A VICTIM LOST IN SAQIFAH Volume 3

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A VICTIM LOST IN SAQIFAH Author:
Translator: Dr. Hassan Najafi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
Category: Imam Ali
ISBN: 978-964-438-976-8

A VICTIM LOST IN SAQIFAH

Author: Ali Labbaf
Translator: Dr. Hassan Najafi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
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ISBN: 978-964-438-976-8
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A VICTIM LOST IN SAQIFAH

A VICTIM LOST IN SAQIFAH Volume 3

Author:
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
ISBN: 978-964-438-976-8
English

Notes

[1] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 17, (9000 copies), Spring 83, Pg. 14

[2] Ibid. Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 2, (copies not mentioned), Summer 79, Pg. 30; Bani Khatam wa Deen-e-Kamil (1st Edition 1379), Pgs. 102-103

[3] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pgs. 49-50

[4] Ibid. Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 101

[5] Ibid. Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 139

[6] Ibid. Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 244

[7] Dr. Ali Shariati: Husain Warith-e-Adam (Collected Writings 19), 1st Edition Pg. 356

[8] Ibid. Husain Warith-e-Adam (Collected Writings 19), Pg. 356

[9] Dr. Ali Shariati: Tarikh O Shanakht-e-Adyan (Collected Writings 15), Vol. 2, (8th Edition 1381), Pg. 18

[10] Abu Awana was a prominent Hafiz and scholar of Ahle Sunnat

[11] Quoted from: Al-Ilal war-Rijaal, Vol. 1, Pg. 60

[12] Quoted from: Al-Ilal war-Rijaal, Vol. 3, Pg. 92 (New Edition)

[13] Quoted from: Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, Vol. 2, Pg. 291

[14] Quoted from: Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, Vol. 1, Pg. 274

[15] Quoted from: Tahdhib al-Kamal, Vol. 4, Pg. 322

[16] Quoted from: Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, Vol. 2, Pgs. 82-83

[17] Ustad Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani: Guftaarhai-e-Peeramoon Mazloomiyat-e-Bartareen Banu (Translation: Masood Shikohi), Pgs. 38-40

[18] Quoted from: Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, Vol. 3, Pg. 264

[From his statement it seems that talking about the defects of Caliphs was a common practice in those days]

[19] Quoted from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 21, Pg. 161

[20] Quoted from: Sharh Maqasid, Vol. 5, Pg. 311

[21] Ibid. Pgs. 41-42

[22] Quoted from: Al-Kamil fee Zo’fa ar-Rijaal, Vol. 5, Pg. 519

[23] Quoted from same source, Vol. 6, Pg. 545

[24] Quoted from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 11, Pgs. 447-448

[25] Quoted from same source, Vol. 11, Pgs. 537-538

[26] Quoted from: Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, Vol. 2, Pg. 83

[27] Quoted from: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Pg. 12

[28] Quoted from: Al-Kashful Hadith, Pg. 70

[29] Quoted from: Tahdhib at-Tahdhib, Vol. 1, Pgs. 273-274

[30] Quoted from same source, Vol. 1, Pg. 447

[31] Quoted from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 18, Pg. 12

[32] Quoted from: Lisanul Mizan,, Vol. 4, Pg. 366

[33] Quoted from same source, Vol. 5, Pg. 231

[34] Quoted from: Al-Majrooheen (By Ibne Hibban), Vol. 1, Pg. 302; Refer: Tahdhib al-Kamal, Vol. 10, Pg. 136 & Vol. 21, Pg. 594

[35] Shaykh Abduz Zahra Mahdi: Bibliography of Al-Hujoom Alaa Bait-e-Fatima, Pgs. 186-188

[36] Ustad Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani: Guftaarhai-e-Peeramoon Mazloomiyat-e-Bartareen Banu (Translation: Masood Shikohi), Pg. 40

[37] Quoted from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 10, Pgs. 92-93

[38] Shaykh Abduz Zahra Mahdi: Bibliography of Al-Hujoom Alaa Bait-e-Fatima, Pg. 190

[39] This text is included with permission from the author.

[40] Extract from Dar Justujoo-e-Ilm-e-Deen (In search of religious knowledge), Pgs. 165-182

[41] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 2, Summer 79, Pg. 30

[42] Ibid. Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 2, Summer 79, Pgs. 30-31

[43] For Example: Refer: Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vol. 4 of collection of Naqsh translated and published separately), Role of the Imams in Revival of Religion, Vol. 1-7

[44] Title of article in Issue No. 2 from Nida-e-Islam Magazine

[45] Ustad Ja’far Subhani: Peshwayi az Nazar-e-Islam (Leadership in the view of Islam), Pg. 21

[46] Ibid. Pg. 24

[47] Ibid. Pg. 21

[48] [Apparently the title of the original book is Waqayatur Rawaya fee Masail al-Hidayah, by Mahmood bin Ubaidullah Mahboobi (died around 673 Lunar Year) about the Hanafite Fiqh. (Refer: Kashfuz Zunoon, Vol. 6, Pg. 406; Hadiyatul Aarifeen, Vol. 2, Pg. 406; Mojam al-Moallifeen, Vol. 12, 178)]

[49] Ibid. Pg. 23

[50] For more details refer to Al-Imamah fee Ahaammal Kutub al-Kalaamiya wa Aqeedatush Shiatul Imamiyah by Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani.

This book is a criticism of discussions on Imamate and Caliphate in three books of Ahle Sunnah: Sharh Mawaqif, Sharh Maqasid and Sharh Aqaid Nasafiya.

[51] Sayyid Ahmad Mawassaqi: Istiratazi-e-Wahdat (Strategy of Unity), Vol. 2, Pg. 106

[52] Wilfred Madelung: Succession to Muhammad, Pg. 109

[53] Nazim-ul-Islam Kermani: Tarikh-e-Bedaari-e-Iraniaan (History of Iranian Awakening), Vol. 1, Pgs. 114-115; Dr. Sayyid Ja’far Shaheedi in his article titled, ‘Wahdat-e-Gumshudai Ke Bayad Yaft, Amma Che Gune Wa Az Kuja?’ printed in the book of Kitab-e-Wahdat; have accepted the authenticity of this historical quotation.

[54] Refer: Dr. Hamid Inayat: Seeri Dar Andisha Siyasi Arab

[55] Ali Asghar Faqihi: Wahhabiyaan, Research and Study of the Beliefs of the Wahabis, Pgs. 407-408

[56] [When Umar bin Abdul Aziz used to study under his maternal uncle, Ubaidullah bin Umar bin Khattab in Medina, he himself used to talk ill of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.)]

Ibne Asakir in his Tarikh Damishq has written about the enmity of Umar bin Abdul Aziz to Ahle Bayt (a.s.) in the report of his entry into Medina:

Abdul Aziz was appointed by the Syrian regime as the governor of Egypt. He sent his son Umar, who was named after his maternal grandfather to Medina for studies. The narrator says that when he arrived in Medina and entered the Prophet’s mosque, people remarked: The sinner has sent his son to obtain knowledge so that later he may act as the successor of Umar bin Khattab and act on his practice.

The narrator says: By Allah! We saw that he became a Caliph and acted on the practice of his grandfather.

