Essays on Ghadir

Essays on Ghadir0%

Essays on Ghadir Author:
Publisher: Naba Publication (
Category: Imam Ali

Essays on Ghadir

Author: Naba Cultural Organization
Publisher: Naba Publication (

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Essays on Ghadir

Essays on Ghadir

Publisher: Naba Publication (

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Essays on Ghadir

Author: Naba Cultural Organization

Table of Contents

Preface 4

1- Report of the Ghadir Day 6

2- Ghadir in Quran 8

The Speech 8

Allegiance of People with Imam Ali (a.s) in Ghadir Celebration 9

The Number of People in Ghadir Khum 9

3- The Sermon of Ghadir 11

4- The meaning of word "MOWLA"(Leader/ Chief) in Ghadir Day 15

5- "Allegiance" of people with Imam Ali (A.S.) in Ghadir tradition 17

6- Importance of "Ghadir" in our Islamic ideology 23

Geographical location of Ghadir 29

Ghadir in the words of Non-Muslim 39

7- Ghadir in Islamic Traditions 41

8- Ghadir as a feast and ceremonies (in history, literature, Jurisprudence) 45

The ceremonies of The Ghadir feast 45













PRAY and greetings to the holy prophet 47




PILGRIMAGE OF IMAM ALl (p.b.u.h.) 48

9- The Ghadir Mosque 49



Explanation of the routes leading to Ghadir Khum 55

10- Ghadir Day, in the words of nonMuslim people 56

11- Argumentation and references made to Ghadir Day 60

12- Introduction of books regarding Ghadir Day 67

13- Ghadir in Literature 68

14- The Promised Person of Ghadir 71


"O People! I have been commanded to proclaim this affair (Le. the Wilayat of Amir -ul- Momenin p.b.u.h.) so that the arguments are completed for all the people; present or absent, and whether born or will be born. Verily, those who are present should convey this message to the absent ones and the fathers to their sons until the Day of Judgment. "

This is the Prophet's (p.b.u.h.) prophetic message which on Ghadir day attracted the believers. Those who heard these Divine words by hear, constantly tried hard to deliver them to others. In this way, the bare reality that originated from that brilliant pool was made to flow in the dry desert- the life of human beings- ang they quenched the life of those who were thirsty of seeking the truth.

Thus, they mode use of their tongue and pen on this way and wrote hundreds and thousands of books and essays on Ghadir. They left after entrusting this trust to their next generation.

In pursuance of achieving its cultural objectives, Naba Cultural Organization invited interested writers in 1423 A.H. (2003) to use their pen in the service of Imam Amir - ul- Momenin (p.b.u.h.), and once again enliven the event of Ghadir.

From those writings, the best were selected and this collection appeared on the basis of those articles.

The main aim behind this invitation and publication of the selected articles is to encourage the writers of Ghadir to strive on this path.

As such one can witness differences in description, repeat of some points, detailed and brief explanation in few cases and reference to second hand sources in these articles. But one can find a heart that beats in remembrance of the master of Ghadir.

While thanking our dear ones for writing articles, we recommend the following points to them:

1- Not to leave their study and research on this subject.

2- To ponder over their readings and analyze them.

3- To reflect over innovations in their writings and refrain from repeats found in Ghadir writings.

4- The spirit of acceptance of criticism not only for new writers but also for the experienced ones will go a long way in improving their works.

One should not neglect this secret of success.

Selection, compilation, arrangement and edit of the essays have been undertaken by Mr. Hamid Farnagh and the current work is the outcome of his effort. We thank him for his endeavors.

We pray to God to grant us success in taking constant steps and actions in remembrance of Ghadir, and increasing our knowledge and the concern of our readers to this Divine Message.

