Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul

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Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul Author:
Translator: Hasan Muhammad Al-Najafi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
Category: Ulama and Scholars

Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul

Author: al-Mirza Abu al-Qasim al-Qummi
Translator: Hasan Muhammad Al-Najafi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
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Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul

Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul

Author:
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul

Series: Meeting the Pious n. 3

Author(s): al-Mirza Abu al-Qasim al-Qummi

Translator(s): Hasan Muhammad Al-Najafi

Publisher(s): Ansariyan Publications - Qum

www.alhassanain.org/english

This book tries to shed light upon one of those stars that shone in the world of Islam, undertaking a remarkable role during the Thirteenth Hijrah Century; being a dignitary that managed, through his broad dimensions, in abundantly contributing to the Islamic thought and heritage, represented by al-Mirza Abu al-Qasim al-Qummi. He has been one of the renowned men of thought in modern history, having an all-inclusive and versatile character; he was an eminent ‘alim, laboring hard for God’s sake, the very incarnation of piety and asceticism, possessing all humaneexcellences, and the legend in uprightness and forbearance.

Miscellaneous information:

Al-Mirza Al-Qummi, Revivalist of ‘Ilm al-Usul Series: Meeting the Pious n. 3 Author: Muhammad Husayn al-‘Irfani Translator: Hasan M. Al-Najafi Published by Ansariyan Publications P.O. Box 371851187 Qum Islamic Republic of Iran Tel.:741744 No. of Copies: 2,000 First Edition: 1416 H.- 1995 A.O.

Notice:

This version is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errors are not corrected.

