THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

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ISBN: 978-964- 529- 789-1

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

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THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

THE LIFE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD Al-JAWAD (a.s)

Author:
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
ISBN: 978-964- 529- 789-1
English

NOTES

[1]. Surat al-An‘am, 6:71.

[2]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2:213.

[3]. Surat al-Ahzab, 33:4.

[4]. Surat Al ‘Imran, 3:101.

[5]. Surat Yunus, 10:35.

[6]. Surat Saba', 34:6.

[7]. Surat al-Qisas, 28:50.

[8]. Surat al-Dhariyat, 51:56.

[9]. Surat al-Ra‘d, 13:7.

[10]. Surat al-An‘am, 6:124.

[11]. Surat Al ‘Imran, 3:179.

[12]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2:213.

[13]. Surat al-Jumu‘ah, 62:2.

[14]. Surat al-Ahzab, 33:21.

[15]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:320; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:277.

[16]. Rijal Kashi p. 463.

[17]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:321.

[18]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:321.

[19]. Al-Mas’udi, Ithbat al-wasiah p. 212.

[20]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:380.

[21]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:281.

[22]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:282.

[23]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:362.

[24]. Tathkirat al-Khawass pp. 358-359.

[25]. Matalib al-Sual fi Manaqib al-Rasul 2:74.

[26]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:160.

[27]. Tarikh al-Islam 8:158; al-Safadi, al-Wafi bi’l-Wafiat 4:105.

[28]. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah p. 251.

[29]. Al-Ithaf fi hub al-‘Ashraf p. 168.

[30]. Jami’ karamat al-awliaa 1:100.

[31]. Jawhrat al-Kalam p. 147.

[32]. Refer to: Fadhl bin Ruzbahan, the interpretation of salawat; the book is also called Wasilat al-Khadim ilal al-Makhdum pp. 235-240.

[33]. Al-‘Ailam 6:271-272.

[34]. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Dala'il al-Imamah pp. 383-384/hadith 341; Madinah al-Ma’ajiz for Hashim al-Bahrani 7:259-260.

[35]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib p. 394; Madinah al-Ma’ajiz for Hashim al-Bahrani 7:260-261.

[36]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:383; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 14:81.

[37]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:315.

[38]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:384.

[39]. Baqir Sharif al-Qarasi, Hayat al-Imam al-Jawad (as) p. 66.

[40]. Ithbat al-Wasiah, fi Imamat Abi Ja’far al-Thai (as) p. 183.

[41]. Refer to the first and second chapter of this section.

[42]. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 473/hadith 9; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 25:57/hadith 24.

[43]. Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin p. 98/Chapter 15; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 25:57.

[44]. al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:82/hadith 11; al-Saduq, al-Tawhid p. 106/hadith 6; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 3:166/hadith 32.

[45]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:118; Al-Saduq, al-Tawhid p. 82/hadith 1.

[46]. Al-Saduq, Ma’ani al-Akhbar p. 5/hadith 1; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 3:208/hadith 2.

[47]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2:106-107.

[48]. Surat al-A’ala, 87: 6-7.

[49]. Tafsir al-Imam al-’Askari (as), p.491/hadith 311; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 4:104/hadith 118.

[50]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2:148.

[51]. Badr was a battle between the polytheists and the Prophet (sawas) whose companions in the fighting were three hundred and thirteen men.

[52]. Shaykh al-Saduq, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Nia’am pp. 377-378; I'htijaj al-Tabarsi 2:481-482/hadith 342.

[53]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:137; al-Safadi, al-Wafi bi’l-Wafiat 4:106; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:78/hadith 52.

[54]. Amali al-Saduq p. 532/hadith 718; Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Amali p. 494/hadith 1082; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 101:370/hadith 3.

[55]. Ibid.

[56]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 2:248-249/hadith 3; Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Kisal 101:370/hadith 3.

[57]. 'Uyun Akhbar al-Ridah (as) 1:56/hadith 199, 2:279/hadith 81; Ma’ani al-Akhbar p. 287/hadith 287, 1.

[58]. Shaykh al-Saduq, 'Ilal al-Shara'i' 1:298/hadith 235; 'Uyun Akhbar al-Ridah(as) 2:248/hadith 9; Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Amali p. 652/hadith 1352; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 6:172/hadith 50.

[59]. Shaykh al-Saduq, Ma’ani al-Akhbar pp. 289-290; Da’awat al-Rawandi 248/hadith 698.

[60]. A fennec is a small animal of the dog family which closely resembles a fox. It has long ears and a total length of forty centimeters including the tail. The animal is known for its fur.

[61]. Man la yahdhurh al-Faqih 1:170/hadith 804; Al-wasal 4:349.

[62]. Al-Marasim al-‘Alawiah p. 63. Al- khilaf for al-Tawsi 1:63-64.

[63]. Al-Tahdhib 2:233/hadith 918; al-wasal 4:426/Chapter 37/hadith 6.

[64]. Muntaha al- Matalib 4:234; al-Hadaiq al-Nadhirah 7:107-108.

[65]. Al-Tusi, Khilaf 2:50-51; al-Mu’atabar 2:516-517.

[66]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 3:559/hadith 1; al-Wasal 9:167/Chapter 14/hadith 1.

[67]. Al-Hadaiq al-Nadhirah 14:258-259; Mustanad al-Shi’a 11:160-161.

[68]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 4:291/hadith 5; al-wasal 11:247/Chapter 4/hadith 5.

[69]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2: 226.

[70]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2:234.

[71]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 6:113/hadith 1; Al-wasal 22:235-236.

[72]. Ibn Tawus, Jamal al-Isbu’ap p. 278; al-wasal 8:185.

[73]. Shaykh al-Tusi, Musbah al-Tahajud p. 523; Da’awat al-Rawandi p. 106/hadith 234.

[74]. Life of Imam Jawad (as) p. 68.

[75]. Muhaj al-Daawat pp. 80-81; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 82:225/hadith 1/S. 33.

[76]. Man la Yahdharh al-Faqih 1:327/hadith 960; Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 2:548/hadith 6.

[77]. Ibid p. 318.

