Discussion on Imam-e-Zaman (A.T.F.S)

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Discussion on Imam-e-Zaman (A.T.F.S) Author:
Translator: Dr. Shabeeb Rizvi
Publisher: Naba Publication (www.nabacultural.org)
Category: Imam al-Mahdi

Discussion on Imam-e-Zaman (A.T.F.S)

Author: Dr. Sayyed Hasan Eftekharzadeh
Translator: Dr. Shabeeb Rizvi
Publisher: Naba Publication (www.nabacultural.org)
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Discussion on Imam-e-Zaman (A.T.F.S)

Discussion on Imam-e-Zaman (A.T.F.S)

Author:
Publisher: Naba Publication (www.nabacultural.org)
English

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Discussion on Imam-e-Zaman (A.T.F.S)

Author: Dr. Sayyed Hasan Eftekharzadeh

Translator: Dr. Shabeeb Rizvi

Naba Cultural

www.alhassanain.org/english

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Table of Contents

PREFACE 4

Life of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) during occultation 5

The future of the universe in the view of religions and schools of thought 6

The Future from the Islamic View 9

The Quranic View: 9

The View of Traditions 12

HADITH-E-LAUH 17

Realization of the prophecies 23

Birth of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) 25

Imam Hasan al-Askari’s (a.s.) marriage to Narjis Khatoon 26

The Imamat of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) And the Minor Occultation 28

The Introduction of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) to the elite among the Shias 28

Steps taken by the Caliph to Arrest Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) 30

The Cellar (Sardaab) 30

Commencement of the Minor Occultation (Ghaibat-e-Sughra) 32

The Special Deputies of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) 32

The meaning and concept of Occultation (ghaibah) 35

Attention and Care of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) Toward the Shias 36

The life of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) 39

During Occultation 39

The perfect personality of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) 43

The Primary Perfections of Imam-e-Zaman (a.s.) 48

The Acquired Perfections of Imam-e-Zaman (a.s.) 54

The Endowed Perfection of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) 56

The acquired perfection of Imam-e-Zaman (a.s.); 58

LONGEVITY 59

Traditions Concerning Longevity of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) 59

Answer to the Objections 60

Longevity: A Philosophical Perspective 62

Longevity: A Scientific Perspective 63

Longevity in Quran 66

The Philosophy of Occultation (ghaibah) 71

In another place, he (a.s.) mentions, 78

The Philosophy of Occultation: An appendix 89

Reapparance of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) vis-à-vis excess of oppression and injustice 97

The Benefits of a hidden Imam 106

Notes 112

PREFACE

Our discussion is pertaining to Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.)[1] . In this context, there are approximately twenty topics. For each of these discussions, there is an appropriate method of presentation, evaluation and analysis, bearing finer aspects of knowledge. To approach these topics from any other way would be inaccurate and erroneous.

These topics are in the following order:

The future of mankind in heavenly and non-heavenly religions. In other words, what is the future of the world in the opinion of various schools of thoughts? Is humanity heading towards decline or to perfection? Is this perfection voluntary or involuntary?

If this future is positive, in what conditions will it occur? What are the characteristics of this future and the pre-requisites for its leadership?

How is the future of humanity in the Islamic view?

What kind of prophesies are found in Islam (Quran and traditions) concerning the future of mankind? To know the Islamic opinion, there is no other way but to refer to the Holy Quran. Hence, if somebody proves his stance regarding the future through the Holy Quran, he cannot be asked to establish his view through modern science, and not Quran. As we are talking about Islam, it is not required on our part to prove our point through books of Physics or Chemistry. The right way to approach this problem, and in order to get to know the Islamic stance on it, is to refer to the Islamic texts, nothing else. Hence, wittingly or unwittingly, here the discussion will pertain to Quran and traditions only. If we cite traditions over here, it is only because it is a necessity. Here, it would be a necessary stipulation for a person to be well versed and thorough with traditions to enable him to analyze the verses of the Holy Quran and the books of traditions comfortably.

What is the basis of this belief in Islam? Is it an offshoot belief, or has it been mentioned in Islam as a principle? In other words, is this creed from the principles of religion (usul-e-deen ) or from its branches (furu-e-deen )? If it is from the principles, is it confined only to one sect or is it general for all Islamic factions? In other words, does the entire Islamic world subscribe to this belief and is it a necessity of religion (zarooriyyat-e-deen )? For example, Namaz is for all Islamic sects and consequently, is deemed as a pre-requisite of religion. The moot point here is that is the subject of Imam Mahdi (a.t.f.s.) like Namaz? So, in this chapter, our efforts will be focused on finding the status of this belief in Islam and we will attempt to answer an old question in this regard, i.e. ‘Is this belief an Islamic one or is it confined to the Shias only?’

