Mushaf Fatimah (a.s)

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Mushaf Fatimah (a.s) Author:
Publisher: Islamic Research Foundation (Astan-i-Quds Razavi)
Category: Fatima al-Zahra

Mushaf Fatimah (a.s)

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Abdullah Amini
Publisher: Islamic Research Foundation (Astan-i-Quds Razavi)
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Mushaf Fatimah (a.s)

Mushaf Fatimah (a.s)

Author:
Publisher: Islamic Research Foundation (Astan-i-Quds Razavi)
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Mushaf Fatimah (a.s)

An Inquiry and Investigation into the Mushaf of Lady Fatimah and the Mushaf of Imam 'Ali (a.s)

Author(s): Abdullah Amini

Publisher(s): Islamic Research Foundation Astan-e Quds Razavi

www.alhassanain.org/english

A detailed and thoroughly referenced text shedding light on what has been referenced in numerous Shi'a Hadith as "Mushaf Fatimah [a]" and "Mushaf Ali [a]". The author goes into detail regarding the reliability of these narrations and the opinions of our eminent scholars regarding these Masahif.

Notice:

This workis published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The typing errors are n’t corrected.

Table of Contents

Translator’s Introduction 6

Note 7

Translator’s note 8

Author’s Introduction 9

What is Mushaf Fatimah? 10

Connotation of “Mushaf” 11

The Term Mushaf in the Time of The Companions of The Prophet (s.a.w) 11

The Connotation of Mushaf among Non-Muslims 12

Mushaf According to the Expressions and Lexicon of the Sahabah (Companions) 12

Mushaf in the Lexicon of the Taabi'een [The Companions Of The Companions Of The Prophet (s.a.w)] 12

Notes 12

Mushaf in classical writings 14

Mushaf in Contemporary Writings 14

Notes 14

Other books by Lady Fatimah (a.s) 15

Various opinions regarding the Mushaf Fatimah 15

1. Book of Ethics 15

2. Book of Precepts and Statutes (ketaab-e tashri'i) 16

3. Fatimah's Tablet 16

4. Last Will and Testament 17

5. Mushaf Fatimah 17

Notes 17

Reliability of the narrations regarding Mushaf Fatimah 19

Methods of determining the Soundness of Narrations 19

Mushhaf Fatimah and the ways of determining the soundness and credibility of narrations 19

Notes 20

Regarding the Mushaf: its author, scribe, content and size 21

The matters that lead to Misunderstanding 21

The author of the Mushaf 21

The Speaker and Scribe of the Content 21

Contents of Mushaf Fatimah 23

Negation of Content 23

The Mushaf does not contain Legal Rulings 24

Its Contents Proven 24

The Number and Bulk of the Pages of the Mushaf 26

Notes 26

Mushaf Fatimah and the Mushaf of the Companions 29

Similarities of the Mushafs (of Fatimah and those of the Companions) 29

1. Mushaf A'ishah 29

2. Mushaf 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud 29

3. Mushaf Ubai bin K'ab 29

Tafsir, Tahrif, Hadith Qudsi 30

Notes 30

Angelic Discourse With Those Who Are Not Messengers 32

Muhaddathah 32

Notes 34

Inquiries regarding the Mushaf 36

Why is the content of this Mushaf named after Fatimah al-Zahra? 36

Explanatory notes: 36

Translator’s Introduction

The love of the family of the Prophet Muhammad(s.a.w) and his family, his ahl al-bayt, Allah's peace and blessings be upon them, is something common amongst all Muslims. After all, Allah commanded His finalProphet( s.a.w) to tell the Muslims:

“Say: I ask no reward of you except the love of my near and dear ones.” (42:23)

Imam Shaf'i, founder of one of the great schools of jurisprudence said in commentary on this verse:

Ahl al-Bayt, your love is a Divine duty onmankind. God revealed it in His Quran.

It is enough among your great privileges that whoever does not bless you, his prayer is void.

If the love of the members of the House of the Prophet is rafdh (rejection),

Let mankind and the Jinns testify that I am a raafidhi (rejector [what they call the Shi'ah])1

The family of the Prophet(s.a.w), Imam Ali ibn abi Talib(a.s) chief amongst them, were raised literally in the lap of prophethood and was the Muslim who was the longest serving companion and confident of the holy Prophet. The Prophet's daughter,Fatimah( a.s) was herself a great scholar and hafidh (memorizer) of Quran and spiritual beacon for the Muslims and all seekers of light and love that is Islam.

