A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC0%

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC Author:
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
Category: Arabic Language and Literature

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: HANS WEHR
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
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A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

A DICTIONARY OF MODERN WRITTEN ARABIC

Author:
Publisher: www.data.nur.nu
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

ا

ا a particle introducing direct and indirect questions; أم - ا a - am in alternative questions; أم - سواء ا sawā’un a - am no matter whether - or; أ و a-wa particle indicating or implying doubt: or? perhaps?(atau/apakah) اَوتشك في ذلك(tašukku) you wouldn't doubt it, would you? do you perhaps doubt it? or do you doubt it? اَلا alā and اَما a-mā intensifying interjections introducing sentences: verily, truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., اَلا فانظروا(fa-nẓurū) oh, do look! why, look! اَما انه(innahū) why, he is !

1 آب āb2 August = Agustus (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.)

2 اب see ابو

3 اب abba u to long, yearn, إلى وطنه(ilā waṯanihi) for one's homeland

4 ابيب look up alphabetically

اباتي (It. abate) abātī abbot (Chr.)

ابالة ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale

يا ابت see ابو

ابجد abjad alphabet

ابجدي abjadī alphabetic(al) ; ابجديات elementary facts, simple truths | الحروفالابجدية the letters of the alphabet

ابد abada( ابود ubūd) to stay, linger( ب at a place) ; - i u to roam in a state of wildness, run wild, be shy, shy away, run away (animal, game) II to make lasting or permanent, perpetuate, eternize (هـ s.th.) V to be perpetuated, become lasting or permanentl; to return to a state of wildness

ابد abad pl. آباد ābād endless, eternal duration, eternity; ابدا abadan always, forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the future), not at all, on no account; (alone, without negation) never! not at all! By no means! | على الأبد، إلى الأبد and أبد الدهر abada d-dahri forever; ابد الآبدين abada l-abadīn and إلى ابد الآبدين ilā abadi l-a. forever and ever

ابدي abadi everlasting, eternal, endless

الابدي al-abadī eternity

ابدي abadīya infinite duration, endless time, eternity

آبد ābid wild, untamed

آبدة ābida pl. اوابد awābid2 unusual thing, prodigious event | اوابد الدنيا a. ad-dunyā the Wonders of the World

مؤبد mu'abbad eternal, endless, everlasting |سجن مؤبد(sijn) life imprisonment

1ابر abara i u(abr) to prick, sting II to pollinate (هـ a palm tree)

ابرة ibra pl. ابر ibar needle, pln; indicator (of an instrument); shot, injection (med.);sting, prick | حقنه ابرة ḥaqanahu ibratan to give s.o. an injection; ابرة الراعى i. ar-rā‘ī geranium (bot.); ابرة مغناطيسية(magnāṯīsīya) magnetic needle; شغل الابرة šug1 al-i. needlework

مئبر mi'bar needlecase; pack needle

2 آبار ābār see بئر

ابريشية abrašīya and ابروشية abrūšīya pl. -āt diocese, bishoprie (Chr.); parish (Chr.)

ابرميس abramīs, ابراميس bream (zool.)

ابريز pure gold

ابريسم ibrīsam, ibrīsim silk

ابريق ibrīq pl. اباريق abārīq2 pitcher, jug

ابريل abril April

ابزن abzan pl. ابازن abāzin2 washbowl

ابزيم ibzīm pl. ابازم abāzim2 buckle, clasp

ابض ubḍ pl. آباض ābāḍ and مأبض ma’biḍ pl. مآبض ma’ābiḍ2 hollow of the knee, popliteal space

ابط V to take or carry under one's arm (هـ s.th.); to put one's arm (هـ, ه around s.o., around s.th.), hold in one's arm (هـ, ه s.th.)

ابط ibṯ pl. آباط ābāṯ m. and f. armpit

ابق abaqa i( اباق ibāq) to escape, run away (a slave from his master)

ابق abaq a kind of hemp

آبق ābiq pl. اباق ubbāq runaway, escaped; a fugitive

1 ابل ibil (coll.) camel

2 ابالة ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale

ابليز iblīz alluvial deposits (of the Nile)

ابليس iblīs pl. ابالسة abālisa devil, Satan

1 ابن II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (ه a deceased person), deliver a funeral oration (ه in praise of s.o.)

ابنة ubna passive pederasty

ابان ibbān time: ابان ibbāna during, في ابان at the time of, during

تأبين ta’bīn commemoration (of a deceased person) |حفلة تأبين ḥaflat at-t. commemorative celebration (in honor of a deceased person)

مأبون ma’būn catamite; weakling, mollycoddle, sissy; scoundrel

2 ابن see1 بن

ابنوس abnūs ebony

ابه abaha and abiha a(abh) to pay attention (ل , also ب to), heed (ل , also ب s.th.), take notice (ل , also ب of) |امر لا يؤبه له(yu'bahu) an insignificant, unimportant matter V to display proud, haughty manners; to turn away, keep one's distance, remain aloof (عن from), look down (عن upon), think o.s. far above (عن s.o. or s.th.)

ابهة ubbaha splendor, pomp, ostentation, pageantry; pride

اب ab pl. آباء aba' father (also eccl.): ancestor, forefather: يا ابت yā abati O my father! الابوان al-abawān the parents, father and mother; ابونا abūnā reverend father, form of address and title of a priest (Chr). |ابا عن جد aban ‘an jaddin handed down from father to son, as s.th. inherited from forefathers; ابو سعن abū su’n marabou; ابو النوم abū n-naum poppy; ابو الهول abū l-haul the Sphinx; ابو اليقظان abū l-yaqẓān rooster, cock

ابوة ubūwa fatherhood, paternity

ابوي abawī paternal, fatherly

ابونيت ebonite

ابونيه (Fr. abonné) abūneh pl. -āt subscription; subscription card (e.g., for public conveyances, a concert season, etc.)

ابى abā a( اباء ibā’, اباءة ibā’a) to refuse, decline; to turn down, reject, scorn, disdain (هـ s.th.): to deny (على هـ s.o. s.th.) | ابى الا أن يفعله(illā an yaf’alahū) he insisted on doing it; ابى الله إلا أن God willed that V to refuse, decline

اباء ibā’, اباءة ibā’a rejection; dislike, distaste, aversion, disdain; pride

ابي abīy disdainful, scornful: proud, lofty, lofty-minded

آب ābin pl. اباة ubāh reserved, standoffish; unwilling, reluctant, grudging

ابيب abīb the eleventh month of the Coptic calendar

ابيقوري abīqūrī Epicurean

ابيقوري abīqūriya Epicureanism

اترج utrujj and اترنج utrunj citron (Citrus medica; bot.)

آتشجي (Turk. ateşçi) ātešgī fireman, stoker

مأتم ma’tam pl. مآتم ma’ātim2 obsequies, funeral ceremony

1 اتان atān pl. آتن ātun, اتن utun, utn female donkey, she-ass

2 اتون atūn, attūn pl. اتن utun, اتاتن atātīn2 kiln, furnace, oven

اتاوة itāwa pl. اتاوى atāwā duty, tax, tribute

اتوبيس (Fr.) otobīs autobus, bus

اتوماتيكي (Fr.) otomātīkī automatic

اتومبيل boyl lIالى d اتوموبيل (Fr.) otomobīl automobile

اتى atā i (اتيان ityān, اتى aty, مأتاة to come (ه or الى to; على over s.o.), arrive (هـ or الى at); ب اتى to bring, bring forward, produce, advance, accomplish or achieve s.th.; اتى ه ب to bring, give or offer s.o. s.th.; to do, perform (هـ a deed), carry out, execute (هـ e.g., movements); to commit, perpetrate (هـ a sin, a. crime); to mention (على s.th.); to finish off (على s.th., also s.o.); to finish, complete, carry through, dispose, settle, wind up, conclude, terminate, bring to a close (على s.th.); to destroy, annihilate, eradicate, wipe out (على s.th.); to eliminate, carry away, sweep away (على s.th.), do away (على with); to use up, exhaust (also a subject), present exhaustively, in great detail (على s.th.), elaborate (على on s.th.) | كما يأتي as follows; اتى على آخره(ākhirihī) to complete, finish s.th.; to spend or use up the last of s.th.; اتى على الأخضر واليابس to destroy everything, wreak havoc; اتى البيوت من ابوابها s.th. in the right way, knock on the right door;يؤتى من قبل yu’ta min qibali is undermined, weakened, ruined by III to offer furnish, give, afford (ب to s.o. s.th.), provide, supply (ب s.o. with); to be propitious, be favorable (ه for s.o.), favor (ه s.o.); to turn out well (. for s.o.), be in favor (ه of); to suit, befit, become (ه s.o.), be appropriate (ه for s.o.); to agree (ه with s.o.; food) |اتاه كل شيء(kullu šai’in) everything was in his favor, turned out well for him, came his way IV to bring (هـ s.o. s.th.); to give (هـ s.o. s.th.); to grant (هـ ه to s.o. s.th.), bestow (هـ upon s.o. s.th.) |آتى الزكاة(zakāta) to give alms V to originate, stem, derive, spring, arise, result (عن from); to end (عن with), result (عن in); to get (الى to), arrive (الى at); to be easy to do, be feasible without difficulty, be attainable, go well, progress; to go about s.th. (فى ) gently, cautiously X to ask to come, induce to come (ه s.o.)

مأتى ma’tan pl. مآت ma’ātin place where s.th. comes from; place at which one arrives; access; pl. مآت place of origin; origin, source, provenance; place where one has been or to which one has come; place where s.th. starts, where s.th. ends

آت ātin coming, next; following | الأسبوع الآتي(usbū‘) the coming week, next week; كالآتي as follows

موات mu’ātin, muwātin favorable, propitious, opportune, convenient, suitable

اث aṯṯa u I a( اثاثة aṯāṯa) to be luxuriant, grow profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up, prepare (هـ s.th.); to furnish (هـ an apartment) V to be or become rich, wealthy, to prosper; to be furnished

اثاث aṯāṯ furniture, furnishings (of an apartment, of a room)

تأثيث ta’ṯīṯ furnishing

اث aṯṯ, اثاث aṯīṯ abundant, luxuriant, profusely growing (hair, plants)

اثر aṯara u i (aṯr, اثارة aṯāra) to transmit, pass along, report, relate (هـ s.th., عن from, or based on the authority of, s.o.) II to affect, influence (في or على s.o., s.th.), act (في or على upon), produce an effect, make an impression, have influence (في or على on); to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (هـ على s.th. to), like (هـ s.th.) more (على than); to have a predilection, a liking (هـ for), like (هـ s.th.), be fond (هـ of); to choose, deem wise or advisable (ان to do s.th.); to adore (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) |آثر نفسه بالخير(nafsahū bi-l-kair) to wish o.s. well, hope for the best for o.s. V to be impressed, be influenced; to let o.s. be impressed, be impressible; to be moved, be touched (ب or ل by, also من ); to be excited, be stimulated; to be affected (ب by, said of materials, e.g., iron by acid); to be induced (phys.); to follow in s.o.’s (ه ) tracks, follow s.o.’s example, emulate (ه s.o.); to pursue, follow up (هـ a question, a problem); to perceive, feel (هـ s.th.) X to claim a monopoly; to possess alone, with the exclusion of others, monopolize (ب s.th.); to appropriate (ب s.th.), take exclusive possession (ب of); to preoccupy (هـ s.th.), engross (هـ the attention) |استأثر الله به the Lord has taken him unto Himself

اثر aṯar pl. آثار āṯār track, trace, vestige; sign, mark; touch; impression, effect, action, influence (في on); tradition (relating the deeds and utterances of Mohammed and his Companions); work (of art, esp. of literature); ancient monument; آثار antiquities; remnants, vestiges; (religious) relics |علم الآثار ‘ilm al-a. archeology; دار الآثار museum of antiquities; لا اثر له(aṯara) ineffective, ineffectnal; بأثر رجعي(raj‘ī) with retroactive force (jur.); اصبح اثرا بعد عين aṣbaḥa aṯaran ba‘da ‘ainin to be destroyed, be wiped out, leave nothing but memory behind; اعاده اثرا بعد عين(a‘adahū) to destroy s.th. completely ; على اثره, في اثره(also fī iṯrihī) on his (its) track, at his heels, after him; immediately afterwards, presently, thereupon; ;'11 j. immediately afterwards, presently

اثر iṯra (prep.) immediately after, right after

اثري aṯarī archeologic(a1); archeologist (also آثاري āṯārī); old, ancient, antique | عالم اثري archeologist; لغة اثرية(luga) dead language

اثر aṯir egoistic, selfish

اثرة aṯara selfishness, egoism

اثير aṯīr favored, preferred (عند by s.o.), in favor (عند with s.o.); select, exquisite, noble; see also alphabetically

اثارة aṯāra remainder, remnant; faint trace, vestige

مأثرة ma’ṯara, ma’ṯura pl. مآثر ma’āṯir2 exploit, feat, glorious deed

تأثير ta’ṯīr action, effect, influence, impression (في, على on); effectiveness, efficacy; induction (phys.)

تأثيري ta’ṯīrī produced by induction, inductive, inductional, induced (phys.)

إيثار īṯār preference; altruism; predilection; love, affection

تأثر ta’aṯṯur being influenced; agitation, emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity; (pl. -āt) feeling, sensation, perception | سريع التأثر easily impressed, impressible, sensitive

تأثري ta’aṯṯurī: المذهب التأثري(madhab) the impressionistic movement

تأثرية ta’atturīya impressionism

استئثار isti’tār arrogation of a monopoly; monopolization; presumption, presumptuousness; exclusive power

مأثور ma’tūr transmitted, handed down | قول مأثور(qaul) and كلمة مأثورة(kalima) proverb

مؤثر mu’attir affecting, acting upon; effective; impressive; moving, touching, pathetic; (pl. -āt) influencing factor, influence

2 أثير look up alphabetically

أثفية utfīya pl. أثاف atāfin trivet, tripod (in &ncient times: &ny one of the three stones supporting a cooking pot near the fire) | ثالثة الأثافي that which rounds out a number, caps s.th., puts the lid on s.th., the crowning touch

اثل atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to become rich V to be consolidated, be strengthened; to become rich

اثل atl pl. اثول utūl (coll.; n. un. pl. atalat) tamarisk (bot.)

اثيل atīl and مؤثل mu’attal deep-rooted; of noble origin, highborn

اثم atima a (itm, atam, مأثم ma’tam) to sin, err, slip V to eschew sin, shun evil; to restrain o.s. hold back

اثم itm pl. آثام ātām sin, offense, misdeed, crime

مأثم ma’tam pl. مآثم sin, offense, misdeed, crime

تأثيم sin, offense, misdeed, crime

آثم ātim pl. اثمة atama and اثيم atīm pl. اثماء atmā’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil; sinner

اثمد itmid antimony

اثير atīr ether

اثينا atīnā Athens

اثيوبيا atyūbiyā Ethiopia

اثيوبي atyūbī Ethiopian; (pl.-ūn) an Ethiopian | البلاد الاثيوبية Ethiopia

اج ajja u i (اجيج ajīj) to burn, blaze, flame (fire) II to light, kindle, start (هـ a fire) V = I

ماء اجاج mā’ ujāj bitter, salty water

اجاج ajjāj burning, blazing, hot

متأجج muta’ajjij burning, blazing, flaming

اجبية ajabīya horologium (Copt.-Chr.)

