Extracts From: LESSONS IN ISLAMIC LAWS Author:
: Sayyed Riyadh al-Hakeem
Publisher: Dar Al-Hilal
Category: Jurisprudence Science


Author: Ayatullah Sayyed Muhammad Saeed al-Hakeem
: Sayyed Riyadh al-Hakeem
Publisher: Dar Al-Hilal

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Publisher: Dar Al-Hilal


Extracts From:


Based on the verdicts of His Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Saeed al-Hakeem (May Allah (swt) prolong his life)

by Sayyed Riyadh al-Hakeem

Dar Al-Helal


بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم


Sayyed Riyadh al-Hakeem

Translated by: Bilqis & Zahra Davdani

Office of Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Saeed al-Hakeem

IRAQ - al-Najaf al-Ashraf Tel.: (+964 33) 370046 - 333180.

IRAN - Qum - P.O. Box: 37185/486 Tel.: (+98 251) 7740230 - Fax: (+98 251) 7742146.

Syria - Damascus - Sayeda Zaynab (a.s) Tel.: (+963 11) 6470752 - Fax: 6472058.

Lebanon - Beirut Tel.: (+961 1) 451634 - Fax: (+961 1) 451635.

Website: http://www.alhakeem.com

Email: info@alhakeem.com


This version is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errors are not corrected.

Table of Contents

Introduction 9

Roots of Religion (Usool-u-Din) 12

Branches of Religion (Furoo-u-Din) 14

The Legal Signs of Maturity 15

Deriving the Islamic Laws (Ijtihad) and Following One Who Has Done So (Taqleed) 16

The Impurities (al-Najaasaat) 18

The Purifiers 21

Ablution (al-Wudhu) 24

First Section: Method of Wudhu 24

First: Washing the Face: 24

Second: Washing of the Arms: 24

Third: Wiping of the Front Head: 25

Fourth: Wiping of the top of the feet: 25

Second Section: Conditions of Wudhu’ 25

Third Section: Things Which Nullify Wudhu 26

Tayammum 28

First Section: Reasons for Its Performance 28

Second Section: On What is Used for Doing Tayammum 28

Third Section: Method of Performing Tayammum 28

Prayer (al-Salaat) 30

First and Second Sections: On Its Timing and Number 31

Third Section: On the Clothes of the Performer of Prayer 32

Fourth Section: Place of the One Who Prays 34

Fifth Section: The Qibla (Direction of Prayer) 35

The Method of Prayer 36

First Section: Adhan & Iqama 36

How to Perform Adhan and Iqama 36

Second Section: On the Obligatory Acts of Prayer 38

First: Intention 38

Second: Takbirat-ul-Ehram 38

Third: Standing (Qiyaam) 38

Fourth: Calmness (on obligatory precaution) 39

Fifth & Sixth: Qiraat & Dhikr 39

Seventh: The bowing 40

Eighth: Prostration 40

Ninth: Tasleem 40

Eleventh: sequence 40

Twelfth: Continuity 41

Note: 41

Things Which Invalidate the Prayer 42

Congregational Prayer 43

Conditions of Congregational Prayer 43

Rules of Congregational Prayer 44

Friday Prayer 44

The Prayer of a Traveller 45

Missed Prayers (Salaatul Qada) 45

The Prayer of Signs (Salaatul Ayaat) 45

The Daily Supererogatory (Nawafil) Prayers 46

Fasting 47

Things Which Invalidate the Fast 47

Conditions for Breaking the Fast 48

The Qadha, Fidya, & Kaffara 49

Zakat-ul-Fitr 50

Zakat 51

1. Zakat of Wealth: 51

2. Zakat-ul-Fitr 51

Khums 52

Enjoining the Good (Amr bil Maroof) and Prohibiting the Evil (Nahi anil Munkar) 53

Rules of Islamic Modest Dress (Hijab) 58

Vows & Oaths 59

Lawful Foods 60

Slaughtering 61

Conclusion 62

Back Cover 63



To the millions of followers of the Ahlul Bayt (as)...

The pious scholars who have contributed towards guiding the Ummah, protecting it from mistakes and deviations, standing up against different kinds of plots and the cruelty of oppressors and their terrorism.

