THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam0%

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam Author:
Translator: Badr Shahin
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category: Ideological Concepts
ISBN: 964-529-136-4

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam

Author: Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi
Translator: Badr Shahin
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category:

ISBN: 964-529-136-4
visits: 7256
Download: 2145

Comments:

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam
search inside book
  • Start
  • Previous
  • 24 /
  • Next
  • End
  •  
  • Download HTML
  • Download Word
  • Download PDF
  • visits: 7256 / Download: 2145
Size Size Size
THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY: An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam

Author:
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
ISBN: 964-529-136-4
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY

An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam

Written By Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi

Translated By Badr Shahin

Cultural Affairs Department

Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly

www.alhassanain.org/english

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

In the Name of Allah;

the All-beneficent, the All-merciful

إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّـهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا

Indeed, Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, o people of the household, and purify you with a thorough purification. (Surah al-Ahzab 33:33)

The most authoritative books on Hadith and Tafsir (Qur'anic exegesis), amongst both Sunni and Shi‛ah sources, cite Prophetic traditions that confirm verse 33:33 as being exclusively revealed in relation to the five who were ‘covered by the Cloak’; namely Muhammad, ‛Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn, (peace be upon them), to whom the term ‘Ahl al-Bayt’ (People of the House) is specifically attributed.

For instance, refer to the following reference books:

(1) Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 AH), al-Musnad, 1:331; 4:107; 6:292, 304. (2) Sahih Muslim (d. 261 AH), 7:130. (3) Al-Tirmidhi (d. 279 AH), Sunan, 5:361 et al. (4) Al-Dulabi (d. 310 AH), al-Dhurriyyah al-Tahirah al-Nabawiyyah, p. 108. (5) Al-Nassa'i (d. 303 AH), al-Sunan al-Kubra 5:108, 113. (6) al-Hakim al-Naysaburi (d. 405 AH), al-Mustadrak ‛ala al-Sahihayn 2:416, 3:133, 146, 147. (7) al-Zarkashi (d. 794 AH), al-Burhan, pp. 197. (8) Ibn Hajar al-‛Asqalani (d. 852), Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:104. (9) Al-Kulayni (d. 328 AH), Usul al-Kafi, 1:287. (10) Ibn Babawayh (d. 329 AH), al-Imamah wa’l-Tabsirah, pp. 47, H. 29. (11) Al-Maghribi (d. 363 AH) Da‛a'im al-Islam, pp. 35, 37. (12) Al-Saduq (d. 381 AH) al-Khisal, pp. 403, 550. (13) Al-Tusi (d. 460 AH) al-Amali, H. 438, 482, 783.

For more details, refer to the exegesis of the holy verse involved in the following reference books of tafsir: (1) Al-Tabari (d. 310 AH), Book of Tafsir. (2) Al-Jassas (d. 370 AH), Ahkam al-Qur'an. (3) Al-Wahidi (d. 468 AH), Asbab an-Nuzul. (4) Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597 AH), Zad al-Masir. (5) Al-Qurtubi (d. 671 AH), al-Jami‛ li-Ahkam al-Qur'an. (6) Ibn Kathir (d. 774 AH), Book of Tafsir. (7) Al-Tha‛labi (d. 825 AH), Book of Tafsir. (8) Al-Suyuti (d. 911 AH), al-Durr al-Manthur. (9) Al-Shawkani (d. 1250 AH), Fath al-Qadir. (10) Al-‛Ayyashi (d. 320 AH), Book of Tafsir. (11) Al-Qummi (d. 329 AH), Book of Tafsir. (12) Furat al-Kufi (d. 352 AH), Book of Tafsir; in the margin of the exegesis of verse 4:59. (13) Al-Tabrisi (d. 560 AH), Majma‛ al-Bayan.

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلّی الله علیه و آله و سلّم :

إنِّي تَارِكٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ: كِتَابَ اللهِ وَعِتْرَتِي أهْلَ بَيْتِي، مَا إنْ تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِهِمَا لَنْ تَضِلُّوا بَعْدِي أبَداً، وَإنَّهُمَا لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ

The Messenger of Allah (s) said:

“Verily, I am leaving among you two precious things [thaqalayn]: The Book of Allah and my progeny [‛itrah], the members of my Household [Ahl al-Bayt]. If you hold fast to them, you shall never go astray. These two will never separate from each other until they meet me at the Pond [haw¤] (of Kawthar).”

