A Replay To Belief Of Mahdism In Shia Imamate

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Publisher: Naba Organization
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A Replay To Belief Of Mahdism In Shia Imamate

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Ayatullah Lutfullah Safi Gulpaygani
Publisher: Naba Organization
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A Replay To Belief Of Mahdism In Shia Imamate
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A Replay To Belief Of Mahdism In Shia Imamate

A Replay To Belief Of Mahdism In Shia Imamate

Author:
Publisher: Naba Organization
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

22. Imamate of Imam Musa bin Ja’far

The writer writes that there was a dispute about who would succeed as Imam. He twists and turns the understanding of the reader and tries to make the subject as much murky as possible. Dispute is a common thing to occur when a matter happens to be of importance. The more important the matter the deeper the dispute. The outcome is important.

The Imamate of Kadhim took its seat in the hearts. A general love surrounded him and a certain respect was rooted in the hearts, which received him. His succession became authentic and legitimate by his own life, which was in the eyes of the people. His straightforwardness, simplicity, truth, humbleness, worship, piety, generosity, and charity, all these qualities gave the proof of his right to succession and his worthiness to be the Imam.

His death in the prison which was obtained by means of poison, left far reaching effects on the regime of Haroon. Shafi’ee, the founder of the Shafi’ee sect among Sunnis left Baghdad in protest for Egypt. All have praised the personality of Imam Kadhim. Similarly the death of Imam Reza which too was by poison and likewise the death of Imam Jawad which too was by poison. The martyrdom of these Imams left a very bad reflection on the regime of the day.

Another blunder of the writer is that he consider Imam Hadi and Imam Hasan Askari to have had witnessed the total downfall of the Bani Abbas dynasty. The fact is that the collapse of the Bani Abbas dynasty took place in the era of Mostasam, as he was killed by Halako in the year 656 Hijrah. So, in the time of these two Imams the Bani Abbas dynasty was fast going down, and the military officers were handling the installation of a caliph and again dismissing or discarding him.

23. The appearance of the Imam and his administration of Justice worldwide

That the Imams through their own agents or elements acquired information and knowledge current with the affairs of their time is not to be debated. However, the writer claims that they became aware of the fact that an Alawi Imam by the name of Mahdi would come, and that he would not be able to stop the flow of events due to the severe corruptness in general. Therefore the writer says, they decided to postpone the reappearance of the “Awaited One” indefinitely.

Yes, the events had become such, however the writer fails to understand that the reappearance of the twelfth Imam was not postponed by Imam Hadi nor Imam Askari, for they had no such power. It was a Divine secret in which only Allah himself knew and planned. According to various narrations, those of Shia and those of Sunni, nobody knew nor does know the person who is to appear and when he will appear. Even the Imams, except Mahdi himself, knew not the specified man. It is a Divine responsibility. And, it is in Divine hand. Its knowledge is with God.

Its delay or its urgency is the concern of God. The writer fails to dig any deeper. For it is the insight that probes and opens the horizons of a vast sight to see. What we know is that which the Prophet (S) and the Holy Quran has taught us.

That is a redeemer will come to rescue the world from tyranny and to spread therein justice is a promise committed by God to mankind; and it has been foretold by the Prophet. But no one is competent to set its timing. It is not a human program. Hence, it is not for human to decide. When one cannot decide he can deny. Here denial is not important, because to deny facts does not uproot them.

24. The House of Ali and Motawakkil

Alhamdulillah, the writer, sees and accepts the cruelty, and tyranny of Motawakkil. He says without reservation; and this is, indeed, appreciable. In the court, Motawakkil became upset, very much so that he wept under the crushing strokes of his soul. The writer attributes his inner disturbance to the recitation of Quranic Verses. He is wrong. Imam Hadi spoke to him in poetry. Because part of the verse has been translated from Arabic to English, some of the beauty has been lost;

“Over the peaks of mountains, guarded they lived; Never saved them the peaks they were deceived.”

25. ‘Taqia’ a strong command from the Divine in the Holy Quran:

Again the writer goes astray.