2 أجر ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense, remunerate (هـ s.o.) II to let for rent, let out, hire out, rent, lease (هـ s.th.); (with nafsahū) to hire s.o. out IV to let for rent, let out, hire out, rent, lease (هـ s.th.); to rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease (هـ s.th.), take a lease, (هـ on); to hire, engage, take on (ه s.o.), engage the services (ه of s.o.) X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease (هـ .th.), take a lease (هـ on); to charter (هـ a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (ه s.o.), engage the service (ه of s.o.)

اجر ajr pl. اجور ujūr wages, pay, honorarium, recompense, emolument, remuneration; price, rate, fee | اجور السفر u. as-safar fares

اجرة ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate, fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage | اجرة البريد postage; اجرة النقل u. an-naql transport charges, freight(age), carriage, cartage

اجير ajīr pl. اجراء ujarā’ hireling; workman, laborer, day laborer; employee

اجيرة ajīra working woman, factory girl, female laborer; woman employee

تأجير ta’jīr letting, leasing, hiring out, letting on lease; lease| مشروع التأجير والإعارة (i‘āra) Lend-Lease Act

ايجار ījār pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing, hiring out, letting on lease| للإيجار for rent, to let

اجارة ijāra pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing, hiring out, letting on lease

استئجار isti’jār rent, lease, tenure

مأجور ma’jūr paid, salaried, on the payroll, gainfully employed; employee; mercenary, venal, hired, bribed

مؤجر mu’ajjir pl. -ūn landlord, lessor

مستأجر musta’jir leaseholder, lessee, tenant; employer

2 آجر ājurr (n. un. ة ) baked brick

اجزاجي see جزء

اجزاخانة see جزء

اجاص ijjāṣ pear

اجل ajala a (ajal) to hesitate, tarry, linger II to delay, postpone, put off, defer, adjourn (هـ الى s.th. till) V to be postponed, be deferred, be adjourned (مؤجر till, to) X to request postponement (هـ of s.th.); to seek to delay (هـ s.th.)

اجل ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all means!

لأجل li-ajli or من اجل min ajli because of, on account of, for the sake of; for | لأجل أن in order that, that, so that; من أجل هذا therefore, for that reason, on this account

اجل ajal pl. آجال ājāl appointed time, date, deadline; instant of death; respite, delay|بالأجل on credit (com.); قصير الأجل short-term, short-time; short-lived: إلى أجل غير مسمى (gairi musammā) for an indefinite period, sine die, until further notice

تأجيل ta’jīl delay, postponement, adjournment, deferment, respite; appointment of a time or date

آجل ājil delayed, protracted; deferred; later, future (as opposed to عاجل)| عاجلا او آجلا ’ājilan au ājilan, في عاجله او آجله sooner or later, now or later on; في العاجل والآجل now and in the future

الآجلة al-ājila the life to come, the hereafter

مؤجل mu’ajjal delayed, late, postponed, deferred; fixed in time, deadlined

اجمة ajama, coll. اجم ajam pl. -āt, اجم ujum, آجام ājām thicket, jungle, forest: reeds, canebrake

اجمية ajamiya malaria| بعوضة الأجمية ba‘ūḍat al-a. anopheles

آجن ājin brackish (water)

اجندة ajanda notebook

اح aḥḥa u (aḥḥ) to cough

احد II to make into one, unite, unify (هـ s.th.) VIII اتحد see وحد

احد aḥad, f. احدى one: somebody, someone, anybody, anyone (esp. in negative sentences and questions); الأحد the One (God); Sunday|احدهم aḥaduhum every one of them; يوم الأحد yaum al-a. Sunday; أحد السعف a. as-sa‘af Palm Sunday; أحد العنصرة a. al-‘anṣara Whitsunday; آحد الألوف āḥād al-ulūf a few thousand (2-9000; as distinguished from عشرات الألوف and مئات الألوف )

احدي aḥadī dominical, Sunday (adj.)

احدية aḥadīya unity, oneness

الآحد al-āḥād the units (math.)

1احن aḥina a (aḥan) to bate (على s.o.)

احنة iḥna pl. احن iḥan old feud, deep-rooted hatred

2 احين see اوح

اخ see اخو

اخت see اخو

اخذ aḳaḍa u (aḳḍ) to take (من هـ s.th. from or out of): to take (هـ s.th.) along: to get, receive, obtain (من هـ s.th. from); to take up, seize (هـ s.th.); to grab (ب s.o., s.th.), take hold of (ب ): to perceive, notice (ه s.o., said of the eye); to gather, understand, infer, deduce (من هـ s.th. from), read (هـ s.th.) between the lines (من of); to grip, captivate, thrill, spellbind (ب s.o.); to take up, acquire, make one's own (ب s.th., e.g., a method); to keep, adhere (ب to), observe, take over, adopt, embrace, follow, copy, imitate (ب s.th.); to accept (ب s.th.); to take, lead (الى ب s.o. to); to admonish, urge, drive (ب ه s.o. to do s.th.); to enjoin, impose (ب ه on s.o. s.th.); to take away (ه على from s.o. s.th.), strip, deprive (ه على s.o. of), cut off, bar (ه على s.o. from); to reproach, hlame (ه على s.o. for); to hold against s.o. (على ) that (ان ), fix the blame (على on s.o., ان for the fact that); to obligate (ب على s.o. to); to learn (على or عن from s.o., هـ s.th.), acquire knowledge (على or عن from s.o.), أخذ العلم عنه ('ilm) to study under s.o.; to begin, start (في or ب with s.th. or s.th., with foll. imperf.: to do s.th.), prepare, set out, be about (في or ب to do s.th.) | أخذ أبهته (uhbatahū) to make preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; أخذ مأخذ فلان (ma’ḳad) to adopt the same course as s.o. else, follow s.o.’s example; أخذ منه مأخذا to seize s.o., take possession of s.o. (a sensation, or the like); أخذ مجراه (majrāhu) to take its course; أخذ مجلسه (majlisahū) to take one's seat, sit down; أخذ خذره (ḥidrahū) to be on one's guard; أخذه بالحسنى (ḥusnā) to be friendly, be nice to s.o.; أخذ بخاطره (bi-ḳāṯirihī) to show o.s. complaisant toward s.o., try to please s.o.; أخذ بذنبه (bi-danbihi) to punish s.o. for his offense; أخذ رأيه (ra'yahū) to ask s.o.’s opinion, consult s.o.; أخذ الرأي عليه (uḳida r-ra'yu) the matter was put to a vote; أخذ بأسباب (bi-asbābi) to embrace, adopt s.th., e.g., أخذ بأسباب الحضارة الأروبية(ḥaḍāra) to adopt European culture; أخذ بالشدة(šidda) to deal with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough time; أخذ عليه طريقه to obstruct s.o.’s way, hinder s.o. from moving on; أخذ على عاتقه to shoulder s.th., take s.th. upon o.s.; أخذ العدة ل(‘udda) to prepare, set out, get ready to do s.th.; أخذ عليه عهدا(‘ahdan) to put s.o. under an obligation, impose a commitment on s.o.; أخذ على (حين) غرة uḳida ‘alā(ḥīni) girratin to be taken by surprise, be caught unawares; أخذ بالمقابلة(muqābala) to repay like for like; شيء يأخذ القلوب s.th. which captivates the heart, a fascinating, thrilling thing; أخذنا المطر(maṯarū) we got caught in the rain; أخذ بناصره(bi-nāṣirihi) to help s.o., stand by s.o., take care of s.o., look after s.o.; أخذ نفسه(nafasahū) to draw breath; أخذ عليه أنفاسه to take s.o.’s breath away; أخذ النوم(naum) sleep overwhelmed him; أخذ بيده(bi-yadihī) to help s.o., stand by s.o. II to lay under a spell, enchant, bewitch (ه s.o.) III to censure, blame (ب, على ه s.o. for s.th.); to punish (ب, على ه s.o. for); to hold s.th. (على ) against s.o. (ه ), resent (على s.th. ه , in s.o.)| لا تؤاخذني lā tu’āḳidnī pardon me! forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII اتخذ ittaḳada to take (ه s.th.); to take on, assume (هـ s.th.); to take up, occupy (هـ s.th.); to pass, adopt (هـ e.g., a resolution); to take, single out, have in mind (هـ هـ, ه ه s.o. or s.th. as); to make use (هـ of s.th.), use (هـ s.th.); to imitate, affect (هـ e.g., s.o.’s manner of speaking); to make (من هـ s.th. out of s.o. or s.th.)| اتخذ شكلا(šaklan) to take on a form or shape; اتخذ موقفا(mauqifan) to take an attitude, assume a position; اتخذ التدابير الازمة to take the necessary measures; اتخذ قرارا(qarāran) to pass or adopt a resolution; اتخذ المواقع الجديدة to take up new positions (troops)

أخذ aḳd acceptance, reception; seizure; taking out, taking away, removal, etc.| أخذ الرأي a. ar-ra'y voting, vote; أخذ ورد(wa-radd) discussion, debate, dispute, argument; شيء لا يقبل أخذا ولا ردا(yaqbalu) an indisputable matter; أخذ وعطاء(wa-‘aṯā’) give-and-take; traffic, trade; dealings, relations (esp. business, commercial); discussion, debate; fight, battle

أخذة uḳda spell, charm

أخيذ aḳīd prisoner of war

أخيذة aḳīda booty, spoils

أخاذ aḳḳād captivating, fascinating, thrilling

مأخذ ma’ḳad pl. مآخذ ma’āḳid2 place from which one takes s.th., source; O wall socket, outlet (el.); adoption, borrowing, loan; manner of acting, mode of procedure, approach; pl. مآخذ source references, bibliography (in booke); reprehensible points, faults, flaws, defects, shortcomings| المأخذالأقرب the simplest, easiest approach; قريب المأخذ easy to handle or to use; see wao aḳada (middle of paragraph)

مؤاخذة mu’āḳada objection, exception; censure, blame| لا مؤاخذة !(mu’āḳadata) pardon me! no offense, I hope!

أخذ ma’ḳūd taken, seized; taken by surprise, caught, trapped; surprised; taken (ب with), fascinated (ب by); مأخوذ به in force, valid

مأخوذات ma’ḳūdāt receipts, takings, returns (com.)

اخر II to delay, put off, defer, postpone, adjourn (هـ s.th.); to hinder, impede, obstruct, hold up (ه s.o., هـ s.th.), slow down, retard (هـ s.th.); to draw out, delay (عن s.th. beyond its appointed time); to put back (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.), shelve (هـ s.th.); to set back (هـ a watch, a clock); to suspend, discharge, dismiss, remove (ه s.o. from an office) V to be late; to be delayed, fall or lag behind (عن ), tarry, linger, hesitate; to default (عن on), be behindhand, be in arrears (عن with), be behind (عن in); to hesitate (عن with); to be suspended (from service), be discharged, be dismissed| لم يتأخر بعد ذلك من ان after that, he did not hesitate long before he …, presently, he ...

آخر āḳir pl. -ūn, -āt, اواخر awaḳir2 last, ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close, conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); الآخر and الآخرة the hereafter| الدار الآخرة the abode in the hereafter, the everlasting abode; الى آخره ilā ākīirihī and so forth, et cetera; آخر الأمر āḳir l-amri eventually, finally, in the end, after all; آخر الدهر āḳir d-dahri forever; آخر الزمان a. az-zamān time at which the Day of Judgment is to be expected, the end of the world; عن آخره to the last, down to the grass roots, entirely, completely, e.g., دمر عن آخره (dummira) to be completely destroyed, be wiped off the map; من آخره from behind, from the rear; ما له آخر endless, infinite; في آخر الآخر after all, last of all; اواخر الشهر a. aš-šahr the end of the month, the last ten days of the month; اخيرا وليس آخرا last but not least

الآخرة al-āḳira the hereafter

آخر āḳar 2, f. اخرى uḳrā, pl. comm. اخر uḳar 2 (and آخرون āḳarūn or اخريات respectively) another, one more, الآخر the other| مرة اخرى(marratan) once more; هي الأخرى, هو الآخر he also, she also, he in turn, she in turn, انا الآخر I also; ان كانت الأخرى(in kānat) otherwise; من آن الى آخر from time to time; من سنة الى اخرى(sana) from year to year; بين فترة واخرى(fatra) once in a while, from time to time; اخرى - آونة(awinatan) sometimes -- sometimes, at times -- at times

الأخرى al-uḳrā the hereafter

اخروي uḳrawī of or relating to the life to come or the hereafter

اخير aḳīr last; latest; rearmost; the second of two; اخيرا eventually, finally, in the end, after all, at last; recently, the other day; الأول - الاخير the former—the latter| اخيرا وليس آخرا last but not least

مئخار mi’ḳār palm which retains its fruit into the winter

تأخير ta’ḳīr delay, deferment, postponement; obstruction, retardation; putting back, temporary shelving

تأخر .f ta’aḳḳar delay, lag, retardation; hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowness, tardiness; backwardness, underdevelopment (of a country)

مؤخر mu’aḳḳar rear part, tail, end; atern (of a ship); remainder, balance (of a sum, to be paid later); مؤخرا mu’aḳḳaran recently, lately, the other day; at last, finally, eventually

مؤخرة mu’aḳḳara rear, rear guard (of an army); rear positions or lines (mil.); stern (of a ship)

متأخر muta’aḳḳir delayed, belated, late; occurring later (عن than); behind, behindhand in arrears; backward, underdeveloped; lagging, staying behind; defaulter; المتأخرون the later, or modern, authors, writers, or the like (as opposed to المتقدمون); المتأخرات arrears, balance of a س um remaining due after previous payment| البلدان المتأخرة(buldān) the underdeveloped countries

اخطبوط uḳṯubūṯ octopus

اخو III to fraternize, associate as brothers (ه with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a brother or friend VI to fraternize, associate as brothers

اخ aḳ pl. اخو iḳwa, اخوان iḳwān brother; fellow man, neighbor; friend; pl.اخوان specif., brethren or members of an order; الإخوان religious brotherhood of the Wahabi sect, militant in character, established by Ibn Sa‘ūd in 1910| يا أخي my dear friend! اخو ثقة aḳū tiqa trustworthy, reliable; اخ شقيق brother through both father and mother, brother-german

اخت uḳt pl. اخوات aḳawāt sister; (gram.) cognate; counterpart| اختها the other (of two), its mate, its counterpart (after a fem. noun)

خوي ḳuwaiy little brother

اخوي aḳawi brotherly, fraternal

اخوية aḳawīya brotherhood (as a religious association)

اخاء iḳā’, اخوة uḳūwa brotherhood, brotherliness, fraternity

اخاوة iḳāwa fraternization, fraternity, brotherliness

تآخ ta’āḳin fraternization

اخور aḳūr barn, stable

اد adda u i to befall, afflict (ه a.o.)