Some of its references:

Al­Hakim al­Nayshaburi, Al­Mustadrak ‛ala’l-Sahihayn (Beirut), vol. 3, pp. 109-110, 148, 533

Muslim, al-Sahih, (English translation), book 31, hadiths 5920-3

Al­Tirmidhi, al-Sahih, vol. 5, pp. 621-2, hadiths 3786, 3788; vol. 2, p. 219

An-Nassa'i, Khasa'is ‛Ali ibn Abi Talib, hadith 79

Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 3, pp. 14, 17, 26; vol. 3, pp. 26, 59; vol. 4, p. 371; vol. 5, pp. 181-182, 189-190

Ibn al­Athir, Jami‛ al­Usul, vol. 1, p. 277

Ibn Kathir, al­Bidayah wa’l­Nihayah, vol. 5, p. 209

Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur'an al-‛Azim, vol. 6, p. 199

Nasir al-Din al-Albani, Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihah (Kuwait: Ad-Dar as-Salafiyyah), vol. 4, pp. 355-358.

THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRACY

An Analytic Study of the Most Critical Event in the Political History of Islam

Written By Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi

Translated By Badr Shahin

Cultural Affairs Department

Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly

www.alhassanain.org/english

نام كتاب: مؤتمر السقيفة

نويسنده: باقر شريف القرشي

مترجم: بدر شاهين

زبان ترجمه: انگليسى

Title: The Saqīfah Conspiracy

Author: Bāqir Sharīf al-Qarashī

Project supervisor: Translation Unit, Cultural Affairs Department Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly (ABWA)

Translator: Badr Shahin

Editor: Iffat Shah

Proofreader: Muhammad Mahdi Baqi

Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center

First Printing: 2011

Printed by: Mojab

Copies: 5,000

ISBN: 964-529-136-4

© The Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly (ABWA)

All rights reserved.

www.ahl-ul-bayt.org

info@ahl-ul-bayt.org

Notice:

This version is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errors are not corrected.

