Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)

Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)0%

Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow) Author:
Translator: Sayyid Akhtar Husain S.H. Rizvi
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Imam Hussein
ISBN: 964-8323-11- 9

Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)

Author: Sayyid Ibn Tawus
Translator: Sayyid Akhtar Husain S.H. Rizvi
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category:

ISBN: 964-8323-11- 9
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Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)

Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
ISBN: 964-8323-11- 9
English

Lohoof (Sighs of sorrow)

“Al-Lohoof ala Qatla al-Tofuf”

“Al-Lohoof ala Qatla al-Tofuf” is a heart-rending but detailed and authentic account of the tragedy of Karbala and the sacrifice of Imam Husayn (a.s.), it was written by renowned Shia scholar, Sayyid Raziuddin Ali bin Musa Ibn Ja'far bin Muhammad Ibn Tawus al-Hilli (r.a.) better known as Sayyid Ibn Tawus, that died 664 hijri. Sayyid Ibn Tawus (r.a.) was a top Shia scholar and thinker of the seventh century, and he belonged to the family of learned who wielded tremendous influence in the scientific, religious and political circles.

The book has been divided into three main parts:

1) The events before martyrdom (from the birth of Imam Husayn (a.s.) until the day of Ashura)

2) The detailed account of the day of Ashura and gallantry of Imam Husayn's (a.s.) companions

3) The incidents after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (a.s.)

Author(s): Sayyid Ibn Tawus

Translator(s): Sayyid Athar Husayn S.H. Rizvi

Publisher(s): Naba Organization

Table of Contents

Foreward 5

Preface8

A. About the Author8

B. The book 8

C. The importance of the Book 8

Introduction 10

Notes13

Events Preeceding the Battle14

Event 1 17

Event 2 21

Event 3 27

Notes31

The Battle and Its Related Events40

Event 4 46

Notes56

After the Martyrdom of Husayn 61

Event 5 68

Notes80

Signs and Incidents that Became Appeared after the Martyrdom of Imam Husayn84

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Note95

Writers of Maqtal till the time of Sayyid ibn Tawus96

(1) Abul Qasim Asbagh bin Nubata Majashai Tamimi Hanzali96

(2) Abu Makhnaf Lut Ghamidi96

(3) Abu Ahmad Abdul Aziz Bin Yahya Bin Ahmad Bin Isa Al-Jaludi96

(4) Abu Abdullah Abu Muhammad Jabir Bin Yazeed Ju'fi97

(5) Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Muhammad bin Abeed Duniya97

(6) Abul Fazl Salmah bin al-Khattab al-Barawastani al-Azdurqani97

(7) Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad al-Madaeni97

(8) Abu Zaid Ammarah bin Zaid Khaiwani Hamadani97

(9) Ahmad bin Abdullah Bakri97

(10) Abu Ja'far known as Dabbate Shabeeb 97

(11) Abu Ubaidah Muammar bin al-Muthanna at-Tamimi97

(12) Hisham bin Muhammad bin as-Saeb bin Bashar bin Zaid 97

(13) Abul Mufaddal Nasr bin Muzahim Munaqari Attar98

(14) Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Umar Waqidi Madani Baghdadi98

(15) Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Ali bin Husayn bin Musa bin Babawayh Qummi98

(16) Muhammad bin Ali bin Fazl bin Tamam bin Sakeen 98

(17) Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Zakariya bin Danyar al-Ghalabi98

(18) Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Yahya at-Tayyar Qummi98

(19) Ibn Wazeh al-Yaqubi Ahmad bin Ishaq 98

(20) Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Ishaq Ahmari Nahavandi98

(21) Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Saeed bin Hilal bin Masood Thaqafi99