Has this matter, which has been related by the Messenger of Islam (s.a.w.a.) and the infallible Imams (a.s.) as an Islamic principle, has yet come into occurrence or not? To put it simply, has the birth of the universal reformer, Imam Mahdi (a.t.f.s.), taken place or will he be born in the future? Another facet of this discussion is whether this universal reformer is a known and specific individual or anybody bringing reform would be the Mahdi?

How was the birth and personal life of the promised one? People have heard a lot about the general discussions pertaining to Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) but most are unaware about the particularities. His example is like that of a garden about which we have heard a lot but never stepped into it. Here, we would like to explore the following: the personal characteristics of Hazrat Mahdi (a.t.f.s.); the conditions during his birth; the mode of his life; the manner and reasons for his occultation and so on and so forth. As you observe, these are historical discussions and scientific or natural insight will not serve any purpose to achieve breakthroughs in them. These are purely historical deliberations and hence, one should refer only to books of history. Of course, it is evident for all that it’s not essential at all to find these particularities in the Holy Quran.

Occultation and its meaning. What do we mean when we say that Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) is in occultation?

The philosophy of occultation. This talk is quite significant as to why Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) went into concealment and why he (a.t.f.s.) is not yet appearing?

Life of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) during occultation

Longevity and its evidences. Proving longevity through the Holy Quran, traditions, modern sciences, ancient knowledge and philosophical dialectics.

Benefits of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) during occultation. The approach adopted here is presentation of the doubt followed by replies.

The means of deriving benefit from Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) during occultation.

Responsibilities of the Shias during occultation. This topic includes the following discussions: The responsibilities of the Shias vis-à-vis Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) and as to what are our duties towards him (a.t.f.s.)? What are the duties of the Shias in regulating their societies? Here, the issues of leadership,marje’eyat and jurisprudence have been dealt with.

The plan and programme of Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) after reappearance.

The signs of reappearance.

The world after reappearance.

The method of gaining access to Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.).

The stipulations for meeting Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.).

These are some of the problems concerning Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.). Perhaps, there are a few more matters that are presently not in my memory. Moreover, there are some secondary thoughts that will be incidental to the main discussions.

The future of the universe in the view of religions and schools of thought

Basically, what is the view of humanity concerning its future? What are the views and opinions of scholars, congresses and schools of thought? How do we picture the future of mankind, a journey that started from times ancient? Is the belief in Mahdaviyyat, a progressive creed or a regressive one?

We observe that most religions, philosophical and even political schools consider the future of mankind to be better than his past. Therefore, all the worldviews, heavenly or otherwise, constantly strive to improve the future upon the past and the present.

Fundamentally, the proposition of Utopia (ideal state ) in Platonic philosophy, before Christ and prior to Islam, is a style of philosophical development. Of course, it is possible that some of its characteristics may be imaginary in the view of modern sociologists. Nevertheless, the four pillars of an ideal state, as propounded by Plato, ‘justice, chastity, wisdom and bravery’ are in themselves a sign of positive futurism.

In these four bases, wisdom accompanies chastity (or knowledge with ethics) and bravery supplements justice. (To borrow an ancient philosophical term) why is the world limping today? The reason is that because one or even two of these pillars are found wanting in the modern society. Moreover, an ignorant society is the one that is devoid of all these four essentials.

These four bases are the factors of perfection for an individual as well as a society. The lack of any one of these signifies a serious shortcoming. An illiterate person, a coward scholar, a courageous scholar but devoid of chastity, a courageous, chaste scholar but unjust and oppressive, are all examples of imperfect persons. The presence of only one or few and not all the four pillars does not lead to perfection. But if these four attributes or Utopia (using Plato’s term) are available in any single individual, such a person is deemed to be a perfect. And if these were found in a society, it would be considered as an ideal state. Hence, Utopia (ideal state) is positive futurism.

Most philosophical works that deal with politics and civics are based on this hypothesis. Sadruddin Shirazi[2] in the end of his book, ‘Al-Mabda wa al-Maad ’ has brought a discussion concerning the backdrop of social governance. The gist of his view is regarding the benefits that society will enjoy, which possesses these four pillars. If an individual bears these four attributes, he is a leader and if a leader is devoid of any one of these four traits, he will no longer remain a leader. Similarly, a society that has all of these four qualities prevalent in it can become a leader and guide for other societies. Lastly, if these four elements are found in the world, the entire humanity will move towards perfection and the state of affairs shall enjoy considerable desirability.