Allah distinguished the Ahl al-Bayt of theProphet( s.a.w) in many ways. For example, Allah has stated that they only amongst all the Muslims, were thoroughly purified from sin and misguidance in the noble verse,

“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House, and to purify you a (thorough) purifying” (33:33).

One way thatProphet's( s.a.w) beloved daughter was distinguished was with a book sent to console her upon her father's death. This bookis called the “Mushaf Fatimah.” It is a great honor that the lovers of Ahl al-Bayt have carried the legacy of this book.

During unstable times for Muslims, when Muslims everywhere are facing oppression and hardship, we must heed the call to unity, to “grasp the rope of Allah” and notbe divided . The family of theprophet( s.a.w) is that rope that unites all Muslims. Unfortunately, some Muslims have taken to accusing the lovers of Ahl al-Bayt, the Shi'ah, of apostasy with deadly results. One of the reasons for this confusion and claim of apostasy is the existence of the Mushaf Fatimah. Some people have thought, mistakenly, that it is “another Quran” or a “secret Quran” that the Shi'ah read.

This small work, thoroughly researched by Mr. Amini, sets to lay to rest any misconceptions that any Muslims may have had about what the Mushaf Fatimah is. For the sake of Muslim unity, and in obedience of Allah's command to love the Prophet's family,I offer this small work of translation to the lovers of light and seekers of peace. I humbly pray that this effort pleases the noble Lady of Light, Fatimah al-Zahra( a.s) and is accepted by the One who has no beginning nor end.

Wa salaam,

Kamyar M. Hedayat, MD

7 Ramadan, 1424

Note

1. Al-Razi, F. D. Tafsir al-Kabir, v. 27, p.166.

Translator’s note

I have tried to stay faithful to the author's wording where possible straying in only a few cases. In cases where the Farsi implied butdidn't state something, or, where redundancy would clarify ambiguous statements for an audience not familiar with certain theological discourses or verbiage, I inserted words, usually in parentheses.

So as not to prejudice the reader, I have elected not to translate theword ” Mushaf” which is the crux of the entire discussion. As it will become clear, the word has many meanings. The appropriate meaningof ” Mushaf” is the raison d'être of this investigation.

The word “hazrat” (Farsi pronounciation of the Arabic, hadhrat) literally means “eminence” or, “presence.” It is a term of respect given to men and women of great spiritual import and erudition, such as prophets and Imams as well as living scholars, and the intimate family (ahl al-bayt) of the ProphetMohammad( s.a.w). However, I elected to translate the appellation of ”hazrat-e Fatemeh(a.s)” as “Lady Fatimah(a.s)” as this seems to connote in English the respect and grandeur of personality that the Arabic/Farsi implies.Also , I've elected to use transliteration corresponding to the Arabic pronunciation of loan words in Farsi rather than the transliterations of the Farsi pronunciation, e.g. Fatimah (Arabic) vs. Fatemeh (Farsi), except when an original quote, author's name, or title of a book was in Farsi.

Where possible,I have attempted to check all of the references made by the author and translate hadith quoted in Farsi directly from the Arabic and not from the author's Farsi translation.

All mistakes aremine and I implore Allah's forgiveness for any shortcomings and errors in my meager efforts.

K.M.H.,

7 Ramadhan, 1424

Author’s Introduction

There are questions and confusions regarding Mushaf Fatimah. Is it a “Mushaf” in the most common sense in that this is a Quran particular to Lady Fatimah(a.s), or, was it a book of an altogether different import? If the answer to the latter is yes, then the next questionis: did she write it (herself) or dictate it (to someone else)? Is it about normative behavior and ethics, or, commentary and jurisprudence; finally, just where is Mushaf Fatimah?

Before answering these questions, there is a more fundamental question: does this Mushaf have authenticity?Has its existence been proven in a credible manner? We will answer all these questions as the discussion proceeds below. Some people are of the opinion that this Mushaf contains the rulings of what is permissible (halal) and impermissible (haram), while others say that it contains no such matter. Others say that the prophetMohammad( s.a.w) dictated it (to her) and others still say it was the Angel Gabriel(a.s) who dictated it (directly) to her. This itself raises another question, that is, does the AngelGabriel( a.s) speak to a person who is not a prophet? If he does, then what did he say to LadyFatimah( a.s), for is it not so that after the prophet's death revelation was ceased? In any case,there are many questions that can be raised in this regard which most certainly will be answered in this tract.

This tract will lay out the research behind these issues. By the writer's leave, we have made great use of “Haqiqat Mushaf Fatimah 'ind ash-shi'eh” by Akram Barakaat. My many thanks to the publisher, Dalil-e Maa who had had utmost confidence in this publication, clarified ambiguous sentences and took up the clarification of sensitive religious issues. I nowgift this book to you, the wise reader.I hope we can take example and profit from the paragons of gnosis (naziraat-e arbaab-e ma'refat).