And the martyrs, whether they are the ones with whom the oppressors of the time have filled the mass graves in the deserts of Iraq..., of the ones whose pure bodies have vanished in the lakes of acid, or those whose bodies were cut up by grinders and other modern instruments of torture...

And the prisoners who faced the oppression of the state and the crimes of the torturers in the terrible cells of the concentration camps, and they did not change in the least.


In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise belongs to the Lord of the worlds and His blessings and peace be upon Muhammad (saws) and his pure progeny.

Islamic jurisprudence represents one of the important axes of Islamic culture, since it includes as many Qur’anic verses and a large number of the Prophetic traditions include the explanation of various legislative rulings, and the Muslims pay a great deal of attention to compiling the many and valuable legislative writings whether they be with proofs and reasoning or just straightforward rulings.

Despite the above, this book of ours does not reach those levels as it is a simplified book of Islamic Laws (Fiqh), whose aim is to build the Islamic fiqh culture according to the school of the Ahlul Bayt amongst the youth and the teenagers. However, it has a rare distinguishing quality not found in other books, which is that it was written in difficult and exceptional conditions, when we were imprisoned with the rest of our relatives - some of whom were martyred at that time - along with thousands of believing youths who were yarning for the Islamic culture and to learn the Islamic rulings.

Despite the merciless cruelty of the tyrants, the intensity of their watchful eye, and the sudden unexpected dangers surrounding us - because any religious educational activity would bring on execution at the order of the tyrant Saddam - the feeling of responsibility toward the urgent need there motivated me to write these two books, make copies of them, distribute them and teach them secretly in the rooms of the dark locked winds of the prison in which we were kept. The rulings of the book followed the pattern of Islamic rulings specific to the Abu Ghuraib prison west of Baghdad. The fate of one of the books was destruction during a raid and inspection which the torturers used to carry our. This second book, however, had a destiny: I wrote it in a simpler and easier language because the target audience was teenagers and those just entering their youth. Keeping in mind that the harsh security conditions at that time did not allow the believers in Iraq to refer to the last remnant of scholars and students of the Islamic seminary (howza) and to benefit from them, I set upon the writing of this book, copying it secretly and smuggling it outside the prison to full in this gap (the readers will notice that this book is limited to those Islamic rulings which concern the youth). Then the believers seized hold of this book and spread it all over Iraq.

After the fall of the tyrannical regime and the opening up of the opportunity to meet the needs of our children in knowing the Islamic laws on issues which concern them, I suggested the revision of the book for printing, to remind out youths with the help of their previous generation and also to make the latter resolved to know the Islamic laws despite the hard circumstances they had gone through and the dangers that surrounded them. This may contribute to strengthening the feeling of responsibility in this generation, to making them thankful for the blessing of Allah in delivering them from the oppressive regime and to them calling to Allah (swt) to complete his blessing on Iraq and the people of Iraq by delivering them from the yoke of occupation, to give them success in building their noble country and to strengthen their connection with their original religious roots.

This book has been written according to the verdicts of his highness my father, with simplifications, and I have named it ‘Lessons in Islamic Laws’. It is the second in a series of books on Islamic culture made easy, the first being ‘Islamic Belief System in Ten Lessons’. I ask the Creator, the Most High, to make it purely for His sake and that the growing generation may benefit from it. Indeed He is most High, Hearing and Answering.

Riyadh al-Hakim

Note from the ‘abd who typed up the book based on the hard-copy:

For the most part, this PDF is what was found in the book written by Sayyed Riyadh al-Hakeem and translated by the above-mentioned translators. However, there were a few changes in the spelling of some words, the removal of some images and of some sections found in the original book [i.e Questions, Lesson numbers], and the rewording of some sentences, as well as other changes. We ask Allah the Almighty to forgive us for any errors accidently made therein and neither claim perfection in our own selves, or in the copying of the book.

Roots of Religion (Usool-u-Din)

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, and Merciful

“And say: My Lord increase me in knowledge.” [20:114]

There are matters which every person must believe in and they are called the roots of religion.

And they are five:

Divine Unity (Tawhid), Justice (al-Adl), Prophethood (al-Nubuwwa), Leadership (Imamate), Resurrection (Ma’ad).