(Husain Ghaib Gholami: Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) wa Zumar Hadith Fadak, Pgs. 63-64; quoting from Tarikh Madina Damishq, Vol. 45, Pgs. 136-137; Tahdhib al-Kamal, Vol. 14, Pg. 118; Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 5, Pg. 116)

From this aspect it can be said that ban on the practice of abusing His Eminence Ali (a.s.) from the pulpits in force since the time of Muawiyah by Umar Ibne Abdul Aziz was a diplomatic move to strengthen the weakening Umayyad empire.]

[57] Refer: Dr. Hamid Inayat: Seeri Dar Andisha Siyasi Arab

[58] Refer: Muhammad Jawad Sahibi: Tabiyat Istibdaad

[59 Refer: Dr. Hamid Inayat: Tafakkur Nuyin Siyasi Islam

[60] Hashmatullah Qambari Hamadani: Israar wa Asaar Saqifah Bani Saada (Secrets and relics of Saqifah Bani Saada), Pg. 71

[61] Ahmad Asadnejad: Wasi-e-Payambar Keest? Pgs. 139-140; quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 2, Pgs. 28-29

[62] Ahmad Asadnejad: Wasi-e-Payambar Keest? Pgs. 140-147; quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 2, Pgs. 30-34

[63] Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pg. 173

[64] Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pg. 239; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 16, Pgs. 266-267; Ash-Shafi, Pgs. 233-234

[65] [To leave]

[66] [It means the opposition of those two and their associates to the customs of Prophet and laws of Shariah]

[67] [This quality in the Caliphs was like cunning that is associated with Amr Aas.]

[68] Ali Muhaddith (Bandar Regi): Siyaah Tareen Hafta-e-Tarikh, Pgs. 142-144; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 12, Pgs. 82-90

[69] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 14, (9000 copies), Summer 82, Pg. 15

[70] Refer: Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pgs. 210-211

[71] Refer: Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Ayesha Dar Tarikh-e-Islam, Vol. 3, Pg. 103; he wanted his son-in-law to become the Caliph through the arbitration.

[72] Refer: Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pgs. 257-259; quoting from: Al-Isabah, Vol. 3, Pg. 228

[73] [Perhaps he learnt this diplomacy from the First Caliph]

[74] [It denotes the sons of Abu Muit bin Abu Amr bin Umayyah! Abu Muit was the grandfather of Waleed bin Uqbah.]

[75] [Sons of Umayyah means: Abul Ais, Abu Amr, Aas, Abul Aas (grandfather of Uthman bin Affan and Marwan bin Hakam) and Harb (father of Abu Sufyan).]

[76] Ahmad al-Kubra: Min Hayatul Khaleefah, Pg. 435; quoting from Tarikh Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, Pgs. 158-159

[77] [Abdur Rahman bin Auf, brother-in-law of Uthman (husband of Umme Kulthum binte Uqbah bin Abi Muit) (Balazari: Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Vol. 5, Pg. 19)]

[78] [Hurmuzan, the former king of Shoos and Shustar had become a Muslim who sketched conquest of Iranian towns for Umar.]

[79] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 36

[80] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 10, (9000 copies), Summer 81, Pg. 20

[81] Consent: what is this consent? We very much come across this word in the Sunni books. If they mean it is the consent of all the Muslims, it is impossible to obtain from all. If they mean only those around the caliph and if they are regarded as the representatives of Muslims, they have no such authority because of the ruling of Umar in the following case:

Here is this historical document:

Two men came to Abu Bakr and demanded a piece of land for cultivation. Abu Bakr asked the opinion of those who were around him that time. They agreed. So, Abu Bakr gave them the relative documents of the land. The two men took the document to Umar to attest it. Umar took the document and tore it up. Umar was angry and came to Abu Bakr and asked: Is this land yours? Or, is it of all Muslims? Abu Bakr said that it belonged to all Muslims. He said that he had consulted his courtiers. Umar asked whether the few persons were all Muslims. Whether all have agreed on this? Abu Bakr said: I told at the beginning that you are more competent to be the Caliph. But you did not agree and forced me to accept this post. (Ali Muhammad Mir Jalili: Imam Ali and the Rulers, Pg. 61, narrated from Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibn Abil Hadid, Vol. 12, Pg. 58)

[82] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 2, Summer 79, Pg. 31

[83] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 29

[84] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Husaini Firozabadi: Shanasai-e-Haft Tan Dar Sadr-e-Islam (Translation of As-Saba’ tu Min as-Salf; written by Abbas Rasikhi Najafi), Pgs. 81-82

[85] Husain Ghaib Gholami: Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) wa Rumuz-e-Hadith-e-Fadak, Pgs. 43-45; quoting from: Tarikh Madeenatud Damishq, Vol. 28, Pg. 200

[86] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 35

[87] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 2, Summer 79, Pg. 31

[88] [After the passing away of the Seal of the prophets and during continuous wars there was excess of war booty and wealth.]

[89] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Ayesha Dar Tarikh-e-Islam, Vol. 3, Pg. 232

[90] Ibid. Vol. 3, Pgs. 232-233; quoting from: Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 8, Pgs. 69-73

[91] Ibid. Vol. 3, Pg. 233; quoting from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 2, Pg. 132

[92] Zamakhshari: Al-Kashaf, Vol. 3, Pg. 231, Under Verses 30-31 of Surah Noor

[93] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 10, Summer 81, Pg. 20

[94] Quoted from: Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 3, Pg. 62

[95] Quoted from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 449

[96] Allamah Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pg. 157

[97] [Author of Asraar wa Asaar Saqifah Bani Saada]

[98] Hashmatullah Qambari Hamadani: Asraar wa Asaar Saqifah Bani Saada (Secrets and relics of Saqifah Bani Saada), Pg. 81

[99] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pg. 58; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 2, Pg. 133

[100] Refer: Shaykh Mufeed: Al-Jamal, Pg. 43

[101] Suyuti: Jame al-Ahadith, Vol. 13, Pg. 106

[102] [On reading the first volume of Naqsh-e-Ayesha Dar Tarikh-e-Islam, it is known how Ayesha coined traditions to strengthen the foundation of Caliphate.]

[103] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Ayesha Dar Tarikh-e-Islam, Vol. 1, Pg. 118; quoting from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 2, Pg. 133 & Mustadrak Hakim & Talkhis Dhahabi, Vol. 4, Pg. 8

[104] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 46

[105] [Saeed bin Aas bin Saeed bin Aas bin Umayyah]

[106] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vol. 14, Pgs. 25-26; quoting from: Tabaqat, Vol. 5, Pgs. 20-22

[107] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, (9000 copies), Autumn 81, Pg. 7

[108] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 73

[109] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 90

[110] Muhammad Kamil Hasan al-Hami (translated by Ghulam Haider Farooqi): Zindagi Naame Umar bin Khattab (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 22

[111] Quoted from: Tarikh al-Khulafa, Pg. 135

[112] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 7

[113] Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 12, Pg. 62

[114] Ustad Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) (Translated by Muhammad Shahri, 2nd Edition), Pg. 182; quoting from: Al-Futuhaat al-Islamiya, Vol. 2, Pg. 55; At-Tarateeb al-Idariya, Vol. 2, Pg. 405; Al-Bahruz Zakhaar, Vol. 4. Pg. 100

It is said that they were 10000 in number (Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Vol. 2, Pg. 109)