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Foreword 7

Translator’s Introduction 8

Preamble 9

Author’s Preface 11

Chapter 1: A Glance at Al-Mirza’s Biography 12

His Father 12

His Birth 12

The Beginning 12

His Marriage 13

Migration to Iraq 13

Return to Homeland 14

The Village-Mulla’s Intrigue 14

Travel to Isfahan and Shiraz 15

Migration to Qum 15

Turning Toward Iraq 16

Pilgrimage to the Old House 16

His Trip to Kazzaz 17

His Trips to Khunsar 17

Notes 17

Chapter 2: His Academical and Cultural Activity 18

Guardianship of Proficient Disciples 18

1. Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Hujjat al- ‘Islam 18

2. Al -Hajj Muhammad Ibrahim al-Kalbasi 19

3. Al-Sayyid Muhammad ‘Ali al-Hazarjeribi 19

4. Al-Sayyid Ahmad al-Kermanshahi 20

5. Al-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi al-Khunsari 20

6. Al-Sayyid ‘Ali al-Khunsari 20

7. Al-Mirza Abu Talib al-Qummi 21

8. Al-Hajj al-Sayyid Isma’il al-Qummi 21

9. Al-Mirza ‘Ali Rida al-Qummi 21

10. Al-Shaykh Husayn al­Qummi 21

12. Al-Hajj Mulla Muhammad al-Kazzazi 21

License to Narrate 22

His Valuable Works 22

Propagation and Preaching 25

Notes 26

Chapter 3: Let Us Learn from al-Mirza 27

His Forbearance and Uprightness 27

His Strival in Knowledge Seeking 27

His Academic Status 28

His Tireless Labouring 28

His Curiosity for Knowledge 29

His Poeticalness 29

His Fine Handwriting 29

His Comprehensiveness 29

His Loyalty 30

His Moral Traits 30

Scholars’ Views Regarding al-Mirza 30

His Refusal to King's Affinity 31

A Grace for al-Mirza 32

Al-Mulla ‘Ali al-Nuri’s Meeting with al-Mirza 34

Notes 34

Chapter 4: The Sunset 35

His Heirs 35

1. Al-Mirza Abu Talib al-Qummi 35

2. Al-Hajj Mulla Asad Allah al-Brujerdi 35

3. Al-Mulla Muhammad al-Naraqi 36

4. Al-Mirza ‘Ali Rida al-Tahiri 36

5. Al-Shaykh ‘Ali al-Bahrani 36

6. Al-Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq al-Kalbasi 36

7. Al-Mawla ‘Ali al-Brujerdi 36

Al-Mirza in the Memory 37

Notes 37

Bibliography 38

Al-Mirza in the Memory 39

Publisher’s Foreword

The Ansarian Publications received many requests, through contacts or readers’ letters, asking about biography books about these scholars having illuminative role in world of thought and sciences. In response, the Foundation embarked on pursuing the subject attentively, for meeting the sincere desires longing for the Islamic culture and its signs.

While Ansarian Foundation presents the series of Liqa’ ma’a al- ‘Abrar (A Meeting with the Righteous). It hopes for attaining the approval and pleasure of all dear readers. And it is Allah Who helps us to succeed.

Ansarian Foundation

Translator’s Introduction

The last third of the second century witnessed a bitter struggle between the school of principles (usul) and Akhbari trend (narrative) which prevailed at that juncture in history. The great efforts exerted by the vanguard of school of principles, al-Wahid al-Behbahani, led to laying new foundations for ‘ilm al- ‘usul, and they were preserved by his disciples after him. Al-Mirza Abu al­ Qasim al-Qummi, who belongs to the first generation of that school, is considered the most eminent disciple of al­ ‘Ustadh al-Wahid, as is testified by his valuable book Qawanin al- ‘usul that remained as a curriculum for more than half a century.

Al Mirza al-Qummi has been one of the renowned men of thought in modern history, having an all-inclusive and versatile character. Moreover, the ethical pivot that distinguished his life, with the unique straightforwardness and forbearance he enjoyed despite the hard circumstances and implications he experienced throughout his blessed age. He used to spend his study nights, enduring hunger, without being affected or discouraged by this suffering. The dear reader will perceive this great man’s thirst for ‘ilm (knowledge), in all its branches, till attaining to its serene foundations and imbibing from them without being quenched.

The world has shown him its back, making him taste various sorts of torment, bitterness and destitution, depriving him of even the sustenance necessities through which he could survive. But, did this enfeeble him? No, he persisted on withstanding till all the world was humbled before his feet, and the monarch of his time came to him for his flattery. Nevertheless, he never cared for all worldly lusts and enjoyments, despite all temptations of life, maintaining his loftiness and sublimity in the world of knowledge, morals and humanity.

Hasan M Najafi

Preamble

The cultural onslaught is based on two pillars: the first is humiliating the pristine culture, and the second is overstating in publicizing for the substitute Western culture at the same time. Thus, people feel through this cultural ravishment and vilification for the deep-rooted culture, as being belittled before others, neglecting the abundant treasures their culture contains, seeking help from aliens, offering their culture and civilization (for sale) at an underrate.

The defunct Pahlavi regime strove hard to establish this policy in dealing with the West, as an idol for civilization, modernism and art, beside ethics and religion. Whereas it introduced the East as representing savagery and backwardness, and at best the Third World, the non-developed countries. These devilish policies have, to some extent, managed in achieving their goals, as many people - particularly the youth - began to look at the West as representing the free world that safeguards the human rights, and defends democracy and freedom.

But, as the known dictum says, the sun cannot be kept behind clouds forever, as realities have begun to emerge so clear, and the era of Islamic resurgence has started the era characterized with the contemporary generation’s return to its inborn nature, Qur’an, creed and ensigns.

Despite this optimistic illumination auguring well, the state of thought ravishment is still suffering, in many of the critical fields, the consequences of the Western influences.

The high degrees got in the West are still dazzling our sights, the medicine not holding an attractive Western brand is still ineffective and useless, Lot of Western cultural phenomena are penetrative or rather deep-rooted in our society's behaviorism. Besides, the West still selects for us the costumes we wear, identifies the kinds of medals to be granted to the winners, and we even expect to get the literary prizes.for which many are longing eagerly, from the West. But is it right to regard the West, as an ideal?The West whose real identity is revealed through its hollow mottos, and false claims of defending democracy and human rights.