1- Divine Unity: This means that Allah is One, He is the One who created the universe with everything in it, from the earth to the sky, the sun, the moon, humans, and animals, etc.

2- Justice: This means that Allah is Just and He does not deal with anyone unjustly, and that He made rewards for those who do good and punishments for the disobedient.

3- Prophethood: It means that Allah, in order to guide people to good and distance them and warn them from evil and ugly deeds, has ordered some good people and entrusted them to convey his teachings to mankind. These people he has called prophets and messengers.

There were many prophets, such as Adam (as) who was the first, and also Nuh (as), Ibrahim (as), Musa (as), Isa (as), and the last of the Prophets was our Prophet Muhammad bin Abdullah (saws). Allah (swt) sent him with the religion of Islam and whoever believes in him and his message is a Muslim, so we are Muslims because we believe in Prophet Muhammad (saws) and what he brought - which is the religion of Islam.

4- Leadership: In the sense that the Prophet Muhammad (saws) has appointed a deputy to act as his representative in guiding the people and their affairs, and this deputy is called the Imam (as). The twelve Imams (as) were appointed in the following order:

1. Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as); buried in Najaf.

2. Imam Hasan ibn Ali al-Zaky (as); buried in Madina.

3. Imam Hussein al-Shahid (as); buried in Karbala.

4. Imam Ali ibn al-Hussein (as); buried in Madina.

5. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (as); buried in Madina.

6. Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as); buried in Madina.

7. Imam Musa al-Kadhim (as); buried in Baghdad (al-Kadhmiyya).

8. Imam Ali al-Ridha (as); buried in Khorasan (Mashhad).

9. Imam Muhammad al-Jawaad (as); buried in Baghdad (al-Kadhmiyya).

10. Imam Ali al-Hadi (as); buried in Samarra.

11. Imam Hasan al-Askari (as); buried in Samarra.

12. Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi (atf). He is the living Imam of our time who is named Imam-ul-asr (Imam of the age), he is the proof of Allah on us, and he is living in absence and will reappear by the permission of Allah (swt) to establish justice on the earth.

So whoever believes in the leadership of these Imams is called a Twelver Shia. Thus we are followers (Shias) of the Ahlul Bayt (as) because we believer in their leadership and in them.

5- Resurrection: This means that Allah (swt) will bring the people to life after their death and take account of their deeds on the Day of Judgment. He will enter the obedient righteous ones in to Heaven, which contains all that a person could wish for and desire. And he will enter the disobedient evildoers in to the fire wherein they will be punished.

So we must obey Allah (swt) and abide by the rules of religion, such as prayers, fasting, etc. - which we will explain. Thus we should adopt praiseworthy qualities such as truthfulness, trustworthiness, and justice, so that Allah (swt) may be pleased with us and enter us in to the Heaven in which the Prophets, the Imams, the martyrs and all the righteous live.

Branches of Religion (Furoo-u-Din)

These are the Islamic rulings which are compulsory for every Muslim to follow. The most important of them are ten in number:

1- Prayer (al-Salat).

2- Fasting (al-Sawm).

3- Pilgrimage (al-Hajj).

4- Tax (Khums).

5- Tax (Zakat).

6- Holy War (Jihad).

7- Enjoining the good (Amr bil Maaroof).

8- Forbidding the evil (Nahi anil Munkar).

9- Attachment to the Prophet (saws), to the Imams (as) after him, and also to the believers with regard to their faith (Tawalla).

10- To detest the enemies of Allah (swt) from the disbelievers and the oppressors who have deviated from the truth (Tabarra).

The Legal Signs of Maturity

A boy’s maturity has three signs:

1- That he has completed fifteen years according to the Islamic calendar, which equals around fourteen years and six and a half months according to the Christian calendar.

2- Emission of semen due to wet dreams or by any other means.

3- The appearance of thick hair on the face and around the pubic region.

And it is sufficient for maturity that one of these signs is verified from these three signs, even if the other signs are not present.

If the boy doesn’t know whether he is mature or not then he should discuss the subject with a senior member of his family like his father or older brother, who would make things clear for him.