While awaiting the promised one of Ghadir, Imam Mahdi ( let us fill the spirit of Ghadir jthin ourselves, and in our society so that on the day of Imam's advent, we witness the prayers of holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) as saying: "0 God! Love the admirers of Ali and behold his enemies as your enemies. Hold dear those who Ali is dear for them. Be angry with those who make him angry. Assist his helpers and abandon those who abandon him. Make him the standard and equilibrium of truth. "

اَللهُمَ والِ مَن والاهُ وَ عادِ مَن عاداهُ وَالنْصُرْ مَن نَصَرَهُ وَاخْذُل مَنْ خَذَلَهُ

Naba Cultural Organization M. H. Shahri

1- Report of the Ghadir Day

This Event took place in the Ninth year A.H. and in continuation of the Hajj rituals in Hajjut-ul- Wida, Last Hajj with Prophet. To the Muslims, Ghadir-e- Khum is a famous place where the Holy Prophet Mohammed (p.b.u.h.) completed his final message to mankind with regard to his succession. "0 you esteemed Messenger, impart the guidance that has been revealed unto you from your God; if you do not, you has not imparted His message at all; God will protect you from the evil designs of men.

” (Quran 5:67) The Carvan returning from the Hajjatul-Wida (the last Pilgrimage) of the Prophet Mohammed, (Peace be upon him and his Progeny), was unexpectedly halted. The archangel Jibrael (Gibraiel) had come with the message from Allah. "0 Apostle, Deliver what has been revealed to you from your God, and if you do not, then you have not delivered His message; and Allah will protect you from the people".

In the ninth year of Hijrat, the Holy Prophet undertook the Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca for teaching its religious customs. He undertook this journey during the Hajj season (Month of Hajjah). At a mountain slope, known as Jabal-ur Rahma, in the Arafat desert, he recited an important sermon overflowing with the recognition of Tauheed (Oneness of God) .He gathered all the caravans at a place called Ghadir-e-Khum. He stood at the top of the panels made from placing saddles one above the other. While effectively speaking about the different bounties and praising Allah, testifying to the truthfulness of Qiyamat (last day and judgment) and the life after death, he advised people about the Holy Quran and Ali (A.S.) again, officially and for all the public to see and hear, he introduced his rightful successor and said:

"Whomsoever I have been the Master, Ali is his Master too".

And he cleared and threw light on the responsibility and duty of his friends in the course of history by saying thus:

"O Allah! Befriend him who befriends Ali, and be enemy to him, who is enemy to Ali; and help him who helps Ali; and desert him who deserts Ali." The Place where the Muslims had stepped was Ghadir-eKhum. The Prophet delivered a Sermon and appointed Imam Ali (peace be upon him), as his successor. His words were: "0 Muslims! Who is more worthy [in the eyes of] the believers than their own selves"? The audience replied: "Allah and His Messenger know better". Hearing this, the Prophet declared: "I am the Master (Mawla) of the faithfuls, and I have rights over them even more than what they have over themselves.

Therefore, whoever I am his Mawla, (this) Ali is his Mawla (Master/ Chief)".

The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) had already introduced his Ahl-ulBait on several Occasions as "the ship of Noah", "the strong rope of God", "the door of forgiveness", "and the purified ones" and made "their love incumbent upon his followers". He had similarly, on many occasions, pointed out Ali as "My brother and Successor", "the door of the city of my knowledge", "the most equitable judge", "the embodiment of faith", and having the position with regard to him as "Aron was to Moses".

A renowned historian Ibn Khawand Shah (died 1903) on page 173 of the first volume of his book 'Rawzatus Safa' wrote "When the meeting, held under the serene and blissful atmosphere of the revelation, ended, the Holy Prophet made Imam Ali to sit in a special pitched tent, and ordered the Muslims to proceed, group by group, to congratulate him on his succession. When the men had finished their greetings, the Apostle of Allah ordered the wives to go and offer their congratulations".

According to the narration of Zaid Ibn Arqam, a well-known companion of the Prophet, immediately on receiving the orders of the Prophet the entire crowd with one voice said, "By all means we shall most willingly obey the mandate of God Almighty and His Apostle" and moved towards Imam Ali bin Abi Talib. Omar bin Khattab was the first to Congratulate Hazrat Ali in the following words. “Bakhin bakhin laka yaibn Abi Taleb asbahta MaulaayeeWa Maula Kullau Momineen wa mominaatin.”