What causes the feeling of having fault before the hangmen of the fifteenth Hijrah Century?!

We still view the West as an ideal, despite its adopting the apartheid policy, and its granting literary prizes to those who are devoid of adab (good manners), like Salman Rushdie, while ordering to prevent Muslim students from participating in the Physics Olympiad.

The Islamic world is asked tostrive bard for forming an “Islamic World Order”, and not to be hopeful of the West’s mottos, like democracy, freedom and defending the human rights.

Is there any hope, while witnessing the tragedies that occurred and still going on in the Islamic lands, in Bosnia Herzegovina, Algeria and Palestine? Whoever is concerned with Muslims’ affairs should know that no outlet or solution (for crises) is there but only through resorting and returning to the Qur’an and its expansive shadows.

Liqa’ ‘ma’a al- ‘Abrar (series) is only a step on the path, the path of recovery to the ego and self, through introducing the beacons of Islamic thought, the great magnates, in whose worlds and pervasive prospects, the leaders and thinkers of other creeds and doctrines, disappear.

The West is more intimidated and worried of the Ummah’s recognizing and attaining its identity, and return to its ensigns to those who managed, through their consolidated efforts, in paving the hard way of Islam.

The series of Liqa’ m’a al- ‘Abrar has undertaken the task of exploring the concealed characteristics and natures of seventy illuminant planets throughout the sky of Islamic thought, and introducing them as luminaries and beacons on the road of construction the construction of the Islamic civilization anew.

Baqir al- ‘Ulum Research Foundation

Qum

Author’s Preface

Man, while striving to attain perfection and nearness to Allah, is need of an example and ideal, to follow his guide and tread his path. Otherwise it is infeasible for him to attain his final objective and aspired end, besides not reaching the apex of sublime humanity.

The best example, guide and ideal for all mankind, being the prophets and Infallible Imams and their acts, without whose teachings and precepts no one can get access to the shore of bliss. After them in order, come the scholars (‘ulama’), who followed their example, and who truly constitute the inheritors of prophets, being vivid examples for piety and submission to Allah the Glorified, turning to be good pattern for others in respect of guidance and preaching.

Hence, the Islamic Ummah is asked to recognize and be acquainted with those bright faces, and be enlightened by those illuminant beacons,who elevated the status of ‘ilm (knowledge) and ‘ulama’ (scholars), beside learning lessons and getting examples from their conduct (sirah).

So, this book tries to shed light upon one of those stars that shone in the world of Islam, undertaking a remarkable role during the Thirteenth Hijrah Century; being a dignitary that managed, through his broad dimensions, in abundantly contributing to the Islamic thought and heritage, represented by al-Mirza Abu al-Qasim al-Qummi.

Talking about such a great, versatile, comprehensive personality is not so easy, as the pen fails and stops short of covering some of his aspects and horizons.

Al-Qummi was an eminent ‘alim, laboring hard for God’s sake, the very incarnation of piety and asceticism, possessing all humaneexcellences, and the legend in uprightness and forbearance. It is preponderant for the contemporary generation - particularly the youth who constitute the real resource for Islamic nations - to be acquainted with this great man who is really a genius in Islamic thought and creed.

Chapter 1: A Glance at Al-Mirza’s Biography

Ayatullah al-Mirza Abu al-Qasim al-Gilani, is the son of Akhund Mulla Hasan or Muhammad Hasan known as ‘al-Mirza al-Qummi’, and one of the great ‘ulama’ of fiqh (jurisprudence) during the 13th Hijrah century. He lived during the reign of Fath ‘Ali Shah, holding the post of Shi’ah leadership and religious high authority (marji’iyyah), being of a great status during his time.