امر اد amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible thing

ادب aduba u(adab) to be well-bred, well-mannered, cultured, urbane, have refined tastes; - adaba i(adb) to invite (to a party or banquet, ه s.o.), entertain (ه s.o.)| ادب مأدبة(ma'duba) to arrange a banquet, give a formal dinner II to refine, educate (ه s.o.); to discipline, punish, ehastise (ه s.o.) IV to invite as a guest (ه s.o.) V to receive a fine education; to be well-bred, well-educated, cultured, have refined tastes; to show o.s. polite, courteous, civil, urbane; to educate o.s., refine one’s tastes (ب by, through); to let o.s. be guided (ب by)| تأدب بأدبه(bi-adabihi) to follow s.o.’s moral example

ادب adab pl. آداب ādab culture, refinement; good breeding, good manners, social graces, decorum, decency, propriety, seemliness; humanity, humaneness; the humanities; belles-lettres|بيت الأدب toilet, water closet; قليل الأدب and عديم الأدب ill-mannered, ill-bred, impolite, uncivil; الأدب العامي(‘āmmī) popular literature; رجال الأدب literati, men of letters; كلية الآداب kullīyat al-ā. (= faculté des lettres) college of arts; آداب rules, rules of conduct, e.g., آداب السلوك rules of decorum, etiquette; الآداب decency, morals

ادبي adabī moral, ethic(al); literary| واجب ادبي moral obligation; ادبيا وماديا adabiyan wa-māddīyan morally and physically; الفلسفة الأدبية(falsafa) ethics, moral science

ادبيات adabīyāt lliterature, belles-lettres

ادبخانة adabḳāna pl. -āt toilet, water closet

اديب adīb pl. ادباء udabā’ cultured, refined, educated; well.bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane; a. man of culture and refined tastes; man of letters, writer, author

اديبة adība authoress, writer

مأدبة ma’duba pl. مآدب ma’ādib banquet, formal dinner

تأديب ta’dīb education; discipline; punishment, chastisement; disciplinary punishment|مجلس التأديب majlis at-t. disciplinary board

تأديبي ta'dībī disciplinary; punitive, retaliatory| قضية تأديبية (qaḍīya) disciplinary action

تأدب ta’addub good breeding, good manners, civility, politeness, courteousness, tact

آدب ādib host

مؤدب mu’addib pl. -ūn educator; teacher in a Koranic school (Tun.); - mu'addab well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane

ادرة udra scrotal hernia

ادرنة adirna2 Edirne, Adrianople (city in NW Turkey)

الادياتيك (Fr. adriatique) al-adriyātīk and بحر الادياتيك baḥr al-a. the Adriatic Sea

1 ادم adama i (adm) to take some additional food (هـ with the bread), enrich (هـ the bread) with some extra food or condiment

ادام idām anything eaten with bread; shortening, fatty ingredient

2 ادم adam, adama skin

اديم adīm skin; surface; tanned skin, leather|اديم الأرض a. al-arḍ thesurface of the earth

ادام addām tanner

3 آدم ādam2 Adam|ابن آدم human being

آدمي ādamī human; humane; poor, inferior, meager; (pl. -ūn, (اوادم awadim2) human being

آدمية ādamīya humaneness, humanity; humanism

اداة adāh pl. ادوات adawāt tool; instrument; utensil, implement, device, appliance; apparatus; (gram.) particle| اداة الحكم a. al-ḥukm machinery of government; اداة التعريف definite article (gram.); اداة التنفيذية(tanfīdīya) executive agency; pl. materials, equipment, gear, ادوات حربية(ḥarbīya) war material; ادواوت احطياطية(iḥtiyāṯīya) stand-by equipment (techn.); ادوات منزلية (manzilīya) household utensils, household effects

الأدون al-adōn(Hebr.) the Lord; Mr. (Isr.)

ادى II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer, channel (هـ, ه ب s.o., s.th., الى to), see that s.o. or s.th. (هـ, ه or ب ) gets to (الى ); to bring about, cause, effect, produce (الى s.th.); to lead, contribute, be conducive (الى to a result); to amount, come practically (الى to); to tend (الى to), aim (الى at); to carry out, execute, discharge (هـ s.th.); to perform (هـ a ritual, etc.); to do (واجبه wājibahū one’s duty); to fulfill (وظيفة a function, رسالة a mission); to accomplish (مأمورية a task); to take (يمينا an oath; امتحانا an examination); to render (خدمة ḳidmatan a service, ل or الى to s.o.; هـ e.g., a meaning, a musical composition, etc.)|ادى(salām) to greet, salute V to lead, be conducive, contribute (الى to results); to be carried out, be performed, be accomplished; to arrive (إلى at), be lead (إلى to) X to demand, claim (هـ ه from s.o. s.th.)

اداء adā’ pl. -āt (as verbal noun of II) rendering (of a service); pursuit, performance, execution, discharge (of a duty), realization, effectuation, accomplishment (of a task); rendition, reading (e.g., of a musical composition); fulfillment; payment| حسن الأداء ḥusn al-a. good rendition (of a work of art, of a musical composition)

تأدية ta’diya rendering (of a service); pursuit, performance, execution, discharge (of a duty), realization effectuation; accomplishment (of a task); fulfillment; payment

مؤدى mu’addan assignment, task, function; sense, meaning, signification, import, underlying idea

اذ id 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and) then; إذ ذاك id dāka (also written إذاك ) then, at that time, at the same time, in doing so; 2. (conj.; temp. and caus.) as, when; since, as, the more so as, because; اذ ان id anna since, as, in view of the fact that; for, because

1 اذا 1 (introducing a nominal clause the subject of which may he expressed by ب with foll. genit.) and then, and all of a sudden; (with noun in nominative case or with ب ) there was … and all of a sudden there was …; 2. (conj.) when; if, whenever; whether, if (introducing indirect questions); اذا ما when, whenever; الا اذا(illā) unless if not; except when

2 (اذا اذن ) idan then, therefore, in that case, hence, consequently

آذار ādār2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.)

1 اذن adina a to listen (إلى to s.o..); to allow, permit (في ل s.o. s.th.); to hear, learn (ب of s.th.), be informed (ب about) II to call (ب to), esp. to call to prayer (بالصلاة ); to crow (rooster) IV to announce, make known (ب s.th., ب ه to s.o. s.th.), inform, notify (ه s.o.); to call to prayer; to call upon s.o. (ه ), urge, admonish, exhort (ه s.o..) to do s.th. (ب ); to herald (ب or هـ s.th.); to foreshadow (ب s.th.); to be on the verge (ان of doing s.th..)| آذن بالسقوط (بالزوال )(zawāl) to show signs of the imminent downfall (end); آذن الليل بانتصاف(lailu bi-ntiṣāf) it was close to midnight V to herald, announce (ب s.th.) X to ask permission (في to do s.th., rarely ب ); to ask permission to enter (على s.o.'s house), have o.s. announced (على to s.o.); to take leave (من of s.o.), say good-by (من to)

اذن idn permission, authorization; باذن الله if God choose, God willing; (pl. اذون udūn, اذونات udūnāt) (postal) order| اذن البريد pl. اذونات البريد postal money order; اذن البوسته do.

اذن udun, udn pl. آذان ādan ear; handle(of a cup)| التهاب الاذن الوسطى (wusṯā) middle-ear infection, otitis media (med.)

اذان adān call to prayer

اذنية udaina little ear; ear lobe

مأذنة ma’dana, مئذنة midana pl. مآذن ma’ādin2 minaret

ايذان idān declaration, proclamation, announcement (ب of s.th..)| ايذنا بانتهاء الحديث indicating that the conversation is (was) ended

مأذون ma’dūun authorized; slave with limited legal rights (Isl. Law); = مأذون شرعي(šar‘ī) official authorized by the cadi to perform civil marriages (Isl. Law)

مأذونية ma’dūnīya leave, furlough (mil. Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.)

مؤذن mu’addin muezzin, announcer of the hour of prayer

اذن idan see2 اذا

اذى adiya a to suffer damage, be harmed IV to hs.rm, hurt, wrong (ه s.o.); to molest, annoy, irritate, trouble (ه s.o.)|لا يؤذي lā yu’dī innocuous, harmless, inoffensive V to suffer damage, be wronged; to feel offended, be hurt

اذى adan, اذاة adāh, اذية adīya damage, harm; injury; trouble, annoyance, grievance, wrong, offense, insult

اذاية idāya damage, harm, harmfulness, noxiousness

ايذاء īdā’ harm, damage, prejudice; offense,. hurt; grievance, nuisance

مؤذ mu’din hurtful, harmful, injurious, detrimental, prejudicial; annoying, irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting, offensive, insulting

اراتيقي arātīqī and اراتيكي pl. اراتقة arātiqa a heretic (Chr.)

آرامى ārāmī Aramaean; Aramaic

ارب ariba a(arab) to be skillful, proficient (ب in s.th.); -- araba i to tighten (هـ a knot) III to try to outwit (ه s.o.)

ارب arab pl. آراب ārāb wish (في for), desire, need (في of s.th.); purpose. aim, goal, end

ارب irb pl. آراب ārāb limb|مزقه اربا اربا(mazzaqahū) to tear s.th. to pieces or to shreds

اربة irba skill, resourcefulness, cleverness, smartness

اربة urba pl. ارب urab knot, bow

اريب arīb skillful, resourceful, clever, intelligent

مأرب ma’rab pl. مآرب ma’ārib2 wish, desire; object of desire, purpose, aim, goal, end

اربيل arbīl Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city in N Iraq)

ارتوازي artuwaāzī artesian (well)

1 ارث II to sow dissension (بين between, among)

2 ارث irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of inheritance)

ارثوذكسي urtūduksī orthodox; الارثوذكسية the Orthodox Church

الروم الارثوذكسي ar=rūm al-urtūduksī the Greek Orthodox Church

ارج arija a (araj, اريج arīj) to be fragrant V do.

ارج araj fragrance, sweet smell

ارج arij fragrant, sweet-smelling

اريج arīj fragrance, sweet smell

ارجح II ta’arjaḥa to rock, swing

متأرجح muta'arjiḥ fluctuating

الارجنتين al-arjantīn Argentina

ارجوان urjuwān purple

ارجوان urjuwānī purple(-colored)

ارجوز popular spelling (eg.) of قره جوز ’aragōz (q.v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy show)

ارخ II to date (هـ a letter, and the like, ب with a date); to write the history of s.th. (هـ )

تاريخ ta'rīḳ dating (of a letter, etc.); ta'rīḳ pl. تواريخ tawārīḳ2 date; time; history; chronicle, annals| تاريخ الحياة t. al-ḥayāh biography; curriculum vitae; تاريخ عام(‘āmm) world history; علماء التاريخ the historians

تاريخي tārīḳī historic(al)

مؤرخ mu'arriḳ pl. -ūn historiographer, historian, chronicler, annalist; -- mu’arraḳ dated

ارخبيل arḳabīl archipelago

ارخن (άρχων) pl. اراخنة arāḳina archon, pl. notables (Chr.-Copt.)

اردب irdabb (now usually pronounced ardabb)pl. ارادب arādib2 ardeb, a dry measure (Eg.; = 1981)

اردبة irdabba cesspool

الاردن al-urdunn Jordan (river and country)

اردني urdunni Jordanian| المملكة الاردنية الهاشمية al-mamlaka al-u. al-hāšimīya the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official designation)

اردواز (Fr. ardoise) arduwāz slate

1 ارز arz (n. un. ة ) cedar

2 ارز aruzz rice

ارس arasa i(ars) to till the land

اريس irrīs and arīs peasant, farmer

ارستقراطي aristuqrāṯī aristocratic; ristocrat

ارستقراطية aristuqrāṯīya aristocracy

ارسطو arisṯū Aristotle

ارش arš indemnity, amercement, fine, penalty; blood money (for the shedding of blood; Isl. Law)

ارشي ابسقوبس (Gr. ὰρχιεπίσϰοπος) archbishop

ارشيدوق (Fr. archiduc) archduke, ارشيدوقة archduchess

ارض arḍ f., pl. اراض arāḍīn, اراضون arāḍūn earth; land, country, region, area; terrain, ground, soil| الارض السفلى(suflā) the nether world; الارض المقدسة(muqaddasa) the Holy Land, Palestine

ارضي arḍī terrestrial, of the earth; soil-, land- (in compounds); situated on or near the ground, ground (adj.); earthly; underground, subterranean

ارضي شوكي arḍī šaukī artichoke

ارض araḍ (coll.; n. un. ة ) termite; woodworm

ارضية arḍīya pl. -āt floor; ground (also, e.g., of a printed fabric, of a painting); ground floor, first floor (tun.); storage, warehouse charges

ارضروم arḍurum2 Erzurum (city in NE Turkey)

ارطة (also اورطة ) urṯa pl. ارط uraṯ (اورط ) battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.)

ارطقة arṯaqa pl. -āt heresy (Chr.)

تاريع see ريع

ارغن urgun pl. اراغن aragin2 organ (mus. instr.)

ارول urgūl, argūl a wind instrument (related to the clarinet, consisting of two pipes of unequal length)

ارق ariqa a to find no sleep II to make sleepless (ه s.o.), prevent s.o. (ه ) from sleeping

ارق araq sleeplessness, insomnia

اريكة arika pl. ارائك arā’ik2 couch, sofa; throne

اركيلة argīla pl. اراكيل arāgīl2 (syr.) water pipe, narghile

ارلندي irlandī Irish

1 ارم arama i to bite

ارم urram molar teeth| حرق الارم(ḥarraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger)

ارومة arūma, urūma root, origin; stump of a tree

مئرم mi'ram root (of a tooth)

2 آرام ārām (= ارام ) pl. of رئم ri'm) white antelopes

الارمن al-arman the Armenians

ارمني armanī Armenian (adj. and n.)

ارمينيا armēniyā Armenia

الارناوط al-arnāwuṯ the Albanians

ارناوطي arnāwuṯī Albanian

ارنب arnab f., pl. ارانب arānib2 hare; rabbit|ارنب هندي(hindī) guinea pig

ارنبة arnaba female hare, doe| ارنبة الانف a. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, muzzle (of an animal)

ارنيك (Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ارانيك arānīk2 pattern, model; form, blank

اروبا urubbā Europe

اروبي urubbī European (adj. and n.)