"Greetings to you, O son of Abu Taleb! You have dawned as my master and the master of all faithful men and women".

He was followed by Abu Bakr, Osman, Talha and Zubair who were among the first to clasp, the hands of Ali and Swear allegiance. They were followed by the Muhajirs (volunteers), and Ansars (helpers), and then the rest of congregation who swore allegiance to Ali; and congratulated him on his designation as commander of the faithful people. This grand Celebration continued for full three days. (Kitabul Wilayah, by Mohammed bin Jarir Tabari [died 310 A.H.].)

Zaid Ibn Arqam also narrates that after the Prophet's discourse, people advanced, group by group towards the tent especially erected for this ceremony, and amidst the applause of greetings and congratulations they began to swear allegiance to Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.).

This event has established its correctness among various religious and social groups, and almost every school of thoughts has acknowledged its authenticity.

Ghadir points as a living truth, which emerged from the horizon of history, shedding its light, likes the sun, the moon, and the stars in every age and clime.

The investigations of thirty most prominent commentators of Quran and Hadith have confirmed this event.

Talat Abedi (India)

2- Ghadir in Quran

Ten years after the migration, the Messenger of Allah ordered to his close followers to call all the people in different places to join him in his last pilgrimage. On this pilgrimage he taught them how to perform the Hajj ceremony in a correct form.

This was the first time that the Muslims, with this magnitude, gathered in one place in the presence of their leader, the Messenger of Allah. On his way to Mecca, more than seventy thousand people followed Prophet (p.b.u.h). Hazrat Ali (p.b.u.h.) who was in Yemen was asked to complete his work and join the prophet in Mecca.

The prophet reached Mecca on Sunday, the 4th of zilhajj 10 A.H with more than one hundred thousands of Muslims. Soon after his arrival, Ali, who hastened back from Yemen, ahead of his men, joined the prophet.

Revelation of Verse 5:67

On the 18th of Zil-Hajjah, after completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul- Wida), Prophet was leaving Mecca toward Medina, where he and the crowd of people reached to a place called Ghadir Khum (which is close to today's Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces should say Good bye to each other and take different routes for their home. In this place, the following verse was revealed:

"O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you/rom your God; and if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you/rom the people on " (Quran 5:67).

Some of Sunni references confirm that the revelation of the above verse of Quran was right before the speech of Prophet in Ghadir Khum:

(1) Tafsir Kabir, by Fakhr -e-Razi, under commentary of verse 5:67, vol: 12, pp 49-50, narrated on the authorities of Ibn Abbas, al-Bara Ibn Azib, and Mohammad Ibn Ali.

(2) Asbab al-Nuzool, by Wahidi, p50, narrated on the authorities of Atiyyah and Abu Sa'id Khudri.

(3) Nuzul al-Quran, by Hafiz Abu Nu'aym narrated on the authorities Abu Sa'id Khudri and Abu Rafi)

The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message, but, Allah informs him to not worry, since He will protect His Messenger from people.

The Speech

Upon receiving the verse, the Prophet stopped on that place (the pond of Khum) which was extremely hot. Then he asked all people who have been ahead in the way, to come back. He also waited until all pilgrims who were behind, arrived and gathered. He ordered Salman (RA) to use rocks and camel toolings to make a pulpit (minbar), so that he could make his announcement. It was around noon time, and due to the extreme heat in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their feet and legs, and were sitting around the pulpit, on the hot rocks.

On this day the Messenger of Allah spent approximately five hours in this place; three hours of which he was on the pulpit. He recited nearly one hundred verses from The Glorious Quran, and for seventy three times reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he gave them a long speech which has been widely narrated by the Sunni traditions.

In part of the speech the Messenger of Allah referred to a verse of the holy Quran, and said: "Do not I have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?" People cried and answered: "Yes, 0' Messenger of God." Then Prophet held up the hand of Ali and said: "Whoever I am his leader (Mawla), Ali is his leader (Mawla). 0' God, love those who love him, and be enemy to those who are enemy to him."