This thought, as discussed briefly, perhaps may have its roots in divine religions but philosophical schools have also endorsed it. The Zoroastrians view the future as positive, labeling it as ‘the victory of Ahura Mazda’s army over the forces of Ahreman (devil)’. In Hinduism too the future is considered to be bright and prosperous.

Last, but not the least, even the materialist schools of thought, headed by Marxism, foresees the future to be better than the past, albeit using different terms like single family patterns, co-operative ownership, joint government, etc. Anyhow, they never opine that the future is doomed. Rather, they suggest that future will tread the path of perfection but there are differences in the interpretation of the term ‘perfection’, some of which we have already hinted at above[3] .

Thus, we must accept this as a principle. Regardless of the sect that we belong to Shias, Sunnis, or any other faction of humanity, we must look at the future positively and search for the basis of this positive outlook. Basically, due to his humanity, man feels a sense of responsibility and accountability, which persuades and coaxes him to search and investigate.

Had the future been damned, there would be no incentive for the scientists to seek and spread science. The same would apply for the reformers, philosophers and all other advocates of some thought or science. For, the research and investigation of all these scholars is based on the fact that they consider the future to be positive and the way to reach to this zenith is this particular way. Thus, had there been no peak to attain, there would be no need for any guidance or leadership.

This is basic principle and we Shias among the followers of all sects and schools of thought, hold our heads high and declare that we subscribe to such a creed. That is, we consider the future to be positive. Moreover, our positive outlook is to that extent that if we are sure that tomorrow is the Day of Judgment and only one day remains from the end of this world, yet we will say that the final outcome will be implemented. This last day will be prolonged to a length so that sufficient time is there for the accomplishment of this final result.

The Messenger of Islam (s.a.w.a.) has conveyed the aforementioned concept in a beautiful tradition, come down in successive transmission (tawaatur ) and recorded in the books of both Shias as well as Sunnis. The tradition goes as follows:

« لَو لَم يُبقُ مِنُ الدنيا الا يوم واحد لطول اللّه ذلك اليوم حتي يبعثَ فيهِ رجْلاً مِن أمتي و مِن أهل بيتي يْواطئُ اسمْهْ اسمي يملأ الأرضَ قسطاً و عدلاً كَما ملِئت ظُلماً و جورا ».

“If there remains only a day for the world to come to an end, Allah will prolong this day till He raises a man from my progeny/nation. His name will be my name. He will fill the earth with justice and equity as it would have fraught with injustice and oppression. [4]

Therefore, even if all the angels of the heavens descend and declare that tomorrow is the Day of Judgment, we will contend that since the reformer, who will fill the earth with justice and equity, has not yet appeared, this day will be prolonged to an extent that the promise is fulfilled. Yes, we are so positive about the future that if all scientists come together and prophesize that tonight the earth will split and come to an end, we will not believe it. We will refute it as we have firm conviction in the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) prediction and hence, despite all threats of doom, will sleep comfortably.

The following sentences ofDoa-e-Ahd are the best proofs of a positive outlook about the future:

« اَللّهم إن حالَ و بُيني و بينهْ الموتُ الّذي جعلتَهْ علي عِبادِكُ حتماً مُقضِياً فأَخرِجني مِن قَبري مْؤتزراً كَفني, شاهِراً سُيفي, مْجرداً قناتي, مْلبياً دُعوه الداعي في الحاضر و البادي ».

“O Allah! If death comes between me and him (Imam-e-Zaman’s (a.t.f.s.) reappearance), which you have made compulsory and obligatory upon your servants, then bring me out from my grave, (in the condition that) I am wearing my shroud, my sword naked, my spear uncovered, responding to the call of the caller in cities as well as deserts. [5]

You saw how lovely and beautiful the statements of this supplication are!

This discussion has come in various sources. In these books, apart from the prophesies of the heavenly religions, glad-tidings of the various schools are also reflected. There are scholars, who have researched on this subject, and extracted forecasts on this topic from the Old Testament, the New Testament, the Avestha, Indian scriptures, etc.

Some have even investigated and compiled books written on Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.) from the first century of Islam till date. Hence, we have books that have been written in the first century and another book, which I have in hand right now, has been penned in the second century and is a compilation of traditions regarding Imam-e-Zaman (a.t.f.s.), much before his birth.