[78]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:293-294; al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:98; Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa’l-Jara'ih, 2:264-265/hadith 1.

[79]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:294; al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:98; Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa’l-Jara'ih 2:665/hadith 4; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:42/hadith 7.

[80]. Surat Maryam, 19:12.

[81]. Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 258/hadith 10; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:37/hadith 1.

[82]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 1:497; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:292; Rawdat al- Wa’adhin p. 243; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:54/hadith 32.

[83]. Al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:100; Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:389; Bihar al-Anwar 50: 63/hadith 42.

[84]. Ibid.

[85]. Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa al-Jara'ih 2:383/hadith 11; Madinah al-Ma’azij 7:376/hadith 2384; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:48/hadith 26.

[86]. Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa’l-Jara'ih 2:662-669/hadith 11; Al- Sirat al-Mustaqim 2:201/hadith 15; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:44/hadith 14.

[87]. Man la Yahdhurh al-Faqih 3:225/hadith 1054; Qutb al-Din al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa’l-Jara'ih 1:389/hadith 17; Wasail al-Shi’ah 6:499; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:87/hadith 3.

[88]. Muhammad bin Bahr Rahani said of Sajistan: Sajistan is a western city and a resistant place. It has extraordinarily good qualities. Some of its qualities and specialties cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Its traders surpass the most honest traders in the world. At a time when everywhere on minbar Ali (as) was abused, only once was he (as) abused in this city and the people rose against Bani Umayyah for this. Finally they were compelled to announce that no one would be abused in such gatherings. How did they do this and stop Bani Umayyah from abusing Imam Ali (as) at a time where he (as) was abused even in Mecca and Medina? (Ma'jam al-baladan 3:190-191).

[89]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 5:111-112/hadith 6; al-Siraj al-Wahaj pp. 122-123; Wasail al-Shi’ah 17:195-196; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:86-87/hadith 2.

[90]. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:108/hadith 29; Rijal al-Kashi p. 611/hadith 1135.

[91]. Wasail al-Shi’ah 3:218, Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 3:205.

[92]. Wasail al-Shi’ah 3:243, Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 3:218; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 79:23/hadith18.

[93]. Hayat al-Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (as) pp. 70-75.

[94]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:378-379.

[95]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:323/hadith 14; Rawdhat al-Wa’adhin 266; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:21/hadith 7.

[96]. Uyun al-Mu’ajizat p. 121; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:15/hadith 20.

[97]. Al-Tabarsi, Taj al-Mawalid p. 101.

[98]. Uyun al-Mu’ajizat, p. 121, Madinah al-Ma’ajiz 7:399/hadith 2408; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:15/hadith 20.

[99]. Matalib al-Suoul 2:140, Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:133.

[100]. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Dala'il al-Imamah, p. 396.

[101]. Ibid.

[102]. Ibid.

[103]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:273; al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:91.

[104]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:379.

[105]. Tarikh al-Tabari 7:210.

[106]. Ibid p. 223.

[107]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:289; Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:280-284.

[108]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:247; I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2, p 41.

[109]. Al-Hayat al-Siyasiah lil Imam Al-Rida (as) p. 66.

[110]. Al-Hayat al-Siyasiah lil Imam Al-Rida (as) pp. 96-108.

[111]. Ibid pp. 108-109.

[112]. Tarikh al-Khulafa p. 259.

[113]. Al-Mahasin wa al-Masawa pp. 339.

[114]. Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Arab wa al-Tamaddun al-Islami p. 184.

[115]. Tarikh al-Khamis 2:331.

[116]. Tarikh al-Khulafa p. 285; Tarikh al-Khamis p. 331.

[117]. Taraif Ibn Tawus pp. 281-282. al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 49:214; Al-Hayat al-Siyasiah lil Imam al-Rida (as) pp. 646.

[118]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:353-354; Tarikh al-Khulafa p. 290.

[119]. Al-Suluk li Ma’arifat Duwal al-Muluk (the way to know the states of kings) by al-Maqrizi 1:16.

[120]. Al-Tanbih wa al-Ishraf p. 318.

[121]. 'Uyun al- Tawrikh 3:212.

[122]. Samt al-Nujum 3:433.

[123]. Samt al-Nujum 3:428.

[124]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:402-403; Tarikh al-Tabari pp. 3-7; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh 5:143-145.

[125]. Ittijahat al-Shi’ar al-Arabi p. 73.

[126]. 'Uyun al-Tawrikh 3:211; the life of Imam Jawad (as) pp. 193-197.

[127]. Surat Al-Imran, 3:211.

[128]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:424; ‘Uyun al- Tawrikh 3:211; al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:424.

[129]. Shaykh al-Saduq, ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (as) 1:176/hadith 28; al-Aghani, Abu al-Faraja 10:119.

[130]. Tarikh Baghdad 6:140-141; Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, 7:168-170.

[131]. Tarikh al-Tabari 7:117-122-139; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh 5:173-176.

[132]. Tarikh al-Khulafa pp. 306-307.

[133]. Tarikh al-Tabari 7:210-211; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh 5:227.

[134]. Samt al-Nujum 3:438.

[135]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:259-260.

[136]. Hayat Imam al-Jawad (as) pp. 221-222.

[137]. Al-‘Iqd al-Farid 3:254.

[138]. Al-Mustatrif 2:306.

[139]. Al-Aghani 5:288-359.

[140]. The Arabic Civilization by Jack S. Risler p. 108.

[141]. Al-Tabari, Dala'il al-Imamah p. 350/hadith 304.

[142]. Fadak was a vast, fertile village that the Prophet (sawas) had donated to his daughter Fatima (as). It was rich in date palms and other fruit-bearing trees.

[143]. Tarikh al-Khulafa, p. 308.

[144]. Hayat Imam al-Jawad (as) pp. 221-225.

[145]. Hayat al- Hayawan 1:72.

[146]. Al-Fihrist p. 174.

[147]. Al-Hayat al-Siyasiah lil Imam al-Rida (as) p. 145. Tarikh al-Khulafa p. 306; Al-Tanbih wa al-Ishraf p. 320.

[148]. Al-Hayat al-Siyasiah lil Imam al-Rida (as) pp. 156-157.