“Why do not you fear them a dread?”

“Lo, he who hates him and his heart is satisfied with belief.”

These are the Verses of the Quran. It pertains to Ammar to conceal his faith. To conceal one’s faith or to hide one’s religion if the conditions demand so; is God’s order. To avoid danger in any respect, either to life, property, reputation, or to personal prestige one should conceal his true belief. Reason and logic says so. To do otherwise is wrong as it is to expose one to danger.

The writer says that the Shia invented Taqia in order to protect themselves against the Sunni who were a majority and also from the rulers who were too Sunni. So under the pretext of Taqia. The writer is short of knowledge in this subject. As we pointed out earlier it is a clear commandment from God. To obey God is not wrong.

26. The first writer who wrote the book about the occultation

The Imam’s scholars have classified political and social grades. From Kulaini to Tusi Nomani who are regarded as some of the first ones to write about the absence of the Imam. Prior to them there was a group of scholars who dealt with this subjects and wrote books. Fazl Bin Shozan (died in 260) and still further back there were Ibrahim Bin Husham Abul Fadl Al-Nasheri and others constitute a class of writers.

Imamate of two brothers

Imam Hasan (as) and Imam Husayn (as) were two brothers and at the same time Imams. In that period and age both were Imams one obeyed the other; the younger brother obeyed his elder, as he became Imam. Imam Hasan (as) actually held the political authority as well as the religious one. He administered social affairs and held the government over them. Imam Husayn (as) had no say as long as his brother Hasan was alive.

The writer now tries to establish a link on this precedent and suggests that the Imamate was of Abdulla Ajta instead of Musa al-Kadhim or to the both of them and similarly to Ja’far brother of Imam Hasan Askari. The office of Imamate is Divine. As such, the Imamate is not dependent on our pleasure.

It is not our right to suggest one for the Imamate or not to approve the others. When Musa al-Kadhim became Imam, Abdullah goes out of question. Likewise Ja’far is not Imam because Hasan Askari is the Imam. The Imamate of Hasan and Husayn cannot be a base for any who happens to be a brother of the Imam to become Imam. To avoid such a kind of mischief or this type of interpretation the Prophet (S) in his life time had repeatedly disclosed the names of the Imams individually. He had even specified the characteristics of them. So, that no doubt nor suspicion would remain.

27. Division of Groups

Regarding the Imam after the martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari a man by the name of Nou Bakhati had written a book under the title “Freq Al-Shia” (sects of Shia). This man says strange things never heard before nor will be heard anymore. A few examples of his findings: After the martyrdom of Imam Hasan Askari the Shia divided into groups and sects.

They split into fourteen sects although it is not a fact he says. His book gives a wide range of sections, groups, and divisions. As one goes further into this book he sees that the word Group cannot be applied at all since there was none.

A sect cannot be called a sect since that sect did not exist at all. A division cannot be named a division since there were not one or two persons who differed or said anything different. But all such trifles and superfluous conjectures have gone a great deal to give bulk to the book. In what times they existed; he does not say. What were the names of those divisions or sects or groups; he himself knows not because he does not say.

How long did they remain in their difference? Why didn’t their group or their division gain ground so as to attract followers? Who was their leader or chief? All these and such questions remain without answer. There is nothing real in the hook. The great scholars Sheikh Mufeed and Sheikh Akbar Tusi have rejected the existence of divisions. They replied in “A story of Nou Bakhti” it was “Al- Fosool Al-Mukhtara” (The selected chapters).

In a book by Sheikh Mufeed he says in its second volume, “There is no sect, no group in existence. In our times till the year 372 there has been no sect other than the twelve Shia Imamiah.” This is an introduction for our readers to form a background for themselves, for their own judgment or opinion because the writer has brought forward Nou Bakhti’s book in his argument.

There are books written about nations, creeds, and so on. But these books were written under a prejudice of exaggeration and not on fact. Whatever one sees in print does not mean it has authority behind it therefore be accepted. History can not show any trace of any of those sects. No date can be fixed as to when; no location can be pointed to as to where; then the very debate on it is of no sense nor of any use discussing. Probabilities do not become facts. A man might have existed who deviated, divided, disgruntled, deprived, and depraved; but surely he was not a sect, division and group.