[115] Ibid. Pg. 182; quoting from: Tabaqat, Vol. 3, Pg. 219; Al-Futuhaat al-Islamiya, Vol. 2, Pg. 390; Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 2, quoting from: Ibne Saad and Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 2, Pg. 317 & Ibne Jurair and Ibne Asakir; Tarikh al-Khulafa, Pg. 120

[116] Ibid. Pg. 182; quoting from: Jame Bayan al-Ilm, Vol. 2, Pg. 17

[117] Extract from: Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 705; quoting from: Tarikh Mukhtasar Damishq, Vol. 10, Pg. 406]

[118] Ibid. Pg. 182; quoting from: Al-Kharaij, Pg. 51

[119] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 70; quoting from: Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 1, Pg. 347

[120] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 221

[121] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 14, Summer 82, Pg. 20

[122] Quoted from: At-Tarateeb al-Idariya, Vol. 1, Pg. 269

[123] Quoted from: Tabari, Vol. 6, Pg. 184; Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 1, Pg. 14

[124] Quoted from: Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 5, Pg. 347; Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 4, Pg. 60

[125] Quoted from: Al-Istiab, (on the margins of Al-Isabah), Vol. 3, Pg. 397

[126] Quoted from: Uyun al- Akhbaar, Vol. 1, Pg. 9

[127] Quoted from: Uyun al- Akhbaar, Vol. 1, Pg. 9

[128] Quoted from: Al-Istiab, (on the margins of Al-Isabah), Vol. 3, Pgs. 396-397

[In this book it is mentioned:

Whenever Umar came to Syria or looked at Muawiyah he used to remark: This is the Choesroe of Arabs.

(Al-Isabah, Vol. 3, Pg. 434; Usud al-Ghaba, Vol. 5, Pg. 386)]

[129] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.), Pgs. 98-100

[130] [The Caliph said before the people: By Allah! I don’t know whether I am a Caliph or a king (Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 12, Pg. 66)]

[131] Ibid. Pg. 181; quoting from: Al-Futuhaat al-Islamiya, Vol. 2, Pg. 290; Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 2, Pg. 256

[132] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 102

[133] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 102

[134] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 417

[135] [Tameem bin Aws bin Kharija was a Christian monk who had converted to Islam in 9th year of Hijra, that is a year before the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)]

[136] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vol. 6, Pg. 88; quoting from: Futuh al-Buldan, Pg. 556

[137] Ibid. Vol. 6, Pg. 87; quoting from: Al-Isabah, Vol. 3, Pg. 473; Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 2, Pg. 446

[138] Quoted from: Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 2, Pg. 445

[139] Ustad Ali Koorani: Tadween-e-Quran, Pg. 186

[140] [A young Jew who had recently converted to Islam]

[141] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 76; quoting from: Tarikh Madinatul Munawwara, Vol. 3, Pgs. 854-855; Al-Isabah, Vol. 1, Pg. 85

[142] Balazari: Futuh al-Buldan, Pgs. 90, 226 & 392

[143] Mustafa Iskandari: Baazkhwani Andisha-e-Taqreeb, Pg. 247; quoting from Tarikh Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, Pg. 137

[144] [This shows misappropriation, and the action of Caliph proves that he did not consider his officers trustworthy]

[145] Quoted from: Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 1, Pg. 46

[146] Quoted from: Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 1, Pg. 46

[147] Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pg. 285

[148] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 205; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 3, Pg. 113

[149] [Abdullah bin Qais, also called as Abu Musa; Abdullah bin Umar was his son-in-law]

[150] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 222; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 12, Pg. 43

[151] Quoted from: Al-Futuh, Vol. 2, Pgs. 288-289

[152] Mustafa Iskandari: Baazkhwani Andisha-e-Taqreeb, Pg. 248

[153] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 6

[154] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 102

[155] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 199

[156] [In the original text it is mentioned that this happened at the time of dismissal of Saad bin Abi Waqqas and appointment of Mughaira in his place, while the fact is that Mughaira was not immediately appointed after Saad, in between Ammar Yasir occupied the post of governorship of Kufa for a brief period.

“After Saad bin Abi Waqqas for a short period Abdullah bin Utban and then Ammar bin Yasir became the governor of Kufa. Since the people of Kufa found him lenient they asked Umar to appoint someone else and he sent Mughaira bin Shoba to Kufa.” (Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob, Pg. 283)]

[157] [Umar is said to have expressed his view in this sentence: “They weakened him - their pious governor! The pronoun used by him refers to Ammar Yasir and not Saad bin Abi Waqqas. As such, the man who was considered able one and at the same time a tyrant and profligate was Saad bin Abi Waqqas.

It should be remarked here because the name of Salman Farsi too is referred to. The historical document shows that Umar appointed Salman Farsi governor of Madayn. The motive of Umar was that Salman would commit some or other wrong. This would provide Umar with an excuse to destroy Salman and discard him from society.

According to this, one can conclude that such a plot could have been there for Ammar to enmesh him. So, quite possibly Ammar must have been the victim of such intrigues.]

[158] Quoted from: Al-Istiab, Vol. 3, Pg. 472 & Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 204; quoting from Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 1, Pg. 35

[159] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 200

[160] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 189; quoting from: Tarikh Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, Pg. 138; Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 617

[161] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 189; quoting from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 603

[162] [Regarding the attitude of Mughaira and Khalid we will be giving more sources and documents in the following pages.]

[163] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 200; quoting from: Abqariya Umar, Pg. 28

[164] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 200; quoting from: Tarikh Umar bin Khattab, Pg. 56

[165] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 204

[166] Allamah Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pg. 43

[167] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 42

[168] For example: Refer: Tarikh Khaleefatain bin Khayyat, Pg. 51 (Darul Kutub al-Ilmiya, Beirut)

[169] Extract from: Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 1, Pgs. 313-314

[170] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 101

[171] Ibid. Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 102

[172] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 8; quoting from: Shaykhaan Balazari, Pg. 237

[173] [Around 3 Kgs.]

[174] Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 12, Pg. 165

[175] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 1, Pg. 44; quoting from: Tabaqat, Vol. 3, Pg. 318

[176] [Around 3 Kgs.]

[177] Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 12, Pg. 20

[178] [A delicious Arabian dish]

[179] Ahmad al-Bakri: Min Hayatul Khaleefa, Pg. 76; quoting from: Tabaqat, Vol. 3, Pgs. 229-230

[180] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 5

[181] [Rule of nobles]

[182] Muhammad Hasan Mashayakh: Article quoted in Nahjul Balagha Magazine, Issue Nos. 2-3, Summer 80 - Spring 81, Pgs. 70-71

[183] Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pg. 174; quoting from Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 4, Pg. 78

[184] Like in establishment of Taravih Prayer or with attention to the recitation of Quran.

Abu Moosa Ashari says: “The Caliph appointed me as the governor of Basra and instructed me only to make the recitation of Quran popular among the people.” (Ibne Kathir: Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya, Vol. 8, Pg. 107)

[185] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 2, Summer 79, Pg. 33

[186] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 139

[187] Ahmad al-Bakri: Min Hayatul Khaleefa, Pgs. 379-380; quoting from: Al-Futuhaat al-Islamiya, Vol. 2, Pg. 407

[188] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 7

[189] Abdur Raheem Mahmoodi: Maqaam-e-Sahaaba wa Zindagi-e-Khulafa-e-Raashideen Dar yek Nigaah (Status of Companions and life of Rightly Guided Caliphs in a Glance), Pg. 21

[190] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 149

[191] Ibid. Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 154

[192] [It is interesting that here they have translated Wali as leader and chief but in the instance of Ghadeer with regard to Ali (a.s.) they say that Wali means friend.]