(22) Abul Husayn Shafei99

(23) Ibn Shahr Ashob 99

(24) Muhammad bin Hasan bin Ali Tusi99

(25) Najmuddin Ja'far Hilli99

(26) Abu Ubaid al-Qasim bin Salar Salam al-Harvi99

(27) Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Baghavi99

(28) Umar bin Hasan bin Ali bin Malik Shaibani99

(29) Ziyauddin Abu Muaiyad al-Muwaffiq bin Ahmad Khwarizmi99

(30) Abul Qasim Mahmood bin Mubarak Wasti99

(31) Izzuddin Abdur Razzaq Zajri99

(32) Sulaiman bin Ahmad Tibrani100

(33) Ali bin Musa bin Ja'far bin Tawus100

Biography of Sayyid ibn Tawus101

His Books103

Sayyid Ibn Tawus in Writings of Scholars104

About The Book 107

Name of the book 108

Publication of the book 108

Printings (Editions) of the book 108

Translations of the Book 109

Our Style in this Book 109

List of the Books Referred 111

Primary Sources111

Secondary Sources113

Foreward

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise belongs to God, and his greetings and salutations be upon His Prophet Muhammad (S) and his Household, the best and the purest creatures (a.s.).

The tragedy of Ashura has been a shock to the souls and consciences of human beings, and raised the emotions of the Muslims to expand their social activities. In that event the emotions and reasons of people were injured. The tears and mourning run through their faces; the hearts were drowning towards the place of martyrdom of the sons and househoulds of the holy Prophet and divine messenger. The love and affection of the Muslims, all those who trusted in the message of their grandfather, the holy Muhammad (S), were directed toward them; and caused the people to come nearer to each other.

This terrible tragedy has always injured the souls of the pure human beings during the history, which will never recover. By the passage of time, more dimensions of the calamity become apparent. And, at the same time, the divine virtues and characteristics of the martyred innocent persons becomes more apparent to the generations and communities more and more.

The Muslims reminded of the meaningful word of their holy Prophet (S) who said, " Husayn is from me, and I am from Husayn!" This valuable tradition was a witness about the beginning and continuation of the pure religion of Islam. It began with the divine message brought by the holy Prophet, and continued by the terrible martyrdom of Imam Husayn (a.s.). By that great sacrifice of the holy Imam, his household, and his prominent companions, he guaranteed the future survival of Islam.

The holy Imam Husayn had in minded the considerations, problems, and difficulties of the Islamic nation. He was also looking for the establishment of a just and successful Islamic state. He expressed his intention at the time of movement to Kufa:

My movement is not a revolt, nor for seizing just the power. It is rather an evolutionary conduct in the nation of my grandfather, Muhammad (S).

The progressive experience of "Ashura" reveals the honest crusade and clarity of his view. It had a tremendous and successive reaction in the long history of the Islamic world. On the opposite side, the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt (the infallible household of the holy Prophet) have always tried to change the true meaning of the message of Karbala, and take it away from the minds of the Muslims. "But the Almighty God will survive His light, even though the disbelievers do not like it."

From the time of occurrence of the event of "Karbala" till now, many books have been written about it by different persons, of different views or schools of thoughts, and in different languages. They are generally named as "Maq'tal". There are just some names remained from those books of Maqtal. The oppressors and cruel governments robbed, burnt, or destroyed those books, in order to cause the communities to forget his name (and teachings). Although they could not achieve their target.

Altogether, there are very few ancient Maq'tal available, with their original texts. Only traces or some parts of them have been narrated and transmitted through the historical texts and literatures.

It seems that the first writer, who compiled a text about the events of Karbala and Ashura, was Asbaq Ibn Nobata. He was one of the close friends, and sincere companions of Amirul Momenin Ali (a.s.). His death has been in the early years of the second century after hejrat.

The second writer was Abu Mekh'naf Lut Ibn Yahya Azdi, who was contemporary to Imam Sadiq (a.s.), and wrote the book, "Maq'tal al-Husayn (a.s.)".

During the 2nd and 3rd centuries of hejrat, some other traditions and historians wrote and compiled books about the tragic event of Karabala, and martyrdom of Imam Husayn and his beloved disciples. Some of those writers are:

• Abdul Aziz Ibn Yahya Jalloudi.

• Jaber Ibn Yazid Jo'afi.

• Muhammad Ibn Umar Waqedi.

• Muammar Ibn Mosanna Taimi.

• Nasr Ibn Mozahem Menqari.

• Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Bin Abi Donya.

• Ibn Wazeh Yaqoubi.

• Muhammad bin Zakaria bin Dinar Ghalaei.