Some of the Sunni references:

(1) Sahih Tirmidhi, vol: 2, p.298, vol: 5, p.63

(2) Sunan Ibn Maja, vol: 1, pp 12, 43

(3) Khasa'is, by Nisa'i, pp 4, 21

Revelation of Verse 5:3

Soon after the Prophet finished his speech, the following verse of Holy was revealed:

"Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my bounty upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion." (Quran 5:3) Some of Sunni references which mentioned the revelation of the above verse of Quran in Ghadir Khum after the speech of the Prophet are:

(1) AI-Durr al-Manthur, by Hafiz Jalaluddin Suyuti, vol: 3,p19 .

(2) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, vol: 8, pp 290,596

(3) Manaqeb, by Ibn Maghazali, p 19

The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of Prophet's immediate successor.

Allegiance of People with Imam Ali (a.s) in Ghadir Celebration

After announcing the leadership of Ali (a.s), Prophet descended from the platform, wiped the sweat from his forehead, took a deep breath, stood still for a moment, and commanded the Muslims to , "Make allegiance to my brother and successor; congratulate him on his Divine appointment. He is Imam and Amir-ulMumineen"

Omar Ibn Khatab was the first to congratulate Ali (p.b.u.h.) and to acknowledge him as Master of all Believers'.

Saying: "Bakhin bakhin laka ibne Abi Talib Asbahta MawlayeeWa Mawla Kulla Momineen wa Mominaatin"

"Greetings be to you 0 son of Abu' Talib! You have dawned as my Leader and the Leader of all faithful men and women. "

After the men, all the women came to congratulate Ali. At the conclusion of this appointment ceremony, the Holy Prophet asked the congregation, 'Have I not truly and faithfully delivered to you the Message?"

And they answered, "Yes, verilyYes ." Then the Prophet said, "Go now, and those who have been present here today should repeat, and convey to those who are absent all that they have seen and heard."

The Number of People in Ghadir Khum

It was Allah's will that a huge population associated with this tradition via the tongues of narrators and over the times, so that there is a standing proof for the guiding Imam. Allah ordered His Prophet to notify people at a time of crowded populous, so that all become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded one hundred thousand people.

Narrated by Zaid Ibn Arqam, Abu al- Tufail said: "1 heard it from the Messenger of Allah, and there was no one (there) unless he saw the prophet with his eyes and heard him with his ears."

Sunni reference:

(I) al-Khasa'is, by Nisa'i, p21;

It is also narrated that:

“The Messenger of Allah called at the loudest of his voice.” Sunni reference: Manaqib al-Kharizmi, by al-Kharizmi, p94. "There were with the Messenger, the companions, Arabs, residents around Mecca and Medina one hundred and twenty thousand (120,000) and they are those who were present in the Farewell Pilgrimage and heard this speech." Sunni reference: Manaqib, by Ibn al-Jawzi Revelation of Verse 70:1-3

Some Sunni commentators further claim that the first three verse of the chapter of Ma'arij (70:1-3) was revealed when a dispute arose after Prophet Speech. It is recorded that on the day of Ghadir the Messenger of Allah summoned the people toward Ali and said: "Ali is the MA WLA of whom I am MAWLA." The news spread quickly all over urban and rural areas.

When Harith Ibn Nu'man alFahri (or Nadhr Ibn Harith according to another tradition) came to know of it, he came to the Messenger of Allah and said to him: "You commanded us to testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the prayers five times a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe fasts during the month of Ramadhan and we obeyed. Then you commanded us to offer pilgrimage to Mecca and we obeyed. But you are not satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin, by your hand, and appointed him upon us as our master by saying" Ali is the MA WLA of whom I am MA WLA.' Is this imposition from Allah or fromYou ?" The Prophet said: "By Allah who is the only deity! This is from Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious. "

Upon hearing this, Harith turned back and proceeded towards his camel saying: "O Allah! If what Muhammad said is correct then fling on me a stone from the sky, and subject me to severe pain and torture." He had not reached his camel when Allah, who is above all defects, flung at him a stone which struck him on his head, penetrated his body and passed out through his lower body and left him dead. It was on this occasion that Allah, the exalted, caused to descend the following verses:

"A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the God of the Ascent." (Quran 70:1-3) Sunni references:

(1) Tafsir Tha'labi, by Is'haq Tha'labi, commentary of verse 70:1-3 from two chains of narrators.