In origin, he is from “Shaft”1 which belongs to Gilan, but he was born and grown up in Jabliq.2 The title al­Qummi is ascribed to him due to spending a long period of his life in the holy town of Qum. His great honour, broad knowledge, and all-inclusive researches and treatises were so influential, and played a great role in making him among the eminent ‘ulama’, so he was called al-Fadil al-Qummi, and al-Muhaqqiq al-Qummi, or Sahib al­ Qawanin (Owner of laws), after authoring his precious book Qawanin al- ‘usul.

His Father

His father is Akhund Mulla Hasan, from the people of Gilan, who departed it during his youth toward Isfahan in the first half of the 12th Hijrah century, which was at that time a big centre for Islamic sciences. There he acquired knowledge under two of its ‘ulama’: al-Mirza Hidayat Allah and his brother al-Mirza Habib Allah. After a short time, the two tutors prepared to travel to Jabliq for undertaking adjudication and administration affairs in that region.

So, no choice was left for the young knowledge-seeker, but to accompany them to that region, hoping for quenching his thirst for knowledge, being pleased with their lofty conduct. So, he has departed Isfahan andemigrated to that distant region, where he persevered on acquiring from their abundant knowledge. Then it was destined for him to get married to the daughter of his tutor, al-Mirza Hidayat Allah, who was a venerable lady known of piety and chastity.

His Birth

Shortly, the product of that blessedmarriage, was a sweet and pure fruit, being a candle that illumined the hearts of the two young spouses, with love and hope, in the year 11513 of the Prophetic migration (Hijrah). Then the Little child, who held the name Abu al-Qasim, has proceeded and was reared upun warm laps, full of piety, faith (iman), chastity and love.

Under an extreme patronage of his father, the boy began to learn the first lessons in shaping his future character, that was lately formed, whose foundation was faith, piety and knowledge.

Hence, his character was formed on two solid pivots, which are: inheritance and education, which enabled him to undertake heavy responsibilities in future, which began to spring forth gradually.

The Beginning

Allah has bestowed upon Abu al-Qasim numerous abilities and talents, reflected through his striving to attain the aspired perfection, and his bright forehead used to augur of a blooming future before him.

He has excelled his companions by his smartness, acumen, understanding and perception. And from the very first days of his age, be used to show keen interest for seeking knowledge, and striving for reaching the perfection. So, he started to get principles of science from his father, who never spared any effort to teach him various branches of knowledge, starting with preliminaries and Arabic literature. On attaining puberty, be asked his father’s permission to travel to Khunsar,4 to learn usul (principles), under its outstanding ‘alim - al Sayyid Husayn al Khunsari.5

His Marriage

Al-Mirza Abu al-Qasim’s acute wit, genius, full acquaintance of ‘ilmi issues, and sublime personality auguring well of a bloomy future, have impressed his tutor’s heart, to the extent that he (tutor) brought him nearer, giving him special position. Then he gave him in marriage his sister, the woman of chastity, purity and virtue, the scion of the honorable ‘Alawi household, whose marriage was regarded as a pattern.Because Islam gives great importance to moral aspect in selecting the spouse, as the criterion being piety and faith, not wealth or prettiness.

Based on this, whoever looks at marriage as a project, subject to void considerations, like dignity, opulence, and superficial charm, is greatly mistaken, as all of these are but speedily vanishing things.Whereas nobility, profound faith, piety (taqwa), chastity and purity are stable pillars never wavering with time changes.

Thus, the ethical characteristics enjoyed by Abu al­ Qasim have prompted al-Sayyid al-Khunsari to offer him marrying his sister, in an episode similar to that of the marriage of our master Moses (A) with Shu’ayb’s daughter. Shu’ayb came to recognize the lofty merits that distinguished Moses from others, on meeting him, so he offered him to marry his daughter saying to him - as stated in the Holy Qur’an:

“He said: Lo! I fain would marry thee to one of these two daughters of mine...”( 28:27). 6

Migration to Iraq

After passage of many years, Abu al-Qasim realized that Khunsar could no more quench his thirst for knowledge, or satisfy his eagerness for more learning. Therefore, he made up his mind to migrate to Iraq, after bidding his tutor al-Sayyid Husayn al-Khunsari farewell, betaking himself then to Karbala’, the metropolis of al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali (A).