There is no evidence to show that Ja’far had a following. There is a likelihood that political and or animosity of some might have given a wider range to Ja’far.

But he gained nor established a following. The only sect that was there and that is still there in spite of the ups and downs of the passage of time, regardless of the vicissitudes of political events, and despite the changes that are common to man is the sect which believes in the Imamate of the 12th Imam, son of Imam Hasan Askari. The Shia Imamiah which as said, did not surrender to temptation but adhered to faith and preserved the belief, although however difficult. Great scholars appeared in this sect. Many great books have been written in this field.

Whatever differences might have happened concerning the person of Mahdi, it was not as wide as is pretended and not as serious as is said. There were no fourteen sects as is now claimed. The writer cannot gather a hundred men as the followers. To tell, one can also tell that Omar caused a division or created a division among Muslims as, after the Prophet’s death he shouted and clamored that the Prophet had not died. This divided the Muslims into two groups - one who believed in the eternal life of the Prophet taking his death for his absence and the other one who believed in his death.

But a lunatic opinion, single and alone, uttered with a calculated mischief aimed at a particular deliberate purpose or intention cannot be a criterion on which an ideology can be rested. As soon as it is said, it is dismissed because it reflects the mind of the sayer.

The sect that acknowledges the Imamate or the lmam hood of Mahdi, son of Imam Hasan Askari has existed for centuries. From the 3rd century the sects that are mentioned in the book have had been without existence. They have vanished. They never existed. Leaving aside the alleged sects, the truth is that the Authority of God cannot be absent from the earth. This authority is vested in the person of Mahdi, the Imam of our time. The Shia cannot ignore the Imam. Here ends the circuit of fictitious sects.

28. Books about the Sects

“Milel Wa Nahal” of Shahristani “Al-Fasal” of Ibn Hagam; these books speak of divisions and describe the sects or groups with full mistakes and deliberate errors. To rely on them is irresponsible because they have been written without study. Every prejudice is gratified in it and malice has taken a breath of relief as it speaks about Shia without knowledge.

No information, no knowledge seems to have been necessary to write this book. Another book “Al- Farakh Bain Al-Firaq” and another book “Al-Taiseer” carries a theme which only ignorant could be proud of. Where there is no literacy, there is fancy; where there is no information, there is imagination; and the books are written. These books are deal, thus should they be left.

Traditions that are told about the Imamate of thirteen ones

In our article “Jila Al Basar Le man Yatawalla Al Aiyemme Al Isna Ashar” (glisten of sight to one who yields to the twelve Imams) we have dealt over this subject. The traditions that indicate that there are thirteen Imams are not authentic ones. The narration should be constant, that is, heard by many; hence, told by many or circulated mouth by mouth. Such narration of any tradition is gestate with credible. If it is told by one person it does not stand credible.

When the Prophet (S) spoke, he spoke among his associates or in a gathering or amidst a few people. So, his conversation was heard by more than one man; and accordingly narrated by more than one. If a tradition is narrated by only one source and there is no second to it; it is void of any authenticity. This is a standard or a law for gaining certainty about the issue pertaining to belief and other religious matters. On the other hand, the traditions that indicate the number of Imams as twelve are many and related by several and told by various sources.

In the book Masnad of Ahmad Al-Hanbali there are above thirty sources mentioned having had heard from the Prophet (S) the number of Imams to be twelve. Muslim in his “Saheer” quotes eight sources who have related the traditions indicating the number twelve. In the Shia books there are hundreds of sources who have mentioned the Prophet’s sayings the traditions that fix the number of twelve. Besides, the sources from the man of good reputation.

There remains no doubt in the authenticity of the very subject. However the traditions or tradition quoting the number of Imams to be thirteen has been invented. Since it is a lie it is dismissed.