[193] Abdur Raheem Mahmoodi: Maqaam-e-Sahaaba wa Zindagi-e-Khulafa-e-Raashideen Dar yek Nigaah (Status of Companions and life of Rightly Guided Caliphs in a Glance), Pgs. 23-24

[194] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 90

[195] Muhammad Kamil Hasan al-Hami (translated by Ghulam Haider Farooqi): Zindagi Naame Umar bin Khattab (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 6

[196] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 80

[197] Ahmad al-Bakri: Min Hayatul Khaleefa, Pg. 347; quoting from: Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 2, Pg. 419; Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 2, Pgs. 480, Tr. 4552

[198] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pgs. 205 & 206

[199] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 10

[200] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion), Vol. 14, Pgs. 95-96

[201] [Except Hurmuzan, Abu Lulu, Salman and Bilal.]

[202] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pgs. 124-125

[203] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion), Vol. 16, Pg. 54

[204] Rasool Ja’faryan: Seerah Rasool-e-Khuda, Pg. 164

[205] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion), Vol. 14, Pg. 160

[206] Quoted from: Tarikh Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, Pg. 153

[207] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 47

[208] Quoted from: Dalail al-Imamah, Pg. 39

[209] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 66

[210] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion), Vol. 16, Pg. 55

[211] Ibid. Vol. 14, Pg. 76

[212] [It denotes the intellectuals, persons like Kaab al-Ahbaar! (Refer: Najah Ata at-Tai: Yahood Be-Suboot al-Islam)]

[213] [Persons like Mughaira and Amr Aas]

[214] [Persons like Muhammad bin Musailama who killed Saad bin Ubadah]

[5] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Doo Maktab Dar Islam (Two Schools of Islam) Vol. 2 (Outlooks of two schools about sources of Islamic legislation) Pg. 559, Footnote no. 3

[216] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 92

[217] Quoted from: Ahsan at-Taqaaseem, Pg. 18

[218] [The Arabs called all the Sasanid rulers as Choesroe]

[219] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) (Translated by Muhammad Shahri), Pg. 103

[220] Ibid. Pg. 184; quoting from: Al-Musannaf, Vol. 11, Pg. 245 onwards

[221] [“Umar applied the custom of Iran and Rome to landed properties in Iraq.”

Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Nigahi be Sarguzahsht-e-Hadith, Pg. 26)]

[222] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.), Pg. 124; quoting from: Jame Bayan al-Ilm, Vol. 2, Pg. 194

[223] [In order to maintain the supremacy of the Arabs the Caliph used to collect from them a tax, that he didn’t refer to by the name of Jizyah as they would have considered it abhorring, but he collected from them a tax which was twice that of Zakat.]

[224] Ibid. Pg. 184; quoting from: Sunan Baihaqi, Vol. 4, Pg. 216; Al-Musannaf, Vol. 6, Pg. 50

[225] Ibid. Pg. 184; quoting from: Al-Musannaf, Vol. 6, Pg. 94

[226] Abdus Samad Hasan Zahi: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 7, (7000 copies), Autumn 80, Pg. 13

[227] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi (Translated by Muhammad Shahri), Pg. 127

[228] [The system of taking war hostages as slaves was responsible for so many Arabs being made slaves in the period of Abu Bakr.

Waging battles was the most important method of getting slaves.

It is mentioned in history that one-fifth prisoners of the town of Qaisariya during the time of Umar bin Khattab used to be 4000 slaves. (Ref: Futuh al-Buldan, Pg. 142)

In the same way it is said that the prisoners of Ahwaz, especially Shustar, were in such a large number that Umar bin Khattab ordered them to be returned. (Ref: Futuh al-Buldan, Pg. 382)

The distribution of slaves among the soldiers and the government was in such a way that one-fifth were given to the government and four-fifth were retained with the soldiers.

Therefore these war prisoners were lodged in houses built for this purpose during the time of the Second Caliph.

(Ref: Tabaqat Ibne Saad, Vol. 3, Pg. 203 & 261.)]

[229] [Released hostages were called Mawali]

[230] Yusuf Gholami: Peshwai Farzand Abu Talib, Pg. 61

[331] [Surprising is the claim that:

“He had a clean tongue and he did not like bad language.”! (Muhammad Kamil Ilhami (Translation by Ghulam Haider Farooqi): Zindagi Name Umar bin Khattab (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 24)

While historical documents show that: Abu Sufyan in dialogue with Umar bin Khattab in the presence of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Abbas told Umar: “Woe be on you Umar! You are a profane man.” (Najah Ata at-Tai: As Seeratun Nabawiyyah, Vol. 2, Pg. 130; quoting from Sirah Ibne Dahlan, Vol. 2, Pg. 58)]

[232] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 1, Pg. 392; quoting from: Abqariya Umar, Pg. 130

[233] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 4

[234] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 197

[235] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 6

[236] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Fars, Pg. 128; quoting from: Al-Amwaal, Pgs. 197-199; Al-Izaah, Pg. 249; Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 2, Pg. 549; Sunan Baihaqi, Vol. 9, Pg. 74

[237] Ibid. Pg. 129; quoting from: Al-Kamil Fit Tarikh, Vol. 2, Pg. 382; Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 2, Pg. 549

[238] [“Sending Arab tribes to war was responsible for promoting the practice of slavery among Arabs…

It is seen that prosperity of these tribes after conquests motivated them to pay religious penalties by freeing slaves…

But these changes and steps were not effective with all slaves…it can be said that these victories created among the Arabs a feeling of racial superiority…” (Jamal Jooda: Auzaa Ijtimai - Iqtisaadi Mawali Dar Sadr-e-Islam, Pgs. 88-90)]

[239] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi, Pg. 128; quoting from: Al-Musannaf, Vol. 8, Pgs. 380-381; Vol. 9, Pg. 168

[240] Ibid. Pg. 130; quoting from: Al-Musannaf, Vol. 11, Pg. 325; Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pg. 273; Mustadrak Hakim, Vol. 4, Pg. 439; Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 2, Pg. 82

[241] [Its most prominent example will be given in the matter of Jabla bin Aiham]

[242] Ibid. Pg. 127

[243] Ibid. Pg. 131

[244] Ibid. Pg. 131; quoting from: Muruj az-Zahab, Vol. 2, Pg. 320

[245] [Nubati or Nabatean were non-Arab people who had settled down in Iraq and southern Palestine and mixed with the local population of unspecified lineage.]