In the next stage, some of the Shia and Sunni scholars wrote books about the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (a.s.). They are:

• Shaikh Muhammad bin Hasan Tousi (died in 460 A.H.)

• Mowaffaq Ibn Ahmad Kharazmi (died in 568 A.H.)

• Ibn Shahr Ashoub (died in 588 A.H.)

• Mah'moud bin Mobarak (died in 592 A.H.)

• Jafar bin Najib bin Nama Helli (died in 645 A.H.)

• Ezzuddin Abdul Razzaq Jazari (died in 661 A.H.), and

• Ali bin Mousa bin Jafar, Ibn Tawus, (died in 664 A.H.) who is the author of this book.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has reminded of this book, in his two other books. In his books Iqbal and Kashful Mahajja has said, "My book "al-Malhoof ala Qat'lalTofouf " is about the mar tyrdom of Imam Husayn (a.s.), which is organize d in a wonderful order , which has been a kindness of God, Who guided me to write it. "

The late Allamah Majlesi, in Beharul Anwar (vol 107, P. 42) has stated that Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned in his book, "al- Ejazat", "I have written the book "al-Malhoof ala Qat lal Tofouf " in an order which is new. Anyone who re ads it will know about its preferences over similar books " .

From the writings of the writer, Sayyid, it becomes clear that the original title of the book has been ""al-Malhoof” but in the old manuscripts it is called as "Lohoof".

Lohoof, in its Arabic language, has been published more than 20 times in Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon. Some of the clergy translators have translated it in to Persian, such as Mirza Reza Qoli Khan, Ahmad Najafi, M.E. Nawab, and Sayyid Ahmad Fehri.

Recently, Naba cultural organization has translated Lohoof in to English, and decided it to be published as one of the works of the library and publishing house of the holy Shrine of Imam Husayn (a.s.). It is the third published work of that library.

I pray God to bless all those who work and cooperate with Naba cultural organization, and may He support and protect the translator and all those who participated in preparation of this book. And, at last, may the blessings and greetings of God be upon all you kind readers!

Muhammad al-Hassoun

Preface

A. About the Author

Sayyid Razi - Uddin Ali bin Musa, knows as Ibn Tawus (589-664 A.H., equal to 1150- 1225 A.D.) is one of the greatest Shia scholars in the 13th A.D. century. He was born in Hella city in South of Iraq. He learnt different Islamic science from his father Sadussin Musa, his grand father Warram bin Abi Furas, and some Shia and non- Shia scholars.

The grand family of Ibn Tawus was interested at scholarship and knowledge fields. Some of them have written books, and have their names in the history. For more information about them, you may refer to "Encyclopedia of Tashayyo", P. 339, and Vol: 1, title Ibn al-Tawus.

During his 75 years old life, Ibn Tawus traveled to different cities. He wrote more than 50 books in many fields of Islamic studies, such as commentary of Quran, history, hadith, prays, astronomy, ethics, bibliology, biography, Shia thoughts. Half of them are preserved and available. Even after the long time of about 800 years, most of them are reliable and unique.

In addition to his scientific position, he had the social leadership of Shia community at his chaotic period. And it is interesting that with such occupations, he grew very polite, well educated, and learned children, so that all his sons and daughters were among the scholars of their age.

B. The book

Sayyid Ibn Tawus had prepared the book "Mesbah-u-Zaer" with the subject of visiting (Ziyarat) the holy shrines of the prophet Muhammad (S), and the infallible Imams (a.s.). Then he thought and found it wise to write a small book about the biography of Imam Husayn (a.s.), the Ashura calamity, and the tragic events thereafter; so that those who go on pilgrimage of that innocent martyred Imam may get the necessary knowledge about the subject, the holy respected Imam, and his brutal enemies.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has divined the book of Lohoof in to 3 parts.

1- The events and happenings before the day of Ashura (10th of Muharram of 61 A.H.);

2- The events occurred in the evening before Ashura, and during the day of Ashura;

3- The events after the day of Ashura, with regards to Imam Husayn (a.s.), his family, and his enemies;

What we can see in these parts, are very exact and accurate narrations which from one side, show the clear, humanistic, and infallible view from Imam Husayn, and on the other hand, reveals the tyranny, cruelty, and crimes of the enemies of the family of the prophet of Islam (a.s.).