29. Saleem relates a news

What is attributed to Saleem does not exist in his (Saleem’s) book. Saleem is reported to have narrated that the Prophet (S) had told Ali Bin Abi Talib that he and twelve ones from his progeny are the rightful and legitimate Imams. The very authentic copies of the book of Saleem Bin Qais mostly possessed by scholars do not have what it is alleged to him. What the book of Saleem Bin Qais carries is the various narration of several sayings of the Prophet (S) all to the effect that the Imams are twelve and their names starting from Ali Bin Abi Talib down to Mahdi are indicated.

This book came into being in the first century of Hijrah and remains till now well credited and well trusted. The names of the twelve Imams were mentioned at a time when they were not yet born. So what is a false accusation or an unfounded allegation merely attributed to Saleem Bin Qais is only a matter of prejudice, to obfuscate the very subject and infuscate the understanding.

It is common practice to fabricate a fiction and then set out in conquest of a writer who may transact this counter note on his credit because of the customers who bank in him their trust. Better than Saleem Bin Qais they could not have found. As his notes are plenty, one counter can easily be mixed therein. If at all it is deducted, a general clamor would stout that it is Saleem’s; since Saleem’s would obtain currency and circulate from hand to hand. Such a fraud is also played with Abi Sahal Noubakhti. This silly trick has persisted deliberately. Writer should have checked them. Translators also proved negligent in this respect.

Anyway, we should pronounce here that such a stratum will not be of benefit to any nor will it serve as a religious cause nor will it advance any religion forward. It would only create a mist on the understanding of readers. The root of belief in a ‘Mahdi’ is also to be found in the Tora and that of the Bible prior to Islam. Any literature that could be traced in the distant past will say something of this kind. This is the pedestal of the Divine Religion.

30. Titles of the Twelfth Imam

The writer sees everything from a material aspect. He has not yet reached a destination. Everywhere he stops and wanders again and says something in the pain of fatigue. Muslims believe generally in Mahdi; it is a political belief. The Shia believes in Mahdi particularly; it is a political effect. What is a belief? He has several titles such as Mahdi, Redeemer and etc; they are invented by history.

Let him at least for once tell something of sense. Any link with the world, the other one, is out of question to the writer. He compares natural phenomenon with religion. The moon, earth, sun and animals all appear and disappear in a cycle, come and go; likewise religion too is to him. He wants to reach a religion after having lost the religion. The world that is next, the self that is in a man, the ulterior influence of invisible on visible, the unseen on the seen, the spirit and its environment, the soul and its surroundings; all these things carry no sense to him.

What holds a matter matters to him. So, he is altogether on quite a different track, which never joins the straight path of belief. He displays a series of historical events as his discoveries. He has assorted the events, adjusted the episodes, rejected and accepted some while misplacing others in an order to prove his point. When he offers his cargo he misleads the customer. The titles such as Mahdi, Ghayeb, Hujjat which are rooted in the Quran and transplanted in the Prophet’s sayings are regarded by him as the names that came into being due to certain incidents or events in history.

Had he cared for traditions he would have come to know that the titles ‘Al Qayem’, ‘Hujjatullah, ‘Khalifatullah, ‘Al Mahdi’ belong to the twelfth Imam. But the language of tradition is strange to him nor is he familiar with the tone of the Prophet (S).

In some time or some era one title might have been widely spoken. Again in certain conditions some other title might have given more consolation or satisfaction to the people. For this reason some among the titles of the twelfth Imam are more famous. We observe this in the names of God also. Al-Shafi, Al-Salaam, Al-Hafiz, Al-Rahman, Al-Razzaq are more uttered.

The personal circumstance has a bearing on this as one resorts to a particular tribute or quality moves them to the other. But this could not mean that God was lacking those qualities in ancient times and got them as time progressed. Such results are the natural outcome of the analysis done on the basis of matter.

Therefore, the very method of analysis, that is, the material one, is wrong and will lead one astray. The belief in God is the consequence of a centipede of things and a train of suppositions. Before that, there was no belief in God.