(2) Noor al-Absar, by Shablanji, P. 4

(3) AI-Fosoul al-Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, P. 25 Hina Lakhani (D .A.E.)

3- The Sermon of Ghadir

Ghadir is an Arabic word meaning pond or stream of water. There is a place called Khum between Mecca and Madina and there was a water pond at that place, which was called Ghadir of Khum or Ghadir-e-Khum. At this place the Holy Prophet delivered a very famous sermon known as Khutba-e-Ghadir (Sermon of Ghadir). This sermon originated because of the following verse of the Holy Qur'an:

"0 (our) Prophet (Mohammad) deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord, and if you do it not, then (it will be as if) you have not delivered His Message (at all); and surely Allah will protect you from (the mischief of) men; surely Allah does not guide the unbelieving people. " (Quran 5:67)

Eminent commentators of the Holy Qur'an hold that this verse was revealed on the 18th of Zil- Hijja 10 A.H. when the Holy Prophet was about to reach the place Khum on his way back from Mecca, after having performed his Hajj-a-Wida (last Pilgrimage). All the Sunni traditionists agree that this verse relates to the declaration by the holy Prophet about Ameerul Mo'mineen Imam 'Ali (a.s.), to be the Successor, Viceregent and Caliph after him. It is noteworthy that the verse refers to some very important message which Allah commands the Holy. Prophet to convey to the people and that message is so important that if not conveyed it would mean that the function of Prophethood was not carried out.

The words (what has been sent down to you) give a clear indication that a particular message had already been communicated to the holy Prophet, and it was to be conveyed to the people at large.

The action taken by the holy Prophet in compliance to this command shows that this particular message referred to in this verse related to the introduction of Imam Ali (a.s .) as the Successor, Guide and Caliph of the Muslims after the holy Prophet. Upon revelation, the holy Prophet got down immediately from his camel and ordered the area to be cleared for people to assemble, and a pulpit to be prepared.

Under his order Bilal, the Muazzin (prayer-caller), called out to the people in the words, "Hayya ala khairil'amal", meaning "0' people, collect together for the virtuous act”. Those who had gone ahead were required to come back while those who were lagging behind were asked to quicken their pace and reach the halting place as the holy Prophet was to address them. When all the people had gathered, the holy Prophet ascended the pulpit prepared for him for the occasion and delivered a long lecture during the course of which he said:

"All praise is due to Allah who is the Creator and Lord of the entire Universe. It is duty of everyone to offer Him thanks in comfort, as well as, distress, in ease as well as hardship. I acknowledge being His servant and creature and declaring that He is my Master and Lord. I convey to the people all that He reveals to me for their guidance. I do fear that if I do not do so and fail to carry out His behest, I shall have to face chastisement which no one shall be able to avert from me by any device whatsoever."

"O' people, what has been revealed to me by Allah just now is so important that if I do not convey it to you it would mean as if I have not carried out His Mission at all. While Allah has guaranteed to me that he would protect me against the evil of the people. Allah has commanded that whatever has been revealed to me in respect of Ali should be conveyed to you. Therefore, 0' people bear in mind that Imam Ali is hereby appointed Imam over you, so that obedience to him is obligatory on the Migrants (the Muhajireen) and the Helpers (the Ansars), the countrymen and the citizens, the Arabs and the non- Arabs, the freemen and the slaves, the young and the old, the whites and the blacks. In short his authority is to be effective on everyone who believes in the Unity and Oneness of Allah."

"0' people, this is the last occasion and the last place that I proclaim Ali as my successor. Listen and obey the Command of Allah. Allah is your Creator, - your Sustainer, and your Guardian. After Allah, His Prophet Mohammad is your Guardian and he is standing before you and addressing you.

After me, by Allah's behest this Ali is your Guardian and your Imam.

Therefore, till the Day of Judgment, when you will be made to present yourselves before Allah and His Prophet, this Guardianship and Imamate would remain in my progeny born through Imam Ali (a.s.).