[149]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:259-326; al-Fattal al-Nayshaburi, Rawdat al-Wa‘izin pp. 224-225.

[150]. Al-Nayshaburi, Rawdat al-Wa‘izin p.224; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 49:130/hadith 4; Amali al-Saduq pp. 130-131/hadith 4.

[151]. Shaykh al-Saduq, 'Ilal al-Shara'i' 1:237-238; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar:128-129.

[152]. Tarikh al-Tabari 7:150; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh 5:193; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:247.

[153]. Shaykh al-Saduq, ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (as) 1:265; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 49:290/hadith 2.

[154]. Shaykh al-Saduq, ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (as) 1:269-270; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 49:229/hadith 9.

[155]. Surat al-Tawbah, 9:123.

[156]. Abu al-Faraj, Maqatil al-Talibin p.416-417.

[157]. Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 1:320; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 24/hadith 16; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:276.

[158]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:320/hadith 2; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50/hadith 9; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:247.

[159]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:323/hadith 14; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:21/hadith 7; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:276.

[160]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:321/hadith 10; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:276; I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:93.

[161]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:321/hadith 10; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:279; Ithbat al-Wasiah pp. 184-185.

[162]. al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 185/chapter 10/hadith 14; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:18/hadith 3.

[163]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:321/hadith 8; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:278, Madinah Al- Ma’ajiz 7:294/hadith 2333; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:23/hadith 13.

[164]. Shaykh al-Saduq, ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (as) 1:266/chapter 60/hadith 1; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:18/hadith 2.

[165]. ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (as) 1:296-297/chapter 66/hadith 35.

[166]. Amali al-Saduq pp. 759-762/hadith 1026; ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (as) 1:271-274/chapter 63/hadith 1; al-Nayshaburi, Rawdat al-Wa‘izin pp. 229-233; al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa’l-Jara'ih 1:352-356/hadith 8; al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:81-85; Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:374-376; Madinah Al- Ma’ajiz 7:158-164/hadith 2248; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 49:300-303/hadith 10.

[167]. Dr. Hassan Ibrahim Hassan, Tarikh al-Islam (History of Islam) 2:32.

[168]. Rijal al-Najashi p. 40.

[169]. Dr. Hassan Ibrahim Hassan, Tarikh al-Islam 2:338.

[170]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:362.

[171]. Al-Aghani 12:346-348.

[172]. Tarikh al-Falsafa fi al-Islam p. 39.

[173]. Hadharat al-Arab p.218.

[174]. Al-Ma’arif p. 230-231, Ibn al- Nadim, al-Fihrist p. 42-45.

[175]. Al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 213, Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:228/hadith 2.

[176]. At-Tibyan 1:4.

[177]. Al-Wafi 1:15-16. Qawanin al-usul pp. 397-398; Faraid al-usul 1:139-142; Al-Jasas, Ahkam al-Qur'an 3:246-254.

[178]. Al-Tabarsi, Tafsir Majma'a al-Bayan 1:36.

[179]. Al-Tabarsi, Tafsir Majma'a al-Bayan 1:36.

[180]. Mushkat al-Anwar p. 249/hadith 1; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 2:153/hadith 47.

[181]. Baqir al-Qurashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir p. 184.

[182]. Al-Aghani 12:348.

[183]. Baqir al-Qurashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir pp. 185-186.

[184]. Ibid p. 186.

[185]. Al-Fihrist p. 420.

[186]. Ibid p. 339.

[187]. Rihlat ibn Jabir al-Kanani p. 208.

[188]. Tarikh al-Islam al-siyasi wa al-dini wa al-thaqafi wa al-ijtima'i 4:160-162; Masudi, al-Tanbih wa al-Ishraf p. 46.

[189]. Asr (the age of) al-Ma’mun 1:375.

[190]. The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, Baqir al-Qurashi pp.179-188.

[191]. Ittijahat al-Shi’ar al-Arabi (the course of Arabic poetry) p. 49.

[192]. Baqir al-Qurashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir pp.188-189.

[193]. Tarikh al-Khulafa p. 290.

[194]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:366.

[195]. Al-Mas'udi, Al-Tanbih wa al-Ishraf p. 366.

[196]. Wafiat al-A’aian 4:41.

[197]. Tarikh al-Tamaddun al-Islami (history of Islamic civilization) 4:182.

[198]. Tarikh al-Khulafa (the history of the caliphs) by as-Sayoti p. 261.

[199]. The daughter of the Prophet (sawas).

[200]. Al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 208/hadith 81.

[201]. Tarikh al-Tabari 6:344.

[202]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 3:311.

[203]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 6:339; Tarikh al-Tabari 6:410-415.

[204]. Al-Aghani 5:237.

[205]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:237-243.

[206]. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 4:32.

[207]. Al-Hada’iq al-Wardiah 2:220.

[208]. Baqir al-Qurashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, pp. 203-205.

[209]. Tarikh al-Tabari 7:188; Tarikh al-Khulafa p. 310-311; Asr (the age of) al-Ma’mun.

[210]. Life of Imam Jawad (as), p. 205.

[211]. Al-Idarah al-Islamiyyah fi Izz al-Arab (Islamic administration in the glory of the Arabs) p. 82.

[212]. Muqaddimat ibn Khaldun pp.179-180.

[213]. Al-Maqdisi, Ahsan al-Taqasim p. 64.

[214]. The introduction of al-Bukhala’ (the stingy) p.24; Baqir al-Qurashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, p. 207.

[215]. Baqir al-Qurashi, The Life of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, pp. 207-208.

[216]. Tarikh al-Tabari 7:178-180; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh 5:210-211; Wafiat al-A’ayan 1:278-290.

[217]. Al-Islam wa al- Hadhara al-Arabia 2:231.

[218]. Al-Mustatraf p. 182-184.

[219]. Tarikh Baghdad 5:393.

[220]. Hadharat al-Islam p. 98.

[221]. Al-Aghani 9:88.

[222]. Hadharat al-Islam fi Dar al-Salam p. 96.

[223]. Al-Jahshiyari Al-wazara wa al-Kitab p. 246.

[224]. Ibnul Mu’tazz, Tabaqat al-Shu’ara p. 209.