There (at Karbala’) he joined the disciples of the great Ustadh al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Behbahani, who was then a torch of knowledge and learning, and an abundant fountainhead outpouring fiqh, culture and light. Then he managed to get school certificate in ijtihad and narration, from him.7

Through some of his poetic verses, al-Mirza mentions the year 1174 (H) in which he migrated to Iraq, as was a usual custom among some poets and literary personages, concerned with chronogram by counting the sentences, according to the numbers opposite to the alphabet.

During his stay in migration house, he learnt under its teachers and scholarly dignitaries, such as al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Mazandarani, al-Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi al-Futuni, beside his teacher al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Behbahani, who have all granted him permission to narrate

Return to Homeland

After spending long years in learning and investigation, al-Mirza al-Qummi felt quenched of knowledge, realizing then the necessity to shoulder a greatresponsibility, that he had to return to his homeland as ordained by the holy verse:

“Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may gain sound knowledge in religion, and that they may warn their folk when they return to them, so that they may beware” (9:122)

Thus al-Mirza started his return trip to his birth place Jabliq, residing then in one of its villages called “Durrah Bagh” where he lived with his parents. Then he, in response to the insistence of one of his disciples (al-Hajj Muhammad Sultan, who was a wealthy, benevolent and religious man) shifted to another adjacent village called “Qal’ah Babu”, where he settled down and started his activities of preaching, guiding and teaching. This village was at that time, drowned in a darkness of ignorance (jahl), as his class was only attended by two disciples: al­ Mirza HidayatAllah, and the aforementioned disciple al­Hajj Muhammad Sultan, beside another one whose name was ‘Ali Dust Khan, the son of al-Hajj Tahir Khan. He was teaching them nahw (grammar) and mantiq (logic).

Al-Mirza faced bitter experiences at the hands ofthis village inhabitants , due to their unawareness of his status and sublime position. So, they embarked on vexing and annoying him, preferring to him one of day-school ignorant teachers, or rather they could never distinguish between him and Mulla Shah Murad, who was much lower in rank than Sabz ‘Ali.

The Village-Mulla’s Intrigue

The village Mulla has never missed any chance to conspire against al-Mirza al-Qummi, gazing him with envying eyes,laying for an opportune time to launching an onslaught against him, benefiting from the utter ignorance prevailing over the whole village. The opportunity presented itself, when the villagers gathered at an occasion, so he exploited this chance, claiming before all people that al-Mirza being only an ignorant man, having no bit knowledge of anything, and rather be was illiterate unable to write.

For proving his claim before all, he asked al­ Mirza to write “snake” for him. The great mujtahid never disdained from this silly demand, so he took the pen and nicely wrote the word “snake”. Thereat, the Mulla prepared to direct his blow, so he took the paper and embarked on showing it to the people in a mocking way. Then he drew a sketch like a snake with its triangle head and twisted tail, exposing it then to the villagers, who judged that what was written byal-Mirza had nothing to do with the snake, while what was sketched by their Mulla was the truth!

This caused al-Mirza to have bitter feeling, due to living amongst ignorantpeople, that are deceived easily by the foolish tricks of Sabz ‘Ali and Shah Murad. So, he resorted to implore the Almighty Allah to deliver him of this town of which the people are oppressors.

Travel to Isfahan and Shiraz

The earth, vast as it is, was straitened for al-Mirza, besides his being unable to tolerate staying there, and feeling suffocated in that atmosphere of ignorance and plots, so he made up his mind to travel to Isfahan.

