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AL-Hadith

AL-Hadith

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

AL-Hadith

Author: Muhammad Al-Jalali

www.alhassanain.org/english

Table of Contents

The Hadith 3

THE FORGED (FABRICATED) HADITHS 3

Collection Of The Hadith By TheE Sunni 5

1. Collection during the 1st Century H.: 5

2. Collection during the 2nd Century H.: 5

Al-Bukhari, of Sahih Al-Bukhari, 194-256H 5

Muslim, of Sahih Muslim, 204-261H 5

Al-Nisaa'i of Sahih Al-Nisaa'i, 215-303H 6

Collection Of The Hadith By The Shi'a 7

THE CORPUS OF ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE 7

All About Ahlul Bayt 8

JA'FARI (SHI'A) SOURCE OF HADITH 8

Highlights Of Collection Of Hadith, Shi'a 9

The Golden Chain Of Narration 11

Manners Of Collection Of Hadith 11

TheHadith

TheHadith is the record of the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh ). The sayings and conduct of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh ) constitute theSunnah .

TheHadith has come to supplement the Holy Quran as a source of the Islamic religious law. TheHadith is the second pillar after the Quran upon which every Muslim rests his faith.Hadith consists ofMat'n andIsnad .Mat'n means the text of theHadith , whileIsnad means the chain of transmitters to thatHadith .

The scholars of theHadith literature divided the Traditions into categories according to the degree of authenticity andreliability, each category had to meet certain criteria.

The categories are as follows:

1.Sahih : The genuine Traditions, the authentic ones.

2.Moothaq : Almost like theSahih but thenarra tion is not as strong as those of theSahih .

3.Hasan : The fair Traditions although inferior in matter of authenticity.

4.Dha'eef : The weak Traditions which are not so reliable.

InShari'ah (Islamic Constitution) deeds and actions are divided into five classes:

1.Fardh orWajib : An obligatory duty the omission of which isIslamically punishable.

2.Mus'tahab : An action which is rewarded, but whose omission is not punishable.

3.Mu'baah : An action which is permitted but legally is indifferent.

4.Mak'rooh : An action which is disapproved by theShari'ah but is not under any penalty.

5.Haram : An action which is forbidden, andIslamically punishable1.

THE FORGED (FABRICATED) HADITHS

1. History of Fabrication:

a . DuringBenu Umayya's Rule.

b . DuringBenu Abbas ' Rule, in particular with the advent of the schools of thought in Islam.

2.By the year 200 H.: Total of 600,000Hadiths were in existence, out of which 408,324Hadith were fabricatedHadiths by 620 forgerers2.

3. Most NotoriousForgerers :Ibn Jundub , AbuBukhtari ,Ibn Basheer , Abdullah Al-Ansaari , Al-Sindi .Ibn Au'jaa professed before he was hanged that he alone had forged 4,000 Hadiths3.

4. Reason to Fabricate:

a. Financial incentive by theKhalifas , for exampleMu'awiya awardedIbn Jundub and others hundreds of thousands of dinars for coming forth withHadiths that suited him4.

b . As a means of self-promotion in the government.

c . In a drive to enhance a particular school of thought.

d. Fanaticism for a school of thought at the expense of others5.

5. Al-Qassassoon (The story-tellers): Their operation and major role in the public.

1 Introduction to theHadith , A.Rahman Doe, Page 34.

2 Al-Ghadeer , Al-Amini , Vol. 5, Page 245.

3Mish'kaat Al-Masabeeh , Translation byFazlul Karim , Vol. 1, Pages 17-20.

4 Al-Saadiq and the FourMadh'habs ,Asad Haidar , Vol. 1, Page 218.

5 Al-Saadiq and the FourMadh'habs ,Asad Haidar , Vol. 1, Pages 264-268.

CollectionOf TheHadith ByTheE Sunni

1. Collection during the 1st Century H.:

1. The administration discouraged putting theHadith in writing, instead, they encouraged committing theHadith to memory. The general public went along but soon it was discovered that confusion about the authenticity of theHadith was taking place. For one thing many of theSahaaba had died, and for another that committing to memory was not reliable at large, especially if you want theHadith verbatim as the Prophet (pbuh ) had said it at the circumstance it was said.