[225]. Hadharat al-Islam p.95; as quoted from al-Mustatraf p. 96.

[226]. Ibid p. 95.

[227]. Hadharat al-Islam p. 96.

[228]. Muqaddimat ibn Khaldun p. 267.

[229]. Tarikh Baghdad by Tayfur p. 36.

[230]. Social and economical organizations (al-Tandhimat al-Ijtima’iyyah wa al- Iqtisadiyyah) by Salih Ahmad p. 177.

[231]. Umara’ al-Shi’ar al-Arabi (Emirs of Arabic poetry) p.45.

[232]. Ibid.

[233]. Islam and the Arabic Civilization 2:230.

[234]. Ibid p. 231.

[235]. Yum al-Sha’anin (A feast of the Christians).

[236]. Al-Aghani 19:138.

[237]. Hayat al-Haywan (life of animals) 3:91.

[238]. Al-Aghani 6:75.

[239]. Hayat al-Haywan 5:115.

[240]. Al-Awraq p. 61.

[241]. Huliat al-Aliya 7:367-373.

[242]. Al-Dahabi, Sirat I’alam al-Nubala 9:342.

[243]. Huliat al-Aliya 8:354.

[244]. Refer to: Imam Jawad (as)'s life pp. 206-216.

[245]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad pp.359-360.

[246]. Surat al-Nur, 24:32.

[247]. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:74-79; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:281-288; al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda pp. 101-105.

[248]. Ali bin Ibrahim, Tafsir al-Qummi 1:182; Hawizi, Tafsir Nur al-Thaqalayn 1:673

[249]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:494-495.

[250]. Tuhaf al-‘Uqul p. 454.

[251]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:495-496; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:291-292; al-Nayshaburi, Rawdat al-Wa‘izin p. 243; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:54/hadith 28.

[252]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:247-274.

[253]. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh 5:226-227; Tarikh al- Khulafa p. 313.

[254]. Tarikh al- Khulafa p. 333-334.

[255]. Ibid p. 335.

[256]. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh pp. 232-265. The revolt of “Taliqan” under commandership of Qasim bin Muhammad Alavi; the revolt of “Zats” in Basra; the revolt of Babak Khurramdin; attack of the Romans from Zabtara and other Islamic lands and the revolt of “Mubarqa” in Palestine were among some famous revolts in the time of time of al-Mu'tasim. Sir A’alam al-Nubala 10: 292-303

[257]. Tarikh al- Khulafa pp. 335-336; al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-Dhahab 4:57-58.

[258]. Surat al-Maidah, 5:6.

[259]. Surat al-Maidah, 5:6.

[260]. Surat Al-Jinn, 72:18.

[261]. Tafsir al-Ayyashi 1:319-320; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:5-7

[262]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:298; al-Nayshaburi, Rawdat al-Wa‘izin p. 241

[263]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:397; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:62-63/hadith 41.

[264]. Surat Al-Baqarah, 2:225.

[265]. Surat Al-Imran, 3:18.

[266]. Surat Al-Shams, 91:1.

[267]. Surat Al-Lail, 92:1.

[268]. Surat Al-Tawhid, 112:1.

[269]. 'Uyun al-Mujizat pp. 113-117; Amn al-Akhtar pp. 74-77; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:95-98.

[270]. 'Uyun al-Mujizat pp 118; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:17.

[271]. Tarikh Baghadad 3:54; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh 5:37; Wafiat al-A’ayan 4:175; In Mir’at al-Jinan 2:81, it is mentioned that al-Wathiq the son of al-Mu'tasim had offered the prayer on the holy corpse of Imam al-Jawad (as).

[272]. The life of Imam Jawad (as) p. 263.

[273]. Surat Al-A’araf, 7:171.

[274]. Al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib.

[275]. Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:273; Ibn al-Athir; al-Kamil fi’l-Tarikh 5:237.

[276]. Yafi’ai Mriat al-Jinan 2:81; Tarikh Baghadad 3:55; Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah p. 263.

[277]. Al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 14; Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:401/hadith 1.

[278]. Because in those days, despite having a wife like Umm Fadhl, Imam Jawad (as) could buy another slave girl and he could become the father of her son. The jealousy in such a situation can easily be observed in Umm Fadhl's complaint against Imam Jawad (as) to her father.

[279]. Refer to Tuhaf al-Uqul for the detail of this Hadith which is about Imam and Imamate and has been narrated from Imam Reza (as).

[280]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:382-343; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:89-90.

[281]. This part has been provided from the lecture of Ayatullah Shahid Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Sadr (May his soul rest in peace) about Imam Jawad with a little adaptation.

[282]. Surat Qaf, 50:16.

[283]. Surat Ahzab, 33:7.

[284]. Surat Hajj, 22:75.

[285]. Surat Anfal, 8:33.

[286]. Ihtijaj 2:477-480; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:80-83/hadith 6.

[287]. Al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:105-106;

Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:89/hadith 4; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:89-289; al-Nayshaburi, Rawdat al-Wa‘izin pp. 241-242.

[288]. Al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 521/hadith 12; al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa al-Jara'ih 1:376/hadith 3; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:46-47.

[289]. Ibid.

[290]. Al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa al-Jara'ih 1:376-377/hadith 4; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:47/hadith 23.

[291]. Al-Rawandi, al-Khara'ij wa al-Jara'ih 1:377-378/hadith 6; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:47-48/hadith 25.

[292]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 2:77/hadith 9.

[293]. 'Uyun al-mujizat pp. 108-109; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 5:99-100.

[294]. Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqin p. 98; Bihar al-Anwar 50:108/hadith 27.

[295]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:384, Madinah al-Ma’ajiz 7:279.

[296]. Surat Maryam, 19:12.

[297]. Surat Al-Qasas, 28:14.

[298]. Surat Al-Ahqaf, 46:15.

[299]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:384/hadith 7; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:292-293; Madinah al-Ma’ajiz 7:279/hadith 2323; Bihar al-Anwar 25:100/hadith 1.

[300]. Surat Al-Tawhid, 112: 1.

[301]. Surat Al-‘Ankabut, 29: 61.

[302]. Surat Al-An’am, 6:103.