1 ارى ary honey

2 آرى ārī Aryan

آرية ārīya Aryanism

اريحا arīḥā Jericho

از azza u i (ازيز aziz) to simmer; to hum, buzz; to whiz, hiss; to fizzle; to wheeze

ازيز azīz hum(ming), buzz(ing); whizzing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bullets)

1 ازب azaba i(azb) to flow, run (water)

مئزاب mi'zāb pl. مآزيب ma'āzīb2 and ميزاب mīzāb pl. ميازيب mayāzīb2 drain; gutter, eaves trough

2 ازب izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man

الازبك al-uzbak the Uzbeks

ازر azara i(azr) to surround (هـ s.th.) II to clothe (ه s.o. with an ازار izār q.v.); to cover, wrap up (ه s.o., هـ s.th.); to strengthen, brace (ه s.o., هـ s.th.) III to help (ه s.o.); to support, back up, strengthen (ه s.o.) V and VIII to put on an izār (see below), wrap s.o. in an izār VI to help each other; to rally, unite, join forces

ازر azr strength| شد ازره šadda azrahū or شد من ازره (min azrihi) to help, support, encourage s.o., back s.o. up; šadda azruhū to be energetic, vigorous, lusty, courageous

ازار izār m. and f., pl. ازر uzur loincloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering, cover

مئزر mi’zar pl. مآزر ma’āzīr2 apron; wrapper, covering, cover

مؤازرة mu’āzara support, aid, assistance, backing

تآزر ta’āzur mutual assistance

ازف azila a (awaf, ازوف uzūf) to come, approach, draw near (a time)

ازق azaqa i(azq) to be narrow V do.

مأزق ma'ziq pl. مآزق ma’āziq2 narrow passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottle-neck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical situation, also مأزق حرج (ḥarij)

ازل azl pl. آزال āzāl eternity (without beginning), sempiternity

ازلي azali eternal, sempiternal

ازلية azalīya sempiternity, eternity

ازم V to be or become critical, come to a head (situation, relations)

ازمة azma pl. azamāt emergency; crisis| ازمة وزارية(wizāriya) cabinet crisis

تأزم ta'azzum: تأزم الحالة t. al-hāla critical development, aggravation of the situation

مأزوم ma'zūm victim of a crisis

ازمير izmīr2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea-port in W Turkey)

ازميل izmīl pl. ازاميل azāmīl 2 chisel

ازوت (Engl.) azōt azote, nitrogen

ازوتي azōtī nitrogenous

ازى III to be opposite s.th. (ه ), face (ه s.o., هـ s.th.)

ازاء izā’a (prep.) opposite, face to face with, facing; in front of; in the face of (e.g., of a situation); as compared with; بازاء bi-izā’i opposite, face to face with, facing; in front of; على ازاء ‘alā izā’i in the face of (e.g., of a situation)

1 آس ās myrtle

2 آس pl. -āt ace (playing card)

3 آس II to found, establish, set up (هـ s.th.), lay the foundation (هـ for) V to be founded, be established, he set up

اس foundation, basis; exponent of a power (math.)

اس asās pl. اسس usus foundation (also, of a building), fundament, groundwork, ground, basis; keynote. Tonic (mus.)|على اساس (with foll. genit.) on the basis of, on the strength of, on account of, according to; لا اساس له من الصحة(asāsa, ṣiḥḥa) completely unfounded (news, rumor)

اساسي asāsī fundamental, basic; elementary; essential; principal, chief, main|حجر اسود(ḥajar) cornerstone, foundation stone

اساسيات asāsīyāt fundamentals, principles

تأسيس ta'sīs founding, foundation, establishment, setting up, institution; grounding, laying of the substructure (arch.); pl. -āt facilities, utilities; institutions

تأسيس ta'sīsī founding; foundational, fundamental| مجلس تأسيسي(majlis) constituent assembly

مؤسس mu'assis founder

مؤسسة mu’assasa pl. -āt foundation, establishment; firm (com.); institution; organization

الاسبان al-asbān, al-isbān the Spaniards

اسباني isbānī Spanish; (pl. -ūn) Spaniard

اسبانخ isbānaḳ spinach

اسبانيا isbāniyā Spain

اسبداج isbidāj and اسبيداج isbīdāj white lead, ceruse

اسبرتو (It. spirito) isbirto alcohol

اسبليطة isbalīṯa epaulet

است see1 ست

استاتيكي istātīkī static (el.)

استاد (Fr. stade) istād stadium

استاذ ustād pl. اساتذة asātida master; teacher; professor (academic title); form of address to intellectuals (lawyers, journalists, officials, writers and poets); ledger (com.)| الاستاذ الأعظم(a‘ẓam) Grand Master (of a lodge); الاستاذ الأكبر title of the Rector of Al Azhar University; استاذ كرسي (kursī; Eg.) and استاذ بكرسي (Syr.) full professor; استاذ بلا كرسي (Syr.) associate professor; استاذ متفرغ (mutafarrig;Eg.) part-time professor (holding an office outside the university); استاذ مساعد(musā‘id) assistant professor (Eg.; Syr.); استاذ زائر (Eg.; Syr.) visiting professor; اساتذة في الجدل(jadal) they are masters of disputation

استاذية ustādīya mastership; professorship, professorate

استانبول istanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople

استانبولي istanbūlī of Istanbul

الآستانة al-āsitāna, الاستانة al-astāna, al-istāna Constantinople, Istanbul

استبرق istabraq brocade

استراتيجي istrātījī strategic

استرالي usturālī Australian

استراليا usturālīyā Australia

استرليني istarlīnī sterling| جنيه استرليني pound sterling; منطقة الاسترليني minṯaqat al-i. sterling area

استمارة see امر

استوبة (It. stoppa) tow, oakum; cotton waste

استوديو (It.-Engl. studio) istūdiyō pl. استوديوهات istūdiyōhāt studio; atelier

استوكهولم istokholm Stockholm

استونيا (Engl.) istōniyā Estonia

استياتيت I istiyātīt steatite, soapstone (min.)

اسوج look up alphabetically

اسد X to display the courage of a lion (على against)

اسد asad pl. اسد usud, usd, اسود usūd, آساد āsād lion; Leo (astron.)| داء الاسد leontiasis (med.)

1 اسر asara i(asr) to bind, fetter, shackle, chain (ه s.o.); to capture, take prisoner (ه s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold spellbound (ه s.o.), absorb, arrest (هـ the attention) X to surrender, give s.o. up as prisoner

اسر asr (leather) strap, thong; capture; captivity|شدة الاسر šiddat al-a. vigor, energy

اسرة usra pl. اسر usar, -āt family; dynasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; -- asirra see سرير

باسره bi-asrihī entirely, completely, altogether, جاءوا باسرهم all of them came, they came one and all

اسار isār (leather) strap, thong; captivity; captivation, enthrallment| وقع في اساره to be subjected to s.th., fall into the clutches of s.th.

اسير asīr pl. اسراء usarā2, اسرى asrā, اسارى asārā prisoner, captive, prisoner of war

اسيرة asīra pl. -āt female prisoner, slave girl

آسر āsir winning, captivating, fascinating; captor

مأسور ma’sūr captivated, fascinated, enthralled (ب by)

2 اسرة asirra see سرير

3 مأسورة look up alphabetically

اسرائيل isrā’īl2 Israel| بنو اسرائيل banū i. the Israelites; دولة اسرائيلية daulat i. the State of Israel

اسرائيلي isrā’īlī Israelitish; Israelite; Israeli (adj, and n.); اسرائيليات Judaica

اسرافيل isrāfīl 2 Israfil, the angel who will sound the trumpet on the day of Resurrection

اسرب usrub lead (metal)

اسطانبول isṯanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople

اسطبل isṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn

اسطبة (It. stoppa) usṯubba tow, oakum

اسطرلاب asṯurlāb astrolabe

اسطقس isṯaqīs pl. -āt element

اسطوانات usṯuwāna pl. -āt column (arch.); cylinder (math.; of an engine); phonograph record; -- pl. اساطين asāṯīn2 high-ranking, prominent personalities; stars, celebrities, authorities, masters (e.g., of art: اساطين الفن a. al-fann)

اسطوانى usṯuwānī cylindric(al)

اسطورة usṯūra pl. اساطير asāṯīr legend, fable, tale, myth, saga

اسطوري usṯūrī fabulous, mythical, legendary

اسطول usṯūl pl. اساطيل asāṯīl2 fleet; squadron

اسطى usṯā (colloq. for استاذ ) pl. اسطوات usṯawāt master; foreman, overseer; also form of address to those in lower callings, e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc.

اسف asifa a(asaf) to regret (على or ل s.th.), feel sorry (على for), be sad (على about) V do

اسف asaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret| وا اسفاه ! wā asafāh! Oh, what a pity! it's too bad! ويا للاسف wa-yā lal-asafi (or only للاسف ) unfortunately; مع الاسف and بكل اسف bi-kulli asafin do.

اسف asifa and اسيف asīf regretful, sorry, sad, grieved, distressed

تأسف ta'assuf regret

آسف āsif regretful, sorry, sad| تركته غير آسف(gaira āsifin) I left him without regret, I was only too glad to leave him

مأسوف عليه ma’sūf ‘alaihi mourned (esp. of a dead person, = the late lamented)

مؤسف mu’sif distressing, sad, regrettable

متأسف muta’assif sad, sorry, regretful; متأسف ! sorry!

اسفاناخ isfānāk and اسفانخ isfānaḳ spinach| اسفاناخ رومي(rūmī) garden orach (Atriplex hortensis, bot.)

اسفلت asfalt asphalt

اسفنج isfanj,isfunj sponge

اسفنجي isfanjī spongy; porous

اسفندان isfindān maple (bot.)

اسفيداج isfīdāj; white lead, ceruse

اسفين isfīn pl. اسافين asāfīn2 wedge

اسقربوطي isqarbūṯī: مرض اسقربوطي(maraḍ) scurvy (med.)

اسقف usquf pl. اساقفة asāqifa, اساقف asāqif2 bishop| رئيس الاساقفة archbishop

اسقفي usqufī Episcopal

اسقفية usqufīya episcopate, bishopric

اسقمري usqumrī, isqumrī mackerel (zool.)

اسقيل isqīl an Oriental variety of sea onion (Scilla)

اسكتش (Engl.) isketš sketch

اسكتلندا iskotlandā Scotland

اسكتلندي iskotlandī Scottish, Scotch

اسكلة iskila pl. اساكل asākil2 seaport, commercial center (in the East)

اسكملة iskamla stool, footstool

اسكندرونة iskandarūna2 Iskenderon (formerly Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey)

الاسكندرية al-iskandarīya Alexandria (city in N Egypt)

اسكندينافيا iskandināfīya Scandinavia

اسل II to sharpen, point, taper (هـ s.th.)

اسل asal (coll.) rush (bot.)

اسلة asaIa pl. -āt thorn, spike, prong; point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of the tongue

الحروف الاسلية al-ḥurūf al-asalīya the letters ز, س and ص

اسيل asīl smooth| خد اسيل (ḳadd) smooth cheek

اسالة asāla eliptic, oval form

مؤسل mu’assal pointed, tapered

اسلامبولي (variant of استانبولي ) islāmbūlī of Istanbul

اسلانده islandā Iceland

اسم see1 سم

اسمانجوني asmanjūnī sky-blue, azure, cerulean

اسمره asmara Asmara (capital of Eritrea)

اسمنت asmant, ismant cement

اسمنتي asmantī cement (adj.)

اسن asana i u and asina a to become brackish (water)

آسن āsin brackish

(اسو andاسى )اسا asā u (asw, اسا asan) to nurse, treat (هـ a wound); to make peace (بين between, among); -- اسى asiya (اسى, اسا asan) to be sad, grieved, distressed II to console, comfort (ه s.o.); to nurse (ه a patient) III to share (one’s worldly possessions, ه with s.o.), be charitable (ه to s.o.); to assist, support (ه s.o.); to console, comfort (ه s.o.); to treat, cure (هـ s.th., medically) V to be consoled, find solace VI to share the worldly possessions; to assist one another, give mutual assistance

اسى asan grief, sorrow, distress

اسوة uswa, iswa example, model, pattern|اسوة ب uswatan bi following the model or pattern of; along the lines of; in the same manner as, just as, like

مأساة ma’sāh pl. مآس ma’āsin trogedy, drama

تأسية ta’siya consolation, comfort

مواساة muwāsāh (for mu’āsāh) consolation; charity; beneficence

أسوار iswār, uswār pl. أساور asāwir2, أساورة asāwira bracelet, bangle

أسوان aswān Aswan (city in S Egypt)

اسوج asūj Sweden

اسوجي asūjī Swedish

اسى see اسو

آسيا āsiyā Asia| آسيا الصغرى(ṣugrā) Asia Minor

آسيوي āsiyawī Asiatic, Asian (adj. and n.)

اسيوط asyūt2 Asyūt (city in central Egypt)

اشب V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley (a crowd)

اشابة ušāba pl. اشائب ašā’ib2 mixed, motley crowd

اشببيلية išbīliya2 Seville (city in SW Spain)

اشبين išbīn pl. اشابين see شبن

اشر ašara u(ašr) to sow (هـ s.th.); -- i to file, sharpen with a file (هـ s.th.) II to mark, indicate, state, enter, record (هـ s.th.); to grant a visa; to provide with a visa (على s.th.)

اشر ašar liveliness, high spirits, exuberance; wildness; insolence, impertinence

اشر ašir lively, sprightly, in high spirits, exuberant; wild; insolent, impertinent, arrogant

مئشار minšār pl. مواشير mawāšīr2 saw

تأشير ta’šīr issuance of an official endorsement; official endorsement; visa

تأشيرة ta’šīra pl. -āt visa| تأشيرة مرور t. murūr or تأشيرة اجتياز transit visa

مؤشر mu’aššir indicator, needle (of a measuring instrument)

مؤشر mu’aššar jagged, serrated; marked, designated (ب by, with)

اشفى išfā pl. اشاف ašāfin awl, punch

اشنان ušnān potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; bot.)

اشنة ušna moss

اشور ašūr Assyria

اشوري ašūrī Assyrian (adj. and n.)

اصيص aṣīṣ pl. اصص uṣūṣ flowerpot

اصد II to close, shut (a door, etc.)