2. Al-Zuhri , Al-Hazm (both commissioned byKhalifa OmarIbn Abdul Aziz) but the work was probably not done, due to early death of theKhalifa in 101 H.

2. Collection during the 2nd Century H.:

1.Ibn Jarih , Al-Thawri ,Ibn Basheer ,Malik Ibn Anas in his Mu'watta1.

2. The necessity ofIlm Al-Rijaal , (Science of Cognizance of Transmitters): Their Background, Intelligence, Authenticity, Reliability, Capacity to Memorize, Manner of living, Reputation, Criticism, etc.

3. Compiling books about forgedHadiths : To warn the Scholars as well as the public.

3. Collection during the 3rd Century H.:

TheHadith was collected and categorized in the latter part of the third century ofHijrah resulting in six canonical collections (Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah ):

1.Sahih of Al-Bukhari , d.256 A.H: 7275 (2712 Non-duplicated) out of 600,000.

2.Sahih of Muslim, d.261 A.H: 9200 (4,000 Non-duplicated) out of 300,000.

3.Sunan of AbuDawood , d.276 A.H. 4,800 of 500,000.

4.Sunan ofIbn Maajeh : d.273 A.H.

5. Jami' ofTirmidhi , d.279 A.H.

6.Sunan of al-Nisaa'i , d.303 A.H2.

The number of theShi'a transmitters ofHadith quoted in the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah is over 3003.

Al-Bukhari , ofSahih Al-Bukhari , 194-256H

Collected theHadith over a period of many years, having established certain strict criteria. Political times were very troublesome especially againstAhlul Bayt (during Al-Mutawak'kil's rulership ), thereforeBukhari was circumspect, having mentioned less aboutAhlul Bayt's narrations than others of the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah . Of the 2210Hadiths claimed to have been narrated fromA'isha ,Bukhari and Muslim accepted only 174 as genuine according to their criteria4.

Muslim, ofSahih Muslim, 204-261H

It is said he was student of Al-Bukhari and 8 years younger. He differed fromBukhari in his methodology and criteria. He collected theHadith over a number of years, having established his own criteria. Political times were less troublesome againstAhlul Bayt , (after Al-Mutawak'kil was killed by his own son), therefore Muslim narrated a large number ofHadiths aboutAhlul Bayt .

Al-Nisaa'i ofSahih Al-Nisaa'i , 215-303H

GoodHadith collection, more credible. He wrote Al-Kha'sa'is book, about the eminence of Ali andAhlul Bayt and theHadiths about them. Al-Nisaa'i was 88 years old when in Damascus, answered aboutMu'awiya by saying, "All I know is that the Prophet (pbuh ) said about him, `May he be the glutton whose devouring food ever become worse'." This infuriatedMu'awiya's sympathizers, they attacked him, trampled upon him, crushed his testicles, after which the infirmNisaa'i was taken to Mecca where he died. He was buried betweenSafa and Marwa5.

1 Introduction toHadith , A.Rahman Doe, Vol. 1, Pages 34-35.

2Introduction toHadith , A.Rahman Doe, Vol. 1, Pages 38-40.

3 Al-Saadiq and the FourMadh'habs ,Asad Haidar , Vol. 1, Page 619.

4Mish'kaat Al-Masabeeh , Translation byFazlul Karim , Vol. 1, Page 63.

5 Al-Shatharaat , Vol. 2, Page 240.Also Al-Saadiq and FourMadh'Habs ,Asad Haidar , Vol. 1, Page 560.

CollectionOf TheHadith By TheShi'a

It was during theKhilaafah of AbuBakr and earlyKhilaafah of Omar that Imam Ali (a.s .) set to the task of registering theHadiths . Imam Ali was incomparably strict about Islam, and could foresee the need to register theHadith to be the source for future generations. Ali was fanatic about the accuracy of his writing, and in an agonizingly methodical manner he accomplished the following:

1. During AbuBakr's Khilaafah : Ali rendered in writing the following:

1. Holy Quran: Chronological order of the Quran's revelations.

2.Tafseer of the Holy Quran, 3 volumes: calledMus'haf Fatima.

