An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach

An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach0%

An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach Author:
Publisher: MIRI Press
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ISBN: 978-9-647741-23-1

An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Alireza Hodaee
Publisher: MIRI Press
Category: ISBN: 978-9-647741-23-1
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An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach
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An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach

An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence (Uşūl al-Fiqh): A Shiite Approach

Author:
Publisher: MIRI Press
ISBN: 978-9-647741-23-1
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

www.alhassanain.org/english

An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence

(Uşūl al-Fiqh)

A Shiite Approach

Alireza Hodaee

Al-Mustafa International Research Institute

www.alhassanain.org/english

An Introduction to Methodology of Islamic Jurisprudence

(Uşūl al-Fiqh)

A Shiite Approach

Alireza Hodaee

Al-Mustafa International Research Institute

ISBN: 978-9-647741-23-1

© MIRI P RESS

This English edition first published in 2013

Opinions and views expressed in this book do not necessarily express those of the publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of MIRI Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organisation. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the foregoing should be addressed to MIRI Press.

MIRI Press

Qum, Iran

Notice:

This work is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

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Table of Contents

PREFACE 11

TRANSLITERATION KEY 12

Introductory Discussions 13

Definition of the Science of Uşūl al-Fiqh 13

Subject-Matter of the Science of Uşūl al-Fiqh 13

Benefit of the Science of Uşūl al-Fiqh 13

Parts of the Science of Uşūl al-Fiqh 14

Convention (al-Wađ‘) 14

Varieties of Convention 15

Signs of Literal and Figurative Meanings 16

Literal Principles 16

Usage of One Term in More than One Meaning 17

The Juristic-Literal Meaning (al-Ĥaqīqa al-Shar‘iyya) 18

The Sound (al-Şaĥīĥ) and What Incorporates Both (al- A‘amm) 19

Part I: Discussions of Terms 21

CHAPTER 1: THE DERIVED (AL-MUSHTAQQ) 22

CHAPTER 2:THE COMMANDS (AL-AWĀMIR) 24

Appearance of the Command 24

Varieties of Mandatory Acts 25

Absolute (al-Muţlaq) and Conditional (al-Mashrūţ) 25

Suspended (al-Mu‘allaq) and Definite (al-Munadjdjaz) 25

Determinate (al-Ta‘yīnī) and Optional (al-Takhyīrī) 26

Individual (al-‘Aynī) and Collective (al-Kifā’ī) 26

Extended (al-Muwassa‘) and Constricted (al-Muđayyaq) 26

Religiously (al-Ta‘abbudī) and Instrumental (al-Tawaşşulī) 28

Varieties of Mandatory Acts and the Absoluteness of the Mode (al-Şīgha) 28

Promptitude (al-Fawr) or Belatedness (al-Tarākhī) 31

Once (al-Marra) or Repetition (al-Takrār) 31

To Command Something Twice 32

Denotation of “Command to Command” 33

CHAPTER 3: THE PROHIBITIONS (AL-NAWĀHĪ) 35

The Desired in the Prohibition 35

Denotation of the Prohibition as to Permanence (al-Dawām) and Repetition (al-Takrār) 36

CHAPTER 4: IMPLICATURES OF SENTENCES (AL-MAFĀHĪM) 37

Varieties of Mafhūm 38

1. Mafhūm of the Condition (al-Sharţ) 38

The Criterion for Mafhūm of the Condition 39

Conditions Being Multiple While Consequents Being One 40

2. Mafhūm of the Qualifier (al-Waşf) 42

The Justifiable Opinion on Mafhūm of the Qualifier 43

3. Mafhūm of the Termination (al-Ghāya) 45

4. Mafhūm of the Exclusivity (al-Ĥaşr) 46

5. Mafhūm of the Number (al-‘Adad) 46

6. Mafhūm of the Designation (al-Laqab) 46

Three Important Denotations Not of Kind of Mafhūm or Manţūq: Necessitation (al-Iqtiđā’), Hint (al-Tanbīh), and Implicit Conveyance (al-Ishāra) 47

CHAPTER 5: GENERAL (AL-‘ĀMM) AND PARTICULAR (AL-KHĀŞŞ) 49

Varieties of Generality 49

Terms of Generality 50

The Joint Restrictor (al-Mukhaşşiş al-Muttaşil) and the Separate Restrictor (al-Mukhaşşiş al-Munfaşil) 50

Usage of the General in the Restricted (al-Mukhaşşaş) 51

Authority or Otherwise of the Restricted General in the Remaining (al-Bāqī) 52

Penetration or Otherwise of Ambiguity of the Restrictor to the General 52

1. The Dubiety concerning the Concept 53

2. The Dubiety concerning the Instance 54

Unlawfulness of Implication of the General before the Quest for the Restrictor 55