[246] Ibid. Pg. 132; quoting from: Tahdhib Tarikh-e-Damishq, Vol. 5, Pg. 446; Tadkirah al-Huffaz, Vol. 1, Pg. 31; Sunan Baihaqi, Vol. 8, Pg. 32; Seer Alaamun Nubla, Vol. 2, Pg. 440; Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 7, Pg. 303

[247] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 115

[248] Muhammad Kamil Hasan al-Hami (translated by Ghulam Haider Farooqi): Zindagi Naame Umar bin Khattab (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 3

[249] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 82

[250] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi, Pg. 133; quoting from: Iqtiza as-Siraat al-Mustaqeem, Pg. 162

[251] Ibid. Pg. 133; quoting from: Rabi al-Abraar, Vol. 1, Pg. 796; Tarikh Jurjaan, Pg. 486

[252] Ibid. Pg. 134; quoting from: Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 3, Pg. 150; Al-Musannaf, Vol. 11, Pg. 439

[253] Ibid. Pg. 136; quoting from: Al-Izaah, Pgs. 280 & 286; Muhaziraat al-Udba, Vol. 3, Pg. 208

[254] Ibid. Pg. 136; quoting from: Al-Uthmaniya, Pg. 211

[255] Ibid. Pg. 136; quoting from: Al-Izaah, Pg. 286

[256] Ibid. Pg. 135; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 8, Pg. 111

[257] Ibid. Pg. 135; quoting from: Iqtiza as-Siraat al-Mustaqeem, Pg. 159

[258] [She was the wife of the Prophet and the daughter of Harith, the chief of Bani Mustaliq tribe. She was taken as a prisoner by Muslims along with the people of her clan. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) purchased and emancipated her and then he married her; when this news reached Harith, he came to Medina and accepted Islam and after that most people of his tribe also accepted Islam (Refer: Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Ayesha Dar Tarikh-e-Islam, Vol. 1, Pgs. 58-59)]

[259] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi, Pg. 135; quoting from: Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Sirah Payambar, Pg. 442; Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 2, Pg. 614

[260] [Utbah bin Ghazawaan was the founder of Basrah]

[261] [That is desert dweller; Bedouins etc.]

[262] [Mughaira was a Thaqafi and a native of Taif]

[263] [That is city dwellers]

[264] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 79; quoting from: Mojam al-Buldan, Vol. 1, Pg. 433

[265] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 164

[266] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 79

[267] Ibid. Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 46

[268] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 422

[269] Ibid. Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 421

[270] Ahmad Naseeb (translated by Saaduddin Shaykh Ahmadi): Mohabbat-e-Payambar Dar Qalb-e-Yaaranash (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 84

[271] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 6

[272] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi (Translated by Muhammad Shahri), Pgs. 170-171

[273] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) (Translated by Muhammad Shahri), Pg. 106

[274] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi (Translated by Muhammad Shahri), Pg. 172

[275] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.), Pg. 106

[276] Ibid. Pg. 179

[277] [Second Caliph]

[278] Quoted from: Kafi, Vol. 8, Pgs. 59-63

[279] [It includes his words, actions and silent approval.]

[282] Quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 1, Pg. 269; Vol. 2, Pg. 283

[281] Quoted from: Rijaal Mamaqaani, Vol. 2, Pg. 83

[282] Quoted from: Rijaal Mamaqaani, Vol. 2, Pg. 83

[283] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Salman Farsi (Translated by Muhammad Shahri), Pg. 173

[284] Ibid. Pgs. 175-176; quoting from: Al-Imamah was-Siyasah, Vol. 1, Pg. 146

[285] Quoted from: Al-Kamil fil Adab, Vol. 1, Pg. 144

[286] Quoted from: Akbaar at-Tiwaal, Pg. 207; Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 4, Pg. 62; Al-Kamil fit Tarikh, Vol. 3, Pg. 343; Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Vol. 2, Pgs. 370-371

[287] Ibid. Pg. 174

[288] [He was from Kinda tribe]

[289] Ibid. Pg. 176; quoting from: Al-Imamah was-Siyasah, Vol. 1, Pg. 130

[290] [Careful attention on these statements would clearly prove what circumstances restrained Amirul Momineen (a.s.) from criticizing the Caliphs openly during his Caliphate and the exigencies of accepting the names of Caliphs for his sons.]

[291] Ibid. Pg. 175; quoting from: Al-Fusool al-Muhimma by Ibne Sabbagh Maliki, Pg. 49

[292] [His Eminence, Ali (a.s.) asked them: What has made you angry with me? They replied: The first thing that infuriated us against you was that in the battle of Jamal, though you allowed us to take war booty you restrained us from taking their women and children as hostages. (Quoted from: Baghdadi: Al-Farq Bainal Firq, Pg. 78)

[293] Quoted from: Shahristani: Al-Milal wan Nihal, Vol. 1, Pg. 116

[294] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Article: ‘Mariqeen’ (Translation Muhammad Shahri) quoted in Danish Nama Imam Ali (a.s.), Vol. 9, Pgs. 239-241

[295] Quoted from: Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 5, Tr. 704; Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 3, Pg. 104

[296] Quoted from: Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 4, Tr. 889

[297] Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Jawahiri: Abu Bakr, Pg. 53

[298] Quoted from: Al-Kawakib, Vol. 1, Pg. 125

[299] Quoted from: Fath al-Bari, Vol. 4, Pg. 375

[300] Quoted from: Al-Umdatul Qari, Vol. 12, Pg. 121

[301] Ustad Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani: Guftaarhai-e-Peeramoon Mazloomiyat-e-Bartareen Banu (Translation: Masood Shikohi), Pgs. 61-65

[302] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 5

[303] Its sources were explained in Discourse Two

[304] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 203

[305] [It was perhaps on the basis of this argument that Amr Aas said: “Curse be on the time when I served as a governor of Umar.”]

(Najah Ata at-Tai: Saqifah, Pgs. 100; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, Pg. 58)]

[306] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pgs. 208

[307] Some are of the view that Amr Aas has used this appellation for the Caliph (Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 240)

[308] [Nofiya bin Harith]

[309] Quoted from: Wafayaat al-Ayaan, Vol. 2, Pg. 406

[310] [Umar’s dealing in this case shows that he had a hidden aim in carrying out or not carrying out the death penalty. His insistence on punishing Khalid bin Waleed in the case of Malik bin Nuwairah was not obedience to religious rules but to obtain political power, which Umar was after. He wanted to remove Khalid from the way as he considered him a strong rival.]

[311] Quoted from: Talkhees Dhahabi, Vol. 3, Pg. 448

[312] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pgs. 249-254

[313] Ibid. Vol. 1, Pg. 253

[314] Fawad Farooqi: Beest-o-panj Saal Sukoot-e-Ali (2nd Edition 1379), Pg. 85; Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 90

[315] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 7

[316] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 195

[317] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 11, Autumn 81, Pg. 7

[318] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 101

[319] Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 12, Pg. 19; Ibne Jauzi: Tarikh Umar bin Khattab, Pg. 83

This historical document also contains additional incidents that speak of the regret of the Caliphs but the attitude of the Caliphs portrayed in history is against these claims.

[320] Quoted from: Saqifah wa Fadak, Pg. 4; Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, Pg. 219

[331] Mustafa Dilshad Tehrani: Meeras Rabooda (Usurped inheritance), Pg. 83

[322] Quoted from: Al-Kamil Fit Tarikh, Vol. 2, Pg. 12

[323] Quoted from: Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pg. 222

[324] Sayyid Hasan Fatimi: Article quoted in Danish Nama Imam Ali (a.s.), Vol. 8, Pg. 433

[325] [He was a respectable personality of Khazraj tribe]

[326] Quoted from: Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pg. 210

[327] Quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, Pg. 174

[328] Quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, Pg. 174

[329] Quoted from: Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pg. 210; Tarikh Khamees, Vol. 2, Pgs. 187 & 188; Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 1, Pg. 56; Sirah Halabiyya, Vol. 3, Pg. 396

[330] Quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 6, Pg. 40

[331] Quoted from: Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 1, Pg. 56; Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pg. 210; Al-Imamah was-Siyasah, Vol. 1, Pg. 10

[332] Quoted from: Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 2, Pg. 253; Tarikh Abul Fida, Vol. 1, Pg. 156

[333] Quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 1, Pg. 219

[334] Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pgs. 75-16

[335] [With regards Bani Aslam, many traditions were fabricated to say they were not nomads but Medinites. So that since they were first to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr ahead of Ansaar and Muhajireen it would give them credit and distinction and also block the way of those who object to Abu Bakr’s Caliphate.]