اصر iṣr pl. آصار āṣār covenant, compact, contract; load, encumbrance, burden; sin; pl. آصار bonds, ties

آصرة āṣira pl. اواصر awāṣir2 bond, tie (fig. e.g., اواصر الولاء a. al-walā’i bonds of friendship); obligation, commitment

اصطبل iṣṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn

اصفهان iṣfahān2 Isfahan (city in W central Iran)

اصل aṣula u (اصالة aṣala) to be or become firmly rooted; to be firmly established; to be of noble origin II to found (هـ s.th.), give s.th. (هـ ) a firm foundation, establish the foundation or origin of (هـ ) V to be or become firmly rooted, deep-rooted, ingrained; to take root, be or become firmly established; to derive one's origin (من from) X to uproot, root out, extirpate, exterminate, annihilate (هـ s.th.); to remove (هـ an organ by a surgical operation)| استأصل شأفته (ša’fatahū) to eradicate s.th., eliminate s.th. radically

اصل pl. اصول root; trunk (of a tree); origin, source; cause, reason; descent, lineage, stock (esp., one of a noble character); foundation, fundament, basis; the origins! (e.g., of s book); pl. اصول principles, fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g., of a science); rules; basic rules, principles, axioms; real estate, landed property; assets (fin.); -- اصلا aṣlan originally, primarily; (with neg.) by no means, not at all, not in the least|في الأصل originally, at first; اصول الفقه u. al-fiqh the 4 foundations of Islamic jurisprudence, i.e., Koran, Sunna, qiyās (analogy) and ijmā‘ (consensus); اصول وخصوم assets and liabilities; اصول مضاعفة(muḍā‘afa) double-entry bookkeeping; حسب الأصول (ḥasaba) properly, in conformity with regulations

اصلي original, primary, primal, initial; genuine, authentic, pure; basic, fundamental, principel, chief, main| الثمن الأصلي(taman) cost price; الجهات الأصلية(jihāt) the cardinal points (of the compass); عدد اصلي (‘adad) cardinal number; عضو اصلي(‘uḍw) regular member

اصولي uṣūlī in accordance with the rules, conforming to prevailing principles; traditional, usual; legist

اصيل pl. اصلاء uṣalā’2 of pure, noble origin; original, authentic, genuine; pure; proper, actual; firm, solid; sound, reasonable, sensible; of strong, unswerving character; steadfast; deep-rooted; native, indigenous| الأصل الأصيل the actual reason; اصيل الرأي of sound, unerring judgment

اصيل pl. آصال āṣāl, اصائل aṣā’il2 time before sunset, late afternoon

اصالة aṣāla firmness, steadfastness, strength of character; nobility of descent, purity of origin; aṣālatan immediately, directly, personally| اصالة الرأي a. ar-ra’y clarity and firmness of judgment; judiciousness; بالاصالة عن نفسه spontaneously, of one's own accord, in one's own name, personally, privately (as opposed to بالنيابة عن غيره); اصال ونيابة aṣālatan wa-niyābatan directly and indirectly

تأصيلة ta’ṣīla pedigree, genealeogy

تأصل ta’aṣṣu1 deep-rootedness

استئصال isti’ṣāl extirpation, extermination, (radical) elimination; removal by surgery

متأصل muta’aṣṣil deep-rooted, deep-seated; chronic (illness)

اطيط aṯīṯ the mooning bray of a camel

1 اطر aṯara i u (aṯr) and II to bend, curve (هـ s.th.)

اطار iṯār pl. -āt, اطر uṯur frame (also, of eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop (of a barrel, etc.)

اطارة iṯāra rim, felly (of a wheel)

اطاري iṯārī framelike, hoop-shaped

2 اطرية see طرى

اطرغلة uṯrugulla a variety of pigeon

اطرون aṯrūn = نطرون

الاطلانتيك ,الاطلانطيك al-aṯlantīk, al-aṯlanṯīq the Atlantic

اطلانطيكي aṯlanṯīqī and اطلانطي aṯlanṯī Atlantic

اطلس aṯlas2 satin; (pl. اطالس aṯālis2 atlas, volume of geographical maps

اطلسي aṯlasī Atlantic

اطلنطي aṯlanṯī Atlantic| الحلف الاطلنطي the Atlantic Pact

اطوم aṯūm sea turtle

اغا agā, آغا āgā pl. اغوات agawāt aga, lord, master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain

الاغريق al-igrīq, الاغارقة al-agāriqa the Greeks

اغريقي igrīqī Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.)

اغسطس agustus August (month)

افّ V to grumble, mutter in complaint (من about)

افّ uff dirt (in the ears or under the nails), earwax, cerumen

افّ uff interj. expressing anger or displeasure

افف afaf displeasure; grumbling, grumble

الافرنج al-ifranj the Franks, the Europeans| بلاد الافرنج Europe

افرنجي ifranjī European

افرنسي ifransī French; الافرنسية the French language; الافرنسيون the French

افريز ifrīz pl. افاريز afārīz2 frieze; edge; curb; sidewalk|افريز المحطة i. al-maḥaṯṯa platform (of a railroad station); افريز الحائط molding (arch.)

افريقا afrīqā f. and افريقيا ifrīqiyā, now usually pronounced afrīqiyā f. Africa| افريقيا الشمالية (šamālīya) North Africa

افريقي ifrīqī, now usually pronounced afrīqī African; (pl. -ūn, افارقة afāriqa) an African

آفرين āfirīn bravo! well done!

افسنتين ifsantīn, ifsintīn wormwood, absinthe (Artemisia absinthium; bot.)

افشين ifšīn pl. افاشين afāšīn2 litany (Chr.)

الافغان al-afgān the Afghans; Afghanistan

افغانستان afgānistān Afghanistan

افغاني afgānī Afghan (adj. and n.)

افق ufq, ufuq pl. آفاق āfāq horizon; range of vision, field of vision; pl. distant lands, faraway countries, remote regions; provinces, interior of the country (as distinguished from the capital)| آفاق الأرض a. al-arḍ the remotest parts of the earth; آفاق البلاد a. al-bilād the outlying portions of the country; شذاذ الآفاق šuddad al-a. foreigners, travelers

افقي ufqī horizontal

آفاقي āfāqī coming from a distant country or region

افاق affāq wandering, roving, roaming; tramp, vagabond

افك afaka i (afk) and afika a (ifk, afk, afak, افوك ufūk) to lie, tell a lie

افك ifk and افيكة afīka pl. افائك afā’ik2 lie, untruth, falsehood

افاك affak liar, lying

افل afala u i (افول ufūl) to go down, set (stars)

افول ufūl setting (of stars)

آفل āfil transitory, passing

افلاطون aflāṯūn2 Plato

افن afan stupidity

افين afīn and مأفون ma’fūn stupid, foolish, fatuous; fool

افندي afandī pl. -īya gentleman (when referring to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes and the tarboosh); (after the name) a title of respect (eg.); افندم ! afandim! Sir! (eg.) afandim? (I beg your) pardon? What did you say?

افوكاتو (It. avvocato) avokātō advocate, lawyer, attorney|الافوكاتو العمومي representative of the attorney general (= Fr. avocat général)

افيون afyūn opium|روح الافيون al-a. laudanum

اقة uqqa pl. -āt oka, a weight, in Eg. = 1.24s kg, in Syr. = 1.2s2 kg

مؤقت see وقت

اقحوان uqhūwān pl. اقاحى aqāḥī daisy

اقرباذين aqrabādīn composite medicament| علم الاقرباذين ‘ilm al-a. pharmaceutics, pharmacology

اقرباذيني aqrabādīnī pharmaceutic(al)

اقيط aqīṯ cottage cheese

اقليد iqlīd look up alphabetically

اقلم aqlama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt, adjust II ta'aqlama to acclimatize (o.s.)

اقليم iqlīm pl. اقاليم aqiilim2 climate; area, region; province, district; administrative district (Eg.; = مديرية); الاقاليم country, provinces (as distinguished from the city)

اقليمي iqlīmī climatic; regional, local; territorial|المياه الاقليمية(miyāh) territorial waters

اقليد iqlīd pl. اقاليد aqālīd2 key

اقليدس iqlīdis Euclid

اقنوم uqnūm pl. اقانيم aqānīm2 hypostasis, divine person within the Trinity (Chr.); constitutive element

اقونة (Gr. είκών) iqūna icon (Chr.)

اقيانوسية uqyanūsiya Oceania

اكادى akkādī Akkadian

اكاديمية akādīmīya academy

اكتوبر okctober October

اكد II to assure (هـ ل s.o. of, ان that); to give assurance (هـ ل s.o. of); to confirm (هـ s.th. a view) V to be or become convinced, convince o.s. (من s.th.); to reassure o.s., make sure (من of s.th.); to be sure (من of); to be urgent, imperative, requisite

تأكيد ta'kīd pl. -āt assurance; confirmation; emphasis; بالتأكيد most certainly! of course!

تأكد ta’akkud assurance, reassurance

أكيد akīd certain, sure; firm (resolve); definite (desire); urgent, imperative (need); أكيدا akīdan certainly! surely!

مؤكد mu’akkad certain, definite, sure; confirmed

متأكد muta'akkid convinced (من of)

1 اكر akara i(akr) to plow, till, cultivate (هـ the land)

اكار akkār pl. -ūn, اكرة akara plowman

2 اكرة ukra pl. اكر ukar ball (for playing)

اكزيما ekzēmā eczema (med.)

اشعة اكس aši‘‘at iks X-rays

اكسترا extra

اكسجين oksižēn oxygen

اكسير iksīr elixir

اكف akuff see كف

اكل akala u (akl, مأكل ma’kal) to eat (هـ s.th.); to eat up, consume, swallow, devour, destroy (هـ s.th.); to eat, gnaw (هـ at), eat away, corrode, erode (هـ s.th.); to spend unlawfully (هـ s.th.). enrich o.s. feather one's nest (هـ with)| اكل عليه الدهر وشرب (dahru, šariba) to be old and worn out, be timeworn; اكل الربا (ribā) to take usurious interest; يعلم من اين تؤكل الكتف ya‘lamu min aina tu’kalu l-katif he knows how to tackle the matter properly; اكله جلده (jه lduhū) his skin itched; اكل في الصحن (ṣaḥn) to eat off a plate; اكل حقه (ḥaqqahū) to encroach upon s.o.’s right II and IV to give s.o. (ه ) s.th. (هـ ) to eat, feed (هـ ه s.o. s.th.) III to eat, dine (ه with s.o.) V to be devoured, be consumed; to be eaten away, corrode, undergo corrosion; to become old, worn, timeworn, full of cracks; to be destroyed by corrosion VI = V

اكل akl food; meal, repast; fodder, feed| غرفة الاكل gurfat al-a. dining room; (eg.) اكل البحر a. al-baḥr land washed away by the sea or the Nile (as opposed to طرح البحر )

اكل ukul, ukl food; fruit| آتى اكله to bear fruit

اكلة akla pl. akalāt meal, repast; -- ukla bite, morsel

اكال ukāl prurigo, itch eruption (med.)

اكال akkāl, اكيل akīl, اكول akūl voracious, gluttonous; hearty eater, gourmand, glutton

مأكل ma’kal pl. مآكل ma’ākil2 food, eats

تأكل ta’akkul wear; corrosion; erosion (geol.)

تآكل ta’ākul wear; corrosion; erosion (geol.)

ائتكل i’tikāl erosion (geol.)

آكل ākil eater

آكلة ākila gangrenous sore

مأكول ma’kūl eatable, edible; pl. مأكولات food, foodstuffs, eatables, edibles

مؤاكل mu’ākil table companion

متأكل muta’akkil and متآكل muta’ākil corroded; eroded; worn, timeworn; full of cracks; rusty, rust-eaten

اكليروس iklīrūs clergy (Chr.)

اكليروسية iklīrūsīya clericalism

اكليركي iklīrikī cleric(al)

اكلينيكي iklīnīkī clinical

اكمة akama pl. -āt, اكام ikām, اكم ukum, آكام ākām (coll. اكم akam) hill; reef; heap, pile|وراء الاكمة ما وراءها(warā’a) something's fishy! there is more to it than meets the eye

ال ill pact, covenant; blood relationship, consanguinity

1 الا a-lā and اما a-mā see|a

2 الا alā see1 الو

3 الا allā (= ان لا an lā) lest, that not, in order that not, so as not to

4 الا illā (=ان ل in lā) unless if not; except, save; (after negation:) only, but, not until|الا ان illā anna except that ..., yet, however, nevertheless (also introducing main clauses); الا اذا illā idā unless, if not; except when; والا wa-illā (and if not =) otherwise, orelae; الا وهو illā wa-huwa (with a preceding negation) unless he ..., except that he ; وما هي الا ان wa-mā hiya illā an (with following verb in perf.) it was not long until ; presently, forthwith; وما هي الا ان حتى wa-ma hiya illā an ḥattā no sooner had he than e.g..... فما هي الا أن هم حتى فعل(hamma) he had no sooner made his plan than he carried it out

الاسكا alaska Alaska

الاى alay and آلاى ālay pl. -āt regiment

1 الب alaba u i(alb) to gather, join forces, rally II to incite (على ه s.o. against) V to rally, band together, plot, conspire (على against)

2 جبال الالب jibal al-alb the Alps

الالبان al-albān the Albanians

البانيا albāniyā Albania

الخ abbreviation of الى آخره ilā āḳirihī and so on, etc.

الذى alladī f. التى allatī, pl. m. الذين alladīna f. اللاتى allātī, اللواتى allawātī, اللائى allā’ī (relative pronoun) he who, that which; who, which, that|بعد اللتيا والتى ba‘da l-lutayyā wa-llatī after lengthy discussions, after much ado

الزاس (Fr. Alsace) alzās2 Alsace (region of NE France)

الس II to belittle, disparage (على s.o.)

2 الف alf pl. الوف ulūf, آلاف ālāf thousand; millennium|الوف مؤلف(mu’allafa) or آلاف مؤلفة thousands and thousands; عشرات الالوف ašarāt al-u. tens of thousands; مآت الالوف mi’āt al-u. hundreds of thousands

الفى alfī: عيد الفى(‘īd) millennial celebration, millenary

2 الف alif name of the letter|من الفه الى يائه from beginning to end, from A to Z; يعرف الفه وياءه(wa-yā’ahū) he knows it from A to Z; الف باء ABC

3 الف alifa a(alf) to be acquainted, familiar, conversant (هـ with s.th.); to be on intimate terms (ه with s.o.); to be or get accustomed, used, habituated (هـ to); to like (هـ s.th.), be fond of (هـ ); to become tame II to accustom, habituate (هـ ه s.o. to s.th.); to tame, domesticate (هـ an animal); to form (هـ e,g., a committee, a government); to unite, join, combine, put together (بين different things); to compile, compose, write (هـ a book) V to be composed, be made up, consist (من of); to be united, be combined VI to be attuned to each other, be in tune, be in harmony; to harmonize (مع with) VIII to be united, be linked, be connected; to be on familiar, intimate terms (ب with); to form a. coalition (pol.); to fit, س uit (مع s.th.), go well, agree, harmonize (مع with); to be well-ordered, neat, tidy X to seek the intimacy, court the friendship (ه of s.o.)

الف ilf pl. الاف ullāf intimate; close friend, intimate, confidant; lover

الف ulfa familiarity, intimacy; friendship, love, affection; union, concord, harmony, congeniality

اليف alīf familiar, intimate; tame, domesticated (animal); friendly, amicable, genial; (pl. الائف alā’if2) intimate, close friend, associate, companion

الوف alūf familiar, intimate; tame, domesticated (animal); attached, devoted, faithful

مألف ma'laf object of familiarity

تأليف ta’līf formation (e.g., of a government); union, junction, combination (بين of separate things); literary work; composition, compilation, writing (of a book, of an article); (pl. تآليف ta’ālīf2, تواليف ) work, book, publication

تآلف ta’āluf harmony; familiarity, intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship, camaraderie

ائتلاف I’tilāf concord, harmony; agreement (مع with); union; coalition, entente (pol.)

ائتلافي I’tilāfī coalition- (in compounds)| وزارة ائتلافية coalition cabinet

الف ma’lūf familiar, accustomed; usual, customary; custom, usage

مؤلف mu’allif pl. -ūn author, writer; -- mu’allaf composed, consisting, made up (من of); written, compiled; (pl. -āt) book, publication; see also1 الف alf

متآلف muta’ālif harmonious

الق alaqa i,(alq) to shine, radiate, flash, glitter, glisten V and VIII do.