Then he settled down in “Kasah Giran” School, engaged in the profession of teaching. Soon many disciples and knowledge-seekers gathered around him, to get from his abundant knowledge. But this could not last long, due to presence of many jealous people who envied him, and soon many rumours were gossiped here and there, with the aim of poisoning the atmosphere and degrading the status and sublimity of his position.

Then he thought that it was for his convenience to depart this region toward Shiraz, during the reign of Karim Khan Zand. He lived there for about three years, suffering very straitened circumstances, with severe Poverty and destitution; whereat the late al­ Shaykh Abd al-Nabi sent him a sum of money. Then al­ Mirza returned to Isfahan to purchase a collection of books to the fields of fiqh, linguistics and hadith, which were badly needed by him, after which he decided to go back to Jabliq again.

Migration to Qum

Al-Mirza could not settle down in Jabliq, or in “Qal’ah Babu” in particular, the village that was plunged in darkness of ignorance (jahl), being unpleased to live there, due to the absence of knowledge-seekers, or anyone concerned with (Islamic) rulings (ahkam). So, he felt of distress, that led him to migrate this time to the holy town of Qum, where lies the shrine of the pure ‘Alawi “Fatimah” the daughter of al- ‘Imam Musa ibn Ja’far, the Seventh Imam of Ahl al-Bayt( A). He sought refuge at the sacred shrine, solemnly reiterating Allah’s verses:

“Lo! He who wardeth off (evil) and endureth (findeth favour); for lo! Allah loseth not the wages of the kindly.” (12:90)

“But lo! With hardship goeth ease. Lo! With hardship goeth ease.” (94:5- 6)

Then the doors of heaven began to open for him, and God has showered abundantly over him out of His plentiful sustenance, and at the same time people would recognize his worth, with his status being sublimated among them. His arrival coincided with the conflict going on between Muhammad Khan al-Qajar and Lutf ‘Ali Khan Zand, which ended with the defeat of the latter, followed by decline of the Zandi Dynasty forever.

This holy town witnessed shining of a new star in the world of Shi’i marji’iyyah (religious authority), and al­Mirza al-Qummi’s attaining worldwide fame. There at the great marji’ embarked on compilation, classification, teaching, issuing fatwas (verdicts) and preaching, beside undertaking the leadership of Muslim worshippers (imamah) at the town mosque.

During the visit of Fath ‘Ali Shah who has recently assumed the kingdom throne to Qum, he got acquainted with al-Qummi, appreciating his status and knowledge, with praying behind him. After performing the noon and afternoon prayers, the King8 advanced forward for presenting his affection and appreciation to al­ Mirza al-Qummi, making him then to ride his mount, while the King walked along with his procession till reaching his house.

This step taken by the Qajari King did impress the souls, having much influence over hearts, rendering al­ Mirza a worldwide fame.

Though Qum (the small town) was not so important at that time, but al-Qummi’s eminence prompted a large number of men of honour and knowledge, to make pilgrimage to it for acquiring from the ‘ilm of the grand marji’. Knowledge-seekers also rushed toward him like butterflies flying around the candles, longing for the abundance of knowledge whose fountains have gushed out at Qum.

Ever since, the town star glared at the sky of Islamic sciences, turning to be a centre of radiance that began to dazzle the eyes. Within a short time, Qum proved to be the metropolis of knowledge, whereas Isfahan, which used to hoist that banner, started to decline gradually. Then Qum became the Ka’bah for knowledge-seekers who used to visit it from all directions and quarters. So, al-Mirza al­Qummi can be considered the real founder of the Theological School (al-Hawzah al- ‘Ilmiyyah) at Qum, which kept, through his concerted and relentless efforts, on occupying the priority position till the contemporary time.