A General Preceding a Pronoun Which Refers to Some Instances of the General 55

An Exception Preceded by Multiple Sentences 56

Restriction of the General by Mafhūm 57

Restriction of the Book by Single Tradition 57

CHAPTER 6: ABSOLUTE (AL-MUŢLAQ) AND QUALIFIED (ALMUQAYYAD) 59

Is Absoluteness by Convention? 59

Premises of Wisdom (Muqaddimāt al-Ĥikma) 59

Contradictory Absolute and Qualified 60

CHAPTER 7: AMBIGUOUS (AL-MUDJMAL) AND CLEAR(AL-MUBAYYAN) 62

Part II: Intellectual Implications 63

CHAPTER 8: REPLACEMENT (AL-IDJZĀ’) 64

1. The Compelling Command 64

2. The Apparent Command 66

2.1. The Replacement with respect to the Authorized Conjectural Proof When the Error Is Revealed with Certainty 66

2.1.1. In the Precepts 66

2.1.2. In the Objects 67

2.2. The Replacement with respect to the Practical Principles When the Error Is Revealed with Certainty 67

2.3. The Replacement with respect to Both Authorized Conjectural Proof and Practical Principle When the Error Is Revealed by an Authoritative Proof 68

Change in the Certitude 69

CHAPTER 9: THE PRELIMINARY OF THE MANDATORY ACT (MUQADDIMA AL-WĀDJIB) 70

CHAPTER 10: THE PROBLEM OF THE OPPOSITE (MAS’ALA AL-ĐIDD) 72

1. The General Opposite (al-Đidd al-‘Āmm) 72

2. The Particular Opposite (al-Đidd al-Khāşş) 72

2.1. The Way of Implication 73

2.2. The Way of Being Preliminary 73

The Outcome of This Discussion 75

CHAPTER 11: CONJUNCTION OF THE COMMAND AND THE PROHIBITION (IDJTIMĀ‘ AL-AMR WA’L NAHY) 77

Conjunction of the Command and the Prohibition with a Way Out 79

The Argument for Impossibility 79

The Argument for Possibility 80

The Outcome of This Discussion 82

Conjunction of the Command and the Prohibition without a Way Out 83

Not Preceded by Free Will 83

Preceded by Misuse of Free Will 84

CHAPTER 12: DENOTATION OF PROHIBITION AS TO ANNULMENT(DALĀLA AL-NAHY ALA’L FASĀD) 87

Prohibition of Act of Worship (al-‘Ibāda) 87

Prohibition of Transaction (al-Mu‘āmala) 88

Part III: Discussions of Authority 90

INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSIONS OF THE THIRD PART 91

The Meaning of al-Ĥudjdja 91

Amāra and al-Żann al-Mu‘tabar 91

Amāra and the Practical Principle 92

The Criterion for Proving Authority of Amāra 92

Essentiality of Authority of Certitude (Knowledge, ‘Ilm) 94

The Position of Authority of Amāra 94

The Particular Conjecture and the Absolute Conjecture 95

Preliminaries of the Closure Proof (Dalīl al-Insidād) 95

Commonness of Precepts between the Knowledgeable and the Ignorant 96

Why Is Amāra an Absolutely Authoritative Proof? 97

Amāra Being a Path (Ţarīq) or a Cause (Sabab) 99

CHAPTER 13: THE BOOK (AL-KITĀB) 100

Abolishment of the Book 100

Possibility of Abolishment of the Qur’ān 100

Principality of Non-Abolishment 102

CHAPTER 14: SUNNA 103

Denotation of Act of the Infallible-Innocent Personality 104

Denotation of Acknowledgment (Taqrīr) of the Infallible-Innocent Personality 105

The Massive Report (al-Khabar al-Mutawātir) 105

The Single Report (Khabar al-Wāĥid) 106

Proofs of Authority of Single Report from the Book 106

Proofs of Authority of Single Report from Sunna 109

Proofs of Authority of Single Report from Consensus 110

Proofs of Authority of Single Report from the Conduct of the Wise 111

CHAPTER 15: CONSENSUS (IDJMĀ‘) 113

Sunnī Approach to the Consensus 113

Shiite Approach to the Consensus 114

CHAPTER 16: THE INTELLECTUAL PROOF (AL-DALĪL AL-‘AQLĪ) 117

Justification of Authority of the Intellect 118

CHAPTER 17: AUTHORITY OF APPEARANCES (ĤUDJDJIYYA AL-ŻAWĀHIR) 119

Justification of the Authority of Appearance 121

Authority of the Appearance with regard to Those Whose Communication Is Not Meant 121

