THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

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THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s) Author:
Translator: The Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category: Imam al-Jawad
ISBN: 978-964- 529- 789-1

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

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Translator: The Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
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ISBN: 978-964- 529- 789-1
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THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

Author:
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
ISBN: 978-964- 529- 789-1
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD AL-JAWAD (AS)

Author: Authoring Group, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) World Assembly

Translator: The Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation, London

Proofreader: Abu Ali Radhawi

Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center

www.alhassanain.org/english

In the Name of Allah, the All- beneficent, the All- merciful

قال الله تعالى :

﴿ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمْ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا ﴾

Indeed, Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O People of the Household, and purify you with a thorough purification. (Surat al-Ahzab 33:33)

Prophetic traditions mentioned in both Sunni and Shia authoritative reference books of hadith and tafsir (exegesis of the Quran) have confirmed that this holy verse was revealed to exclusively refer to the People of the Cloak [ahl al- kisa'], viz. Muhammad, Ali, Faṭimah, al-Ḥasan, and al- Ḥusayn (a) as the Ahl al- Bayt (People of the Household). For instance, refer to the following references: Sunni: Ahmad ibn Ḥanbal (d. 241 AH), al- Musnad, 1:231; 4:107; 6:292, 304; Sahih Muslim (d. 261 AH), 7:130; al- Tirmidhi (d. 279 AH), Sunan, 5:361 et al.; al-Dulabi (d. 310 AH), al- Dhuriyyah al-Ṭahirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 108; al-Nasa'i (d. 303 AH), al- Sunan al-Kubra', 5:108; 113; al-Ḥakim al-Nayshaburi (d. 405 AH), al- Mustadrak ala' al-Sahihayn, 2:416, 3:133, 146-147; al-Zarkashi (d. 794 AH), al-Burhan, p. 197; Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852 AH), Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:104.

Shia: al-Kulayni (d. 328 AH), Usul al-Kafi, 1:287; Ibn Babawayh (d. 329 AH), Al-Imamah wa' al-Tabsirah, p. 47, hadith 29; al-Maghribi (d. 363 AH), Daa'im al-Islam, pp. 35, 37; al-Saduq (d. 381 AH), al-Khisal, pp. 403, 550; al-Ṭusi (d. 460 AH), Al-Amali, hadith 438, 482, 783.

For more details, refer to the exegesis of the holy verse recorded in the following books of tafsir: al-Jassas (d. 370 AH), Ahkam al-Quran; al- Wahidi (d. 468 AH), Asbab al-Nuzul; Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597 AH), Zad al- Masir; al-Qurṭubi (d. 671 AH), al-Jami' li- Ahkam al-Quran; Ibn Kathir (d. 774 AH), Tafsir; al-Tha'labi (d. 825 AH), Tafsir; al-Ṭabari (d. 875 AH), Tafsir; al-Suyuṭi (d. 911 AH), al-Durr al-Manthur; al-Shawkani (d. 1250 AH), Fath al-Qadir; al-Ayyashi (d. 320 AH), Tafsir; al-Qummi (d. 329 AH), Tafsir; Furt al-Kufi (d. 352 AH), Tafsir at the margin of the exegesis of Surat al-Nisa' verse 59; al-Ṭabarsi (d. 560 AH), Majma' al-Bayan, as well as many other sources.

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (as)

قال رسول الله :

“إني تاركُ فيكُمُ الثَقلين: كتاب الله، وعترتي أهلَ بيتي، ما إن تمسكتُم بهما لن تضلوا أبداً وأَنَّهُما لَن يَفترِقا حتّى يردا عَليَّ الحوضَ”

The Messenger of Allah (s) said:“Verily, I am leaving among you two precious things [thaqalayn]: The Book of Allah and my progeny ['itrati], the members of my Household [Ahl al- Bayt]. If you hold fast to them, you shall never go astray. These two will never separate from each other until they meet me at the Pond [hawd] (of Kawthar).”