الق alaq brightness, brilliance

الاق allāq bright, shining, brilliant, radiant; glittering, flashing, sparkling

تألق ta’alluq glow, radiance, effulgence

متألق mula’alliq bright, shining, brilliant, radiant

الكتروني elektrōnī electronic|عقل الكتروني(‘aql) electronic computer

2 الم alima a(alam) to be in pain, feel pain; to suffer (y from s.th.) II and IV to cause pain or suffering (ه to s.o.), pain, ache, hurt (ه s.o.) V = I; to complain

الم alam pl. آلام ālām pain, ache, suffering, agony|آلام نفسانية(nafsānīya) mental agony; اسبوع الآلام usbū‘ al-a. Passion Week (Chr.)

اليم alīm aching, sore; sad, grievous, painful, excruciating; hurting

تألم ta’allum sensation of pain, pain, ache

مؤلم mu’allim aching, painful; sad, grievous, distressing

متألم muta’allim aching, painful; in pain, suffering, deeply afflicted; tormented

2 الام ilā-mā see الى

الماس almās (al sometimes interpreted as definite article) diamond

الالمان al-almān the Germans

الماني almānī German; (pl. -ūn, المان almān) a German

المانيا almāniyā Germany

المانية almānīya German character or characteristics, Germanity

اله II to deify (ه s.o.), make a god of s.o. (ه ) V to become a deity, a godhead; to deify o.s.

اله ,الاه ilāh pl. آلهة āliha god, deity, godhead

الاهة ilaha pl. -āt goddess

الهي ,الاهي ilāhī divine, of God; theological; الالاهيات al-ilāhīyāt theological, spiritual concerns علم الالاهيات ‘i1m al-i. theology

الله allāh Allah, God (as the One and Only)|لله درك li-llāh darruka exclamation of admiration and praise, see در

اللهم allāhumma O God!| اللهم الا (illā) unless, were it not that, except that, or at best (after a negative statement); اللهم اذا (idā) at least if or when; if only; اللهم نعم (na‘am) by God, yes! Most certainly!

الوهية ulūhīya divine power, divinity

تأليه ta’līh deification, apotheosis

آله ālih (pagan) god

آلهة āliha pl. -āt goddess

آلهي ālihī divine

متأله muta’allih divine, heavenly

اللاهوت etc., see لاهوت

1(آلو) الا alā u to neglect or fail to do, not to do (في s.th.), desist, refrain (في from s.th.)| لا يألو جهدا في (jahdan) he will go to any length, he spares no effort, goes out of his way for IV to swear|آلى على نفسه ان he promised himself that he ...

ايلاء īlā’ oath

1 آلو (Fr. hallo) hello!

الومنيا alūminyā and الومنيوم aluminyom aluminum

lالى ilā (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; till, until; الى ان (conj.) until|الى آخره (āḳirihī) and so forth, et cetera; الى ذلك besides, moreover, furthermore, in addition to that; الى غد till tomorrow! اللقاء الى (liqā’) good-by! الام ilāma (= الى ما ) up to where! how far! الى متى till when! how long! اليك عني (‘annī) get away from me! away with you! الى جانب ذلك (jānibi d.) besides, moreover, in addition to that; هذا الى ان moreover, furthermore; الى غير ذلك (gair d.) and the like; وما اليه and the like, et cetera; ومن اليه (اليهم ) (wa-man) and other people like that; اليك (addressing the reader) now here you have ; here is (are) ; following is (are) ..., e.g., والى القارئ ما in the following, the reader will find what ; اسلوب عبراني الى العربية (uslūb ‘ibrānī) a style of Hebrew approximating Arabic; لا الى هذا ولا الى ذاك neither this way nor that way, belonging to neither group; الامر اليك it’s up to you, the decision is yours

2 آلاء (pl. of الى ilan) benefits, blessings

3 الية alya, ilya pl. alayāt fat tail (of a sheep); buttock

الياذة iliyāda Iliad

1 ام am or? (introducing the second member of an alternative question)

2 امة ama pl. اماء imā’, اموات amawāt bondmaid, slave girl

3 ام amma u (amm) to go, betake o.s., repair (هـ to a place), go to see (ه s.o.); -- (امامة imāma) to lead the way, lead by one’s example (ه s.i.); to lead (ه s.o.) in prayer; -- (امومة umūma) to be or become a mother II to nationalize (هـ s.th.) V to go, betake o.s. repair (هـ to a place), go to see (ه s.o.) VIII to follow the example (ب of s.o.)

ام umm pl. امهات ummahāt mother; source, origin; basis, foundation; original, original version (of a book); the gist, essence of s.th.; pl. امهات matrix (typ.)| ام الحبر u. al-ḥibr cuttlefish squid; ام الحسن u. al-ḥasan (magr.) nightingale; ام الخلول u. al-ḳulūl river mussel (zool.); ام درمان u. durmān Omdurman (city in central Sudan, opposite Khartoum); ام الراس u. ar-ra's skull, brain; cerebral membrane, meninges; ام اربع واربعين u. arba‘ wa-arba‘īn centipede; ام شملة u. šamla(ta) this world, the worldly pleasures; بام العين bi-u. l-‘ain or بام عينه with one’s own eyes; ام القرآن and ام القرآن the first sura of the Koran; ام القرى u. al-qura Mecca; ام الكتاب also: the original text of the Book from which Koranic revelation derives; the uncontested portions of the Koran; ام الوطن u. al-waṯan capital, metropolis; امهات الحوادث the most important events; امهات الحروف matrix (typ.); امهات المسائل the main problems; امهات المسائل the principal virtues

امة umma pl. امم umam nation, people; generation|امة محمد Mohammed's community, the Mohammedans; الامم المتحدة (muttaḥida) the United Nations

امي ummī maternal, motherly; illiterate uneducated; (pl. -ūn) an illiterate

امية ummīya ignorance; illiteracy; see also under2 اموى

اممي umamī international

امومة umūma motherhood; motherliness, maternity

امام amāma (prep.) in front of; in the presence of|الى الامام (amāmi) to the front, forward, onward, ahead; لم يكن الا ان (illā an) he had no other alternative but to ; وقف امامه (waqafa) to oppose, resist, stop, check s.th.

امامى amāmī front, fore-, anterior, forward, foremost|نقطة امامية (nuqṯa) outpost

امام imām pl. ائمة a’imma imam, prayer leader; leader; master; plumb line

امامة imāma imamah, function or office of the prayer leader; imamate; leading position; precedence

تأميم ta’mīm pl. -āt nationalization

1 اما a-mā see|a

2 اما ammā (with foll ف fa) as to, as for, as far as... is concerned; but; yet, however, on the other hand|اما بعد (ba‘du) (a formular phrase linking introduction and actual subject of a book or letter, approx.:) now then …, now to our topic: ...

3 اما immā if; اما -- واما be it -- or, either – or (also اما -- او )

امبراطور imbrāṯūr emperor

امبراطوري imbrāṯūrī imperialist(ic)

امبراطورية imbrātūrīya empire, imperium; imperialism

امبير ambīr pl. امابير amābīr2 ampere (el.)

امبيق imbiq = انبيق

امت amt crookedness, curvedness, curvation, curvature; weakness

امد amad pl. آماد āmād end, terminus, extremity; period, stretch or span of time, time; distance|منذ امد بعيد for a long time (past); قصير الامد short-dated; of short duration, short-lived; short-term

امر amara u (amr) to order, command, bid, instruct (ه s.i. ب to do s.th.), commission, charge, entrust (ه s.o. ب with s.th. or to do s.th.); -- amara, amura u (امارة imāra) to become an emir II to invest with authority, make an emir (ه s.o., على over) III to ask s.o. 's (ه ) advice, consult (ه s.o.) V to come to power; to set o.s. up as lord and master; to behave like an emir; to assume an imperious attitude; to be imperious, domineering VI to take counsel, deliberate together, confer, consult with each other; to plot, conspire (على against) VIII to deliberate, take counsel) (ب about); to conspire, plot, hatch a plot (ب against s.o.)| ائتمر بامره to carry out s.o.’s orders

امر amr 1. pl. اوامر awāmir2 order, command, instruction (ب to do s.th.); ordinance, decree; power, authority; (gram.) imperative| امر عال (‘ālin) royal decree (formerly, Eg.); امر علي (‘alīy) decree, edict of the Bey (formerly, Tun.); امر قانوني ordinance having the force of law (Tun.); الامر والنهي (wa-nnahy) pl. الاوامر والنواهي (lit.: command and interdiction, i.e.) sovereign power; full power(s), supreme authority; امر توريد (delivery) order (com.); تحت امرك at your disposal, at your service. -- 2. pl. امور umūr matter, affair, concern, business|امر واقع (accomplished) fact; امر معروف common knowledge; في اول الامر at first, in the beginning; لامر ما (amrin) for some reason or other; اليس الامر كذلك isn't it so? اما والامر كذلك (ammā wa-l-amru) things being as they are, there will, no doubt, ...; مهما يكن من امر (min amrin) whatever may happen; however things may be; هو بين امرين he has two possibilities (or alternatives); الامر الذى which (introducing a relative clause the antecedent of which is another clause); قضى امره qudiya amruhu it's all over with him; in the latter and similar phrases, امره is a frequent paraphrase of "he"

امر immar simple-minded, stupid

امرة imra power, influence, authority, command|امرته under his command

امارة amāra pl. -āt, امائر amā’ir2 sign, token, indication, symptom, mark, characteristic

امارة imāra position or rank of an emir; princely bearing or manners; principality, emirate; authority, power|امارة البحر i. al-baḥr office or jurisdiction of an admiral, admiralty; امارات ساحل عمان (i. s. ‘ummān) Trucial Oman

امير amīr pl. امراء umarā’ commander; prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling house; tribal chief| امير الاى (alay) commander of a regiment (formerly, Eg.; approx.: colonel; as a naval rank, approx.: captain); امير الامراء approx.: major general (Tun.); امير البحار (Eg. 1939) approx.: admiral, كبير امراء البحار (Eg. 1939) approx.: fleet admiral; امير البحر a. al-baḥr admiral (when referring to a non-Arab officer of this rank; Eg. 1939 approx.: vice-admiral); امير البحر الاكبر or امير البحار الاعظم fleet admiral (when referring to a non-Arab officer of this rank); امير اللواء a. al-liwā’ (Ir., since 1933) brigadier; امير لواء العسة a. l. al-‘assa commandant of the Bey's palace guard (formerly, Tun.); امير المؤمنين a. al-mu’minīn Commander of the Faithful, Caliph

اميرة amīr pl. -āt princess

اميري amīrī (and ميري mīrī) goverment(a1), state-owned, state, public| ارض اميري (arḍ) government land (Syr.); المطبعة الاميرية government press

امار ammār constantly urging, always demanding (ب to do s.th.); inciting, instigating| النفس الامارة بالسوء (nafs, sū’) the baser self (of man) that incites to evil

تأمور ta’mūr soul, mind, spirit; pericardium (anat.)|التهاب التأمور pericarditis (med.)

مؤامرة mu’āmara pl. -āt deliberation, counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy

تأمر ta’ammur imperiousness, domineeringness; imperious deportment, overbearing manners

تآمر ta’āmur joint consultation, counsel, deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy

ائتمار i’timār deliberation, counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy

استئمارة isti’māra (frequently written استمارة ) form, blank

آمر āmir commander; lord, master; orderer, purchaser, customer, client| الآمر الناهى absolute master, vested with unlimited authority

مأمور ma’mūr commissioned, charged; commissioner; civil officer, official, esp., one in executive capacity; the head of a markaz and qism (Eg.)| مأمور البوليس commissioner of police; مأمور التفلسة (taflīsa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.); مأمور m. al-ḥaraka traffic manager (railroad); مأمور التصفية m. al-taṣfīya receiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.)

مأمورية ma’mūrīya pl. -āt order, instruction; errand; task, assignment, mission; commission; commissioner's office, administrative branch of a government agency, e.g., مأمورية قضائية (qaḍā’īya) judicial commission charged with jurisdiction in outlying communities (Eg.)

متآمرون muta’āmirūn, conspirators, plotters

مؤتمون mu’tamirūn conspirators, plotters; members of a congress, convention, or conference, conferees

مؤتمر mu’tamar pl. -āt conference; convention, congress|مؤتمر الصلح m. aṣ-ṣulḥ peace conference

امرك II ta’amraka to become Americanized, adopt the American way of life, imitate the Americans

تأمرك ta’amruk Americanization

امرلس amarillis amaryllis (bot.)

امريكا amrīkā (formerly, also امريقا ) America| امريكا الجنوبية (janūbīya) South America

امريكي amrīkī American; (pl. -ūn) an American

الامريكان al-amrīkān the Americans

امريكاني amrīkānī American; (pl. -ūn) an American

امس amsu (but acc. امسا amsan) the day past, yesterday; the immediate past, recent time; -- amsi (adv.) yesterday; recently, lately, not long ago| بالامس bi-l-amsi yesterday; not long ago; امس الاول a. l-awwal two days ago, the day before yesterday

امسية umsīya pl. -āt, اماسى amāsīy evening

امستردام amstirdām Amsterdam

امشير amšīr the sixth month of the Coptic calendar

امع imma‘ and امعة imma‘a characterless person; opportunist, timeserver

امل amala u (amal) to hope (هـ or ب for), entertain hopes (هـ or ب of) II to hope; to expect (من هـ s.th. of s.o.); to raise hope. (ه in s.o.), hold out hope. (ه for s.o.), give (ه s.o.) reason to hope or expect| امله خيرا (ḳairan) to let s.o. hope for the best V to look attentively (هـ, في at), regard, contemplate (هـ, في s.th.); to meditate; to consider, think over, ponder (هـ, في s.th.), reflect (هـ, في on)

امل amal pl. آمال āmāl hope, expectation (في of s.th., also ب)| امل كاذب fallacious hope

مأمل ma’mal pl. مآمل ma’amil2 hope

تأمل ta’ammul pl. -āt consideration; contemplation; pl. تأملات meditations

آمل āmil hopeful

مؤمل mu’ammil hopeful

مأمول ma’mūl hoped for, expected

متأمل muta’ammil contemplative, meditative, reflective; pensive, wistful, musing

امن amuna u (امانة amāna) to be faithful, reliable, trustworthy; -- amina a (amn, امان amān) to be safe, feel safe (من or هـ from) II to reassure (ه s.o.), set s.o.’s (ه ) mind at rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard, guarantee, warrant, bear out, confirm, corroborate (على, هـ s.th.); to insure (ضد الحريق against fire); to entrust (ه to s.o., على s.th.); to say "amen" (على to s.th.) IV to believe (ب in) VIII to trust (ه s.o.), have confidence, have faith (ه in); to entrust (على ه s.o. with, to s.o s.th.) X = VIII; to ask for protection, for a promise of security, for indemnity (ه s.o.)

امن amn safety; peace, security, protection|الامن العام (‘āmm) public safety; رجال الامن the police

امان amān security, safety; peace; shelter, protection; clemency, quarter (mil.); safeguarding, assurance of protection; indemnity, immunity from punishment|في امان الله (a valedictory phrase) in God's protection!

