb) to do s.th. again or anew; -- u (عيادة ‘iyāda) to visit (ه a patient), have under treatment (ه s.o.; of a physician) | عاد الى نفسه to regain consciousness, come to; to take counsel with o.s., hold self-communion, examine o.s. introspectively, search one’s soul; عادت المياه الى مجاريها (majārīhā) the situation returned to normal; عاد الى رأس أمره ra’s amrihī) to start s.th. all over again; عاد ادراجه (adrājahū) to retrace one’s steps; to turn back, go back; عاد على عقبيه (‘aqbaihi), pl. عادوا على اعقابهم (a‘qābihim) do.; لم اعد استطيع صبرا lam a‘ud astatī‘u ṣabran I could not stand it any longer; لم يعد لع طاقة به (ya‘ud, ṭāqatun) he no longer had any power over it; لم يعد اليه سبيل there is no longer any possibility for it; عاد يقول he continued (after a pause in his speech) II to accustom, habituate, condition, inure, season (على or هـ ه s.o. to s.th.), make s.o. (ه ) get used (على or هـ to s.th.) III to return (هـ, ه to s.o., to s.th.); to revert, come back, turn again, apply o.s. anew (هـ to s.th.), take up again, resume (هـ s.th.); to befall again, seize again (ه s.o.), come again (ه over s.o.) IV to cause to return, bring back, take back (ه هـ الى s.o., s.th. to); to return, give back, send back (هـ الى, ه s.o., s.th. to s.o.); to put back, lay back (هـ s.th., الى محله ilā maḥallihī in its place); to repeat (على هـ s.th., i.e., words, to s.o.); to reiterate, repeat, do again or anew, renew, resume (هـ s.th.); to re-establish, restore, repair (هـ s.th.); to restore (هـ هـ s.th. to), make s.th. (هـ ) once more (هـ s.th.); to reinstate, reinstall (هـ s.o.) | اعاد بناء مسجد (binā’a masjidin) to rebuild a mosque; اعاد ذكريات (dikrayāt) to revive, or reawaken, memories; اعاد طبع الكتاب (ṭab‘a l-k.) to reprint a book; يعيد القول ويبدأه (yu‘īdu, yabda’uhū) he keeps talking of it, he continue, to bring up the subject; اعاد النظر في (naẓara) to re-examine, reinvestigate, reconsider, check, verify, revise s.th., go over s.th. or into s.th. again; اعاد النظر في الدعوى (da‘wā) to retry the case (jur.) V to get used, be accustomed, habituate o.s. (على or هـ to s.th.), make a habit (على or هـ of s.th.), be used to doing, be wont to do (على or هـ s.th.) VIII = V; X to recall, call back (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.); to reclaim, demand back (من هـ s.th. from); to regain, recover, recuperate, reconquer, fetch back, get back, retrieve (هـ s.th.); to recall, recollect, call back to one’s mind (هـ s.th.); to ask s.o. (ه ) to repeat (هـ s.th.)

عود ‘ūd pl. اعواد a‘wād, عيدان ‘īdān wood; stick, rod, pole; branch, twig, switch; stem, stalk; cane, reed; aloes (wood); lute (musical instrument); body, build, physique; strength, force, intensity; pl. اعواد full intensity (e.g., of a disease) | عود الثقاب matchstick, match; عود الصليب peony (Paeonia; bot.); عود الكبريت ‘ūd al-kibrīt matchstick, match; رخاوة العود rakāwat al-‘ūd weakness of character; صلب العود ṣulb al-‘ūd of robust physique; strongly built, husky, sturdy; stubborn, resistant, unbending, unyielding, relentless; صلابة العود ṣalābat al-‘ūd sternness, severity, hardness, obstinacy, stubbornness, inflexibility, relentlessness; لدن العود ladn al-‘ūd lissome, lithe, of elastic physique; ثقف عوده (taqqafa) to train, educate s.o.; عجم عوده (‘ūdahū) to test s.o., put s.o. to the test; كسر عوده (‘ūdahū) to break s.o.’s power of resistance, crush s.o.’s spirit

عود ‘aud return; reversion; recurrence; recidivism (jur.); repetition, reiteration | فعله عودا وبدءا fa'alahū ‘audan wa bad’an or فعله عوده على بدئه (‘audahū) or فعله عودا الى بدء he did or started it all over again

عودة ‘auda return | بعودة البريد by return mail; الى غير عودة never to return again, gone forever; good riddance! farewell forever!