Abdullah Amini,Summer , 1382/2003

What is Mushaf Fatimah?

The most prevalent question about this Mushaf, the most tumultuous and confusing issue is, “What exactly does “Mushaf” mean?” The assumption is that this Mushaf is a special type of Quran. However, as we will show in the following sayings (hadith) of the ProphetMohammad( s.a.w) and the Imams(a.s), this Mushaf doesn't contain a single verse (ayah) of the Quran. However, some of the uninformed think that because it is called a “Mushaf” that it must mean “Quran”. In fact, some Sunnis come to Qom1 asking to see the Mushaf which they allege is another Quran. However, when they understand the reality that the Shiites have none other than and only that very Quran that other Muslims possess, they are stunned at the accusations made against the Shiites. A great deal of the Ahl al-Sunnah (i.e. Sunnis) thinks that the Shiites have another Quran - besides the present Quran - at their disposal! They suppose that Mushaf Fatimah is that other Quran! These allegations even make their way into secular Arab publications. For example, the Sudanese Newspaper, ”Aakhir Khabar” on 6 Rajab, 1416 included an article claiming that the Shiites have another Quran by the name of Mushaf Fatimah!

It has gotten to the point that some Shiites believe that Mushaf Fatimah is another Quran. In thisway they will assume that the narrations presented in this book have little import (because they are meant to mislead Sunnis) and doubt the chain of authority of the narrators. It is amazing in this light to see that such a personage as Imam Khomeini not only didn't hide or deny its existence, rather, he took pride in it: “We are honored that . Sahifah Fatemiyyah (i.e Mushaf Fatemah) which was inspired by God most excellent to Zahra Mardhiyyah (i.e. Lady Fatimah) is our (heritage). 2

What do such people mean that theyare honored or take pride in Mushaf Fatimah? It's because no one had seen its contents3 came out after nightfall and said several times: ‘(There will be) a grumbling and a moaning and a dark night, and then the Imam (al-Mahdi) will come out to you wearing the shirt of Adam, and on his hand will be the ring of Solomon, and the staff of Moses. 4 .)and it is only through narrations that we know what the subject matter is. Subsequently,I must confess that the existence of the Mushaf Fatimah has been proven and the proofs exist, however, we must approach it in a round about way. Heretofore an independent workhas not been published ; (other works) have indirectly mentioned it.

Some of the hadith about Mushaf Fatimah have used this very word “Mushaf” in which case the aforementioned thoughts are reinforced. Mohammad bin Muslim narrates from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq(a.s), “Fatimah left a Mushaf which is not the Quran. 5

'Ali bin Sa'id narrated from Imam al-Sadiq( a.s), “And it is with us. By Allah, Mushaf Fatimah does not contain a single verse from the Book of Allah! 6 Imam al-Sadiq(a.s) says, “In it is what is like your Quran, only three times (in size). 7 ,8

Some have conjectured that Mushaf is a word exclusively in reference to the Quran. If it is said that “Mushaf Fatimah”, means “Fatimah's Quran” because the last hadith says “It is like your Quran, only three times (in size)”, they conclude that the Shiites believe that the present Quran is inadequate. These people are oblivious to the fact that the preceding hadith stated emphatically that this Mushafdoesn't contain a single verse of Quran. In any case, now we will start the discussion with the meaning of “Mushaf”.

Connotation of “Mushaf”

That which has the appearance of sheets of text between two covers is called a “Mushaf”. In Sahah taj al-lughah,and , Sahah al-'arabiyyah it says, ”Al jam'e lil suhuf al maktubeh bayn al dafatayn”.9 ,10 “Suhuf” (صُحُف )

the plural of “sahifeh” (صَحيفة ) connotes a leaf or folio on which one writes. “dafatayn ” (دَفَتين ) is derived from “dafah” (دَفّة ) which connotes something which is contiguous or adjoining something. ”daftan al-Mushaf” (المصف دفتاً ) means the cover on both sides of a book.11 ,12 Consequently, a Mushaf has more than one page, not just one, although it could on occasion have no more than one page; it's still a Mushaf if it's between two covers so that the pages are contained within it.13

In conclusion, it must be said that “Mushaf” connotes a bound book inclusive to any book and is not exclusive to the Quran, although it must be said here that thatwell known meaning of Mushaf is “Quran”. Etymologically speaking, it can be said that Mushaf connotes the Quran (butdoesn't denote it - tr.).