[303]. Ehtijaj al-Tabarsi 2:465/hadith 319; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 4:39/hadith 17.

[304]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, 82 1,/hadith 28; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 3:260/hadith 9.

[305]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 82 1, pp.116-117/hadith 7; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 4:153-154/hadith 1; Ehtijaj al-Tabarsi 2:467-469.

[306]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 82 1:493-494/hadith 2; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:59-61; Ibn Shahr'ashub, al-Manaqib 4:395-396.

[307]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:250; Bihar al-Anwar 25:79.

[308]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:248; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 25:72/hadith 62.

[309]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:53/hadith 15.

[310]. Rijal al-Kashi p. 610/hadith 1134. In this tradition, by saying “master” he meant either Imam Raza (as), Imam Jawad (as) or Imam Hadi (as), because he was the servant of three of them and it is also possible that he sent the money for three of them.

In this tradition, some other lines have also been included which say: Abu Umar said: “This matter [of asking for permission to act according to one’s own opinion] shows that Khayran the servant was the administrator of the Imam (as). He has mentioned some traditions which belong to Imam Jawad (as) and Imam Raza (as). Refer to: Wasail al-Shi'a 12:216/hadith 6.

[311]. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:100/hadith 12; 'Uyun al-Mua’ajizat p. 109.

[312]. Surat al-Baqarah, 2:187.

[313]. Al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-Ahkam 2:36-37; Muntaqa al-Jamman 4:439.

[314]. He was Hisham bin Ibrahim Abbasid and was an opponent of Imam Reza (as) and Imam Jawad (as).

[315]. Al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-Ahkam 2:69/hadith 252; Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 3:313/hadith 2.

[316]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 5:394/hadith 17; Al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-Ahkam 7:386/hadith 1551.

[317]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 7:38/hadith 37; Al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-Ahkam 9:133/hadith 563.

[318]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 7:403/hadith 6; Shaykh al-Saduq, 'Ilal al-Shara'i' 2:545/hadith 1.

[319]. Tuhaf al-Uqul p. 457.

[320]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 55-57.

[321]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 55-57.

[322]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:138; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 69.

[323]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:139; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:82/hadith 79.

[324]. Tuhaf al-‘Uqul p. 456; Mustadrak al-Wasail 17:308.

[325]. Tuhaf al-‘Uqul pp. 455-456; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 66:238/hadith 7.

[326]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136, al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:78/hadith 45.

[327]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:137; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:79/hadith 59.

[328]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:79/hadith 58.

[329]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:137; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:79/hadith 60.

[330]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:139-140; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:82/hadith 80-77-81.

[331]. Ibid.

[332]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:142; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:82/hadith 81.

[333]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:139; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:82/hadith 78.

[334]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:135-136; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:78/hadith 50-51.

[335]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:138; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 70.

[336]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:139; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 73.

[337]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:79/hadith 56.

[338]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:137; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:80/hadith 63.

[339]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:137; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:80/hadith 63.

[340]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:78/hadith 53.

[341]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:138-139; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 71,72,75,74.

[342]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:141; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:81/hadith 74.

[343]. Surat Al-A'araf, 7:99.

[344]. Tuhaf al-‘Uqul p. 456.

[345]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:202

[346]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:495/hadith 5; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:293; al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 519.

[347]. Mawso'at al-Imam al-Jawad (as) 2:413-415.

[348]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:495/hadith 5; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:293; al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 519.

[349]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:496/hadith 1; Madinah al-Ma’ajiz 7:308/hadith 2343; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:93/hadith 6.

[350]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:324/hadith 2; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:298-300.

[351]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:323; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:298; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:118/hadith 2.

[352]. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:261; Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:121-122/hadith 4.

[353]. Al-Tabarsi, I'lam al-Wara bi-A'lam al-Huda 2:113.

[354]. Surat Al-Baqarah, 2:148.

[355]. Al-Tabari, Ehtijaj 2:481-482; Ikmal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’amah pp. 377-378.

[356]. Ikmal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’amah pp. 377/hadith 1; Kifaiat al-Athar pp. 280-281; Bihar al-Anwar 51:156/hadith 1.

[357]. Ikmal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’amah p. 378/hadith 3; Kifaiat al-Athar p. 283; Bihar al-Anwar 51:30/hadith 4.

[358]. ‛Allamah al-Hilli, Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 114, No. 278; Abu-‛Ali al-Ha'iri, Muntaha al-Maqal 3:40, No. 878.

[359]. Shaykh al-Tusi, Kitab al-Rijal p. 354, No. 5244, p. 374, No. 5538; al-Tafrashi, Naqd al-Rijal 2:27, No. 1279.

[360]. Muhammad ibn ‛Umar al-Kashi, Ma‛arifat al-Rijal p. 552/hadith 1041; ‛Allamah al-Hilli, Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 99, No. 224.

[361]. Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Fihrist p. 112 (Biography of al-Husayn ibn Sa‛id, No. 230).

[362]. Rijal al-Tusi p. 364, No. 5393 (Companions of Imam al-Rida) p. 377, No. 5590 (Companions of Imam al-Jawad).

[363]. Rijal al-Najjashi p. 322, No. 893; Muhammad ‛Ali al-Ardabili, Jami‛ al-Ruwat 2:69.

[364]. Rijal al-Kashi p. 564, No. 1065.

[365]. Rijal al-Tusi p. 373, No. 5521 (Companions of Imam al-Jawad).

[366]. Ibid p. 383, No. 5645 (Companions of Imam al-Hadi).

[367]. Rijal al-Kashi pp. 548-549, No. 1038.

[368]. Ibid.

[369]. Rijal al-Najjashi p. 253, No. 664 (Biography of ‛Ali ibn Mahziyar). See also Khulasat al-Aqwal by ‛Allamah al-Hilli p. 175, No. 517 (Biography of ‛Ali ibn Mahziyar) where the author, as well as other eminent scholars of biography, declares ‛Ali ibn Mahziyar to be trustworthy and his reports to be authentic.