Table of Contents

Publisher’s FOREWORD 15

Foreword 17

PREAMBLE 21

Disturbance of the Polytheists of Quraysh 23

Persecuting the Believers Physically 23

Emigration to Abyssinia 24

The Holy Prophet in Yathrib 24

Foundation of the Islamic State 25

Islamic Brotherhood 25

Enactment of Laws 25

Panic of the Chiefs of Quraysh 26

The Battle of Badr 26

The Battle of Uhud 27

The Conquest of Makkah 28

The Anti-Islam Front 29

The Hypocrites 29

The Jews 29

Caliphate; An Islamic Necessity 31

Linguistic Denotation of Caliphate 31

Caliphate in the Terminology of Muslim Jurisprudence 31

The Holy Prophet’s Attention to Caliphate 31

The Holy Prophet Matched Caliphate to Prophethood 32

Need for Caliphate 32

Unanimity on the inevitability of Caliphate 32

Qualifications of the Imam 33

View of al-Farabi 33

View of the Shi‛ah 34

The Imam’s Duties and Responsibilities 36

Responsibilities of the leader From Imam ‛Ali’s viewpoint 37

The Imam is Role-Model 37

The Imam Shares the Subjects in Vicissitudes of Time 38

Precaution in Matters Related to the Public Properties 38

The Imam is Just Like the Feeble People 41

Cancellation of all Privileges 41

Method of Conversing with the Imam 42

The Holy Prophet Selects Imam ‛Ali for Caliphate 43

Imam ‛Ali in the Holy Qur'an 46

Verse of Mubahalah 46

Verse ofthe Warner and the Guide 47

Verse ofthe Retaining Ear 47

Verse ofthe People of the Reminder 47

Verse ofthe Guardian 47

Verse ofthe Foremost 47

Verse ofSelling Souls with Allah’s Pleasure 48

Verse ofLove for the Near Relatives 48

Verse ofPurification 49

Imam ‛Ali in the Prophetic Traditions 51

Imam ‛Ali; The Holy Prophet’s Self 51

Imam ‛Ali; The Holy Prophet’s Brother 51

Imam ‛Ali; The Holy Prophet’s Aide 52

Imam ‛Ali; The Holy Prophet’s Vicegerent 53

Imam ‛Ali’s position to the Holy Prophet 54

Imam ‛Ali; the Door to the Holy Prophet’s City of Knowledge 55

Imam ‛Ali; the Door to the Holy Prophet’s Wisdom 56

Imam ‛Ali and the Holy Prophet; the Same Tree 56

Imam ‛Ali; the Match of the Prophets 56

Imam ‛Ali; the Most Beloved of all Humans to the Almighty 57

Obedience to the Imam; Obedience to the Prophet 57

Love for ‛Ali; Love for Allah 57

Love for ‛Ali is Faith; Hating him is Hypocrisy 58

Love for Imam ‛Ali; The Title of the True Believer’s Record 59

Imam ‛Ali’s Position in the Other World 60

Imam ‛Ali; the Bearer of al-Hamd Standard 60

Imam ‛Ali; the commander of the Prophet’s Pond 61

Imam ‛Ali; the distributor of Heaven and Hell 62

Without a License from Imam ‛Ali, No one passes the Discriminating Bridge 62

Imam ‛Ali; in the company of the Holy Prophet in Paradise 63

THE HOLY PROPHET’S FULL SUPPORT FOR CALIPHATE 64

The Jews 65

The Hypocrites 65

The People of Quraysh 65

Contention of the Ansar 66

The Farewell Pilgrimage 66

The Holy Prophet’s Sermon at Spring Zamzam 67

The Congregated Meeting at Ghadir Khumm 70

The General Pledge of Allegiance to Imam ‛Ali 72

Revelation of the Verse ofPerfecting the Religion 73

The Endless Tragedy 74

The Final Ailment of the Holy Prophet 74

The Holy Prophet Implores God’s Forgiveness for the Buried in the Baqi‛ Cemetery 74