There's no doubt that the word Mushaf has been used in reference to the Quran innumerably but can't be said that it is interchangeable with the word “Quran” even if it is the most common connotation or if it has been used in the sunnah as referring to the Quran. Take for example this narration: “The Prophet(S) said, 'Whosoever recites the collected and bound (Mushaf) Quran will have 2000 good things written for him.' 14 He also said, “Grant your eyes a share from your worship.” They said, “And what is the share for the eyes, oh Prophet of Allah?” He said, “Looking at the Mushaf (i.e. the Quran) and pondering over it…”15

We can take away from this narration that the Quran had been collected and bound in the time of theprophet( s.a.w).

The Term Mushaf in the Time ofThe Companions of The Prophet (s.a.w)

Despite the fact that the Prophet referred to the Quran as a Mushaf (in the above narration collected by a Sunni author - tr.), the Sunni sources state that theProphet( s.a.w) absolutely did not use the word Mushaf because its first usage was in the time of Abu Bakr (the first Caliph). Suyuti16 states, “When Abu Bakr had collected the Quran, [the Muslim community] began searching for a name for it. Some suggested, “Let's call it the Gospel (Injeel).” However, others were not pleased with that (because it is what the Christians call their book). Someone said, “Let's callit ” Sifr” but again others were displeased because the Jews (called their book that). Ibn Mas'ud said, “In Abyssinia, I saw a book which they called “Mushaf”. From this suggestion, they called the bound Quran 'Mushaf'. 17 ,18

There are three problems with this narration:

Thisdoesn't correspond with the prior narration (in the Sunni canon of hadith) in which the Prophet (S) referred to the Quran as Mushaf.

It opposes the fact that the same narration also demonstrates that the Quran had been bound during theProphet's( s.a.w) lifetime.

The word “Mushaf” is an 'Arabic word, so itcouldn't have been introduced from Abyssinia.

Imam Ali (A) says, “The heart is the Mushaf of the eye. 19

The Connotation of Mushaf among Non-Muslims

Among the multitude of references that demonstrate that Mushaf doesn't exclusively connote the Quran, are those used by non-Muslim 'Arabwriters. For example, ibn S'ad (a Muslim writer) in Tabaqaat al-Kabari conveys the story of one “Sahal the Christian” in which [Sahal] refers to the Gospel and other holy writings amongst [the Christians] with the word Mushaf20 as did 'Arab Muslims. If it were the case that Mushaf only referred to the Quran, theywouldn't have used it for (their writings). For example, Umm Salamah, the wife of the prophet(s.a.w) recounts the story of the Abyssinians as such: “They would unravel their scripture around and about themselves; their patriarch would begin scribing until that volume was soaked with ink. 21 As well, one “Owzaa'i”, born 33 AH, living 157 years (he died 9 years after the martyrdom of Imam al-Sadiq( a.s)) referred to Byzantine manuscripts as Mushaf.22 ,23

Mushaf According to the Expressions and Lexicon of the Sahabah (Companions)

The companions of the Prophet ofAllah( s.a.w) used Mushaf to refer to other than the Quran. For example, the famous companion Abi Sa'id Khudri in answering some people who wanted him to narrate hadith to them said, “I won't say a thing for you to write until you've read the Mushaf (of hadith already compiled). 24 Also, Uthmaan ibn 'Affan (the third Caliph) requested of Hafsah,25 “Send us the (unbound and fragmentary) manuscripts (of Qur'an) so that we may compile and make a Mushaf of them (nunsakha fil masahif) . .”26

Mushaf in the Lexicon of the Taabi'een [The CompanionsOf The Companions Of The Prophet (s.a.w)]

In the same way that the sahabah had used Mushaf to refer to other than the Quran, the taabi'een followed suit. In this regard, there are commentaries and lexicons; we will site here a sentence from Mohammad bin Sirin Ansaari: ”'Ali swore to not don his cloak (i.e. not leave his house) except on Fridays (for public prayers) until he had collected the Quran into a book (fi Mushaf). 27

If the term Mushaf in this report meant Quran, it would be redundant. It would be like saying that he (A) was collecting the book of Quran into a book. Then, the literal meaning of Mushaf is clear. The second report comes from Rafi' bin Mehraan who narrated, ”[The companions] collected the Quran into a book (fi Mushaf). 28

Notes

1. Qom, Iran is one of the oldest Shiite cities, settled in the 2nd century, AH. It is one of the premiere centers of Shiite theological learning and the pilgrimage site for the sister of the eighth Imam, Fatimah al-Ma’sumah (A).