Likewise, the qualities which are the names of God. This is the result of a materialistic view of the things. Finally, one has to deny all God and prophets. Such a result of such a wrong method of analysis cannot convince one nor could it be justified in rejecting God. It will not succeed to shake the belief of a believer.

The moment Mahdi came into being the titles were fixed to him because of the qualities he possessed. Mahdi the rescuer, fixed one, good doer, master of the command, master of time, master of age, and master of moment is he. Each of those titles reflects a particular dimension of his personality and of his task. The possessor of those titles is the twelfth Imam. Mahdi is the same twelfth Imam and the twelfth Imam is the same Mahdi that the scholars of Sunni have acknowledged. Abu Dawood is one of them. He in his book “Al Mahdi” says that the twelfth Imam is the seal of the Imams.

31. The title “Al Qayem”

Although the writer’s uproar, this time he quotes page 282 from the book “Ghaybat” (absence) of Tusi that, “Qayem means he will upraise after meeting his death.” About this sufficient explanation Tusi has provided; “but to deal this subject we first should necessarily speak of the Imamate.” As the ramification is getting wider we shall speak about the Imamate only briefly because its short summary suffices to take in the details.

Imamate in Shiaism is based on the Holy Quran. There are numerous traditions of the Prophet that support the establishment.

1. Imamate is a Divine obligation. Persons competent enough become the choice of God. They are vested by God with this mission. God’s choice of the person to this office is pronounced to the people by the Prophet at God’s desire.

2. The prime and the supreme condition for an Imam that qualifies him to be the Imam is his infallibility, that is, immunity from sin or wrong doing, and his superiority in knowledge with the others so that all could obey his instructions and follow his guidance. Khalil Bin Ahmad narrates a description of Imam by Ali Bin Abi Talib: “All need him while he needs no one. This is an indication that he is the Imam of all.”

3. The earth cannot be without an Imam or the Authority of God. Everyone should know and recognize the Imam of his time. If he dies without knowing his Imam, he has died as though in ignorance.

4. Imams are twelve as per the sayings of the Prophet.

5. All the Imams are from the Prophet’s House. They do not exceed twelve including Ali. According to the Prophet’s words, repeatedly said, they are at parity with the Quran and as heavy (important) as the Quran itself. They never part with the Quran. They remain always associated with it.

6. All Imams individually possess the worldly and the spiritual leadership. The only thing that they do not share nor possess is the prophet hood, which was terminated at the Prophet himself. Nahjul Balaghah describes them as God’s Authority over His creatures. They are the boat of safety. They are the refuges for the nation. They are the guards to protect the people from divisions and deviations. He who does not recognize them and they do not recognize him shall not enter heaven. He who denies them and they who denies him shall enter hell.”

7. The Imams were introduced beforehand by the Prophet (S) who disclosed their names and specifications individually. Each Imam has introduced the following one his successor indicating his name and his person. These are the fundamentals of principle belief. There is no likelihood, no possibility for any mistake or confusion in the order and the person of the Imam, because of the precautions already taken by the Prophet (S) in his time in disclosing their names individually.

Also each Imam pointed out to the people his successor (the next Imam). One should take these matters into consideration if he were to know something of the Imamate. For a believer who acknowledges God and the Next world the ground is reason on which the pillars of belief rest. These fundamentals are irrefragable and incontrovertible because they are supported by the Quran and the constant circuit of the Prophet’s traditions.

This subject that the Imamte is a Divine obligation has been established by the Quran and the tradition that took the wing of constancy. Dr. Allama Hilli in his book “Two Thousands” (Alfain) has brought forward two thousand arguments and evidence to prove this subject only. Basically this subject springs from Tawheed (oneness of God) and it is the oneness of God that gives origin to this subject. Imamate is so basic and so fundamental that it is deep-rooted in Tawheed. Tawheed is the essence of Islam.

And, it is this Tawheed that establishes Imamate thereby making it obligatory upon all Muslims. The importance of Imamate is reflected form this where we suffer: “To Him is the Command and to Him is the order and He is the Sultan and He is the Ruler and He is the Guardian and He is the cognizant of the interests of the creatures. There is no order nor is there a dismissal to any one without Him.”