O' people, there is no issue of knowledge which Allah did not entrust to me and which was not entrusted by me to Imam Ali. I have given him all the knowledge. He is the Imam-e-Mubeen, the Manifest Guide."

"O' people do not abandon him for following others, and do not dislike making him your ruler for he alone would strengthen Truth and act on Truth. No reproach of any person can keep him away from Truth.

O' people, ponder over the Holy Qur'an. Understand its verses. Go deep into its meanings and comments. By Allah no one would teach you the implications of its verses with clarity except the person whose hand I am holding, whom I am drawing close to me, and whose arm is in my arm. No one will be able to divulge to you its commentary save this Ali. VERILY FOR WHOMSOEVER I AM THE MASTER, THIS ALl IS HIS MASTER. This Ali Ibn Abi Talib is my brother, my successor, and bear in mind that his appointment, as my successor, is by Allah, and Allah has revealed this fact to me."

"O' people, this Ali and the other infallibles in my progeny, constitute the Siqlul-Asghar (the junior valuable thing); while the Holy Qur'an is the Siqlul- Akbar (the senior valuable). And these two would not get separated from each other, till they join me near the Cistern of Kausar (Hawz Kausar) on the Day of Judgment.

Beware that I have discharged my duty; beware that I have conveyed what I was charged by Allah to convey. Take note that I have clarified everything, and note that whatever Allah revealed to me has been faithfully conveyed to you. Take note that no one, except my brother Ali will be the Ameerul Mo'mineen (the Commander of the Faithful people). After me it is not lawful for anyone, except Imam Ali to wield authority over the Faithful people."

"0' people I have clearly explained all the matters to you. Now, after me, this Ali will explain to you these matters. After finishing my speech, I would call you to pay allegiance (Bay'at) to him, and to acknowledge him. Beware that I have paid allegiance (Bay'at) to Allah, while Ali has paid allegiance to me. Now I am taking your allegiance for Imam Ali, by the Command of Allah. Now you should also proclaim that in this matter you accept the Command of Allah, and would obey Him, obey me, and obey Ali, Hasan, !mam Husain, and the other Imams in Husain's generation as mentioned by me."

"O' people, now say what I have told you to say, and from now on you should offer salutation to Imam Ali by the title of "Ameerul Mo'mineen". Now confirm that you have heard and accepted what I have told you, and also say: All praise is to Allah who gave us guidance; since if He had not guided us, we would have remained ignorants".

The whole people then cried loudly and confirmed, "Yes, O' Prophet of Allah, we carefully heard you, and we are prepared to obey every Command of Allah, and every Command of the Prophet of Allah with heart, tongue and body." The people then thronged to the Holy Prophet and Imam -Ali (a.s .) from all sides. The first who held out their pledge to the Holy Prophet in the matter were Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. They were followed by other Migrants (Muhajireen), the helpers (Ansar), and the rest of the people, so that the evening and night prayers were offered together, because of the function having extended till it was fairly dark.

Umar is reported to have greeted Imam Ali on this occasion, in the following words: "Greeting to you Ali son of Abu Talib; you have become my Master and the master of every believer, man and woman".

The tradition of the Holy Prophet whereby he declared that "to whomsoever he is the Master, Imam Ali is his Master too", is called the Hadees-e-Wilayat or the tradition of succession. It has been narrated by an authentic chain of narrators, and there can be no doubt in its authenticity, and genuineness. The Tradition has been mentioned by all eminent Islamic writers from the 2nd century of Hijrat up to now.

These writers, including commentators of the Holy Qur'an, historians, traditionalists, theologians, litterateurs and others have written regular books on this single tradition, in order to answer such questions as the names and life particulars of each of its narrators, their authenticity and truthfulness in the matter of narration of traditions, their status among the scholars of Islam and so on.