2. Khomeini SRM.Last Will and Testament, page 3.

3. The Imams(a.s) possessed this mushaf, along with the seal of the Prophet (s.a.w), the staff of prophet Moses(a.s), etc. as proofs of their vice regency. The twelfth Imam, Al-Mahdi( a.s) (may Allah hasten his appearance) currently possesses it. For example, in one hadith it says, “One night, Amir al-Mu’mineen (i.e. Imam‘Ali( a.s

4. Al-Kafi, v.1, hadith #619

5. Majlisi MB.Bihar al-Anwar, v.26, p.41, hadith #73. Darul kutub al islamiyyah, Tehran, Iran.

6. Majlisi MB.Bihar al-Anwar, v.27, p.271, hadith #3. Darul kutub al islamiyyah, Tehran, Iran.

7. Kulaini M. Usul al-Kafi, v.2, p.613.

8. Majlisi MB.Bihar al-Anwar, v. 26, p.39, hadith #10. Darul kutub al islamiyyah, Tehran, Iran.

9. Juhari, Sahah taj al-lughah,and , Sahah al-‘arabiyyah, v. 4, p. 1383

10. Zubaydi, Taj al-‘aroos, v. 6, p.161.

11. Fayyumi, Misbah al-munir, p.197

12. Abu Hilaal al-‘Askari, al-furuq al-lughwiyyeh, p.241, Qom, Basirti Publication

13. Zarqaani, Minahil al-irfaan, v.1, p.384, Beirut, Daaraahiya’ Al-Tiraath Publication, 1412 AH/1994

14. Zarkeshi, Al Burhan fi ‘Ulum al-Quran, v.1, p.546. Beirut, Daar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyeh, 1403 AH/1983

15. Tirmidhi, Navaadir al-Usul, v.3, p.254, Beirut, Daar al-Jeel, 1412 AH/1992

16. Suyuti was a renouned Sunni scholar and prolific author with over 700 extent works attributed to him. He was also a Shadhili Sufi. He was consideredto be the foremost authority of hadith and ‘Arabic language of his day. While he lauded Imam ‘Ali in his work, Al-qawl al-jali fi fada'il `Ali (The manifest discourse on the virtues of `Ali ibn Abi Talib), he was no friend of the Shi’a. For example, he penned the polemic, Risala al-sayf al-qati` al-lami` li ahl al-i`tirad al-shawa'i` (Epistle of the sharp and glistening sword to the Shi`i people of opposition) as well.

17. Suyuti J, Al-Atqaan, v.1, p.53

18. Kitaabi, Al-Tarteeb al-Aadaariyyeh, v.2, p.231, Daar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi

19. Ibn Abi Talib A. Nahj al-Balagha, saying #408

20. Ibn S’ad, Tabaqaat al-Kabari, v.1, p.363, Dar Sadr Publications

21. Ibn Hishaam, Seerah al-Nabi, v.1, p.353, Beirut; Dar al-Fikr Publications, 1401 AH/1981

22. Ibn S’ad, Tabaqaat al-Kabari, v.7, p.433, Dar Sadr Publications

23. Tahdheeb al-Kamaal, v.17, p.315, Mu’asassah al-Risalah

24. Baghdadi K, Taqyeed al-‘Ilm, p.36, Beirut; Daar al-Sunnat al-Nabawiyyah, 1974

25. Hafsah was the daughter of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, the second Caliph. Hafsah was also a wife of the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w).

26. Bukhari M, Sahih al-Bukhari, v.6, book 61, hadith #4938, p.120, Beirut; Daar al-Fikr, 1411 AH/1991 (hadith #510, book 61: Virtues of the Quran according to

http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/bukhari/061.sbt.ht...

27. Sijstani, Al-Musahaf, p.10, Egypt; Rahmaaniyyah publications

28. Sijstani, Al-Musahaf, p.9, Egypt; Rahmaaniyyah publications

Mushaf in classical writings

Mushaf was used by classical writers in their manuscripts in reference to a bound book . Forexample the author Jaahidh referred to each section of his book Al-Haywaan as a Mushaf and at the end of each section he would write, “thus ends the first Mushaf and begins the second Mushaf. .”

Also, Sheikh Aba Bakr bin 'Iqaal Saqli in Fawaa'id says, “The sahabah didn't collect the sunnah of the Prophet ofAllah( s.a.w) in a book (Mushaf).”1

It's worth pointing out that the word Mushaf is mentioned neither in the Quran itself nor was it counted among the names of the Quran. Jalaaluddin Suyuti2 and Abu Al-Ma'aali al-Saaleh, who was one of the transmitters of hadith of Islam, counted 55 titles for the Quran and the word “Mushaf” was not among them.