The matter of immunity from sin gives strength to this subject besides the superiority of knowledge. The Quran here says:

“He who guides to the truth more deserves to be followed; he who does not guide should be guided.” (10:35)

The Imam should necessarily be infallible. Reason requires so. Dr. Allama Hilli has established this fact through two thousand arguments. One many refer to the book Alfain.

There should be God’s Authority over the earth.

“To each nation there is a leader.”(13:7)

“And we have reached the word to them.”

“A day (in which) we call every people with their Imam.” (17:71)

These Quranic verses with due consideration to their interpretation and the sayings of the Prophet thereon prove that the earth cannot be empty of an Imam. The books, those of Sunnis, Shias, Zaidis, and those of Imamiahs all say collectively the same. There is uniformity of opinion at this point. Tazkarat Al Hoffaz of the Sunnis has acknowledged the necessity of the presence of an Imam on earth. Whether the Imam is hidden or apparent, concealed or absent or open he is there as should be.

In the book Sawayeq and other books of Sunni scholars a long statement of Imam Zainul Abideen is narrated. The Imam in his long statement says that the earth cannot remain without an Imam from the House of the Prophet (S). If there happens to be any word coming to this fundamental it is worthless and groundless.

Imam Zainul Abideen says in his supplication in his Sahifa Sajjadiah: “O, God, you have supported your religion in all times by the Imam whom you made a banner to your servants and a tower in your dominion after making his rope to reach yours and you made him a medium to your paradise. And obedience to him you made obligatory. And you warned about disobedience to him. To carry on his orders, you ordered; and to stop at what he stops the action, you commanded. No advancer advances from him nor does a delayer lag behind him. He is the Fortress of seekers and the cave of believers and the path of adheres and the worth of the worlds.”

In this supplication the Imam is well sketched. The states and the station of the Imams is made clear. Shiaism can be observed in this supplication.

After all these discussions it is a wonderful thing to say “The uprising of Qayem after death was acknowledged earlier but later on this thought was rejected by scholars.”

Any thought in a Shia atmosphere if expressed by the Prophet (S) and Ali Bin Abi Talib and all other Imams are a fixed truth. Any other thought contrary to it is of no credit and is void of truth. In an analysis some seek to find out a trifle and enlarge it magnifying it in order to avoid the truth or to reject the fact. Some non-Muslim Islamic scholars have done this to serve their venom.

It is not our point to overlook the loophole. What we say is, do not overlook the important ones. One should examine and compare both and see which one is acceptable.

The Imam first dies and then upraises. This is contrary to the fundamental. The earth in that case would remain without an Imam, which is not possible. The age of the Imam is lengthy as his occultation too. If we accept his death first and then his becoming a redeemer, we have to reject what the Prophet (S) and Ali (as) and the other Imams have told us.

A narrator by the name of Musa Bin Sadan Hannat (whom is not regarded as a man of reputation) quotes another man by the name of Abdulla Bin Qassim. Abdulla Bin Qassim was called ‘the heir’. Such a man cannot be trusted. This liar hero quotes his source as Abu Saeed Khurasani. Abu Saeed Khurasani’s whereabouts are not known. Besides this, there is not other source to have had told the same thing or a similar one to it.

If we look at the word Qayem we understand it to mean that an upriising is ahead, and this Imam is to be the doer or possessor of that ‘Qiyam’. An uprising which is to be against the political conditions and religious perversion and social depravations of that time. He will uproot every root of tyranny and fill the world with justice. Generally the word ‘Qiyam’ (upraisal) is contemporary with sunrise. All Imams were Qayem that is ‘responsible’. But each of them was in accordance with the conditions of his time.

The situation he was in was one concerned to him. But in a broader view and a broader sense this title Qayem is particular to Mahdi because the Qiyam is going to be a wider, universal one not confined to a specified time and place. His Qiyam (upraisal) will embrace the conditions of individual, social, political, and economical ones. The application of this title brings to mind that of only the twelfth Imam and no other one.