Authority of Appearances of the Book 123

CHAPTER 18: THE CELEBRITY (AL-SHUHRA) 125

CHAPTER 19: THE CUSTOM (AL-SĪRA) 127

Authority of the Conduct of the Wise 127

Authority of the Custom of the People of the Religion 128

CHAPTER 20: THE (JURISTIC) ANALOGY (AL- QIYĀS) 130

Definition of Qiyās 130

Pillars of Qiyās 130

Authority of Qiyās 130

Provoking Knowledge 130

Definite Proofs Proving Authority of Qiyās 131

Shiite Position on Qiyās 131

CHAPTER 21: EQUILIBRIUM AND PREFRENCES ( AL-TA‘ĀDUL WA’L TARĀDJĪĤ ) 133

Contradiction (al-Ta‘āruđ) 133

Conditions of Contradiction 133

Primary Principle as to Contradictory Proofs 134

Secondary Principle as to Contradictory Proofs 134

Customary Gathering (al-Djam‘ al-‘Urfī) 134

Preferrers 135

Interference (al-Tazāĥum) 135

Sovereignty (al-Ĥukūma) and Entry (al-Wurūd) 136

Part IV: The Practical Principles 138

Introduction 138

CHAPTER 22: THE PRINCIPLE OF CLEARANCE (AŞĀLA AL-BARĀ’A) 140

1. The Dubiety concerning the Precept as to Unlawfulness Because of Lack of the Proof 140

1.1. Uşūlīs’ Proofs of Clearance 140

1.1.1. The Book 140

1.1.2. Sunna 141

1.1.3. Consensus 144

1.1.4. The Intellect 144

1.2. Akhbārīs’ Proofs of Precaution 145

1.2.1. The Book 145

1.2.2. Sunna 146

1.2.3. The Intellect 147

2. The Dubiety concerning the Precept as to Unlawfulness Because of Ambiguity of the Proof 147

3. The Dubiety concerning the Precept as to Unlawfulness Because of Contradiction of Proofs 147

4. The Dubiety concerning the Object as to Unlawfulness 147

5. The Dubiety as to Obligation concerning the Precept Because of Lack of the Proof, Because of Ambiguity of the Proof, Because of Contradiction of Proofs, and concerning the Object 147

CHAPTER 23: THE PRINCIPLE OF OPTION (AŞĀLA AL-TAKHYĪR) 148

CHAPTER 24: THE PRINCIPLE OF LIABILITY (PRECAUTION) (AŞĀLA AL-IĤTIYĀŢ or ISHTIGHĀL) 150

1. The Dubiety Being over Two Divergent i ngs 151

1.1. The Dubiety concerning Unlawfulness 151

1.1.1. The Dubiety concerning the Object 151

1.1.1.1. The Small-Scale Dubiety (al-Shubha al-Maĥşūra) 151

1.1.1.2. The Large-Scale Dubiety (al-Shubha Ghair al-Maĥşūra) 153

1.1.2. The Dubiety concerning the Precept 154

1.2. The Dubiety concerning Obligation 154

1.2.1. The Dubiety concerning the Precept 154

1.2.1.1. Because of Lack of Proof 154

1.2.1.2. Because of Ambiguity of Proof 155

1.2.1.3. Because of Contradiction of Proofs 155

1.2.2. The Dubiety concerning the Object 155

2. The Dubiety Being over the Least and the Most of One Thing 155

2.1. The Independing Least and Most 155

2.2. The Relational Least and Most 156

2.2.1. The dubiety concerning the precept whether as to unlawfulness or obligation, caused by either lack of proof, ambiguity of proof, or contradiction of proofs 156

2.2.1.1. The dubiety over object of the duty 156

2.2.1.2. The dubiety over causes 157

2.2.2. The dubiety concerning the object whether as to unlawfulness or obligation 157

CHAPTER 25: THE PRINCIPLE OF CONTINUITY OF THE PREVIOUS STATE (AŞĀLA AL-ISTIŞĤĀB) 159

Constituents of Istişĥāb 159

Proofs of Authority of Istişĥāb 160

1. The conduct of the wise 160

2. Ĥadīths 160

2.1. Zurāra’s first authentic ĥadīth 160

2.2. Zurāra’s second authentic ĥadīth 161

Secondary Discussions of Istişĥāb 162

The Rule of Certainty (Qā‘ida al-Yaqīn) 162

Continuity of the Previous State of the Universal (Istişĥāb al-Kullī) 162

Selected Bibliography 164

PREFACE

Uşūl al-Fiqh, the methodology of jurisprudence, which is usually - and inaccurately, if not incorrectly - translated “principles of jurisprudence,” is an Islamic science which is developed by Shiite scholars in two recent centuries into an unparalleled intellectual, logical system of thought and a comprehensive branch of knowledge which not only serves as the logic of jurisprudence but as an independent science dealing with some hermeneutical problems.

Lack of precise English equivalents to expressions and terms of this complicated science indicates the least difficulties of preparing the first English version of Shiite uşūl al-fiqh. Relying on the Almighty's constant grace, however, I did my best to present this unique Shiite science to the western world in its best fashion; and I pray to the Almighty to have been successful in doing such a difficult job. Nonetheless, it should be noted that most of complicated arguments of such profound science cannot be presented in an introductory work; they should be pursued in detailed books written by great Shiite Uşūlīs.

I have to express my gratitude to my dearest friend, Dr. Seyyed Mohsen Miri, head of Islam and West Research Center of al-Mustafa International Research Institute (M.I.R.I), who prepared the ground for constitution of this work.

Alireza Hodaee

Tehran, April, 2013

TRANSLITERATION KEY