It's interesting to know that no one objected to Seebway's calling his book Al-Keetaab, despite the fact that that was one of the titles of the Quran, but they object to the book of Lady Fatimah(a.s) being called “Mushaf”.

Mushaf in Contemporary Writings

Dr. Imtiyaaz Ahmad in his book Dalaa'il al-towtheeq al-mobakkir lilsunnah wa al-hadeeth says that Mushaf doesn't just refer to the Quran, but can refer to (any) book. In order to prove his claim, he cites several sources.3 Also professor Bakir Bin 'Abdullah in his book Ma'rifat al-nasakh wa al-sahhaf al-Hadeeth says, ”'Mushaf' is an idiomatic expression which is inclusive to any collected work used by speakers. 4

Dr. Nasiraddin Asad in Masaadir al-shu'ur al-jaahili writes, “They called any bound book a “Mushaf” and it strictly refers to a book, not just the Quran. 5

Notes

1. Abu Rayhah, Adhwa’‘ala al-sunnat al-mohammadiyyah, p.259, Al-Batha’ publication.

2. Al-Itiqaan fi ‘ulum al-Quran, v.1, pp.51-52, Beirut; Daar al-Fikr

3. Ahmad I, Dalaa’il al-towtheeq al-mobakkir lilsunnah wa al-hadeeth, pp.263-269, A. Amin tr., Pakistan; Islamic Research Publications

4.bin ‘Abdullah B, Ma’rifat al-nasakh wa al-sahhaf al-Hadeeth, pp.23-31, Jeddah; Daar al-Raayah.

5. Asad N, Masaadir al-shu’ur al-jaahili, p.139, Cairo; Daar al-Ma’aarif, 1969.

Other books by Lady Fatimah (a.s)

Various opinions regarding the Mushaf Fatimah

As far as we know, no Shiite or Sunni scholar has ever gotten their hands on Mushaf Fatimah. Rather,they've gained an understanding of its scribe and author from the relevant hadith on the subject. In this respect, therehasn't been a far-reaching or comprehensive research on the matter. Some have said, “Her Mushaf contains parables, edicts, sermons, historical accounts and miracles and amazing occurrences. Imam'Ali( a.s) is its author, and he gifted it to her as a consolation after her father's death”1

Others are of the opinion that this Mushaf contains jurisprudence (shar'i), normative and ethical rulings, all future events, and that Lady Fatimah(a.s) wrote it from all the pronouncements that she heard from her father (the prophet Mohammad(s.a.w)) and her husband (Imam 'Ali(a.s)).2

Imam Khomeini in his last will and testament said, “Sahifah Fatimah was inspired to her from the very presense of the Lord most High to Zahra Mardhiyyah (i.e. Lady Fatimah). 3 Sayyid Muhsin Ameen is of the opinion that this noble Lady (a.s) has two books: one inspired by her Lord, the other the sayings of the prophet of Allah (s.a.w) to LadyFatimah( a.s).4

There reason that there are so many divergent opinions on the content of this Mushaf, as the above quotes point out, is owing to the fact that the hadith are scattered in various chapters of various books. There are no analytical or theoretical analyses (of the hadith by the scholars who had collected the hadith). Because of this, the foundation of the argument and investigation are narrations thathaven't been collected into one chapter (of a book of hadith), rather, they are in various books.

Indeed, none of the books that refer to Lady Fatimah (a.s)have hadith that mention the Mushaf's content mention the same content twice (i.e. every hadith says that the Mushaf contains something different). In this respect, some have thought that the Mushaf is the very one that the reports mention, this because of the divergent opinions that have arisen. However, these hadith speak of the books (kitab) of Lady Fatimah (a.s) and not per se of her Mushaf. In light of this, it is fitting to allude to these other books until we can separate them from and arrive to her Mushaf.

1. Book of Ethics

Neither the Shi'a or Sunni books of hadith have noted such abook, rather, its existence has been alluded to in the above mentioned books. Kharaa'aty (a Sunni) narrates from Mojaahid, “Ubayy bin Ka'b, went to visit Fatimah (May Allah's pleasure be upon her) - the daughter ofMohammad( s.a.w). Fatimah took outa a book hidden between the fronds of a date tree and showed it to him. In it was written, 'Whoever believes in God and the day of resurrection is kind to his neighbor.' 5

There is anothernarration which refers to this book. It is clear that the above hadith is actually a partial narration. Sheikh Kulayni quotes the full narration in Usul al-Kaafi from Imam al-Sadiq( a.s)6 . Abu Ja'far Mohammad bin Jarir bin Rustam Tabari quotes from the scholars of the fourth (Islamic) century also quotes this hadith - with an even longer narration - in the book Dalaa'il al-Imamah.7

Apparently, the people who said that Mushaf Fatimah is about factual and ethical matters and etiquette had seen this hadith. As we will point out, Mushaf Fatimah does not contain ethical matters. Therefore, there is no basis for this belief.