A girl’s maturity has only one sign:

Completion of nine years according to the Islamic calendar, which equals around eight years, eight months and twenty days according to the Christian calendar.

Issue 1: When a boy or a girl reaches the age of legal maturity, the stage of childhood ends and they must comply with the laws of Islam. So they must perform all the obligatory acts and refrain from all the prohibited acts. And their judgment becomes like that of an adult such that Allah (swt) will take them to account for their deeds and show gratitude to them for their obedience and write for them a great deal of reward on the Day of Judgment. In addition, they should perform some recommended acts to increase their reward, like helping the poor, visiting Mosques and the shrines of the Prophet (saws) and the Imams (as), supplicating, reciting the Qur’an, and performing some of the recommended prayers. If they don’t know about these then they should ask others so that they don’t miss out on the opportunity to earn the reward of these acts. Over and above all of this they must rely on Allah (swt) and seek His help in their affairs, for He, the Most High, is the best Master and the best Helper.

Deriving the Islamic Laws (Ijtihad) and Following One Who Has Done So (Taqleed)

We have mentioned before that a Muslim must comply with the branches of religion and all the Islamic Laws which Allah (swt) has ordered, so that Allah (swt) may be pleased him and make him enter Heaven after his death. However, there is a problem confronting us: the Prophet (saws) to whom Allah (swt) communicated he laws of Islam passed away more than fourteen hundred years ago. So how do we know the rules of religion if the Messenger (saws) and the Imams (as) are not present before us?

In order to solve this problem we say: There are scholars who have studied the religious sciences for many years and specialized in them in order to know the rules of Shariah.

These scholars are known as the Mujtahideen. The Mujtahid is the scholar who knows the rules of religion and it is incumbent upon us to ask him and to follow his opinions and to comply with them, and this is what Taqleed means. Thus Taqleed is to act according to the opinion of the Mujtahid.

One may ask why we do not follow a non-Mujtahid in the rules of religion. The answer is that no one except a Mujtahid can have proper and complete comprehension of the rules of religion. Therefore we do not follow anyone other than him, since neither the businessman, nor the doctor, nor the engineer, nor anyone, else has studied the sciences of religion and specialized in them.

The doctor, for example, has studied medicine and specialized in it, therefore we refer to him when we are sick and comply with his instructions and we do not follow the instructions of anybody else in treating our disease. And the engineer has studied the science of engineering and has specialized in it, so he supervises the construction of buildings and bridges.

Thus, in ever field we consult the specialist of that subject. Therefore we must refer back to the Mujtahid concerning the rulings of religion.

Issue 2: The Mujtahid whom people follow must have two important conditions:

Firstly: He should be on a high level of justice, that is he should be obedient to Allah (swt) and must comply with the laws of Shariah.

Secondly: He should be more knowledgeable than all other Mujtahideen (Jurists). Just as a patient would choose the best doctor for his treatment, a person should choose the most knowledgeable Mujtahid to follow in his actions.

And the most knowledgeable is the one who has more knowledge than others in the rules of religion, which are also called the laws of Shariah.

Issue 3: One may ask, how do I know that a particular Mujtahid is more knowledgeable than the others?

The answer to this is that there are scholars who have specialized in the religious sciences, so you must ask one of them who is suitable placed to be able to inform you whether a particular Mujtahid is the most knowledgeable so that you can do his taqleed.

If someone from your family or friends guarantees that they have asked the scholars about the most knowledgeable Mujtahid, then you can rely on them. However, you must be sure that your friend has actually asked one of the expert and trustworthy scholars. And if he has not asked such a scholar, then you cannot rely on his personal certainty, because he is not capable of knowing who the most learned is as he has not specialized in the religious sciences.

The Impurities (al-Najaasaat)

There are impure things which are not permissible for a Muslim to drink or to eat, just as it is necessary for him to remove them from his body and clothes and to purify his body and clothes of them during prayer (salaat). These things are called the impurities and they are ten in number:

First &Second: Human urine and faeces. As for the urine and faeces of animals, they are impure if three conditions are found in the animal:

a) That its blood gushes out when it is slaughtered and does not slowly leak out, i.e it has veins from which the blood can gush forth at the time of slaughtering.

b) Its meat is forbidden to eat.

c) It does not fly in the air.