2. During Omar'sKhilaafah : Ali rendered the following:

1.Hadith of the Prophet (pbuh ): Voluminous writing, calledSaheefa of Ali.

2.Fiqh : Al-Ah'kaam andMu'aamalat , theHalal andHaram .

3. DuringUthman's Khilaafah : Ali rendered the following:

1. History of the various Prophets as he learned from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh ), called: The White Al-Jafr .

2. Islamic rules and directives of Wars, called The Red Al-Jafr .

The books Ali rendered were called Al-Jaami'a (the Encyclopedia) and they were left with the Imams ofAhlul Bayt , each new Imam receiving them from the dying predecessor Imam. The Imams referred to theseHadiths and books over a period of about three centuries. Notable among them is ImamJa'far Al-Saadiq , who was the teacher of Imam AbuHanifah and Al-Maliki , and as many as 4000 scholars who graduated from his school. As many as 400 religious books were written by his students, referred to as the 400Usool .

Because of the source and chain of narration of theHadith , theShi'a (Ja'fari ) rely only on theHadiths as narrated byAhlul Bayt or thoseHadiths in the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah (Bukhari , Muslim and others) that are similar to whatAhlul Bayt had quoted.

THE CORPUS OF ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE

* The Holy Quran in chronological order.

* TheTafseer of the Holy Quran consisting of three large volumes, calledMus'haf Fatima.

* The books ofHadith as Imam Ali had recorded them, calledSaheefa of Ali.

* The books about Al-Ah'kaam , detailing the rule and regulations of theShari'ah .

* The books ofJafr :

o The WhiteJafr about knowledge of the Prophets, life happenings, and other special (mystic) matters.

o The RedJafr comprised of rules and matters about and involving wars.

AllAbout Ahlul Bayt

Describing the high standing ofAhlul Bayt Ali said in one of his sermons:

Allah Almighty has placed His trust inAali Muhammad (Ahlul Bayt ). They are the citadel where His Commandments receive protection, and from which the Directives are defined and interpreted.Aali Muhammadare :

* The fountainheads of knowledge created by Allah,

* The shelters for Allah's teachings,

* The haven for the Heavenly Books, and

* The mighty bastion to defend Allah's religion.

Islam in its beginning was weak and helpless, butAali Muhammad (pbuh ) came to its service, support, and defense. Islam was jittery of the infidels around it, butAali Muhammad (pbuh ) made it strong and powerful.

About 30 years later, Ali's grandson, Al-Sajjad invoked aDu'aa on behalf ofAhlul Bayt :

"Oh Lord! Bless ThyAhlul Bayt , whom Thou chose to executeThine works, and have made them the reservoir for Thy knowledge, the guardians for Thy religion, deputies ofThine on earth, and the path toward Thy Paradise."

JA'FARI (SHI'A) SOURCE OF HADITH

The original books ofHadith as written by Imam Ali are not available, but the sources ofHadith ofAhlul Bayt were best registered by:

1. Al-Kulaini (d.329 A.H.= 940 A.D.) in the book of Al-Kaafi which registers 16,199Hadiths .

1. Life: Great scholar, taught in Baghdad, wrote many books.

2.Hadith Works: Al-Kaafi took 20 years to write, 34 sections with 326 chapters. Registered 16,199Hadith or sayings throughAhlul Bayt , 2577Sahih , 1118Moothaq , 302Qawiy , 144Hasan , and 9380 Weak.

2. Al-Siddooq in the book of Man LaYah'dharhu al-Faqeeh .

1. Life: Scholar of exceptional caliber, from Qum. Wrote numerous books and resided in Baghdad, teaching for a while.

2.Hadith Works:Mun Laa Yah'dharhu Al-Faqeeh , 5,973Hadiths in 446 sections.

3.Toosi in the book of Al-Tah'dheeb , and the book ofIstibsaar .