Some references:

al­Hakim al­Nayshaburi, al­Mustadrak ‘ala’ al-Sahihayn (Beirut), vol. 3, pp. 109-110, 148, 533

Muslim, al-Sahih, (English translation), book 31, hadiths 5920-3

al­Tirmidhi, al-Sahih, vol. 5, pp. 621-2, hadiths 3786, 3788; vol. 2, p. 219

al-Nasa’i, Khasa’is ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, hadith 79

Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 3, pp. 14, 17, 26; vol. 3, pp. 26, 59; vol. 4, p. 371; vol. 5, pp. 181-182, 189-190

Ibn al­‘Athir, Jami‘ al­Usul, vol. 1, p. 277

Ibn Kathir, al­Bidayah wa al­Nihayah, vol. 5, p. 209

Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Aẓim, vol. 6, p. 199

Nasir al-Din al-Albani, Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihah (Kuwait: al-Dar al-Salafiyyah), vol. 4, pp. 355-358.

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (as)

Author: Editorial Board

Translated: The Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation, London

Cultural Affairs Department, the Ahl al-Bayt ('a) World Assembly

www.alhassanain.org/english

نام كتاب: اعلام الهداية ج 11، الامام محمد بن علي الجواد

مؤلف: گروه تأليف مجمع جهانی اهل بيت

مترجم: موسسه اسلامی اهل بيت، لندن

زبان ترجمه: انگليسى

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD AL-JAWAD (AS)

Author: Authoring Group, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) World Assembly

Project supervisor: Translation Unit, Cultural Affairs Department, the Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) World Assembly (ABWA)

Translator: The Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation, London

Editor:The Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation, London

Proofreader: Abu Ali Radhawi

Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center

First Printing: 2014

Printed by: Mojab

Copies: 5,000

ISBN: 978-964- 529- 789-1

Ahl al- Bayt ('a) World Assembly (ABWA)

All rights reserved.

www.ahl- ul- bayt.org

info@ahl- ul- bayt.org

Notice:

This version is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errors are not corrected.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE 14

INTRODUCTION 16

SECTION ONE 21

CHAPTER ONE: IMAM MUHAMMAD JAWAD (AS) AT A GLANCE 22

CHAPTER TWO: UNDERSTANDING IMAM JAWAD'S (AS) PERSONALITY 23

CHAPTER THREE: A DISPLAY OF IMAM JAWAD'S (AS) PERSONALITY 28

1. A Talking Newborn 28

2. Becoming an Imam while a Child 29

3. Imam Jawad's (as) Knowledge 30

A. Monotheism 31

B. Interpretation of the Holy Qur'an 31

C. Imam Jawad (as) and the Propagation of Hadith 33

D. Jurisprudential Traditions from Imam Jawad (as) 34

The prayer 34

The Zakat (paying alms) 35

The Hajj 35

E. Causes of verdicts the philosophy 35

4. His Worship 36

A. His Offering Recommended Worships 36

B. His hajj 36

C. His Supplications 37

Some of his Supplications after having Performed Prayers 37

Some of his Supplications in the Morning and Evening and for the Fulfilment of Anything Desired 38