The Brigade of Usamah 75

Reflection on the Episode 76

Choosing Usamah the Young as the Commander over the Old Companions 77

The Calamity of Thursday 78

Sorrow of Lady Fatima 80

The Holy Prophet’s Legacy for His Two Grandsons 80

The Holy Prophet Gives His Possessions As Alms 80

Towards the Uppermost Garden of Paradise 81

Burying the Blessed Body 83

Panic of the Ahl al-Bayt 84

THE GREATEST SEDITION 85

Saqifah 86

Political Statement of Sa‛d 86

Contents of the Statement 87

Lights on the Situation of the Ansar 87

Criticism of Sa’d Statement 89

‛Umar Denies the Holy Prophet’s Passing Away! 90

Scrutinizing Remark 91

Return of Abu-Bakr 92

Weakness of the Ansar 93

Jealousy and Enmity 93

The Ansar Surprised 94

Abu-Bakr’s Discourse 94

Research and Investigation 95

Altercations and Encounters 97

‛Umar’s Role 97

Al-Habbab ibn al-Mundhir 98

Abu-Bakr Wins Caliphate 99

‛Umar’s Attitude to Pledging Allegiance to Abu-Bakr 99

Criticisms of Pledging Allegiance to Abu-Bakr 100

The Ansar Defeated 100

Celebration of the people of Quraysh 101

The Role of Abu-Sufyan 101

The Holy Prophet’s Attitude to the Umayyads 103

The Attitude of the Ahl al-Bayt to the Homage to Abu-Bakr 103

Al-‛Abbas ibn ‛Abd al-Muttalib 104

Imam ‛Ali ibn Abi-Talib 105

Imam ‛Ali Refrains from Pledging Allegiance to Abu-Bakr 105

Forcing Imam ‛Ali to Pay Homage 105

Lady Fatima’s Strict Protest 108

Careful Meditation on Lady Fatima’s Speech 109

Sorrowful Procedures 110

Threatening with Setting Fatima’s House on Fire 110

The Gang that Raided on Lady Fatima’s House 111

Abu-Bakr’s Regret 112

Aborting Lady Fatima’s Fetus 112

Abrogation of the Khums Tax 114

Confiscation of Fadak 114

Geographic Site of Fadak 114

Fadak; The Holy Prophet’s Ownership 114

The Holy Prophet Gifted Fadak to Lady Fatima 114

Lady Fatima Demands with Fadak 115

Lady Fatima’s Historic Speech 117

Lady Fatima Complains to Her Father 121

Lights on Imam ‛Ali’s Attitude 122

Lack of Military Assistance 122

Lady Fatima and Mu‛adh ibn Jabal 123

Maintaining Islam 123

Maintaining the Unity of Muslims 124

Unjustifiable Apology 124

Lady Fatima’s Last Will 125

Imam al-Hasan 127

Discontented Protestors 127

Salman al-Muhammadi 127

‛Ammar ibn Yasir 128

Ab-Dharr al-Ghifari 129

Al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad 130

‛Utbah ibn Abi-Lahab 130

Abu-Ayyub al-Ansari 131

Ubayy ibn Ka‛b 131

‛Uthman ibn Hunayf al-Ansari 132

Sahl ibn Hunayf 132

Khuzaymah ibn Thabit 132

Abu’l-Haytham ibn al-Tayhan 133

Abu-Bakr Rewards the Supporters 133

Abu-Bakr’s Financial Policy 133

Abu-Bakr Punishes the Oppositionists 134

1. Al-Habbab ibn al-Mundhir 134

2. Sa‛d ibn ‘Abadah 134

3. Khalid ibn Sa‘id 134

4. Buraydah ibn al-Hasib 134

CONSEQUENCES OF THE SAQIFAH CONSPIRATORIAL MEETING 135

Discrepancy of Muslims 135

The Infliction of Persecution upon the Prophet’s Household 136

Tyranny of the Deputy Governors 140

Supplicatory Prayer of Sadif 142

Despising the Peoples 143

Indifference to the Islamic Values 143

Atheism and Apostasy 144

Caliphs and Impudence 145

Al-Mas‛udi, a historicist, added that Yazid used to sit by the grave of Habbabah and repeat this poetic live 145

The Prohibition of Recording the Prophetic Traditions 146

Fabricated Reports 148

Fabricated Merits of the Companions 148

Fabricated Merits of the First Three Caliphs 149

Fabricated Merits of Abu-Bakr and ‛Umar 149

Fabricated Merits of Abu-Bakr 150

Fabricated Merits of ‛Umar 151

Fabricated Merits of ‛Uthman 151

Fabricated Merits of Mu‛awiyah 151

Mu‛awiyah’s Role in Fabricating Lies against the Holy Prophet 153

A Serious Letter of Mu‛awiyah 154

Remark of Al-Yasin 155

Bibliography 158

Notes 160

Publisher’s FOREWORD

The precious legacy left behind by the Holy Prophet’s Household [ahl al-bayt] (may peace be upon them all) and their followers’ preservation of this legacy from the menace of extinction is a perfect example of an all-encompassing school [maktab ], which embraces the different branches of Islamic knowledge. This school has been able to train many talented personalities by quenching them with this gushing fountain. This school has presented scholars to the ummah who, by following the Holy Prophet’s Household (‛a), have occupied the station of clarifying doubts and skepticisms brought forth by various creeds and intellectual currents both inside and outside Muslim society. Throughout the past centuries, they have presented the firmest answers and solutions to these doubts.

Anchored in the responsibilities it is shouldering, the Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly has embarked upon defending the sanctity of risālah [messengership] and its authentic beliefs - truths which have always been opposed by the chiefs and leaders of anti-Islamic sects, religions and trends. In this sacred path, the Assembly regards itself as a follower of the upright pupils of the school of the Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) - those who have always been ready to refute those accusations and calumnies and have tried to be always in the frontline of this struggle on the basis of the expediencies of time and space.

The experiences in this field, which have been preserved in the books of scholars belonging to the school of the Ahl al-Bayt (‛a), are unique in their own right. It is because these experiences have been based upon knowledge [‛ilm] and the preeminence of the intellect and reasoning, and at the same time, they are completely devoid of blind prejudice, whim and caprice. These experiences address experts, scholars and thinkers in a manner that is acceptable to a healthy mind and the pure human natural disposition [fitrah].

In a bid to assist those who are in quest of truth, the Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly has endeavored to enter a new phase of these worthy experiences within the framework of research and translating the works of contemporary Shī‛ah writers or those who, through divine guidance, have embraced this noble school.

The Assembly is also engaged in the study and publication of the valuable works of pious predecessors and outstanding Shī‛ah personalities so that those who are thirsty for the truth could quench their thirst from this refreshing fountain by listening and embracing this truth, which the Holy Prophet’s Household (‛a) has offered as a gift to the entire world.

It is hoped that our dear readers would not deprive the Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly of their valuable opinions, suggestions and constructive criticisms in this arena.