For example, the wolf contains all these three conditions: its blood gushes out when it is slaughtered, its meat is forbidden to eat in Islam and it does not fly in the air. Therefore its urine and faeces are impure.

If any one of these conditions is not found in an animal, then its urine and faeces are pure (tahir). For example, the blood of a fish leaks and does not gush out, the meat of a sheep is lawful to eat, and the bat and the hawk fly in the air. So all three of these and others similar to them, in which all the three conditions together are not found, have urine and faeces which are pure.

Issue 4: If there is an animal for which you do not know whether the three conditions are met or not, then the ruling is that its urine and faeces are pure.

Third: Human semen, and that of an animal whose blood gushes out when slaughtered and whose meat is not eaten.

Fourth: A human corpse, and that of an animal if its blood gushes out and does not just leak out. So if we find the corpse of an animal like a sheep then it is impure. Similar is the case of an animal which has not been slaughtered according to the laws of the Shariah, such as an animal which has been slaughtered by a non-believer (Kaafir).

As for the dead fish, it is pure because its blood trickles and it does not have veins from which the blood may gush out.

Issue 5: The corpses of every animal whose blood does not flow when slaughtered, such as insects, fishes, and frogs, are pure. As for those animals for whom one does not know whether their blood flows or leaks when slaughtered, they are ruled as being pure.

Issue 6: The meat and skin in a Muslim country is ruled as being permissible to be used for eating and for wearing during prayer. If it is imported from a Kaafir country and if the Muslim who is selling it is a believer who complies with the rules of religion, then you may assume that he is concerned about not sinning against the Shariah.

Issue 7: If it is not known whether the meat and leather present in Muslim countries are local or imported, then they are pure and it is permissible to eat them and to wear them during prayer. Also the artificial leather manufactured in non-Muslim countries are pure.

Fifth: The blood of a human being, and that of an animal whose blood flows when slaughtered, such as sheep and birds. If the blood of an animal leaks or trickles when slaughtered, and does not flow, like fishes, frogs, insects (e.g. fly or bed-bug), then the blood is pure.

Issue 8: If you find blood on your cloths and you do not know whether it is from your own body or from insects, then it is pure.

Issue 9: The blood which is in an egg, inside the thin membrane, is pure. But it is an obligatory precaution (Ihtiyat Wajib) not to eat it.

Issue 10: The blood which flows from the animal on the slaughtering is impure, but the blood which remains in the body of the slaughtered animal after slaughtering is pure. So you can purify the neck of the slaughtered animal after slaughtering it and also the knife. Then when you cut the animal, the blood which drips out is pure.

Issue 11: The blood which comes out of an abscess or boil is impure. However, if yellow liquid comes out of them and one is not sure if it mixed with blood, then it is pure.

Issue 12: If the spirits and alcohol used in perfumes and medicines are intoxicating in their liquid form then they are impure, but if they are intoxicating in their solid form – whether they remain in that state or change to liquid – they are pure. But it is not allowed to drink them because of their intoxicating quality. If the form of the intoxicant is not known then it is considered pure. Even though we recommend avoiding them as it may come to light that the source was in fact liquid intoxicant.

Sixth &Seventh: Dog and pig, and their sweat, saliva and hair. But the sea-dog and sea-pig are pure.

Eighth: Wine and every liquid intoxicant such as whisky and beer, commonly drunk by sinful people.

Ninth: Non-believers (Kafir), with the exception of Zoroastrians, the Jews and the Christians, are considered impure by obligatory precaution. Whereas the Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians are ruled as being pure.

Tenth: The sweat of a ‘Jalala Camel’: that is a camel which has eaten the faeces of a human being.

Issue 13: Everything which comes into contact with any one of these ten impure things, if wet, becomes impure. If it is dry then it does not become impure. If your hand is dry and it touches a piece of dry blood or you shake hands with a non-believer, whose hand is also dry, then your hand does not become impure and remains pure. As the saying goes; dry on dry is pure, without any controversy.

Issue 14: Little Water (al-Maa’ al-Qaleel) and fluids such as juices and oils, become impure in totality if even a minute amount of impure substance falls in them.