[336] Mustafa Dilshad Tehrani: Meeras Rabooda (Usurped inheritance), Pg. 74; quoting from: Al-Jamal, Pg. 199

[337] Wilfred Madelung: Succession to Muhammad, Pg. 55

[338] Mustafa Iskandari: Baazkhwani Andisha-e-Taqreeb, Pg. 221

[339] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pg. 56

[340] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 61

[341] Ibid. Vol. 1, Pg. 338

[342] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 47

[343] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pgs. 39-46

[344] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pgs. 46-47 [Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari has launched a vast research. He has written the outcome of his toil in the second volume of his book Abdullah bin Saba]

[345] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pgs. 43-47

[346] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 56; we have mentioned actual parts of this incident in this book.

[347] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pgs. 63-77

[348] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pgs. 56 & 61

[349] There are many other battles in Islam like the wars of Ridda which are also fabricated, like battle of Salasil, Ableh, Mazar, Walja, Alees, Amghishia, Furat Badkhuli, battle of Haseed, battle of Masbagh, battle of Thani, battle of Zameel and battle of Farez. etc.

Refer: Allamah Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pg. 339

[350] Refer: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane,Vol. 2, Pg. 46; Pg. 79 & Vol. 1, Pg. 338

[351] When Abu Bakr finished the Ridda issue he deemed it befitting to send his soldiers to Syria. He wrote letters to the people of Mecca, Taif and Yemen and all Arabs of Najd and Hijaz inviting them to Holy war and the spoils that they would attain in Rome. People complied with his invitation in greed of spoils. They started from all corners to meet in Medina.

Perusal of these pages clearly shows that the incidents or the battles in the historical books of Sunni sect are only intended to create some greatness for Khalid bin Waleed in a frame of his inhuman behavior. We recommend the work of Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari Abdullah bin Saba and other historical stories Vol. 1, Pg. 329. We further recommend the same source Vol. 2, Pgs. 83-113 for the scrutiny of these battles which the Sunni sect attach great importance to, because in their opinion it is a collection of pride and glory for Khalid bin Waleed - the Commander in the army of Abu Bakr, for the sake of better acquaintance with a real part of the above said battles which is the invention of Saif bin Umar we recommend Vol. 2 of ‘Historical Stories’ Pgs. 88, 91, 100, 101, 112 and 113.

[352] Mustafa Iskandari: Baazkhwani Andisha-e-Taqreeb, Pg. 217

[353] Refer: Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pg. 339

[354] Mustafa Iskandari: Baazkhwani Andisha-e-Taqreeb, Pg. 218

[355] Ibid. Pg. 221

[356] Refer: Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pgs. 215-216

[357] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 10, Summer 81, Pg. 19

[358] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pg. 188

[359] For details about the types of apostasy in the view of contemporary historians refer to: Ali Gholami Dahqi: Janghai Irtdidat wa Bohran Janasheeni-e-Payambar, Pgs. 97-102.

[360] Quoted from: Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya, Vol. 6, Pg. 311

[361] Quoted from: Tarikh Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, Pg. 128

[362] Quoted from: Al-Mahalli, Vol. 11, Pg. 193

[363] Quoted from: Farq-e-Shia (Translation and notes by Dr. Muhammad Jawad Mashkoor), Pg. 7; Al-Maqaalaat wal Farq (Edited with notes by Dr. Muhammad Jawad Mashkoor), Pg. 4.

[364] Quoted from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 3, Pg. 255.

[365] Quoted from: Al-Majmua al-Kamila, Vol. 1 (Abqarya Abu Bakr), Pg. 306

[366] Quoted from: Nusoos ar-Ridda fit Tarikh at-Tabari, Pg. 91

[367] Quoted from: Al-Islam wa Usool al-Hukm, Pgs. 193-197

[368] Quoted from: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane, Vol. 1, Pg. 141

[369] [Clive Balansi, a Spanish scholar of 6th century]

[370] Quoted from: Tarikh ar-Ridda, Pg. 10

[371] Quoted from: Majma al-Imthaal, Vol. 2, Pg. 65

[372] It is worthy of mention that at the beginning of his book he says: We have not included these narrations as Shias will use them to prove their stand.

[373] [He was from Khazraj tribe from the clan of Bayaz]

[374] Quoted from: Al-Futuh, Vol. 1, Pg. 58; Kitab ar-Ridda, Pgs. 171-172

[375] Quoted from: Al-Futuh, Vol. 1, Pgs. 65-66; Kitab ar-Ridda, Pgs. 186 & 188 (Waqidi instead of Bani Aqal has written Bani Atik and instead of Bani Himyar he has mentioned Bani Jamr)

[376] Quoted from: Al-Futuh, Vol. 1, Pgs. 66-87

[377] Quoted from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 3, Pg. 246; Sawaiqul Mohreqa, Pg. 86; Al-Jamal, Pg. 118; Al-Izaah, Pg. 132

[378] Quoted from: Tabaqat, Vol. 7, Pg. 396 (In the account of Khalid bin Waleed); Riyadh an-Nazarah, Vol. 1, Pg. 100

[379] Quoted from: Tabaqat, Vol. 7, Pgs. 101-102; Al-Futuh, Pgs. 73-74

[380] For explanation about Saif bin Umar refer to: Khamsoon wa Miya Sahabi Mukhtaliq of Allamah Askari and also Nusoos ar-Ridda fee Tarikh Tabari of Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Aale Yasin, Pgs. 24-29

[381] Whatever Tabari has quoted from people other than Saif (like Abi Mikhnaf, Hisham Kalbi, Ibne Ishaq and Madaini) is very little because in those there is no mention of apostasy.

[382] Masoodpur Sayyid Aaqaai: Chashma dar Bistar, Pgs. 89-97

[383] In Oman

[384] [Allamah Sharafuddin in his another book, Al-Fusool al-Muhimma fee Taleef al-Ummah has mentioned another tradition about this:

A person asked the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that if he were fighting with an infidel who has cut off his hand and then hides behind a tree and says that he has become a Muslim, is it allowed to kill him? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said that it is not allowed.]