5. His Miracles 38

6. His Asceticism and Great Social Attitudes 39

A. His Generosity 40

B. Being Benevolent 40

C. His Comforting the People 41

SECTION TWO 43

CHAPTER ONE: IMAM JAWAD'S (AS) UPBRINGING 44

CHAPTER TWO: THE STAGES OF IMAM JAWAD'S (AS) LIFE 45

CHAPTER THREE: IMAM JAWAD (AS) UNDER THE WING OF HIS FATHER (AS) 46

The Behaviour of Abbasids towards the People 46

The Political Conditions 48

The Inclinations, Positioning and Politics of al-Amin 49

Destructive Wars 49

The Murder of al-Amin 50

The Caliphate of Ibrahim the Dissolute 51

The Revolt of Abu al-Saraya 51

Abdullah al-Mamun 52

The aspects and tendencies of al-Mamun 52

1. Cunning 52

2. Brutality 52

3. Treachery 53

4. His Tendency for Amusement and Leisure 53

Playing Chess 53

Love of Music 53

5. Claiming Shiasm 53

Giving Fadak Back to the Alawis 53

Preferring Imam Ali to Other Companions 54

Appointing Imam al-Rida as the Heir Apparent 54

The Inclinations, Positioning and Politics of al-Mamun 54

The Challenges of al-Mamun 55

The Relation of Imam al-Rida (as) with al-Mamun 56

A. The legal leadership from the people's point of view 56

B. Al-Mamun's Struggles 57

C. With Aware Believers 59

The Quality of al-Mamun's Rule 61

The Martyrdom of Imam al-Rida (as) and Imamah of Imam Jawad (as) 62

Imam Jawad (as) at the Time of his Father's Death 64

SECTION THREE 67

CHAPTER ONE: THE AGE OF IMAM AL-JAWAD (AS) 68

1. Cultural Life 68

Cultural Centres 68

1. Madinah 68

2. Kufa 68

3. Basra 69

4. Baghdad 69

Sciences of the Qur'an 69

1. Recitation 70

2. Tafsir (The Exegesis of the Holy Qur'an) 70

3. Hadith 70

4. Jurisprudence 71

5. Usul 71

6. Grammar 71

7. Theology 71

8. Medicine 71

9. Chemistry 71

Architicture and Civil Engineering Sciences 72

Astronomy Translation 72

Institutes and Libraries 72

Maps and Observations 72

2. Political Life 73

The System of the Rule 73

The Caliphate and Heredity 73

Unusual Conduct 73

Vizierate 74

Persecuting the Alawites 75

The Createdness of the Qur'an 76

3. Economic Life 76

The Income of the State 76

Striving to collect Wealth 77

Accumulation of Wealth 77

The Expenditure for al-Mamun's Marriage 77

Gifts and Donations 78

Possession of Maids 78

Diversity in Building 78

Furniture in Houses 79

Clothes 79

Foods 79

The Wealth Left by the Abbasids 79

The Life of Amusement and Diversion 79

Asceticism 80

CHAPTER TWO: IMAM JAWAD (AS) AND HIS CONTEMPORARY RULERS 82

1. Al-Mamun Abbasi 82

Imam Jawad (as) Marries al-Mamun's Daughter 82

The Nature of al-Mamun and Imam Jawad's (as) Relationship 86

Al-Mamun's Motive behind his Marrying his Daughter to Imam Jawad (as) 89

The Positioning of Abbasids 89

Imam Jawad's (as) Positioning against Ibn Aktham 89

Imam Jawad (as) in the Reign of al-Mamun 89

2. Al-Mu'tasim Abbasi 90

Al-Mu'tasim and Alert Forerunners 90

Imam Jawad (as) and al-Mu'tasim 91

1. Calling Imam Jawad (as) to Baghdad 91

2. Planning for Imam's (as) assassination 91

Imam Jawad's (as) Martyrdom 94

Funerals and Burial 97

The Date of Death of Imam (as) 98

CHAPTER THREE: THE NECESSITIES OF IMAM JAWAD'S (AS) ERA 99

SECTION FOUR 101

CHAPTER ONE: IMAM MUHAMMAD JAWAD (AS) AND THE GENERAL NECESSITIES OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD 102