C. The importance of the Book

There are thousands of books written about Imam Husayn (a.s.), and the Ashura calamity. However, those words, which have been narrated and transmitted by the wise and learned scholars, through a correct and clear way, are credited and reliable.

At the same time, we should know that the life and history of Imam Husayn (a.s.), just like other infallible Imams (a.s.) is like an open book of guidance that should be studied and considered. It is obvious that when we are going to introduce our noble Imams (that the holy prophet has called them as the "Lights of Guidance", and the "Ships of Rescue"), if we refer to uncredited and unknown references, we will not get a fair result from our efforts.

The importance of the books such as Lohoof lies in its right, just and authentic references and accurate narrations, which reveal the aspects of the 14 centuries old history.

Now, let us read the book of Lohoof, which is the book of life, and guidance, and is like a light that would enlighten the roads of lives of the people.

This book should be read more than once! And we should keep it not only in our memory, but also in our mind, and spirit.

We should read the words and teachings of Imam Husayn and his beloved friends at the pages of this book, and hear them from the stars of the sky of Karbala, that witnessed the nights of Muharram of the year 61 A.H.

We should take in to the "Ship of Rescue" in order to reach the safe shore. And we should walk through the light of this "Light of Guidance" in order to depart from the darkness of the world.

Lohoof is a favorite partner in a spiritual journey for the respected reader, and we invite you to pay due attention to every word of this noble book.

Muhammad Husayn Shahri

Introduction

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise belongs to Allah Who shows His Magnificence through the horizon of wisdom; Who removes the veils from His Intentions, through the logic of the Holy Quran and Sunnah; Who has lifted His friends from the filths of the house of deception (this world), and raised them to the heights of shining happiness.

This bliss to His friends is not by the way of granting them a higher status among His creation, nor is it to shelter them through nice paths; but He considered them worthy of Graceful Rewards and good morals. Therefore, He did not like that they should treed the absurd path. Rather, He granted them the good sense of adopting perfect deeds and actions.

This was until all souls became dejected from everyone except Allah, and their hearts got adorned by the ornaments of His Pleasure. So their hearts turned towards His light, and their ambitions got tied up with His Mercy and Grace. You can observe their happiness in reaching the eternal life, and their sympathetic desire of meeting their Lord.

Invariably, they have an increasing urge toward the goals put by their God; their faces shine up by traversing towards their Lord, and their ears are attentive for listening to His secrets, and their souls enjoy the sweetness of His remembrance. Allah bestows on them His Greetings proportionate to their acknowledgement, and rewards them with His gifts and mercy.

Hence everything, which prevents them from the area of His Majesty, is worthless in their eyes. How easy is it for them to give up everything that takes them away from

His path until they taste and enjoy the pleasure and happiness due to this Bounty and Perfection? Then Allah adorns them with a dress of dignity, grandeur and reverence.

As they realize that their (worldly) lives act as an obstacle in attaining their noble ambition, and that their stay in this world keeps them away from His Grace, they discard their dress of worldly life and put on the apparel worthy of meeting Him. On this way, they found pleasure by giving away their life, and receiving wounds of swords and arrows.

This is the lofty grandeur which raises the souls of the martyrs of Taff (Karbala) to such an extent that they compete with each other in sacrificing their lives, and their holy bodies turn into targets of arrows and swords.

How beautiful has Seyyed Murtaza Alamul Huda (r.a.) praised of such noble men1 :

Their bodies lie in the sands of desert

Wherea s their souls are enjoying the hospitality in the vicinity of Allah

It is, as if those who wanted to harm them have benefited them

And those who had killed them with swords were those who made them alive (immortal)

Had it not been incumbent upon us to put on the dress of mourning, as ordered by the Book and the Islamic Tradition, over the vanishing of the “standards of guidance” and establishment of the rule of misguidance and deviation of Umayyides, and to grieve over such losses of bounties, and the martyrdom of such great personalities, it was good to rejoice over such great bliss.