[385] Allamah Sayyid Abdul Husain Sharafuddin: Ijtihaad Dar Maqabil-e-Nass (Translated by Ali Dawani), Pgs. 127-132

[386] Allamah Sharafuddin: Ijtihaad Dar Maqabil-e-Nass (Translated by Ali Dawani), Pgs. 134-135

[387] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pg. 191

[388] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pgs. 113-114

[389] Quoted from: Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pgs. 226-227

[390] Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pg. 222

[391] Ibid. Pg. 224; quoting from: Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya, Vol. 6, Pg. 311 [Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 17, Pg. 209]

[392] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pg. 196; quoting from: Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya, Vol. 6, Pg. 311

[393] Ibid. quoting from: Tarikh al-Umam wal Mulook, Vol. 3, Pgs. 226-227

[394] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 10, Summer 81, Pg. 19

[395] Salah Abdul Fattah al-Khalidi (Translated by Abdul Aziz Sulaimi): Khulafa-e-Raashideen Az Khilafat Taa Shahadat (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 83

[396] Ibid. Khulafa-e-Raashideen Az Khilafat Taa Shahadat (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 82

[397] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vol. 14, Pgs. 40-41

[398] Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira (1st Edition 1380), Pg. 47

[399] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pg. 240

[400] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pgs. 65-66

[401] [Today the term used is ‘Zakat’]

[402] [According to records he distributed it among the poor people of his clan, Allamah Sharafuddin in his book: Ijtihad dar Maqabil-e-Nass, Pg. 154 has explained that Malik was famous for his kindness to the orphans and poor women and he used to distribute Zakat among the poor under approval of the Prophet.]

[403] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah, Pg. 65; quoting from: Al-Isabah, Vol. 3, Pg. 336

[404] [Center of Bani Yarbu]

[405] [He was a companion of the Prophet who took part in the Battle of Uhad and battles after that.]

[406] [On the basis of this they were really Muslims.]

[407] Quoted from: Tarikh Tabari (European Edition), Vol. 1, Pgs. 1927-1928

[408] [It is seen that they were told to arrange prayers so that they would keep their weapons away.]

[409] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Doo Maktab Dar Islam (Two Schools of Islam) Vol. 2 (Outlooks of two schools about sources of Islamic legislation) Pgs. 123-124

[410] [Umme Tameem binte Minhal]

[411] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 125; quoting from: Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 3, Pg. 132

[412] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pgs. 202-203; quoting from: Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 503; Al-Isabah, Vol. 3, Pg. 337; Tarikh Ibne Kathir, Vol. 6, Pg. 321; Tarikh Abul Fida, Pg. 158

[413] For more details refer to Refer: Ali Gholami Dahqi: Janghai Irtdidat wa Bohran Janasheeni-e-Payambar, Section Six, Pgs. 81-91

[414] The author says: This tradition is also quoted by Ahmad bin Hanbal from Abu Saeed Khudri on page 4 of the third part of Musnad.

[415] Allamah Sharafuddin: Ijtihaad Dar Maqabil-e-Nass (Translated by Ali Dawani), Pgs. 130-131

[416] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 1, Pgs. 204-205

[417] [The different policy of Umar with regard to Khalid bin Waleed was to remove Khalid from political power in order to settle personal difference, since he was from Bani Adi and Waleed was from Bani Makhzoom]

[418] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Doo Maktab Dar Islam (Two Schools of Islam) Vol. 2 (Outlooks of two schools about sources of Islamic legislation) Pgs. 127-128; quoting from: Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 3, Pg. 132, Tr. 227; Wafayaat Ayaan, Vol. 5, Pg. 67; Tarikh Abul Fida, Pg. 158

[419] Ahmad Asadnejad: Wasi-e-Payambar Keest? Pgs. 139-140; quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 1 Pg. 179

[420] Refer: Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pgs. 189; quoting from Tarikh Yaqoobi, Vol. 2, Pg. 13; Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 617

[421] Refer: Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 189; quoting from Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 603

[422] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pgs. 56-57

[423] Yusuf Karzai (Translated by Jalil Bahraminiya): Weeshgihai Kulli Islam (1st Edition), Pgs. 373-374

[424] Quoted from: Haqqi: Tafseer Ruhul Bayan, under the exegesis of Verse 54, Surah Maidah

[425] Ahmad Asadnejad: Wasi-e-Payambar Keest? Pgs. 34-35

[426] Ibid. Pg. 32

[427] Wilfred Madelung: Succession to Muhammad, Pgs. 75-76

[428] [He was cousin of Saad bin Ubadah and the first one to give Bayyat to Abu Bakr]

[429] Quoted from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 3, Pg. 459; Tarikh Ibne Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 126

[430] [Except for this there was no other display of opposition by Saad, yet he was murdered.]

[431] Quoted from: Riyadh an-Nazarah, Vol. 1, Pg. 168

[432] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pgs. 63-64

[433] [It is seen that on one hand since the early day of Caliphate of Umar Khalid bin Waleed himself preferred to remain in Syria and after a short period was found dead under suspicious circumstances on the other hand there is mention in history that he also had a hand in the murder of Saad, so the exile of Saad bin Ubadah must have taken place during the period of Abu Bakr or the early part of the Caliphate of Umar.]

[434] Quoted from: Tabaqat, Vol. 2, Pg. 145; Tarikh Ibne Asakir, Vol. 6, Pg. 90

[435] Quoted from: Ansaab al-Ashraaf, Vol. 1, Pg. 589; Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 3, Pgs. 64-65

[436] [It is proved that he was among those who besieged the house of His Eminence, Ali and Fatima (a.s.) (Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pgs. 443-444)]

[437] [It is proved that he was among those who besieged the house of His Eminence, Ali and Fatima (a.s.) (Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pgs. 443-444)]

[438] Quoted from: Tabsiratul Awaam, Pg. 32

[439] Quoted from: Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 3, Pgs. 64-65

[440] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pgs. 70-72

[441] [An Ansari lady]

[442] Muhammad Baqir Ansari: Jarfai Ghadeer, Pg. 177; quoting from: Ath-Thaqib fil Manaqib, Pg. 226

[443] [Ayaas bin Abdullah]

[444] [“He set out to fight the apostates from the side of Abu Bakr and in the end became a highway robber in Najd.” Yusuf Gholami: Pas az Ghuroob (After Sunset), Pg. 227]

[445] Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Jawahiri: Abu Bakr, Pg. 64; quoting from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pg. 266 (Events of year 11); Kamil Ibne Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 211; Al-Isabah, Vol. 2, Pg. 322

[446] [This was the same attitude that Ziyad bin Labeed, Akrama bin Abu Jahl and Khalid bin Waleed practiced with the opponents of Abu Bakr. On the basis of this it could be said that they must have been appointed by Abu Bakr. But they have made the matter doubtful to exculpate the Caliph.]

[447] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Doo Maktab Dar Islam (Two Schools of Islam) Vol. 2 (Outlooks of two schools about sources of Islamic legislation) Pgs. 118-119; quoting from: Tarikh Ibne Kathir, Vol. 9, Pg. 319; Tarikh Tabari, (1st Edition) Vol. 3, Pgs. 234-235; Tarikh Ibne Athir, Vol. 2, Pg. 146

[448] [His name was Ziyad bin Labeed; he was among those who besieged the house of His Eminence, Ali and Fatima (a.s.) (Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 2, Pgs. 443-444)]

[449] [Zakat]

[450] [His name was Haritha bin Suraqa]

[451] [It is surprising that inspite of this historical proof it is claimed that: “Before military campaign Hazrat Abu Bakr started a peaceful campaign.” (Fareedoon Islamniya: Ashra-e-Mubashira, Pg. 35)]

[452] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vol. 14, Pgs. 40-41 & Saqifah (Study about the formation of government after the passing away of the Holy Prophet), Edited by Mahdi Dashti, Pgs. 68-69; quoting from: Al-Futuh, Vol. 1, Pgs. 49-61. The details of this incident can be seen in his book Abdullah bin Saba, Vol. 1, Pgs. 175-237 & Vol. 2, Pgs. 51-77.