Even the scholars and writers of the Indian subcontinent have not lagged behind in this matter. It may be useful to quote from Moulana Shiblee No'mani's great book "Seeratun Nabi", as he was a widely acknowledged historian and scholar of Islam, in the Indo-Pak subcontinent 'in the late generation. Moulana Shiblee writes:

"The Holy Prophet then set off on his return journey towards Madina along with Muhajireen and Ansar. On the way he came to a place called Khum, three miles from Juhfa. Here there is a pond. The Arabic word for a pond is Ghadir. For that reason usually it is mentioned as Ghadir-e-Khum in narrations. The Prophet collected all his companions there, and delivered a short sermon: After praising Allah he said, "O' people, I am also a human being. Maybe the angel of Allah (that is, death) comes soon and I may have to respond to him. I am leaving among you two precious things, namely; first the Book of Allah, which is full of Divine Guidance and Light. You should hold fast to the Book of Allah. And second, "the People of my House (Ahlul Bait)"; I recall Allah as witness to you, about my Ahlul Bait."

The Holy Prophet repeated the last sentence thrice. This is as recorded in the important Sunni reference books such as Saheeh Muslim. However, Nisaee, Ahmad bin Hambal, Tirmizee, Tibrani and Tabari have related some further sentences relating to the merits of Imam Ali (a.s.). The most common sentence is the following, "Whomsoever I am his Master, Ali is his Master too; may Allah keep friendship with everyone who keeps friendship with Ali, and bear enmity with everyone who bears enmity with Ali." Seeratun Nabi, p.165-6

In short, when this great sermon of the Holy Prophet was over, and the sacred function of declaring Imam Ali (a.s.) as the Master of all the Faithful had finished, then according to the narration of several eminent historians and authentic scholars of Islam, the well-known poet named Hassan bin Sabit sought permission to recite an encomium in praise of Imam Ali (a.s.).

In that poem Hassan bin Sabit mentioned all salient points of the Tradition ofWilayat (Vicegerency).

After the Holy Prophet finished this affair, the following verse was revealed, and it is the last verse of the Holy Qur'an in the order of revelation: "This day have I perfected for you your religion, and have completed my favour on you, and chosen for you Islam (to be) the religion. " (Quran 5:4) The fact that this verse was revealed on the 18th of Zilhijja at Ghadir-e- Khum after he had made the declaration relating to Imam Ali (a.s.) being his Successor, Imam and Master of the Faithful people is also recorded by famous historians, commentators and traditionalists.

For example, Ibne Wazih has written that it is well established through authentic traditions that soon after the Holy Prophet declared Imam Ali to be the Master of whom so ever the Holy Prophet himself was the Master, and had finished his sermon, this verse was revealed as the last verse of the Holy Qur'an. It is known as the verse of "Perfection of Religion and Completion of Divine Favour", that is, "Ayat-e-Takmeele-deen wa Itmam-eNe'mat."

Rukhsana Mushtaq (Pakistan)

4- The meaning of word "MOWLA"(Leader/ Chief) in Ghadir Day

Al-Ghadir is related to a tradition of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.).This tradition is narrated by many narrators, and is classified as Mutawatir (widely narrated). Hakim Nishaburi has mentioned a tradition, from his chain of narrators, from Zaid bin Arqam.

"When the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) was returning from the farewell Hajj, he reached Ghadir-e-Khum (the pond of Ghadir)". "He camped at Ghadir and ordered a pulpit to be built with camel saddles and said: "I have been summoned, and it is the moment for me to answer.

The time has come for me, to depart from you. I leave amongst you, two precious things. If you cleave to them, you will never go astray.The Holy Book of God, and my Offspring, the Ahl ul-Bayt. Since they will never abandon you, until they lead you to me, at the sacred shores of Heaven!" " I have been summoned, and 1 shall answer the call. I leave among you two heavy things. One of them is greater than the other, the Book of Allah and my progeny.

Then be careful how you deal with them. And do not forsake them till you reach the Pond of Kauser." Then he said, "Indeed Allah, the Almighty is my Master and I am the master of all the believers." Then he took the hand if Ali and said, "Of whom so ever I am the master, this Ali is his master too. 0 Allah befriend to one whobe friends Ali and be enemy to anyone who harbours enmity against him."