2. Book of Precepts and Statutes (ketaab-e tashri'i)

Such a bookhas not been recorded in the books of hadith. However, in responding to the question the representative of Mansur - the 'Abbassid Caliph - in Medina, Imam al-Sadiq(a.s) made reference to this book.8 From this we can infer that Lady Fatimah(a.s) was in possession of a book on precepts and statutes.

'Allamah Sayyid Muhsin Amin considered this book to be Mushaf Fatimah,9 however it must be said that there are narrations - to be noted later - that say that the Mushaf of this noble Lady did not contain matters of the permissible and forbidden. If such jurisprudential rulings were noted, there are other hadith by LadyFatimah( a.s) quoting her eminent father, the prophet of Islam(s.a.w) that say otherwise.10

3. Fatimah's Tablet

Lawh (لُوْح ) refers to wide pages of wood or bone, which in Farsiis called taablow (تابلو ), or, takhteh (تخته ). The existence of this tabletis noted in a great number of hadith. It contains the names of the Shi'ahImams( a.s).

Abu al-Fath Karaajaki (d. 449 AH) firmly believes that all the Shi'ah (scholars) are unanimous regarding the content of this tablet.11 The content of this tablet have not been reported in one place. It has a number of various chains of authority. Kulayni, quoting from Jaabir bin 'Abdullah Ansaari says the following,

“I approached Fatimah and in her hands was a tablet. In it were the names of the executors (of the prophetic trust) (الأوصياء ) from her children, and they numbered twelve.12 The last of them was Al-Qaa'im, three amongst them were (named) Mohammad, three amongst them 'Ali. 13

What [the narrator] meant by “three amongst them were (named) Mohammad” was Mohammad al-Baqir( a.s) (the 5th Imam), Mohammad al-Jawaad(a.s) (the 9th Imam) and Mohammad ibn al-Hasan al-Mahdi(a.s) (the 12th Imam, referred to in the hadith as “Al-Qaa'im”). However, the statement that “three among them 'Ali” doesn't correspond to the number of Imams with the nameof ” 'Ali”. There were actually four of them: Imam'Ali( a.s) (the 1st Imam), 'Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Sajaad(a.s) (the 4th Imam), 'Ali ibn al-Musa al-Ridha(a.s) (the 8th Imam) and 'Ali ibn al-Mohammad al-Haadi(a.s) (the 10th Imam). How do we rectify this?

The first answer: the pronoun “amongst them” (مِنهُم ) refers to “her children” (وُلْدِها ). In these respect, the meaning of “three amongst them 'Ali” is the children of LadyFatimah( a.s) and that's why the narrator didn't mention the name of Imam 'Ali(a.s) (the husband of Lady Fatimah(a.s) and father of the Imams(a.s)).

The second answer: The scribe erred (in writing “three amongst them 'Ali”. It was meant to be written as “four amongst them 'Ali”. There is a hadith from Abi al-Jaarud quoting Imam al-Baqir( a.s) in which the Imam(a.s) says “four”.14

The third answer is that the pronoun of “amongst them” (مِنهُم ) is referring to [they numbered] “twelve” (اثنى عشر ). If the narrator hadn't said “four ['Ali's] amongst them” (مِنهُم أربع ) it was because Imam'Ali's( a.s) name was not written on the tablet. (Regardless), his title has been noted in the tablet as we will see in a narration by Abu Basir.15 The (complete) contents of this tablet are mentioned and verified in Kamaal al-Din wa Tamaam al-Ni'mah.16

The contents of this tablet - and in some people's opinions, the tablet itself - was a gift from Allah to theProphet( s.a.w) which the Prophet(s.a.w) had gifted to Lady Fatimah(a.s).17

4. Last Will and Testament

It has been narrated in numerous hadith with multiple chains of transmission that Lady Fatimah(a.s) left behind a book in which wrote down her will and testament.18 This will and testament was shar'i, regarding the seven orchards19 bequeathed to Lady Fatimah(a.s) by the Prophet(s.a.w); thus it actually contained a political and social advice.20 Among her last desires was that certain people not be present during her burial, that her place of burial not be revealed, etc. Her last will and testament contains a plethora of matters that are also contained in the Mushaf Fatimah. Some have said that Imam'Ali( a.s) found it by her bedside after her demise.21