امين amīn pl. امناء umanā’2 reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright, honest; safe, secure; authorized representative or agent; trustee; guarantor (على of); chief, head; superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian, keeper; chamberlain; master of a guild (Tun.); (mil.) approx.: quartermaster-sergeant (Eg. 1939)| الامين الاول (awwal) Lord Chamberlain (formerly, at the Eg. Court); كبير الامناء approx.: Chief Master of Ceremonies (ibid.); امين المخزن a. al-maḳzan warehouse superintendent; stock clerk; امين سر الدولة a. sirr ad-daula and امين السر a. as-sirr permanent secretary of state (Sy,.); امين الصندوق a. aṣ-ṣundūq and امين المال treasurer; cashier; امين العاصمة mayor (esp. Ir.); امين عام (‘āmm) secretary general; امين المكتب a. al-maktab (formerly) a subaltern rank in the Eg. navy (1939)

آمين āmīn amen!

امانة amāna reliability, trustworthiness; loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty; integrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; (pl. -āt) s.th. deposited in trust, a deposit, trust, charge; secretariat|امانة الصندوق a. aṣ-ṣundūq treasury department; امانة عامة (‘āmma) secretariat general; محزن الامانات maḳzan al-a. baggage checkroom

مأمن ma’man place of safety, safe place

تأمين ta’mīn securing, protection; assurance; safeguarding; reassurance; ensuring; guaranty, warranty; security, surety; insurance| تأمين اجتماعي (ijtimā’ī) social security; تأمين ضد الحريق (ḍidda) fire insurance; تأمين على الحياة (ḥayāh) life insurance

ايمان iman faith, belief (ب in)

ائتمان I’timān trust, confidence; credit

استئمان isti’mān trust, confidence

آمن āmin peaceful

مأمون ma’mūn reliable, trustworthy

مؤمن عليه mu’amman ‘alaihi insured

مؤمن mu’min believing, faithful; believer

مؤتمن mu’taman entrusted (على with); confidant; sequestrator (jur.)

امنيبوس omnibus omnibus, bus

1 اموى amawī of or like a bondmaid or handmaid

2 اموي umawī Ommiad (adj.)

بنو امية banū umayya the Ommiads

اميبا amībā amoebae

اميرال amīrāl admiral

اميركا , اميركه amērikā, amērika America

اميرالية amīrālīya admiralty

1 ان an (conj.) that; -- in 1. (conj.) if; وان wa-in although, even though, even if; وان – ان be it -- or (be it); الا illā (= ان لا ) look up alphabetically 2. (particle) not, esp. in the phrase ان هو الا in huwa illā (f. ان هي الا ) it is nothing but, it is no more than

2 ان anna (conj.) that; بما انه bi-mā annahū since he (it), because he (it); على انه ‘alā annahū while he (it), whereas he (it); introducing a main clause: however, yet; وذلك انه that is to say, namely, to wit; -- innā (intensifying particle introducing a nominal clause) verily, truly (in most cases not translated in English)

انما innamā but, but then; yet, however; rather, on the contrary

3 ان anna i (انين anīn, تأنان ta’nān) to groan, moan (من at)

انة anna pl. -āt moan, groan| انات وآهات wails and laments

انين anīn plaintive sound, wail; groan, moan(ing)

انا ana I

اناني anānī egotistic; egoistic(al), selfish

انانية anānīya egoism, selfishness

الاناضل al-anāḍul Anatolia

اناناس anānas pineapple

انب II to blame, censure, reprehend, upbraid (ه s.o.)

تأنيب ta’nīb blame, censure, rebuke

انبا (pronounced ambā) Abba, a high ecclesiastic title of the Coptic Church, preceding the names of metropolitans, bishops, patriarchs, and saints (< Άββα)

انبار anbār pl. انابر anābir2, انابير anābīr2 warehouse, storehouse, storeroom

انباشي (Turk. onbaşı) onbašī a mil. rank: corporal (formerly, Eg.); وكيل انباشي approx.: private first class (Eg.)

انبوب ,انبوبة see نب

انبيق inbīq alembic

انت an-ta, f. anti thou, you (2nd pers. sing.); pl. m. انتم antum, f. انتن antunna you (2nd pers. pl. and polite form of address); dual انتما antumā both of you

انتذا anta-dā it’s you!

انتيكخانة antīkḳāna museum

انتيكة antīka pl. -āt (eg.) old, old-fashioned, outmoded

انتمون antimūn antimony

انث anuta u (انوثة unūta) to be or become feminine, womanly, womanish, effeminate II to make feminine; to effeminate, make effeminate; to put into the feminine form (gram.) V to become feminine (also gram.)

انثى untā pl. اناث ināt, اناثى anātā feminine; female; a female (of animals); الانثيان al-untayān the testicles

انثوى untawī womanly, female, women's (in compounds); effeminate, womanish

انوثة unūta femininity, womanliness

تأنيث ta’nīt the feminine, feminine form (gram.)

مؤنث mu’annat (gram.) feminine (adj.)

انثروبولوجيا antrōbōlōjiyā anthropology

انجاص injās (syr.) pear

انجلترا (It. Inghilterra) ingilterā England

الانجليز al-ingəlīz the English

انجليزى ingəlīzī English; Englishman

انجيل injil pl. اناجيل anajīl2 gospel

انجيلى injīlī evangelical; evangelist

انجيلية injīlīya evangelical creed

الاندلس al-andalus Spain

اندونيسيا indūnīsiyā Indonesia

انس anisa a and anusa u (uns) to be companionable, sociable, nice, friendly, genial; انس به to like s.o.’s company, like to be together with s.o.; to be or get on intimate terms (ب or الى with s.o.); to be used, accustomed, habituated (الى to); to perceive, notice, find (هـ a quality, في, من in s.o.); to sense, feel, make out, recognize (هـ s.th., في in, at)| انس لحديثه (li-ḥadītihī) to like to listen to s.o. II to put at ease; to tame III to be friendly, nice (ه to s.o.); to entertain, amuse (ه s.o.) IV to keep s.o. (ه ) company; to entertain, delight, amuse (ه s.o.); to perceive, discern, make out (with the eyes; هـ s.th.); to sense (هـ s.th.); to find, see, notice, observe, e.g., آنس فيه الكفاية he saw that be was duly qualified, that he was a capable man V to become incarnate (Son of God) X to be sociable, companionable; to get on familiar terms, become intimate; to become tame; to be friendly, nice, kind (ه to s.o.); to accommodate o.s., accustom o.s., settle down; to be familiar, familiarize o.s., acquaint o.s. (ب or الى with); to inform o.s., gather information (ب ahout); to take into consideration, take into account, bring into play (ب s.th.), draw upon s.th. (ب ); to listen (ل to s.th.), heed (ب an opinion)

انس uns sociability; intimacy, familiarity, friendly atmosphere

انسى unsī: كعب انسى (ka‘b) talus, inner anklebone (anat.)

انس ins (coll.) man, mankind, human race

انسي insī human; human being

ناس nās (coll.) and اناس unās people

ناسوت nāsūt mankind, humanity

اناسى anāsīy (pl.) people, human beings, humans

انيس anīs close, intimate; close friend; friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite, courteous

انسان insan man, human being| انسان العين i. al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)

انسانة insāna woman

انسانى insānī human; humane; humanitarian, philanthropist

انسانية insānīya humanity, humaneness; politeness, civility; mankind, the human race

مؤانسة mu’ānasa intimacy, familiarity, friendliness, geniality, cordiality; sociability; conviviality

ايناس īnās exhilaration; friendliness, geniality; familiarity, intimacy, cordiality; sociability

تأنس ta’annus incarnation (Chr.)

ائتناس I’tinās social life, sociability

آنسة ānisa pl. -āt, اوانس awānis2 young lady, miss

مأنوس ma’nūs familiar, accustomed

مستأنس musta’nis tame

انش (Engl.) inš inch

انشوجة (It. acciuga) anšūga (eg.) anchovy

انطاكية anṯākiya2 Antioch (ancient city in Syria; now Antakya, in S Turkey)

انطولوجى onṯōlōjī ontologic(al) (philos.)

انف anifa a (anaf) to disdain, scorn (من s.th., ان to do s.th.); to reject haughtily (هـ s.th.) X to resume, renew, recommence (هـ s.th.); (jur.) to appeal (هـ a sentence)

انف anf pl. آناف ānāf, انوف unūf nose; spur (of a mountain); pride| رغم انفه ragma anfihi in defiance of him, to spite him; كسر انفه (anfahū) to humiliate s.o., to put s.o.'s nose out of joint; شامح الانف stuck-up, haughty, proud

انفى anfī nasal

انفة anafa pride; rejection; disdain (من of s.th.)

انوف anūf proud, haughty, stuck-up, supercilious, disdainful

استئناف isti’nāf fresh start, recommencement, renewal, resumption, reopening (also, of a legal case); appeal (jur.)| قدم استئنافا (qaddama) to appeal, make an appeal (jur.)

استئنافى isti’nāfī of appeal, appellate; استئنافيا isti’nāfīyan by appeal

آنف ānif preceding, above| آنف الذكر (dikr) preceding, above, above-mentioned; آنفا ānifan previously, above, in the foregoing

مؤتنف mu’tanaf primordial, virginal state; beginning

انفرس (Fr. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in N Belgium)

انفلونزا influwanzā influenza, grippe

انق aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce, comely, pretty; to be happy (ب about), be delighted (ب by) IV to please (ه s.o.)|يؤنقه الشيء (šai’u) he likes the thing V to apply o.s. eagerly and meticulously (فى to); to be meticulous, fastidious, finical; to be chic, elegant

اناقة anāqa elegance

انيق anīq neat, trim, spruce, comely, pretty; elegant, chic

انوق anūq Egyptian vulture (Neophron perenopterus)| اعز من بيض الانوق a‘azz2 min baiḍi l-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs of a vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than hens’ teeth (proverbially for s.th. rare)

تأنق ta’annuq elegance

مؤنق mu’anniq, مونق mūniq pretty, comely, winsome, nice, pleasing

متأنق muta’anniq chic, elegant

انقره anqara Ankara

انقليس anqalīs eel

آنك ānuk lead (metal)

انكشارى inkišārī pl. -īya Janizary

انكلترا , انكلترة (It. Inghilterra) ingilterā, ingiltera England

انكلوسكسون al-anglosaksūn the Anglo-Saxons

انكلوسكسونية al-anglosaksūnīya Anglo-Saxondom

الانكليز al-inglīz the Engliah

انكليزى inglīzī English; Englishman

انكليس ankalīs eel

الانام al-anām and الآنام (coll.) mankind, the human race

انموذج unmūdaj model, pattern; type, example; sample, specimen

انمون anamūn anemone (bot.)

1 انى anā i to mature, become ripe; to draw near, approach, come (esp. time)| انى له ان it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative statements: الم يأن a-lam ya'ni? isn't it about time ...? V to act slowly, proceed unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient X to take one's time, hesitate (فى in, with); to wait

انى anan pl. آناء ānā’ (span of) time, period| فى آناء الليل (laili) all night long; آناء الليل واطراف النهار ānā’a l-laili wa-aṯrāfa n-nahār by day and by night

اناة anāh deliberateness; perseverance, patience| طول الاناة ṯūl al-a. long-suffering, great patience; طويل الاناة long-suffering (adj.)

اناء inā’ pl. آنية āniya, اوان awānin2 vessel, container, receptacle| آنية الطعام a.. aṯ-ṯa‘ām table utensils, dishes; mess kit

تأن ta’annin slowness, deliberateness

متأن muta’annin slow, unhurried, deliberate

2 انى annā (interrog. part.) where from? why is it that ? why? Where? (place and direction); how? wherever; however| وانى له الا (allā) and why shouldn't he ?

انيسون anīsūn, آنيسون aniseed

انيميا anīmiyā anemia|○ انيميا خبيثة pernicious anemia (med.)

آه āhi! آها āhan! (interj.) oh!

اهب II to prepare, make ready, equip (ل هـ, ه s.o., s.th. for) V to be ready, be prepared; to prepare o.s., get ready; to equip s.o., be equipped (ل for)

اهبة uhba pl. اهب uhab preparation, preparedness, readiness, alertness; equipment, outfit, gear| اهبة الحرب u. al-ḥarb military equipment; على اهبة الرحيل ready to set out; على اهبة الاستعداد fully prepared; on the alert (mil.); أخذ اهبته to make one's preparations, get ready

اهاب ihāb skin, hide

تأهب ta’ahhub preparedness, readiness; (pl. -āt) preparation

متأهب muta’ahhib ready, prepared

اهل ahala u (اهول uhūl) to take a wife, get married; -- ahila a to be on familiar terms (ب with); -- pas. uhila to be inhabited, be populated (region, place) II to make fit or suited, to fit, qualify (ل هـ, ه s.o., s.th. for); to make possible (هـ ل for s.o. s.th.), enable (هـ ل s.o. to do s.th.), make accessible (هـ ل to s.o. s.th.); to welcome (ب s.o.) V to be or become fit, suited, qualified (ل for s.th.); to take a wife; to marry, get married X to deserve merit (هـ s.th.), be worthy (هـ of)

اهل ahl pl. –ūn, اهال ahālin relatives, folks, family; kin, kinfolk; wife; (with foll. genit.) people, members, followers, adherents, possessors, etc.; inhabitants; deserving, worthy (ل of s.th.); fit, suited, qualified (ل for); pl. الأهلون, الأهالى the natives, the native population| اهل البيت a. al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) of the family; the Prophet's family; اهل الدار the people living in the house; اهل الحرفة a. al-ḥirfa people of the trade; اهل الحلف a. al-ḥilf people pledged by oath, members of a sworn confederacy; اهل الخبرة a. al-ḳibra people of experience, experts; اهل السفسطة a. al-safsata Sophists; اهل السنة a. as-sunna the adherents of the Sunna, the Sunnis; اهل المدر والوبر a. al-madar wa-l-wabar the resident population and the nomads; اهل الوجاهة a. al-wajāha people of rank and high social standing; اهلا وسهلا ahlan wa-sahlan welcome! اهلا بك ahlan bika welcome to youl له في دارنا اهل he is a welcome guest in our house

اهلي ahlī domestic, family (adj.); native, resident; indigenous; home, national| بنك اهلي national bank (Eg.); حرب اهلية (ḥarb) civil war; محكمة اهلية (maḥkama) indigenous court (Eg.); القضاء الأهلي (qaḍā’) jurisdiction of indigenous courts; الإنتاج الأهلي (intāj) domestic production; وقف اهلي (waqf) family wakf

اهلية ahlīya aptitude, fitness, suitableness, competence; qualification | الأهلية القانونية the civil rights; كامل الأهلية legally competent; عديم الأهلية legally incompetent, under tutelage

آهل ahil and مأهول ma’hūl inhabited, populated (region, place)

مؤهلات mu’ahhilāt qualifications, abilities, aptitudes

متأهل muta’ahhil married

مستأهل musta’hil worthy, deserving, meriting; entitled

اهليلج ihlīlaj myrobalan, emblic (fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot.); ellipse (geom.)