"Then whosoever, I am master of, then this man, Ali is his master." "O God! Befriend him, whosoever befriends him. Oppose him, whosoever opposes him. Support him, whosoever supports him. Desert him, whosoever deserts him."

"As God is my Judge! Bear witness for me, that today I surely completed and fulfilled your religion for you, and have successfully conveyed the Message that has been bestowed upon me by Allah. (AI Ghadir, Allamah Amini Vol.l, P. 9-11)

Al Hakim Neshaburi says that this tradition is correct according to the standards of evaluation of Bukhari1 and Muslim2, but they have not recorded it. Although Zahabi has mentioned it in his "Talkhis Al Mustadrak", it has also been mentioned by other reputed Sunni scholars in their books of traditions. Among them are; Qandoozi in "Yanabiul Mawaddah", AI-Maqrizi, Ahmed 1,2 They are two very reputable narrators of the Prophet traditrions, and their collections of traditions called as "Saheehs", are famous references for Islamic traditions.

ibn Khulafa, Mohib Tabari in Riyaz -01- Nazarah, Ibn Khallakan in "Wafayatul Ayaan", Khatib Baghdadi in Tarikh-eBaghdad, Ibne Qutaybah in "Imamat Wal Siyasah", Ibn Tayimiyyah in his books "Huqooqe Ahlal Bayt", and "Aqeedatul Wasatiya", AI-Masoodi in "Muruj az-Zahab", Balazari in "Ansabul Ashraaf', Ibn Kathir in "Tafsirul Quran Azeem", Ibn Hajar Haithami in "Sawaequl Muhreqa" etc. There are many other scholars and writers who have quoted the tradition of Ghadir in their writings too.

Another notable fact mentioned in authentic historical books is that after the declaration of wilayat of Ali (p.b.u.h.) all those who were present with the holy Prophet proceeded to congratulate Ali. Especially Umar greeted in the following words: "Congratulations to you, 0' Abul Hasan, you have become my Master, and the Master of all believing men and women."

The tradition - "of whomsoever I am the Master, Ali is his Master", is so authentic and has been related by so many scholars in Islam that it has not been possible to deny it. So people who do not feel happy with recognizing the merits of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.), or to acknowledge his position as Successor of the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) have tried to undermine his position by giving lighter interpretation to the word "Mowla" used by the holy Prophet. Some of them say that Mowla means friend, others say it means helper etc. The real significance of the word Mowla is, however, quite clear from the declaration of the Holy Prophet that "of whomsoever he was the Mowla, Ali is his Mowla".

Evidently, the Holy Prophet can not be called a mere friend or helper of the Muslims. He was their Guide, their Master, and the Head of their state. To say that he was a mere friend or helper is derogatory. Since the Holy Prophet declared Imam Ali to be Mowla as he himself was, it follows that Imam Ali would be Mowla in the same sense in which the Holy Prophet is to be regarded Mowla. Therefore this historic declaration puts a final seal on appointment of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.) as his own Successor, Viceregent and Caliph.

It may be pertinently recalled that, first of all, it was at the close of the "party of Kinsmen" known as "Dawate Zul- Asheera" in Islamic history, that, when the Holy Prophet had invited his chief kinsmen to a feast and disclosed that he was the Prophet of Allah (Rasulullah), and was commanded to invite them to the Divine Message. Then the holy Prophet announced, "This Ali is my brother, my Inheritor, my Successor, and my Deputy over you. You should listen to him and obey him".

Thereafter the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) continued announcing to the people, the high merits and achievements of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.), and reminding them that Ali was to be regarded as the best, and the most distinguished among the muslim community, after the Holy Prophet, and to be accepted as his Successor over them, after him.

The tradition of Ghadir namely: "Of whomsoever I am the Master Ali (a.s.) is his Master" serve as the last link in the whole chain of the announcements of the virtues and qualifications of Ali (p.b.u.h.).

No such declaration was made about any other person. This day namely the 18th of Zil-Hijja is accordingly celebrated as a day of rejoicing among the lovers and adherents of Imam Ali, and is known as Eid-e-Ghadir.

Rukhsana Mushtaq (Pakistan)