If the substance which comes in contact with the impurity is solid, like wood, solid fat or cheese, then only that region of it is impure which comes into contact with the impure thing. So if a drop of blood falls on cheese, then the whole of it doesn’t become impure. Only that part upon which the blood fell becomes impure, so it is possible to purge it off the impurity and then consume it.

Issue 15: Fats or oils, honey, medicines, and other necessities that are imported – except meats and skins (whose ruling was given in issues 5 & 6) – from the countries of the non-believers are taken as pure if one is not sure of their impurity, and the eating, drinking and use of them is allowed.

Issue 16: Drinking and eating of an impure thing is not allowed. The same is the case with anything that has become impure due to contact with an impurity. So, if a drop of blood fell in a container of water or broth, drinking and eating from it is not allowed so long as it remains impure.

Issue 17: It is not permissible to make Mosques impure (najis) and it is obligatory to make them pure at that time. So, if a drop of blood falls in a mosque then it is obligatory to make it pure, and if one is not able to do it then one must inform someone to make it pure.

Note: The ten intrinsically impure things cannot be made pure in any way. Things other than these which become impure can be made pure. For example, if your hand, or the earth, or clothes, or something else, becomes impure, they can be made pure. The thing which make impure things pure and the method of purification are given below.

The Purifiers

These are the things with which it is possible to make things which have become impure pure, and they are ten in number.

First: Water. Things which have become impure, by one of the intrinsically impure things mentioned earlier, can be made pure by pouring water over them. Before we specify how to purify with water, we will give an introduction to the types of water in order to then explain how to purify using each of them. Thus we say that water is of four types:

1. Running water, such as the water of the sea, river, springs and rivulets.

2. Rain water, at the time of its coming down from the sky.

3. Kur water, which is twenty seven cubic spans of hand and equals approximately 464.1 Kg. An example is the water collected in a reservoir or a big hole.

4. Little water, such as that found in a jug or basket, such that it is less than kur.

Issue 18: Rain water, running water and kur water do not become impure if an impurity falls in them as long as the colour, taste and smell of the water does not change to that of the impurity. So, if blood falls into a reservoir of kur water and the water does not change, then it remains pure. However, if a lot of blood falls such that it colours the water red or pink, then the water will become impure and it is not possible to drink it or to use it for wudhu (ablution). Similarly, if an impurity like urine falls into a storage tank of water which subsequently takes on the smell of urine.

Issue 19: Water in pipes and taps have the same ruling as kur water. So if the water from a pipe pours into a bucket or basin in which a drop of impurity falls, it doesn’t become impure.

Issue 20: Little water becomes impure by even a little impurity falling in it, such as a drop of blood, even if it causes no change to the water.

Issue 21: How do we purify things with water?

Answer: Things are purified with water in the following manner: Clothes, blankets and carpets, etc., are made pure with running water, or kur water, or rain water, by one washing. They become pure by just immersing them in water. If rain water covers the carpet or it is immersed in a river then it becomes pure. To make these items pure with little water involves washing them twice and squeezing the water out each time – if they have been made impure because of urine (except if it is the urine of a male baby who is being breastfed). If the material was made impure by something other than urine then washing and squeezing them once is enough. All of the above applies upon removing the impurity from the material.

Utensils for eating and drinking can be purified by washing once with rain water, running water, or kur water. If little water is used, then the water should be poured on them after removing the impurity from them, then filling them with water and pouring it out, then filling them again with water and emptying it, then filling them once more and emptying.

The remainder of everyday objects, like the body, the earth, and other tools such as the knife, the toothbrush etc, can be made pure with running water, rain water, or kur water, by washing once – with the condition that the impurity is removed from them. If little water is used and it has become impure by urine, then it should be washed twice, else it should be washed once. And it is sufficient in the latter case that the water is simply continued to be poured after the impurity is removed.

Issue 22: If the clothes are made impure by something other than urine, such as blood, and if you want to purify it with little water in a bucket, then you must remove the blood first, put the clothes in the empty bucket, and then pour water in to the bucket until the clothing is immersed in it. Then take the clothing out, squeeze the water out, and throw the water to the sink. Now the clothing and bucket have become pure.

If the clothing has become impure by urine then repeat the above procedure once more only.