We also invite scholars, translators and other institutions to assist us in propagating the pure Muhammadan (s) Islam.

We ask God, the Exalted, to accept this trivial effort and enhance it further under the auspices of His vicegerent on earth, Imam al-Mahdī (may Allah, the Exalted, expedite his glorious advent).

The Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly would like to express special gratitude to Shaykh Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi the author of this book, Mr. Badr Shahin the translator, and all the people who have contributed to this project.

Finally, we hope that we have fulfilled a part of our duty towards the Mission of our Great Lord Who “sent His Messenger with the guidance and the true religion that He may make it prevail over all the religions; and Allah is enough for a witness. (48/28)”

The Ahl al-Bayt (‛a) World Assembly

Cultural Affairs Department

Foreword

All political conferences in the world may gain success in their endeavors, and the names of their members may be recorded in the immortal list of the patriotic loyalists only when they adopt the genuine objectives that are sought after by the nations for the purpose of procuring their independency and freedom as well as maintaining the other economical and educational rights. However, if such conferences fail to regard such purposes and the conferees seek after personal gains, such as winning power or snatching the fortunes of their homelands, they will most certainly devastate the constituents of their nations, rip apart their unity, and cast them in bottomless abyss.

The first political, yet conspiratorial, conference that was held in Islam was the Saqifah Conference, which was held immediately after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s) and before his holy body was buried. The dispute of the conferees came to a head, since all of them tried his best to take over power but none of them said a single word of demanding to observe the interest of the Muslim nation or to guarantee its rights after it had been exposed to the astounding misfortune of losing the Holy Prophet, their actual savior. No single historical document has conveyed a decisive situation of any of these conferees, even if such situation would have been demanding that the election of the next ruler should be postponed until the situations of the nation would return in good order and only then, the publics would elect a leader.

A swift look into the history of Islam demonstrates obviously the scope of the huge struggle for leadership of the Muslim nation between theMuhajirun [1] under the leadership of Abu-Bakr, and theAnsar [2] under the leadership of Sa‛d ibn ‛Abadah. Under that Saqifah (i.e. shed), Abu-Bakr’s voice was heard shouting and addressing the Ansar with the following words: “We are the leaders and you are the vicegerents.” As understood by some critical analysts, these words came to raise hopes for gaining the next leadership in the Ansar or to express a bribe offered to them by Abu-Bakr.

However, the most unanimous point with regard to the members of this conspiratorial meeting was that none of them paid the least attention to the custody of Muslims and none looked deeply in their social affairs and in what should be the best for them in their present and future. In other words, all such issues were thrown in the wastebasket. In conclusion, the members of that conference dedicated all their concerns to their personal interests, leaving the public interests and the safety of the Muslim nation behind their backs.

Owing to his diplomacy, tactfulness, and coarseness of his patron and the builder of his government; namely, ‛Umar ibn al-Khattab, Abu-Bakr won the struggle and could seize power. However, homage was not paid to him as the next leader of the Muslim nation by many great personalities at top of whom was the chief of the Holy Prophet’s Household and the divinely designated leader and commander of the faithful believers; namely, Imam ‛Ali ibn Abi-Talib, as well as many other dignitaries like the great companion of the Holy Prophet ‛Ammar ibn Yasir, the notable person Abu-Dharr al-Ghifari, the loyal companion Salman al-Farisi whom the Holy Prophet (s) attached to himself, and many other important personalities.

By means of violence and austerity, ‛Umar coerced the publics to pay homage to Abu-Bakr as the successor of the Holy Prophet (s).

The details of these incidents will be investigated through a free analysis in this book as a result of the conclusions to which I have reached through my deep exploration of the historical documents involved.

Impartially and away from any sectarial inclination or proclivity, I can say that the Saqifah conspiratorial conference has undeniably kindled inextinguishable seditions among Muslims and cast them in grave cataclysms.

All the terror-stricken events that have been suffered by Muslims were direct outcomes of the Saqifah conspiracy. One of these shocking events was the tragedy of Karbala' in which the Holy Prophet’s privilege with regard to his descendants was extremely violated when the swords of the Umayyad tyrants and their fans cut off the heads of the Holy Prophet’s descendants and threw their bodies headless on the desert of Karbala'. They then made the veiled women of the Holy Prophet’s Household suffer various kinds of humiliation and disgrace that were too bitter to be described.