[370]. Rijal al-Najjashi p. 253, No. 664 (Biography of ‛Ali ibn Mahziyar). A reference has also been made to these books by Shaykh al-Tusi in his book: al-Fihrist p. 152, No. 379 (Biography of ‛Ali ibn Mahziyar), where the titles of the books are mentioned in brief.

[371]. These epistles of Imam al-Jawad (‛a) which he wrote in reply to ‛Ali ibn Mahziyar’s letters are mentioned in Rijal al-Kashi p. 550-1, No. 1040.

[372]. Ascribed to a town in Persia called Sabur, the word Sabiri refers to the clothes that were brought from that town.

[373]. Rijal al-Najjashi pp. 197-198, No. 524 (Biography of Safwan ibn Yahya).

[374]. Rijal al-Kashi pp. 503-504, No. 967.

[375]. Rijal al-Kashi pp. 567-568, No. 1074; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 14:598/S. 105/hadith 5.

[376]. Rijal al-Kashi p. 562, No. 1061.

[377]. Rijal al-Najjashi pp. 252-253, No. 663 (Biography of ‛Ali ibn Asbat).

[378]. Rijal al-Kashi p. 567, No. 1072-1073.

[379]. Rijal al-Tusi p. 373, No. 5515, p. 384, No. 5637.

[380]. Ibid p. 373, No. 5518; ‛Allamah al-Hilli, Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 61, No. 66.

[381]. Rijal al-Tusi p. 374, No. 5534, p. 384, No. 5660.

[382]. Ibid p. 334, No. 4976, p. 355, No. 5263, p. 375, No. 5546.

[383]. In his book Tahdhib al-Ahkam 4:137/hadith 385, Shaykh al-Tusi mentions a narration whose series of authority ends to al-Hakam ibn ‛Alba' (but not ‛Alya'). According to this narration, al-Hakam had a connection with Imam al-Jawad (‛a). See also Abu-‛Ali al-Ha'iri, Muntaha al-Maqal, 3:104, No. 974, where this disciple’s name is written as al-Hakam ibn ‛Alba', but not ‛Alya'.

[384]. Rijal al-Najjashi p. 141, No. 366; ‛Allamah al-Hilli, Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 121, No. 307.

[385]. ‛Allamah al-Hilli, Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 142, No. 390.

[386]. Rijal al-Tusi p. 376, No. 5561, p. 377, No. 5579.

[387]. Ibid p. 360, No. 5625, p. 377, No. 5579.

[388]. Rijal al-Tusi p. 387, No. 5706, p. 401, No. 5875. However, Shaykh al-Tusi stated that ‛Abd al-‛Azim was a disciple of Imam al-Hadi and Imam al-‛Askari, but not Imam al-Jawad (‛a). As for ‛Allamah al-Hilli, in Khulasat al-Maqal 4:140-141, No. 1643, he enlists ‛Abd al-‛Azim with the disciples of Imam al-Jawad (‛a). Providing evidence, he quotes a narration from ‛Allamah al-Qahba'i’s Majma‛ al-Rijal.

[389]. ‛Allamah al-Hilli, Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 220, No. 729; Abu-‛Ali al-Ha'iri, Muntaha al-Maqal 4:295, No. 1885.

[390]. Rijal al-Kashi pp. 429-430/hadith 803-804; Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 175, No. 515; Muntaha al-Maqal 4:362-363, No. 1975.

[391]. Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 176, No. 521; Muntaha al-Maqal 4:357, No. 1970.

[392]. Rijal al-Najjashi pp. 306-307, No. 840; Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 229, No. 769; Muntaha al-Maqal 5:197, No. 2282.

[393]. Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 242, No. 824; Muntaha al-Maqal 6:86, No. 2690.

[394]. Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 257, No. 881; Muntaha al-Maqal 6:149, No. 2812.

[395]. Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 284, No. 1042; Muntaha al-Maqal 6:390, No. 3132.

[396]. Rijal al-Najjashi p. 449, No. 1214; Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 299, No. 111; Muntaha al-Maqal 7:61-62, No. 3272.

[397]. Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 298, No. 1107; Muntaha al-Maqal 7:70, No. 3282.

[398]. Khulasat al-Aqwal p. 300, No. 1121; Muntaha al-Maqal 7:160-1, No. 3516.

[399]. Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:123/hadith1; Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Tawhid p. 93/hadith 8; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 3:220/hadith 8.

[400]. Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:118/hadith 12; Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Tawhid p. 83/hadith 2.

[401]. Shaykh al-Saduq, ‛Ilal al-Shara'i‛ 1:124-5/hadith 1; Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Ikhtisas p. 263.

[402]. This is an indication of the Surat Al-‛Alaq, 96:5.

[403]. Shaykh al-Saduq, Ma‛ani al-Akhbar p. 390/hadith 33; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 3:272-273/hadith 5.

[404]. Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:248/hadith 3.

[405]. Tafsir al-Imam al-‛Askari p. 344/hadith 224; al-Tabarsi, al-Ihtijaj 1:14-15/hadith 10; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 2:6/hadith 11.

[406]. Al-Tabarsi, al-Ihtijaj 2:456-6/hadith 319; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 3:208/hadith 3.

[407]. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 152/hadith 7; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 17:152/hadith 54.

[408]. Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:532-3/hadith 11; Shaykh al-Mufid, Kitab al-Irshad 2:346; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 94:15/hadith 25.

[409]. Although bada', a concept believed mainly by the Shia Muslims about the predetermination of Allah the Almighty, may seem to mean changeability in the divine determination, it actually means that the divine determination about a certain person may be conditional upon certain affairs.

[410]. Al-Nu‛mani, Kitab al-Ghaybah p. 303/hadith 10; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 52:250-251/hadith 38.

[411]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, Manaqib ali Abi-Talib 4:388; al-Bahrani, Madinat al-Ma‛ajiz 7/384/hadith 2392; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:56/hadith 34.

[412]. Husayn ibn ‛Abd al-Wahhab, ‛Uyun al-Mu‛jizat p. 127; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 50:100/hadith 12.

[413]. Al-Mas‛udi, Ithbat al-Wasiiah p. 188; al-Tabari, Dala'il al-Imamah p. 391/hadith 344.

[414]. Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Amali p. 352 /hadith 422; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 8:312/hadith 1.