[453] From this it can be surmised that Ziyad did not invite these tribes to accept Islam because they were already Muslims and they accepted the commands of Prayer and Zakat. It was only that they rejected Abu Bakr’s Caliphate and refused to pay Zakat to him.

[454] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pgs. 218-223

[455] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pgs. 224-229

[456] [This incident alone is sufficient to prove that the people of Oman and Mohra were wrongly accused of apostasy]

[457] [In the text of the document, the word of Muslims is used so that the opposite group could be posed to be of apostates.]

[458] [Because on one hand tribal prejudice did not permit him this and on the other hand Ashath bin Qais Kindi was his staunch supporter.]

[459] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 69

[460] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Abdullah Ibne Saba Wa Deegar Afsaane (Abdullah Bin Saba and other legends), Vol. 2, Pgs. 236-237

[461] Ibid. Vol. 2, Pg. 250

[462] Sayyid Abul Hasan Nadwi (Translation Muhammad Qasim Qasimi): Yaqeen Mardaan-e-Khuda (3rd Edition 1381), Pg. 36

[463] Salah Abdul Fattah al-Khalidi (Translated by Abdul Aziz Sulaimi): Khulafa-e-Raashideen Az Khilafat Taa Shahadat (1st Edition 1382), Pg. 80

[464] Sayyid Abdur Raheem Khateeb: Shaykhain (6th Edition 1382), Pg. 52

[465] [In couplets composed by him he had expressed love for a young man called Nasr bin Hajjaj.]

[466] [Umar issued same order for the cousin of Nasr bin Hajjaj. (Refer: Tabaqat Ibne Saad, Vol. 3, Pg. 385)]

[467] Sayyid Abdul Husain Sharafuddin: Ijtihaad Dar Maqabil-e-Nass (Translated by Ali Dawani), Pgs. 355-356; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 3, Pg. 122

[468] Kamaal Ruhani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 8, (7000 copies), Winter 80, Pg. 58

[469] Ibid. Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 8, Winter 80, Pg. 59

[270] Quoted from: Al-Mahalli, Vol. 8, Pgs. 279-280; Kanzul Ummal, Vol. 11, Pg. 28

[271] Quoted from: Tarikh Umar bin Khattab, Pg. 126

[272] Ali Muhammad Meer Jalili: Imam Ali (a.s.) wa Zamaamdaaraan (Imam Ali and the Rulers), Pg. 110

[273] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.), Pg. 124; quoting from: Al-Musannaf, Vol. 2, Pg. 433

[274] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 66; quoting from: Al-Marifah wat Tarikh, Vol. 1, Pgs. 364-365

[275] Refer: Ahmad al-Bakri: Min Hayatul Khaleefa, Pgs. 375-377

[276] Refer: Ahmad al-Kubra: Min Hayat al-Khaleefa, Pg. 375-377

[277] [A broom]

[478] Allamah Sayyid Murtuza Askari: Naqsh-e-Aaimma Dar Ahya-e-Deen (Role of Imams in the Revival of Religion, Vol. 14, Pgs. 50-51; quoting from: Sunan Darimi, Vol. 1, Pgs. 54-55; Tafseer Ibne Kathir, Vol. 4, Pg. 232; Itqan Suyuti, Vol. 2, Pg. 4; Tafseer Qurtubi, Vol. 18, Pg. 29

[479] Ustad Ali Koorani: Tadween-e-Quran, Pg. 119; quoting from: Ad-Durre Manthur, Vol. 3, Pg. 161

[480] Ibid. quoting from: Sunan Darimi, Vol. 1, Pg. 54

[481] Ibid. quoting from: Ad-Durre Manthur, Vol. 6, Pg. 317

[482] Ibid. quoting from: Ad-Durre Manthur, Vol. 2, Pg. 227

[483] Najah Ata at-Tai: Nazaryaat al-Khaleefatain, Vol. 2, Pg. 477; quoting from: Mukhtasar Tarikh Ibne Asakir, Vol. 3, Pg. 11

[484] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 65; quoting from: Tarikh Tabari, Vol. 4, Pg. 209; Tarikh al-Khulafa, Pg. 137; Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 3, Pg. 282

[485] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 65; quoting from: Tarikh Madinatul Munawwara, Vol. 2, Pg. 858

[486] Ali Tantawi (Translated by Abu Bakr Hasanzadeh): Dastan-e-Zindagani-e-Umar, (1st & 2nd Edition 1380), Pg. 78

[487] Author of the article has considered the audience in Masjid as Emigrants and Helpers!

[488] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 14, Summer 82, Pg. 16

[489] Quoted from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 1, Pg. 183

[490] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 65

[491] Ibid. Pg. 67; quoting from: Tabaqat al-Kubra, Vol. 1, Pg. 265; Al-Futuh, Vol. 2, Pgs. 302-304

[492] Sayyid Abdul Husain Sharafuddin: Ijtihaad Dar Maqabil-e-Nass (Translated by Ali Dawani), Pgs. 346-347; quoting from: Al-Iqdul Fareed, Vol. 1, Pg. 187

[493] Allamah Ja’far Murtuza Amili: Tahlili Az Zindagi-e-Siyasi Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.), Pgs. 123-124; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 12, Pg. 83

[494] Ibid. Pg. 117; quoting from: Hayatus Sahaba, Vol. 3, Pg. 260

[495] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 69; quoting from: Nasrud Durar, Vol. 4, Pg. 34

[496] Shaheed Murtuza Mutahhari: Seeri Dar Nahjul Balagha, Pg. 160

[497] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 66; quoting from: Al-Musannaf, Vol. 4, Pgs. 343-344

[498] Ali Muhammad Meer Jalili: Imam Ali (a.s.) wa Zamaamdaaraan (Imam Ali and the Rulers), Pg. 111; quoting from: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadeed, Vol. 1, Pg. 183; Tarikh Umar bin Khattab, Pg. 125

[499] Ahmad Naseeb (translated by Saaduddin Shaykh Ahmadi): Mohabbat-e-Payambar Dar Qalb-e-Yaaranash (1st Edition 1380), Pgs. 85-86

[500] Quoted from: Nasrud Durar, Vol. 2, Pg. 35; Uyun al- Akhbaar, Vol. 1, Pg. 12

[501] Quoted from: Hayatul Haiwan, Vol. 1, Pg. 49

[502] Quoted from: Nasrud Durar, Vol. 4, Pgs. 34-35

[503] Rasool Ja’faryan: Tarikh Khulafa, Pg. 67

[504] Mahdi Ja’fari: Mastoor Aaftaab-e-Sarmad, Pgs. 190-194; quoting from: Ibne Taifur: Balaghatun Nisa, Pg. 32; Jauhari: Saqifah wa Fadak, Pg. 117; Ibne Abil Hadeed: Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Vol. 16, Pg. 233; Umar Reza Kahhala: Alaamun Nisa, Vol. 3, Pg. 1219

[505] Abdul Qadir Dahqaan Siraawaani: Article quoted in Nida-e-Islam Magazine, Issue No. 14, Summer 82, Pg. 16