Referring to this horrible event, Shaykh Kashif al-Ghita', a Shi‛ite master scholar, composed a poetic line, saying:

By Allah I swear this: The tragedy of Karbala' would not have taken place had it not been for their Saqifah. The like of such branches were only the outcome of that origin.

Likewise, Paul Salamah, a famous Lebanese poet, has composed the following couple of verses:

Under that Saqifah, many events followed in succession,

bringing into surface many tendencies and hidden feelings.

Since that day, many inclinations have dispersed

just like the branches of fresh boxthorn that are thorny and barbed.

If truth be told, the Saqifah conspiratorial conference was the exordium of all the devastating catastrophes that have been suffered by Muslims since the dawn of their history and hitherto.

It seems disloyal to the nation, history, and science to keep some of such grave events, which are strongly connected to our intellectual and doctrinal lives, concealed from people or to enfold their affairs and causes without exposing them to study and analysis. In fact, concealment of such events is eradication of facts, seducing the nation into ignorance, elimination of the reason-based judgments, and exclusion of the scientific methodologies in forming a free opinion about the events.

The Saqifah conspiratorial conference has been one of the most sensitive events in the history of Muslims; it is therefore indispensable to study it honestly and truthfully on the light of intellectuality and science, away from sectarial inclinations. Certainly, to study and ponder over this event, along with its details, will beget fruitful outcomes to the Muslim nation, one of which should be reunification and concord.

It is also illogic to agree with those who claim the necessity of canceling out, ignoring, and avoiding investigating any aspect of this event because, as they justify, it causes damage to the dignity of some Sahabah (companions of the Holy Prophet) and injures their standings and holiness. Assuredly, such claim is irrelevant, because any scientifically based research is too fair to intend offense to any person, because it is required to demonstrate the facts that are concealed from people.

What really causes damage, disunity, and offense is deception and concealment of the truth by casting curtains on whatever is expected to benefit people and correct their doctrines and beliefs.

Thus, to demonstrate the facts of history as exactly as they are and clear of telling lies or showing malice neither sows disunity nor beaks off any tie.

Supported by the most authenticated scientific and historical documents, this book, in the first parts of it, discusses the attitude of Islam to caliphate (i.e. religious and civil succession to the Holy Prophet), proving that it is inseparable part of the Muslims’ lives, since it was highly stressed by the Holy Prophet (s) who also highlighted its necessity and it is thus an essential element in the political and social lives of Muslims to the extent that they cannot attain normal progression without it. Through the discussion of this topic, I will prove that the Holy Prophet (s), having adopted a positive course with regard to the next leadership of the Muslims, designated Imam ‛Ali ibn Abi-Talib (‛a) as the next leader of the Muslims and the commander-in-chief of their progression. He thus imparted to him many clear-cut names and descriptions like wasi (successor),bab madinat al-‛ilm (the door to the city of knowledge), and amir al-mu'minin (the commander of the faithful believers).

The book then discusses the gravest seditious ordeal with which the Muslims were tried severely; namely, the event of the Saqifah conspiratorial conference, objectively, comprehensively, and away from any emotional or sectarial tendencies. After that, the book deals with some relevant issues.

Most certainly, none of these discussions carries any intention of disuniting or breaking off the ties of Muslims; rather, they are serious discussions of the most critical event in the political history of Muslims.

Embarkation upon such topics that are related to our doctrines is required to be impartial and dissociated from any reckless propensity that leads to misleading, destruction, disuniting, or ripping asunder the unity of Muslims.

Proudly, Islam opposes intellectual stagnancy and calls to giving way to free thinking in investigating the course of events. Moreover, Islam has nothing at all to do with imitation in doctrines; rather, all Muslims are required to look with the eye of full awareness to the facts of events and to open wide the horizons of their thought with regard to their doctrinal and historical issues. The Umayyad and ‛Abbasid dynasties, purposefully, fabricated traditions that are related to the doctrines and history of Muslims in order to invent justifiable foundations for their governments that were basically founded on oppression and tyranny as well as humiliating and suppressing the Muslims.

Unfortunately, the doctrinal affairs of Muslims were deliberately intermixed with many other topics and fabrications that lack any amount of accuracy. In view of that, it is necessary to investigate such issues with full awareness and consideration so as to maintain Islam and save its genuineness and dignity.

Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi

Holy Najaf, 15/8/1425 AH