[415]. Ibn Hamzah al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 523/hadith 458; al-Bahrani, Madinat al-Ma‛ajiz 7:397/hadith 2405.

[416]. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 1:548/hadith 27; Shaykh al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-Ahkam 4:140/hadith 397; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 9:538/hadith

[417]. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi .....:449/hadith 1; Shaykh al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-Ahkam 8:277/hadith 1009; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 22:343.

[418]. Ibn Fahad al-Hilli, ‛Uddat al-Da‛i p. 18; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 17:327/hadith 5.

[419]. Al-Rawandi, Qasas al-Anbiya' p. 215/hadith 278; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 13:405/hadith 2.

[420]. Al-Mas‛udi, Ithbat al-Wasiah pp. 136-138.

[421]. Ibn Hamzah al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 290/hadith 248.

[422]. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad 3:54/hadith 997; Ibn Khallakan, Wafiat al-A‛yan 4:175, No. 561.

[423]. Shaykh al-Saduq, ‛Ilal al-Shara'i‛ 1:236-237/hadith 1.

[424]. Al-Bahrani, Madinat al-Ma‛ajiz 7:388. A similar tradition is recorded by al-Suyuti in al-Jami‛ al-Saghir 1:70/hadith 442.

[425]. Al-Bahrani, Madinat al-Ma‛ajiz 7:388.

[426]. Yuhanna ibn Bakhtyashu‛ was the personal physician of a brother of al-Mu‛tamid, the ‛Abbasid ruler. He was appointed as the bishop of al-Mawsil (Mosul, a province northern Iraq) in the year AH 279/ AD 893. In fact, this date is very far from the lifetime of Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (as) who was martyred in the year AH 220. However, it seems that there was a mistake in the name of the physician, and the intended one was Jabra'il ibn Bakhtyashu‛ ibn Jurjis, the special physician of al-Ma'mun, who died in AH 212 / AD 828. The Bakhyashu‛ is a Nasturi Christian family who came from Nayshabur (northern Persia). They served the ‛Abbasid rulers for about three centuries. The most famous members of this family are Jurjis ibn Jabra'il and Bakhyashu‛ ibn Jabra'il.

[427]. Ibn Shahr'ashub, Manaqib Ali Abi-Talib 4:389.

[428]. Tertian fever is a type of fever that recurs every alternate day.

[429]. Ibn Bastam, Tibb al-A'immah p. 51; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 25:101/hadith 15; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 59:100/hadith 23.

[430]. Faludhaj is a sweetmeat made of flour, water, and honey.

[431]. Ibn Bastam, Tibb al-A'immah pp. 51-52; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 59:100/hadith 24.

[432]. Jaundice is a condition characterized by yellowness of the skin, conjunctiva, and tissues, and occasionally disordered vision, often due to obstruction of the bile duct or disease of the liver.

[433]. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 6:312/hadith 5; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 25:49/hadith 2.

[434]. Mitigal (also called miskal) is a unit of weight equal to about 4.25 grams or 0.6 ounce.

[435]. Ibn Bastam, Tibb al-A'immah p. 70; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 59:186/hadith 2.

[436]. Imam Ja‛far al-Sadiq (‛as) is reported as saying, “Lentil flour quenches thirst, strengthens the stomach, cures seventy maladies, smothers the bile, and cools the abdomen.” Lentil flour was always with Imam al-Sadiq (as) on all of his journeys. Whenever any of his servants was affected with blood excitement, the Imam would recommend him to drink the lentil flour soup, because it would calm the blood and extinguish the heat of the body. (Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 6:307/hadith 1)

Commenting on this report, ‛Allamah al-Majlisi (in Bihar al-Anwar 63:282-283/hadith28) says, “Two reasons have been mentioned for the lentil flour soup smothering the bile and cooling the heat of the abdomen. Firstly, this herb cools the hot mixtures and, secondly, it thickens the blood and calms its pressure; therefore, the blood slows its flow in the veins. For this reason, it helps staunch menstrual flow.

[437]. Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi 6:307/hadith 2; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi‛ah 25:21/hadith 1; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 63:282/hadith 28.

[438]. Saffron is a perennial herb in the family Iridaceae. It is of a large variety of categories, some of which are terrestrial and others chromosomal, which is famously known by physicians and in medicine. It is however hot, dry, and a tranquillizer; i.e. soul-exhilarating. The best kind of saffron is the fresh nice-coloured, sweet-smelling, with a little whitish colour on the hairs, plump, sound-looking, quick to tint, and neither sticky nor crumbled. Geckos do not enter houses in which there is saffron. See Muwaffaq al-Din al-Baghdadi, al-Tibb min al-Kitab wa’l-Sunnah p. 113; Ibn Sina (Avicenna), al-Qanun 1:306; al-Fayruz'abadi, al-Qamus al-Muhit 2:39.

[439]. Pyrethrum, or pyrethrum flower, (in Arabic, ‛aqarqarha) is an herb of the genus Chrysanthemum, whose roots are used in medicine. It is found in large quantities in Africa. According to Dr. Ramzi Fattah, in Ihya' al-Tadhkirah fi’l-Nabatat al-Tibbiah wa’l-Mufradat al-‛Attariah p. 430, pyrethrum is the origin of mountain tarragon. It helps drive out phlegm and cures toothache, coughing, breast pains, stomach flu, and liver flue. When gargled in the mouth, it removes angina pectoris (a condition marked by a suffocating, oppressive pain or discomfort).

[440]. In al-Qamus al-Muhit 3:398, al-Fayruz'abadi writes down, “Spikenard (sunbul or sunbul al-‛asafir) is a sweet-smelling herb, the best kind of which is the Syrian one, while the weakest is the Indian. It stimulates the appetite, discharges gases of the stomach, strengthens the brain, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestines, and causes urination. One of its distinctive features is that it stops abnormal uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia). The European spikenard is the herb known as nardin (nard).”

[441]. Cardamom is the fruit of an Indian plant used as fragrance and as spices. It strengthens the stomach and liver, cures nausea and flu, and causes constipation. However, the big cardamom is more intense in constipation than the small kind, but less pungent. See al-Fayruz'abadi, al-Qamus al-Muhit 4:39.