Turning Toward Iraq

Most of al-Mirza’s life was spent at the sacred town of Qum, during which he made several journeys and trips to different places. They included his travel to visit the sanctuaries at the land of Iraq, before his compiling the book Qawanin al- ‘usul, which he completed in 1205 (H), containing his own opinions and theories on ‘ilm al- ‘usul. He betook himself first to pay homage to the holy shrine of Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him).

The ‘ulama’ of Najaf availed themselves of that visit, offering him to hold a debate regarding his opinions, nominating for this task al-Sayyid Husayn al-Husayni al­ ‘Amili, who was the most eminent scholar in‘ilm al- ‘usul. The debate took a long time, and numerous suspicions regarding al-Mirza’s theory were introduced there, for which it was infeasible for him to give answers thereat, so he promised the questioners to give replies afterwards.

All those suspicions and questions were cited by al­ Mirza in his book Qawanin al- ‘usul, in his discussions about ijtihad and taqlid9 (imitation).

Pilgrimage to the Old House

It was one of his trips he made from Qum, betaking himself toward Makkah, with a keen desire for making pilgrimage to Allah’s sanctified House, after long waiting.

This, since he could not find opportune time before, due to his shouldering great responsibilities, like the leadership of al-Hawzah al- ‘Ilmiyyah and undertaking the administration of Muslims’ affairs. So, in the year 1212 (H), he betook himself toward the hearts fascinator: Allah's Sanctuary. After performing the hajj rituals, he made his way toward al-Madinah to visit the tomb of the holy Messenger and the graves of Ahl al-Bayt (A) at al Baqi’.

During his stay there, he met al-Sayyid Bahr al- ‘Ulum, with whom he held significant discussions. It is noteworthy to point out that al-Mirza al-Qummi, during his residence at Najaf, has granted one of its scholars - al­ Shaykh Asad Allah al-Tustari- a school -certificate (ijazah) in narration, with a signature dated “Monday 17th of Rajab, in 1212 (H)”.

His Trip to Kazzaz

His Trip to Kazzaz:10

He travelled to this region from Qum too, where he got married to the sister of al-Hajj al-Mulla Muhammad al­ Kazzazi; who joined afterwards the disciples of al-Mirza al-Qummi.

His Trips to Khunsar

Al-Mirza has made several visits to Khunsar, due to the fact reported by the author of Rawdat al-jannat, being that two Sayyids from Khunsar, who were al-Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi al-Khunsari and his nephew al-Sayyid ‘Ali al­ Khunsari, the grandsons of al-Sayyid Husayn al-Khunsari - the tutor of al-Mirza, as mentioned before have become among the disciples of al-Mirza. So, as a gratitude for his great tutor, he showered special care upon them, being too kind to them, preferring them over his own sons, loving them to the extent that he made several visits to Khunsar.

Notes

1. It is at the south-eastern part of the town of Foman.

2. It is a region at Loristan Province.

3. Some narration state that he was born in 1153 or 1150 H.

4. It is a town situated between Isfahan and Golbaygan and known with its moderate weather.

5. He passed away in 1191 (H), and regarded among the ‘ulama’ of the 12th Hijrah century, leaving numerous works.

6. It is reported that the late al-Mulla Muhammad Taqi al­ Majlisi has offered al-Mulla Salih al-Mazandarani to marry his daughter, due to the knowledge, piety and uprightness he enjoyed, despite the latter’s severe destitution.

7. Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Behbahani, known with the title al- ‘Ustadh al-Wahid. He is one of the great Shi’ah fuqaha’ and Imamiyyah prides. He was born in 1118 (H) at Isfahan, and dead in 1205 (H), and his tomb lies now in one of the porticoes of al- ‘Imam al-Husayn’s (A) shrine.

8. This step taken by the king may be interpreted as an attempt to show toadyism toward people, who used to hold the ‘ulama’ in high status.

9. Some are of the opinion that it is al-Mirza who has introduced to the Najaf ‘ulama’ the notion of that debate.

10. It is a district related to Arak Province, famous with growing cereals, beet and grape.