Saddooq has narrated a tradition. His source is Kamaluddin, Kamaluddin narrates that he (Kamaluddin) heard the 9th Imam, Mohammed Al-Taqi (as) say: “The Imam after me is my son. His word is my word. His order is my order. To obey him is to obey me. The Imamate will run to his son, Hasan Askari. What he says is to be obeyed. His word is his father’s word. His order is the order of his father.” Then he became quiet. Kamaluddin asked; “Oh, son of the Prophet of God! Who is the Imam after Hasan?” The Imam wept. Then he said; “Imam Hasan Askari’s son, Al-Qayem Al-Montadhar.” Then Kamaluddin asked; “Oh, son of the Prophet of God, why is he called Al- Qayem?” The Imam answered; “Because he will bring an uprising.” Kamaluddin asked; “Why is he called the awaited one?” The Imam replied: “Because there will be an absence that will be very long. Faithful ones will await his appearance. Those who have doubt will reject him. Those who believe in him will be redeemed.”

In another source “Ma’ani Al Akhbar”, the same is also mentioned. Some have indicated other reasons too for his title ‘Qayem’. One is that he will appear and raze a war against tyranny with his sword. Now, for his other title, Mahdi, there are several interpretations. Al-Mahdi is as independent a title as is Al- Qayem. One whom God has guided is called Mahdi.

According to predictions, the reforms and the deeds that Mahdi will perform will suit the title Al- Qayem. It is also known that these titles, “Al- Qayem” and “Al-Mahdi” were heard from the Prophet’s mouth. There is no sense in arguing that one title is superior to the other. Both belong to one and both were given and pronounced by one.

32. Mahdi the twelfth Imam

The writer in this chapter has written what reflects his prejudice or ignorance. The Imam will appear; the Imam will rescue the world from tyranny; all this imagination is the product of the last decades of Bani Ummayah’s rule. The tyranny of Bani Ummayah’s government invigorated this belief more deep. But in no way did it create this supposition or this fancy as the writer says. It is as old as Islam itself The Prophet (S) himself had disclosed Mahdism and told the people what we now know.

It is a promise given by the prophet (S) and as is known, the Prophet (S) did not utter out of his own desire or lust. It is God’s word and Divine Revelation from which he speaks. So, it is a promise given to us by God through the Prophet (S).

The writer says that the title of Mahdi was given to rescue the Shia from dullness and hopelessness. To inject them with ray of hope or a beam of anticipation towards a better future. As we have repeatedly said it is a reality. The title has nothing to do with the disappointment of a man or a group of men.

The title does not add anything to the personality of the Imam. His responsibility is already foretold by the Prophet (S). The Shia did not invent anything so far as religion is concerned. The title Mahdi is also acknowledged by Sunni scholars. It was heard on the tongue of most well-known Sunni authorities. As such, it seems that it is the writer who is trying to invent something at this stage.

33. Miraculous birth and the date

It is not bad to give a summary about the event of Mahdi’s birth. The birth of Mahdi the son of Imam Hasan Askari is recorded by historians as being a simple event.

However the birth is surrounded by some strange signs. The writer is not willing to see or accept the strange signs because he says that no such events were recorded. Which records he uses for his research, we do not know. An event of birth is not to be elaborated - generally speaking. Sources that are close to the house of Imam Hasan Askari (as) should also be contacted to see what they know and have to say. Historical science has gone too flaccid as its scholars have shown prejudice in recording the events or the facts. However, facts do remain unchanged although the attitude of a historian is however changeable.

The birth of messengers is gestant with unusual events, extra ordinary. Adam’s birth for example was a strange thing. The birth of Abraham, Is’haq, Moses, and Jesus were all strange, Jesus (as) still in a cradle spoke. All these events were super natural and extra ordinary. If these events are not historical, then the birth of Mahdi too is not one. If those events are regarded as being historical, the birth of ‘Mahdi’ too is one. The negligence of some historians do not spoil the event.