1. Life: Leader and scholar of great repute; taught in Baghdad bothShi'a and Sunni. During disturbance betweenShi'a and Sunni which the government enticed, Al-Toosi's library was burned, his house attacked, and he left Baghdad to Najaf establishing theHowza Ilmiyyah .

2.Hadith Works:

1.Tah'dheeb Al-Ah'kaam , 12,590Hadiths , in 390 sections.

2. Al-Istibsaar 5,521Hadiths .

HighlightsOf Collection OfHadith ,Shi'a

BookHadith in the 1st Century Collected by Comment

ImamAliSaheefa of Ali Referenced byShi'i and Sunni scholars

Zainul Abideen Risalat Al-Huqooq

Al-Saheefa Al-Sajjaadia

Written by the Imam or Dictated to his Companions

Servant of the Prophet, close to Ali, d 30H

Abi Rafi '

Sunan andAh'kaam

Companion of the Prophet, d 78H

Jabir Al-Ansaari

Mansak

Hadith in the 2nd Century

Collected by

Book

Comment

Imam Al-Baaqir

Tafseer Al-Quran

Having references toHadith

Zaid Ibn Ali

Mus'nad

Hadith andFiqh

Imam Al-Saadiq

Al-Tawhid

Most of the writing by his Companions

Al-Saadiq's Companions

The 400Usool (400 books). Elaboration and expansion onHadith

All referencing to ImamJa'far Al-Saadiq . Completed by the time of Al-Hasan Al-Askari .

Hadith in the 3rd Century

Depending on the 400Usool (the 400 Books) three massive works of collecting theHadith throughAhlul Bayt , categorized and indexed, were done. It became a reference for about two centuries.

They are:

1. The Collection (AL-Jami') by Al-Warraq Al-Hadhrami

2. The Collection (AL-Jami') by Muhammadibn Ahmad Al-Asha'ri

3. The Collection (AL-Jami') by Muhammadibn Al-Hasan ibin Al-Waleed

Hadith in the 4th CenturyTill Now

Collected by

Book

Comment

Al-Kulaini

Al-Kaafi

16,199Hadiths , most of which areSahih ,Hasan ,Moothaq , orQawiy .

Al-Qummi Al-Siddooq

Mun Laa Yah'dharhu Al-Faqeeh

5,973Hadiths , with 3913 References.

Muhammad Al-Toosi

Tah'dheeb Al-Ah'kaam

12,590Hadiths , in 93 chapters.

Muhammad Al-Toosi

Al-Istibsaar

5,521Hadiths .

The Golden ChainOf Narration

Because of being the trusted Prophet's family and the most learned, the narrations ofAhlul Bayt were often referred to as the Golden Chain of Narration.Ahlul Bayt's care in transmitting, and their meticulousness, and righteousness made people flock to them for quotes ofHadith , taking them as examples, and writing numerous books aboutHadith ,Fiqh ,Ah'kaam ,Halal andHaram among other subjects. TheShi'a believe that the Imams were Divinely Commissioned, therefore they wereMa'soom , meaning safeguarded by Allah from:

* Religious error,

* Sin, and

* Forgetfulness.

Therefore, to theShi'a the narration of the Imams was binding, their teaching binding, and theHadith they narrated was the only one acceptable to them. If theHadith in theSihaah Al-Sittah (Sunni) is confirmed by theHadith from one of the Imams, then thatHadith is acceptable, otherwise it would be questionable.

Each Imam used to say: "MyHadith is theHadith of my father, and his is theHadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated theHadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh )."

MannersOf Collection OfHadith

AL-SIHAAH AL-SITTAH

NARRATION OF AHLUL BAYT

(Sunni)

(Shi'a )

Registered by highly qualified scholars in Islam.

Registered by highly qualified scholars in Islam.

Quoting various people whose narration went back to the Prophet's Companions then to Muhammad (pbuh ) himself.

Quoted from the twelve Imams (Ahlul Bayt ). Narration was straight through toMuhamma (pbuh ) by way of Ali's registration ofHadith .

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