5. Mushaf Fatimah

The existence of this bookhas been noted , again, by several sources in numerous narrations. We have already enumerated a number of questions surrounding this book, to name a few: who dictated this book? Who is its author? What is it about?Has any alteration in the Qur'an been alluded to in it? Where is this book now and who possesses it?And

Notes

1. Musawwi, S, Al-Muraaji’aat, p. 521, Iran; Daar al-Kitaab al-Islaami, no date given.

2. Ma’rufulhasani, H, Seerat al-A’immah al-Ithna ‘Ashari, pp. 96-97. Beirut, Daar al-Ta’aaruf.

3. Khomeini, R. Vasiyat nameh siyasi-elahi Emam Khomeini, p. 3, Tehran (no date or publisher given).

4. Ameen, M. “A’ayaan al-Shi’ah, v.1, pp.313-314. Beirut, Al-Ansaaf publications.

5. Kharaa’ati, Makaarim al-aklaaqwa ma’aaliha, p. 43.Maktabah al-Islaam al-‘aalamiyyah, Cairo (no date).

6. Bahrani-Isfahaani, ‘Awalim al-‘ulum, v.11, p.533. Tahqiq mu’assasseh Imam Mahdi, Qom (no date).

7. Tabari, M. Dalaa’il al-Imamah, p.5. A’alami, Beirut (no date).

8. Kulayni, M. Furu’ al-kaafi, v.3, p.705, hadith #2. Daar al-Adhwa’, Beirut (no date).

9. Amin, M. A’ayun al-shi’ah, v.1, p.314-315 (no publisher or date).

10. No author, Sirah al-a’immah al-ithnah ‘ashar, v.1, pp.96-97 (no publisher or date).

11. Karrajaki, A. Al-istinsaar fi al-nafs ‘ala al-a’immah al-athaar, p.13. Daar al-Adhwa’ publications, Qom (no date).

12. The narrator states that there were 12 Imams, and says that there are3 Imams named Mohammad, 3 named ‘Ali. That makes six. There was another ‘Ali, Imam ‘Ali(a.s), but the narrator was speaking of the Imams amongst the children of Lady Fatimah(a.s), so, he didn’t count Imam ‘Ali(a.s) as it was self-evident to him as he lived as a contemporary of Imam ‘Ali(a.s). That makes7 Imams, and 5 unaccounted for. There were 2 Hasans: Hasan ibnAli( a.s) (the 2nd Imam) and Hasan ibn Ali al-‘Askari(a.s) (the 11th Imam), 1 Ja’far: Ja’far ibn Mohammad al-Sadiq(a.s) (the 6th Imam), and 1 Musa: Musa ibn Ja’far al-Kadhim(a.s) (the 7th Imam).

13. Kulayni, M. Usul al-Kaafi, v.1, p.533.

14. Sadduq, M. ‘Uyun akhaar al-ridha, v.1, p.47, hadith #7. Reza Mashhadi Publications, Qom, 1363/1984.

15. Kulayni, M. Usul al-Kaafi, v.1, p.527, hadith #4, Sadduq M, Kaamal al-Din wa Tamaam al-Ni’mah, v.1, p.303, Nashr-e Islaami Foundation, Qom (no date).

16. Sadduq, M. Kaamal al-Dinwa Tamaam al-Ni’mah, v.1, p.311, Nashr-e Islaami Foundation, Qom.

17. Mufid, M. Kitaab al-‘Irshaad, p.262, Basirati Publication, Qom (no date); also in, Sadduq, M. Kaamal al-Dinwa Tamaam al-Ni’mah, v.1, p.312, Nashr-e Islaami Foundation, Qom (no date), and in, Majlisi, M. Bihaar al-Anwaar, v.36, p.201.

18. Tusi M. Tahdhib al-Ahkaam, v.9, p.144, hadith #50. Daar al-Adhwa’, Beirut.

19. The seven orchards refer to the area aroundFadak which was a war spoil after the conquest of Khaybar. It belonged to theProphet( s.a.w) Mohammad and he bequeathed it to Lady Fatimah(a.s). The Caliphs who took power after the Prophet’s demise stated that Prophets only bequeath knowledge, not property, thus they usurped it from that nobleLady( a.s).

20. Majlisi, M. Bihaar al-Anwaar, v.103, p.135-136, hadith #14.

21. Ibid.