عادة ‘āda pl. -āt, عوائد ‘awā’id2 habit, wont, custom, usage, practice; ‘ādatan usually, customarily, ordinarily, habitually; pl. عوائد taxes, duties; charges, fees, rates | فوق العادة extraordinary, unusual, uncommon; special, extraordinary, emergency (e.g., meeting); على عادته according to his habit, as was his wont, as he used to do; كسابق العادة ka-sābiqi l-‘ā. as was formerly customary, as usual; جرت العادة ب (jarat il-‘ādatu) to be customary, usual, common or current, prevail, be a common phenomenon, be the vogue, have become common practice; جرت به عادتهم that was their habit, that’s what they used to do; العادة السرية (sirrīya) onanism, masturbation; عوائد الجمرك ‘a. al-gumruk customs duties; عوائد مبان ‘a. mabānin house taxes; عوائد الأملاك taxes on real state

عادي ‘ādī customary, usual, common, ordinary, normal, regular; undistinguished, run-of-the-mill; ordinary, regular (e.g., meeting, as opposed to extraordinary, special, emergency); simple, plain, ordinary (man); old, ancient, antique; عاديات ‘ādīyāt antiques, antiquities

عياد ‘iyād repetition, reiteration, recurrence

عيادة ‘iyāda visit (with a patient), doctor’s call (on a patient); -- (pl. -āt) clinic; office (of a physician), consultation room (of a physician) | عيادة خارجية (kārijīya) policlinic; outpatient clinic

عوادة ‘awāda pl. -āt woman lutist

معاد ma‘ād return; place to which one returns; (place of) destination; المعاد the hereafter, the life to come | المبدأ والمعاد (mabda’) the crux, (of a matter), the all-important factor (of s.th.)

تعويد ta‘wīd accustoming, habituation, conditioning, inurement (على to)

اعادة i‘āda giving back, handing back, sending back, return(ing); reinstatement, reinstallment; repetition, reiteration; resumption; re-establishment, restoration, repair | اعاد البناء reconstruction; اعادة الحقوق rehabilitation; اعادة التسلح i. at-tasalluḥ rearmament; اعادة الشؤون على ما كانت عليه restoration of the status quo ante; اعادة التكوين re-formation; اعادة النظر في (i. an-naẓar) re-examination, reinvestigation, reconsideration, revision of s.th.; اعادة النظر في دعوى (da‘wa) retrial of a case (jur.); اعادة التنظيم reorganization

تعود ta‘awwud contraction of a habit, habituation

اعتياد i‘tiyād oontraotion of a habit, habituation

اعتيادي i‘tiyādī ordinary, common; usual, customary, habitual; normal, regular; plain, simple, ordinary (man)

استعادة isti‘āda reconquest, recovery, recuperation, regaining, reclamation, retrieval

عائد ‘ā’id returning, reverting, recurrent; accruing (profit, merit); belonging, (ap)pertaining, proper (ل or الى to s.o., to s.th.); (pl. -ūn) returning emigrant, re-emigrant; (pl. عواد ‘uwwād) visitor (to a sick person); pl. عائدات revenues | عائد الأرباح net profit, net gain

عائدة ‘ā’ida pl. عوائد ‘awā’d2 benefit, profit, advantage, gain (على for s.o.)

عائدية ‘ā’idīya a belonging (to), a being part (of), membership

معود mu‘awwad used, accustomed, habituated, conditioned, inured, seasoned (على to); wont (على to do s.th.), being in the habit (على of doing s.th.)

معيد mu‘īd pl. -ūn repetitor, tutor, coach; assistant conducting drill sessions (university)

معاد ma‘ād: معاد تصديره (taṣdīruhū) forwarded (mail)

متعود muta‘awwid used, accustomed, habituated, conditioned, inured, seasoned (على to); wont (على to do s.th.), being in the habit (على of doing s.th.)