As a figure of speech, no matter how many veils are hung to hide or conceal something, if a candle is placed beyond the veils even the slightest light will still pass through those veils. Often is the case that an unauthentic source says something ignorant and it becomes history; but an occurrence of importance and magnitude which took place and is told by persons of repute and renown, still is not considered history! What a portentous display of prejudice and partiality it is! The writer says that the biographies of the Imams of the Shia have been so written that they are like the stories of the Sufis.

The stories of the Sufis are far from sense and reason. The writer could have said that the biographies of the Imams are like the stories of the births of prophets like Abraham, Is’haq, Ismael, Moses, Jesus and Yahya. But, taste is needed to install a similitude. Delicacy is the demand, wit is the want and vigilance is the vitality, needed to bring a similarity of the same sanctity. The stories of the Sufis are fabricated in order to attain the level of godly figures so as to make them credible.

They are fake, false, and feigned. But the facts of the prophets or the Imams do not break apart by false statements as a shadow cannot eradicate a light. It is the evil that proves a virtue. A dark night is the indication of a bright day, which dawns from within its folds.

The very sense the word history imparts should be defined here. Some events are perhaps narrated in the books of philosophy or medicine and not in the book of history. Although irrelevant of its place it is still history or a historical event. Whether it be the prophet of God or kings what they do go down as history.

Therefore, history cannot be confined to a man or a particular group or a particular performance. As a result there is no classification or category to which certain events are regarded as historical or non-historical. The writer is wrong. The birth of the twelfth Imam was history in itself as well as a historical event.

34. The creation of the Prophets and the Imams

About the creation of the Imams and the Prophets, that is, how they were created or the nature of their creation. Shias are not different with others in its conception or conviction. About the creation of the Prophet (S), the Sunni sect has a great deal of narration and traditions. The same Sunni sources have much to say with regards to the creation of Ali Bin Abi Talib, Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn, and Fatimah daughter of Mohammed. As to the reason of the creation of the Prophet (S) and the Imams the Quran gives a root:

“Indeed, God has chosen you and purged you and selected you over the men of the worlds.”

As for the prophet Moses the Quran says:

“And, We revealed to the mother of Moses to feed him with her milk and if she happened to fear about him, throw him into the river and not fear nor grieve. We shall return him back to her and make him among the messengers.” (28:7)

From this we infer that the mother of Moses was informed about the return of her child back to her and that he would become a prophet of God.

In his book Al Sifwa Zaid Bin Ali Bin Husayn describes the issue of Ahlul Bait (members of the Prophet’s (S) House) their being chosen ones. He lists from the Quran to support his statement. From a viewpoint of Islamic principle and belief, the extra ordinary type of creation of the Imams cannot be wired of taking into consideration the miracle in the birth of Jesus Bin Maryam.

35. Mahdism after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn

The writer concludes that because Mahdi will appear on the day of Ashura he will, therefore, make his headquarters either in Kufa or in Karbala. Also because Mahdi descends from the progeny of the Prophet, his upraising too will be in Kufa and Karbala. However let us stop here and look a little closer into the matter.

First, it is an acknowledged fact that Mahdi hails from the Prophets (S) House because he is the twelfth Imam. But what relation is there with Karbala and Kufa? We cannot limit his range of activity for the whole earth is in his range of activity. All predictions indicate such as we have repeatedly pointed out, the traditions of the Prophet (S). The writer has connected Mahdi’s appearance to the martyrdom of Husayn. He has done this deliberately so as to limit the whole issue and to prove it has a background of revenge.

The writer knows very well that the Imams were all from the House of the Prophet (S), that is, his offspring. So, the twelfth Imam too, Mahdi. Nobody has limited Imamate to the Household of the Prophet (S), it is God’s design, His desire, His deed, and His determination because Imamate is His office and an Imam is His choice as to who to be and from where.

Mahdi hails from the progeny of the Prophet, it is a fulfillment of a condition among the conditions concomitant with the office of Imamate. As such he should be from Ahlul Bait (from the Prophet’s house). This ensures that all his doings and deeds will all be in the line of the Prophet (S) himself.