Issue 23: If a suckling male baby who does not eat food urinates on his or someone else’s clothes, then it is sufficient to make it pure with little water just once, and it is an obligatory precaution to squeeze it also.

Second Purifier: The earth, as it purifies the underside of the feet and shoes if they become impure while walking. If someone reads on an impurity then walks on pure earth which is dry until the intrinsically impure thing comes off, then the underneath of the shoe becomes pure. Similarly, if he is barefoot and steps on an impurity then the soles of his feet become pure by walking on dry, pure earth.

Third: The sun, as it purifies the earth and every immovable thing on it, such as doors, trees etc. If the impure region is wet and the impure part becomes dry (after removal of the impurity) because of the strong heat of the sun, then it becomes pure and does not need water be poured over it.

Issue 24: If the impure earth is dry – whether it has become impure with urine or another intrinsically impure thing – it is sufficient to spray water on it, after which if it dries with the heat of the sun it becomes pure. Thus it is not necessary to purify it with water. If it becomes dry with the wind or the impurity is not removed from it, then it remains impure.

Fourth: Transformation (al-Istehala): This means that the impure thing changes to another substance, for example the steam which rises from the impure water or urine is pure. Also, if a piece of wood which has been made impure is burnt, then its ashes are pure.

Fifth: Change (al-Inqilab): This is the changing of wine in to vinegar. As we have said before, wine is impure, so when vinegar is manufactured the juice first becomes wine – this becoming impure – then it changes gradually to vinegar and so it becomes pure. This is the meaning of wine changing into vinegar.

Sixth: Transfer (al-Intiqal): Such as the transfer of impure blood to insects. For example, the blood of a dog is impure and the blood of an insect in pure. So if a mosquito sucks the blood of a dog and it transfers in to the mosquito, it becomes part of its blood and is thus pure. However, before it enters inside the mosquito, i.e. while being sucks, it is not pure. So, if you kill a mosquito while it is sucking the blood of a dog, that blood is impure.

Seventh: Islam: When a non-believer becomes a Muslim he becomes pure and does not need to purify his body with water. But he remains in ritual impurity and requires obligatory ceremonial bath (ghusl) for ceremonial uncleanliness (janabah) if he was in a state of ceremonial uncleanliness or a woman was in a state of menses (hayz).

Eighth: Relation (al-Tabaiyya): The son of a non-believer is, like his father, not pure – this is upon obligatory precaution – but if the non-believer becomes a Muslim then his minor children become pure as a consequence of his purity. There are also other cases of relation-please refer to the detailed books of fiqh for these.

Ninth: Removal of the intrinsic impurity: This makes pure the thing made impure in two cases only:

1- The body of an animal: if a chicken eats something impure and its beak becomes covered with the impure thing, then it will becomes pure by mere removal of the impure thing from it and it does not need to be made pure with water.

2- The inside of the human body: if blood comes out of the mouth, ear, or nose of a person, then it will become pure by mere removal of the blood and the inside of the mouth, ear, or nose does not need to be purified with water. However, if the lips have become najis then they must be purified as they are on the outside of the body.

Tenth: Absence (al-Ghayba): If your friend or someone from your family is religious and he knows that his vessel has been made impure, and after a while you see him drinking from with vessel, then you can take the Bessel as being pure without needing to ask him about it, because he is a believer and it incumbent on him not to drink something impure.

Note: When one wants to relieve oneself, one must pay attention to choose a covered place like a toilet and not to reveal oneself in front of other people.

Issue 25: The place from which urine comes out must be washed once with running water or kur water such as water from the pipes, or twice with little water such as water from a jug. As for the place from which the faeces comes out, it is sufficient to continue washing once until the impurity is removed, after which the place becomes pure without needing to use water.

Issue 26: The water which is used to purify the places, from which urine and faeces come out after one has relieved oneself, is pure so long as particles of impurity are not seen in it. And this water is called the water for Istinja.

Issue 27: For men it is recommended to empty the male organ from the remaining urine and to purify it by pressure – for example from the bottom of the organ at its root to its top, and after that if any liquid comes out about which is in doubt whether it is urine or other than urine, then it is ruled as being pure. This process if called Istebra.