اهليلجي ihlīlajī elliptic(al)

او au or; (with foll. subj.) unless except that

1(اوب) آب āba u (aub, اوبة auba, اياب iyab) to return; ب آب to catch, contract, suffer, incur s.th., be in for s.th., be left with, get one’s share of

من كل اوب min kulli aubin from all sides or directions; من كل اوب وصوب (ṣaubin) do.

اوبة auba return

اياب iyāb return | ذهابا وايابا dahāban wa-iyaban there and back; back and forth, up and down

مآب ma’āb place to which one returns; (used as verbal noun:) return | ذهوب ومآب coming and going

2 آب look up alphabetically

اوبرا and اوبرا (It. opera) ōpərā opera; opera house

اوبريت (Fr.) ōpərēt operetta

اوت (Fr. août) August (month; mağr.)

اوتوبيس (Fr. autobus) otobīs autobus, bus

اوتجراف (Fr.) otogrāf pl. -āt autograph

اوتوقراطي oṯūqrāṯī autocratic

اوتوماتيكي (Fr.) otomātīkī automatic

اوتوموبيل (Fr.) otombīl automobile

اوتيل (Fr.) ōtēl pl. -āt hotel

اوج auj highest point, acme, pinnacle; culmination, climax; apogee (astron.); peak (fig.; of power. of fame)

آح āḥ albumen, eggwhite

O آحين āḥīn albumin

(اود) آد āda u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, crook (هـ s.th.); to burden, oppress, weigh down (هـ s.o.); -- اود awida a (awad) to bend; to be bent V to bend; to bow

اودة auda burden, load

اود awad: قام باوده to provide for s.o.’s needs, stand by s.o. in time of need; أقام اوده (awadahū) do.; to support s.o., furnish s.o. with the means of subsistence

اوار uwār heat, blaze; thirst

اوربا urubbā Europe

اوربي urubbī Europesn

اورشليم ūrušalīm2 Jerusalem

اورطة (= ارطة ) urṯa pl. ارط uraṯ battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.)

اورغوي uruguwāy Uruguay

اوركسترا (It.) arkestrā orchestra

اورنيك (Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ارانيك arānīk2 sample, specimen; model, pattern; form, blank

اوروبا urubbā, اوروﭙا Europe

اوروبي urubbī Europesn

اوروجواي uruguwāy Uruguay

اوز II (eg.) to ridicule (على s.o.), make fun of s.o. (على )

اوز iwazz (col1.; n. un.) goose, geese

آس ās myrtle; see also alphabetically

اوستراليا usturāliyā Australia

اوستريا (It.) austriyā Austria

اوسلو Oslo

اوسطى ūsṯā see اسطى

اوشية ūšīya pl. اواش awāšin prayer, oration (Copt.-Chr.)

آفة āfa pl. -āt harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane, evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemic

مؤوف ma’ūf stricken by an epidemic

اوفرول (Engl.) ovirōl overalls

l(اوق) آق āqa u to bring s.o. (على ) bad luck, cause discomfort or hardship (على to) II to burden (ه s.o.) with s.th. unpleasant, troublesome or difficult

2 اوقة see اقة

3 اويقات uwaiqāt (dimin. of اوقات ) short times; good times

اويقيانس ,اويقيانوس oqiyānus, oqiyānūs ocean

اوقية ūqīya pl. -āt ounce, a weight of varying magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g; Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g)

اوكازيون (Fr. occasion) okazyōn clearing sale, special sale

اوكرانيا ukrānīya Ukraine

اوكسجين (Fr. oxygène) oksižēn oxygen

(اول) آل āla u (aul, مآل ma’āl) to return, revert (الى to); to go back, be attributed, be attributable (الى to), spring, derive (الى from); to lead, conduce, tend (الى to), result eventually (الى in); to come or go eventually (الى to s.o.), pass into the hands of (الى) | آل الأمر الى the long and the short of it was that ; آل به المطاف الى (maṯāfu) he eventually got to the point where II to interpret, explain (هـ s.th.)

آل āl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan; companions, partisans, people; mirage, fatamorgana

آلة āla pl. -āt instrument, utensil; tool; apparatus; device, implement, appliance; machine| آلات الحس ā. al-ḥiss sensory organs; آلة بخارية (buḳārīya) steam engine; آلة الجر ā. al-jarr tractor; آلة جهنمية (jahannamīya) infernal machine; آلة حربية (ḥarbīya) instrument of war; آلة التحريك motor, engine; آلة حاسبة calculating machine; آلة الحياكة a. al-ḥiyāka power loom; آلة الخياطة sewing machine; آلة راديو radio; آلة رافعة hoisting machine, crane, derrick; pump; آلة التسخين and آلة مسخنة (musaḳḳina) heater; آلة التصوير (photographic) camera; آلة الطباعة printing press; آلة الغسل a. al-gasl washing machine; آلة التفريخ incubator; آلة الاستقبال receiver, receiving set (radio); آلة مقطرة (muqaṯṯira) distilling apparatus, still; آلة الكتابة and آلة كاتبة typewriter; آلة لعب القمار a. la‘b al-qimār slot machine; آلة موسيقية (mūsīqīya) musical instrument; آلة التنبيه alarm; siren horn (of an automobile); آلة صماء (ṣammā’) (fig.) tool, creature, puppet

آلى ālī mechanic(al); mechanized; motorized; instrumental; organic| محراث آلي (miḥrat) motor plow; القوات الآلية (quwāt) motorized troops; حركة آلية (ḥaraka) a mechanical movement

آلية ālīya mechanics

آلاتى ālātī pl. آلاتية ālātīya (eg.) musician; singer

اول awwal2, f. اولى ūlā, pl. m. -ūn, اوائل awā’il2 first; foremost, most important, principal, chief, main; first part, beginning; (with def. article also) earlier, previous, former; see a1so under ولى| الانسان الاول (insān) primitive man; طبيب اول physician-in-chief; الاوائل, الاولون the forebears, forefathers, ancestors; اوائل الشهر a. aš-šahr the first ten days of a month, beginning of a month; لاول مرة li-awwali marratin or للمرة الاولى for the first time; من اوله, من اوائله since its beginnings, from the very beginning; من اوله الى آخره (āḳirihī) from beginning to end, from A to Z; اول الامر awwala l-amr at first, in the beginning; الاول فالاول each time the first available; اول ما (awwala) the moment when, just when; at the very outset of; اكثر من الاول (aḳtara) more than before

اولا awwalan first, firstly, in the first place; at first, in the beginning| اولا باول and اولا فأولا by and by, gradually, one after the other, one by one; اولا واخيرا and اولا وآخرا (āḳiran) first and I~st, altogether; simply and solely, merely

اولى awwalī prime, primary, primordial, original, initial, first; elemental, fundamental, basic, principal, chief, main; elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval| مدرسة اولية (madrasa) elementary school, grade school; مواد اولية (mawādd) raw materials; عدد اولى (‘adad) prime number; فاتورة اولية (fātūra) pro forma invoice

اولية awwalīya pl. -āt fundamental truth, axiom; primary constituent, essential component, element; precedence; priority

ايل ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pl. ايائل ayā’il2 stag

ايالة iyāla pl. -āt province; regency

ايلولة ailūla title deed (jur.)

مآل ma’āl end; outcome, final issue, upshot; result, consequence| في الحال وفي المآل at present and in the future

تأويل ta’wīl pl. -āt interpretation, explanation

اولاء ulā’i, اولئك, اولائك ulā’ika these; those, pl. of the demonstr. pron. ذا and ذلك

اولمبى olimbī Olympic| الالعاب الاولمبية the Olympic games

اولمبياد olimbiyād Olympiad

اولو ulū (pl. of ذو ) owners, possessors, people (with foll.genit.: of)| اولو الامر u. l-amr rulers, powerful leaders; اولو الحل والعقد u. l-ḥall wa-l-'aqd (lit.: masters of solving and binding) do.; اولو الشأن u. š-ša’n the responsible people

1 اوام uwām thirst

2 اوم ohm (el.)

اومنيبوس omnībūs omnibus, bus

1 آن ān time; الآن al-āna now| فى آن and فى آن واحد at the same time, simultaneously; من آن الى آخر (āḳara) from time to time; ما بين آن وآخر (wa-āḳara) and آنا بعد آن sometimes, at times, now and then: once in a while; آنا فآنا gradually, by and by, little by little; آنا -- وآونة (āwinatan) sometimes -- sometimes, at times -- at times; قبل الآن qabla l-āna before, previously, formerly; للآن li-l-āna and حتى الآن ḥattā l-āna until now, hitherto, so far; بعد الآن ba‘da l-āna from now on, henceforth, in the future; من الآن فصاعدا min al-āna fa-ṣā‘idan do.

آنئذ āna’idin that day, at that time, then

آنذاك ānadāka that day, at that time, then

اون aun calmness, serenity, gentleness

اوان awān pl. آونة āwina time| قبل اوانه prematurely; في اوانه at the right time, timely, seasonably, في غير اوانه at the wrong time, untimely, unseasonably; بين الآونة from time to time; بين الآونة والاخرى (uḳrā) and آونة وأخرى (āwinatan, uḳrā) at times, sometimes; آونة – وأخرى sometimes – sometimes, at times – at times; فات الاوان (fāta) it is too late; آن الاوان (āna) the time has come, it is time (ل for, to do s.th.)

2 ايوان look up alphabetically

اونباشى onbašī corporal, see انباشى

(اوه) آه āha u and II to moan, sigh V to moan, sigh; to sigh with admiration (ل over), exclaim “ah!”

اوه awwah (interj.) oh!

آه āhi, آهـ āhan, اواه awwāhi oh!

آهة āha pl. -āt sigh, moan; pl. آهات sighs of admiration; rapturous exclamations

تأوه ta’awwuh moaning. sighing; admiring exclamation; plaintive sound, wail

اوى awā i to seek refuge, seek shelter (الى at a place); to go (الى to bed); to betake o.s., repair (الى to a place); to shelter, house, put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as a guest (هـ, ه s.o., s.th.) II to shelter, lodge, put up, accommodate, receive as a guest (ه s.o.) IV to seek shelter (الى at a place), to retire (الى to a place); to betake o.s., repair (الى to a place); to shelter, house, put up, lodge, accommodate (ه s.o.)

ايواء īwā’ accommodation, lodging, housing, sheltering

مأوى ma’wan pl. مآو ma’āwin place of refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting place; dwelling, habitation| مأوى ليلى (lailī) shelter for the night; doss house

ابن آوى ibn āwā pl. بنات آوى banāt a. jackal

1 آية āya, coll. آي āy, pl. -āt sign, token, mark; miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model, exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (فى of, e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse, آي الذكر الحكيم (āy ad-dikr) the verses of the Koran; passage (in a book), utterance, saying, word; آيات (with foll. genit.) moat solemn assurances (of love, of gratitude)

2 اى ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit

3 اى ī yes (with foll. والله yes indeed! Yes, by God!)

4 اى ayy, f. اية ayya (with foll. genit. or suffix) which? what? what kind of? Whoever, whosoever; any, every, no matter what ; (with neg.) no; ايما ayyumā whatever, whatsoever|اية كانت, ايا كان ayyan kāna, ayyatan kānat whoever he (or she) is, no matter who he (or she) is; اي من كان ayyu man kāna whoever it may be, whosoever; على اي حال (ayyi ḥālin) in any case, at any rate, at all events, by all means; اى واحد ayyu wāḥidin any one; ان له شأنا اى شأن inna lahū ša’nan ayya ša’nin it is of the greatest importance (lit.: it is of importance, and of what importance!); اعجب به ايما اعجاب u‘jiba bihi ayyama i‘jābin how much he admired him! he admired him greatly; اقبل عليه ايما اقبال aqbala ‘alaihi ayyama iqbālin he showed the greatest interest in it

ايا iyyā with nominal suffix to express the accusative|اياك ان take care not to ..., be careful not to ...; اياك من, اياك و beware of ! واياك (dial. wayyāk), واياه (wayyāh) with you, with him

ايار see2 اير

ايد II to back, support (ه , s.o., هـ a claim, an aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate, endorse (هـ news, a. judgment, etc.) V = pass. of II

تأييد ta’yīd corroboration, confirmation, endorsement, backing, support

ايدروجين (Fr. Hydrogène) idrožēn hydrogen

قنبلة ايدروجينية (qunbula) hydrogen bomb

1 اير air pl. ايور uyūr penis

2 ايار ayyār2 May (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)

ايران īrān Iran, Persia

ايرانى īrānī Iranian, Persian; (pl. -ūn) a Persian, an Iranian

ايرلندا irlandā Ireland

ايرلندى irlandī Irish; (pl. -ūn) Irishman

ايريال (Engl.) ēriyāl aerial, antenna

ايزيس īzīs Isis

ايس ayisa a (اياس iyās) to despair (من of s.th.)

اياس iyās despair

ايشرب (Fr. écharp,) sash

(ايض )آض āḍa i to return, revert (الى to s.th.); to become (الى s.th.)

ايضا aiḍan also, too, as well, likewise, equally; again; in addition, besides, moreover

ايطاليا īṯālīyā Italy

ايطالى īṯālī Italian; (pl. -ūn) an Italian

ايقونة (Gr. είκών) īqūna and ايقونية īqūnīya pl. -āt icon (Chr.)

ايك aik (coll.; n. un. ة ) thicket, jungle

1 ايل and ايالة see اول

2 ايلول ailūl2 September (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)

3 ايلولة ailūla title deed (jur.)

(ايم) آم āma i: آم من زوجته (zaujatihī) to lose one's wife, become or be a widower, آمت من زوجها (zaujiha) to lose one’s husband, become or be a widow

ايمة aima, ايوم uyūm and تأيم ta’ayyum widowhood

ايم ayyim pl. ايائم ayā’im2, ايامى ayāmā widower, widow

ايوم aiwam2 see يوم

ايما ayyumā see4 اي ayy

1(اين) آن āna i to come, approach, draw near (time)| آن الاوان (awān) the time has come: آن له ان it’s time for him to ...

آن see اون

اين aina where? (= at or to what place?)| من اين min aina where … from? الى اين where? (= to what place?) اين نحن من how far we still are from … worlds separate us from (fig.); اين هذا من ذاك what is this compared with that!

الاين al-ainu the where; space (philos.)

اينما ainamā wherever

ايان ayyāna when? (conj.) when

2 اين II to ionize (هـ s.th.) V to be ionized (el.)

ايون iyōn pl. -āt ion

تأيين ta’yīn ionization

متأين muta’ayyin ionized

ايه īhi, īha, īhin (interj.) well! now then! All right!

ايها ayyuhā, with fem. also ايتها ayyatuhā (vocative particle) O !

ايوب ayyūb2 Job

الايوبيون al-ayyūbīyūn the Ayubites

ايوم aiwam2 see يوم

1 ايون see2 اين

2 ايوان īwān pl. -āt recess-like sitting room with a raised floor, usually opening on the main room or courtyard through an arcade; estrade