معتاد mu‘tād used, accustomed, habituated, conditioned, inured, seasoned, (على to); wont (على to do s.th.), being in the habit (على of doing s.th.); usual, customary, normal | كالمعتاد as usual; معتاد الجرائم habitual criminal

عاذ (عوذ ) ‘āda u (‘aud, عياذ ‘iyād, معاذ ma‘ād) to seek the protection (من ب of s.o. from or against), take refuge (من ب with s.o. from) | اعوذ بالله a‘ūdu bi-llāh God forbid! God save me from that! II to protect (من ه s.o. from or against, by placing him under the wing ب of s.o. else); to pronounce a charm or incantation (ه over s.o.); to fortify (ه s.o.) with a charm, incantation or amulet IV = II; to place s.o. (ه ) under God’s protection, pray to God that he guard s.o. (ه ) against s.th. V = I; X = I; to protect o.s., make o.s. proof (ب by means of)

عوذ ‘aud (act of) taking refuge

عوذ ‘awad refuge, place of refuge, retreat, asylum, sanctuary

عوذة ‘ūda pl. عوذ ‘uwad amulet, talisman; charm, spell, incantation

عياذ ‘iyād (act or instance of) taking refuge | عياذ الله ‘iyāda llāh or العياذ بالله (‘iyāda) God forbid! God save (protect) me (us) from that!

معاذ ma‘ād (act or instance of) taking refuge; refuge, place of refuge, retreat, asylum, sanctuary | معاذ الله ma‘āda llāh(i) God forbid! God save (protect) me (us) from that!

تعويذ ta‘wīd pl. تعتويذ ta‘āwīd2 amulet, talisman; charm, spell, incantation

عور ‘awira a (‘awar) to lose an eye, be or become one-eyed II to deprive of one eye, make blind in one, eye (ه s.o.); to damage, mar, spoil (هـ s.th.); to gauge (هـ measures, weights), test the accuracy (هـ of measures, of weights) IV to lend, loan (هـ ه to s.o. s.th.) VI to alternate, take turns (هـ in s.th.), do by turns, take alternately (هـ s.th.): to seize, grip, befall, overcome, (alternately, successively) (ه s.o., هـ s.th.) VIII اعتور i‘tawara to befall, affect (alternately, successively) (ه s.o.), come (alternately, successively) (ه over s.o.); to shape, mold, form (هـ s.th., said of heterogeneous influences or factors); to stand in the way of (هـ ), hinder (هـ s.th.) X to borrow (من هـ s.th. from)

عورة ‘aura defectiveness, faultiness, deficiency, imperfection; -- (pl. -āt) pudendum, genitals; weakness, weak spot

عوار ‘awār, ‘iwār fault, blemish, defect, flaw, imperfection

عوار ‘uwwār a variety of swallow

عير ‘īra (eg.) false, artificial (teeth, hair)

اعور a‘war2, f. عوراء ‘aurā’2, pl. عور ‘ūr one-eyed | المعي الأعور (ma‘y) caecum, blind gut

اعارة i‘āra lending

اعاري i‘ārī: مكتبة اعارية (maktaba) lending library, circulating library

تعاور ta‘āwur alternation, variation, fluctuation

استعارة isti‘āra borrowing; metaphor

استعاري isti‘ārī metaphorical, figurative

عارية ‘āriya or ‘ārīya pl. عور ‘awārin s.th. borrowed, borrowing; loan

معير mu‘īr lender

معار mu‘ār lent, loaned

مستعير musta‘īr borrower

مستعار musta‘ār borrowed; used metaphorically or figuratively; false, artificial (e.g., hair) | اسم مستعار (ism) pseudonym; وجوه مستعار masked faces; hypocrites

2 عار ‘ārin see عرى

عوز ‘awiza a (‘awaz) to be or become poor, needy, destitute; -- عاز ‘āza u (‘auz) to need, require (هـ s.th.), be in want or need (هـ of s.th.) IV اعوز a‘waza to be or become poor, needy, destitute | اعوزه الشيء (šai’u) he lacked the thing, he needed it, he was in want of it

عوز ‘awaz lack, need, want, necessity, exigency; poverty, neediness, destitution, indigence, penury

عوز ‘awiz poor, needy, destitute, necessitous, indigent

عازة ‘āza lack, need, want, necessity, exigency; poverty, poorness

اعوز a‘waz2 poor, needy, destitute, indigent, necessitous