1. The Household (as) and the Divine Leadership 102

2. Islamic Society and Early Imamah in the School of the Household (as) 106

3. Imam Jawad's (as) Reaction against Deviated Concepts 109

4. The Grief of Islamic Ummah, a Great Concern of Imam Jawad (as) 111

CHAPTER TWO: IMAM JAWAD (AS) AND THE NECESSITIES OF THE PIOUS GROUP 114

1. Imam Jawad (as) against the Doubts Regarding his Imamah 114

2. Imam Jawad (as) the Cultural Builder of the Pious Group 116

A. Establishment of Thought 116

Calling towards Pure Monotheism 116

Standing against Exaggeration 118

B. Strengthening the Scientific Bases 119

Perfection of Methodolgy of Juriprudence 119

Imam Jawad's (as) Answers to Jurisprudential and Scientific Questions 121

Reciting Basmalah during the Prayer 121

Forced Marriage 121

Endowment 122

The Witnessing of Spouse and Stranger 122

C. Strengthening the Educational Structure 122

Wisdom throughout Practice 122

Interaction with Cruel ones 123

Social Activities 124

Imam Jawad's (as) Advice 125

Encouraging Knowledge 126

Encouraging Repentance 127

3. Perfection of the pious group's structure and readying them for the period of occultation 127

A. Establishment of Representatives and Taking Perfectly Measured Actions 127

B. Secret Letter-writing 128

C. His Social Activities 129

D. Training his Followers 129

4. Making Grounds for Imam Hadi's (as) Early Imamah 129

5. Imam Jawad (as) and the 12th Imam 132

CHAPTER THREE: IMAM AL-JAWAD'S SCHOOL AND HERITAGE 134

Disciples of Imam al-Jawad 134

The Heritage of Imam al-Jawad 143

1. Qur'anic Exegesis 143

2. Discourses of Imam al-Jawad's (as) Theology 145

A. Duty of Protecting the Faith 145

B. Belief in Allah's Unity 145

C. Prophecy of the prophets 145

D. Imamah 146

3. Imam al-Jawad and Jurisprudence 146

4. Imam al-Jawad and History 147

5. Imam al-Jawad and Medicine 150

Treatment for tertian fever and quartan fever 153

Treatment for jaundice 153

Treatment of hernia 153

Treatment for permanent menstruation 153

Treatment for stomach flu and palpitations 154

Treatment for Renal Calculi 154

6. Imam al-Jawad and Supplication 154

A. Confidential Prayer for Guidance to the Best 155

B. Confidential Prayer for True Repentance 156

C. Confidential Prayer for Help in Travel 156

D. Confidential Prayer for Sustenance 157

E. Confidential Prayer for Seeking Protection 158

F. Confidential Prayer for Accepting Repentance 158

G. Confidential Prayer for Help in Undertaking Hajj 159

H. Confidential Prayer for Removing Persecution 159

I. Confidential Thanksgiving Prayer 160

J. Confidential Prayer for Granting the Requests 160

7. Sermons of Imam al-Jawad 161

Short Maxims of Imam al- Jawad 161

BIBLIOGRAPHY 167

A 167

B 167

D 167

F 167

G 168

H 168

I 168

J 169

K 169

L 169

M 170

N 171

Q 171

R 171

S 172

T 172

W 173

U 173

NOTES 174

PREFACE

In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful

The invaluable legacy of the Household [Ahl al-Bayt] of the Prophet (may peace be upon them all), as preserved by their followers, is a comprehensive school of thought that embraces all branches of Islamic knowledge. This school has produced many brilliant scholars who have drawn inspiration from this rich and pure resource. It has provided the Muslim ummah with many scholars whom, following in the footsteps of Imams of the Prophet's Household ('a), have done their best to clear up the doubts raised by various creeds and currents within and without Muslim society and to answer their questions. Throughout the past centuries, they have given well-reasoned answers and clarifications concerning these questions and doubts.

To meet the responsibilities assigned to it, the Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly (ABWA) has embarked on a defense of the sanctity of the Islamic message and its verities, often obscured by the partisans of various sects and creeds as well as by currents hostile to Islam. The Assembly follows in the footsteps of the Ahl al-Bayt ('a) and the disciples of their school of thought in its readiness to confront these challenges and tries to be on the frontline in consonance with the demands of every age.

The arguments contained in the works of the scholars belonging to the School of the Ahl al-Bayt ('a) are of unique significance. That is because they are based on genuine scholarship and appeal to reason, and avoid prejudice and bias. These arguments address scholars and thinkers in a manner that appeals to healthy minds and wholesome human nature.

To assist the seekers of truth, the Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly has endeavored to present a new phase of these arguments contained in the studies and translations of the works of contemporary Shia writers and those who have embraced this sublime school of thought through divine blessing.

The Assembly is also engaged in editing and publishing valuable works by leading Shia scholars of earlier ages to assist the seekers of the truth in discovering the truths which the School of the Prophet's Household ('a) has offered to the entire world.

The Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly looks forward to benefit from the opinions of the readers and their suggestions and constructive criticism in this area.

We also invite scholars, translators and other institutions to assist us in propagating the genuine Islamic teachings as preached by the Prophet Muhammad (S).

We beseech God, the Most High, to accept our humble efforts and to enable us to enhance them under the auspices of Imam al- Mahdi, His vicegerent on the earth (may Allah expedite his advent).

It is appropriate here to express our utmost gratitude to the Islamic Ahl Al-Bayt ('a) Foundation, London for translating the book, as well as to all our honorable colleagues in accomplishing this task especially the dear ones in the Translation Office for undertaking this responsibility. ?

Cultural Affairs Department

Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) World Assembly