[442]. According to al-Mu‛jam al-Wasit 1:71, henbane is a kind of narcotized medical herb of the aubergine family. Defining henbane, the author of al-Qamus al-Muhit 1:179 states that this herb is analgesic (i.e. relieves pain); it relieves the pains of tumours, pimples, and ears. The worst kind of it is the black followed by the red, but the best of it is the white.

[443]. Hellebore is a plant the leaves of which look like a lamb’s tongue. There are two kinds: the white and the black, both of which dispel grief, increase body temperature, cure epilepsy, mania, arthritis, vitiligo (leucoderma: hereditary patchy loss of melanin pigment from the skin), and hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body), and purge the body from glutinous excrements. Hellebore sometimes causes convulsions. Moreover, excess consumption of this herb may cause death. See al-Fayruz'abadi, al-Qamus al-Muhit 3:225. In al-Jami‛ li-Mufradat al-Adwiyah wa’l-Aghdhiyah 2:55, Ibn al-Baytar quotes Ibn Sarabyun as saying, “Black hellebore relieves viscid bile and is used for treating the chronic and incurable diseases that require laxative medicines for the bile, such as pains of the thorax. It also helps purge intestines, uterus, and urinary bladder, and is used for treating bronchitic diseases.”

[444]. Pepper is an Indian seed, the most beneficial kind of which is the white. However, when mixed with asphalt and chewed, both the white and the red pepper are useful for discharging sticky phlegm, warming up nerves and muscles, and treating colic and flatulence. When licked up, pepper is useful for treating coughing and thorax pain. A small quantity of pepper causes constipation while a large quantity causes gases, dries up excrements, causes urination, and cools the semen after coitus. See al-Fayruz'abadi, al-Qamus al-Muhit 4:32.

[445]. Euphorbium is a gum that is produced by a thorny tree. It is obtained by a process of cleaving the leaves of the tree, causing a gummy extract to flow from the leaves, which immediately dries up and freezes as soon as it is in contact with air. According to al-Fayruz'abadi in al-Qamus al-Muhit 4:255, euphorbia gum is a pain-assuasive medicine useful for treating sciatica (pain in the back of the hip and thigh), kidney infection, colic, insect stings and dog bites. It also discharges sticky phlegm, but aborts fetuses.

[446]. The seed of cumin is diuretic, eructating, digestive, and gas expelling. When chewed with salt, saliva dries up. Other kinds of cumin are aniseed, which is sweet cumin, black cumin, Armenian cumin, and the terrestrial black cumin. Defining cumin, Muwaffaq al-Din al-Baghdadi writes in al-Tibb min al-Kitab wa’l-Sunnah p. 147, “Cumin is so hot that it heals colic and expels gases of the stomach. When soaked in vinegar and eaten, it stops lumps of clay and dust. It is also reported that anything changes as soon as it enters the human body, except for cumin.”

[447]. Ibn Bastam, Tibb al-A'immah p. 90; al-Hurr al-‛Amili, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah fi Usul al-A'immah 3:201; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, 59:247/hadith 7.

[448]. Commenting on this narration, ‛Allamah al-Majlisi writes in Bihar al-Anwar 59:145/hadith 2, “In his book al-Qanun, 1:388, Ibn Sina says, ‘Wet rue is hot and dry in the second element (i.e. air), dry rue is hot and dry in the third element (i.e. water), and dry sari rue is hot and dry in the fourth element (i.e. earth). Its heated juice, when put in pomegranate peel and poured in an inflamed ear, purifies it. It also assuages pains, buzzing, and loud noises in the head, and kills worms. It is used as an ointment for head wounds. It generally sharpens the sight, especially when its juice is mixed with fennel and honey and eaten or put on the edges of the eye just like kohl. Mixed with fine flour, it can be used as a soothant for eye pain.’”

According to al-Ma‛jam al-Wasit 1:424, rue is a kind of medical herb of the family Rutaceae. Its leaves are said to be similar to thyme, but its smell stinks.

[449]. Defining radish, the author of al-Tibb min al-Kitab wa’l-Sunnah writes p. 140, “Radish is consumed in small quantities because it is hot. It opens liver occlusions, and helps digestion although it is hard to digest. Eating radish may bring about lice.” As a footnote, the author adds, “Radish is usually eaten with the other appetizers and hors d'oeuvres. Containing vitamin C, it is diuretic, digestive, and anti-cough.

[450]. Ibn Bastam, Tibb al-A'immah p. 91; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 59:249/hadith 11.

[451]. It is worth mentioning that these confidential prayers comprise more figurative expressions than literal. [Translator].

[452]. Surat Al-A’araf, 7:99.

[453]. Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Amali, Assembly 23/hadith 20.

[454]. Ibid Assembly 38/hadith 13.

[455]. This narration has been reported about Imam al-Hasan al-‛Askari (as) but not Imam al-Jawad (as). See Ibn Hamzah al-Tusi, al-Thaqib fi’l-Manaqib p. 564/hadith 501.

[456]. Al-Hasan ibn Sulayman al-Hilli, Mukhtasar Basa'ir al-Darajat p. 161.

[457]. Al-Halawani, Nuzhat al-Nazir p. 134/hadith 3; as quoted from al-Shahid al-Awwal, al-Durrah al-Bahirah p. 39; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 67:78/hadith 11.

[458]. Al-Halawani, Nuzhat al-Nazir p. 135; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 67:78.

[459]. Al-Daylami, A‛lam al-Din p. 309; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:364/hadith 5.

[460]. Al-Halawani, Nuzhat al-Nazir p. 137; al-Daylami, A‛lam al-Din p. 309; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:36.

[461]. Al-Halawani, Nuzhat al-Nazir p. 137; al-Daylami, A‛lam al-Din p. 309; al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar 75:36.

[462]. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad 3:54-55; Ibn Khallakan, Wafiat al-A‛yan 4:175.

[463]. Al-Irbali, Kashf al-Ghummah 3:136-140, as quoted from al-Janabidhi’s Ma‛alim al-‛Itrah. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki quotes the same from al-Janabidhi’s book in al-Fusul al-Muhimmah pp. 260-263.