And since in this mourning is concealed the consent of Allah and the goal of His good servants, we invariably and regularly put on the dress of mourning and bring tears in our eyes. We ask our eyes to go on weeping continuously and also ask our hearts to cry like a mother who has lost her son.

The precious trusts of the compassionate Prophet were destroyed on the day of ƖshurƗ, and many of his wills regarding his household and sons were thrown away by his Ummah and by his enemies.

For Allah’s sake, how difficult were the calamities which made hearts sick, brought so much hardship and destruction, those troubles which were so terrible that rendered all other troubles insignificant; the events wherein the fear of Allah was driven away and those arrows which made the blood of the holy Prophet flow on earth and those hands which arrested and imprisoned the noble Ahlul Bayt (a.s.); those tragedies which rolled the heads of devotees; those catastrophes which took the lives of the best families; the trouble whereof reached even to Jibrael; those atrocities that raised the wrath of Almighty Allah.

Why should it not be so when, on that day, the flesh of the holy Prophet of Allah (i.e. the body of Imam Husayn, a.s.) fell on sandy land, and his holy blood flowed on the soil by the swords of the deviated people, and when the holy faces of his daughters were exposed to the eyes of people who were condemnable, and rejoiced at the misfortune of others, and those who (the holy women) were disrobed before both the talking and the dumb, when the holy bodies were stripped and when those holy bodies were strewn on ground!

These calamities dispersed the holy family of the Holy Prophet, and arrows were pierced in the hearts of the guided ones. There were the troubled ladies the plight of whom makes the flames of sorrow and grief rise high.

I wish Fatima and her father had dared to see the plight of their daughters and sons, who were seized, wounded, chained, decapitated; the daughters of the holy Prophet with their collars rent, had none to care them, were grieved for having lost their relatives and dear ones. Their hairs strewn and veils torn, they were slapped on their faces. They were crying and complaining with a painful feeling, and there was none to help and protect them.

And you, O men of wisdom and reason, O intelligent people, narrate to yourselves these calamities which fell on the holy household, and recite elegies for them in solitude and in public for the sake of Allah. Accompany them by shedding tears on the plight of these dear ones, and sit in mourning for having lost the opportunity of helping them.

It is so because these precious lives are the valuable trusts of the holy Prophet, and the fruits of his holy heart, and the light of the eyes of Zahra al-Batool. They are the ones who were kissed by the holy Prophet, and their parents were granted superiority over the Ummah (Islamic nation).

If you have any doubt about their superiority in grace

Then ask the holy Quran regarding their distinction

The holy Book which is the most just witness to their gracefulness for the men of reason

Therein is also the will, which Jibrael brought regarding them

How did they compensate all the favors of their grandfather? How did they devastate the fruits of his heart and the repository of his soul by shedding the blood of his precious son so disgracefully?

How is the place and location of fulfilling the will of the holy Prophet regarding his family? What will be the answer of the Ummah in this regard? The Ummah destroyed all that the holy Prophet had established, and the wailing of the oppressed Islam is raised high;

O Allah! What a heart which does not melt by the remembrance of these events? How strange is the negligence of an Ummah and what is the excuse of the people of Islam regarding this tragedy?

Do not they know that the holy Prophet is injured and he is claiming revenge? That his beloved has been slain, and his blood is boiling? Those angels are giving him condolence over this calamity and prophets have shared these tragedies?

Then, O loyal followers of the Prophet Muhammad! Do not you join him in this weeping? O, follower of the son of Zahra; mourn and recite the poems of grief, and weep over the princes of Islam for the sake of Allah. Maybe by participating in the sorrow of this great tragedy you may proceed on the Day of Judgment.

Verily, it has been narrated from Imam Baqir (a.s.) that Imam Zainul Abedin (a.s.) said, whenever a tear drops from the eyes of a believer, While mourning for Husayn (a.s.), and rolls down his cheek, Allah will grant him a permanent home in Paradise. And for every believer, who sheds a tear because of the oppression and injustice to us by the enemy, when that tears rolls down his cheek, Allah grants him a high position in Paradise. And when a faithful person suffers harm in our way, by our enemy, Allah turns away the trouble from him and saves him from Hell on the Day of Judgment.

Imam Sadiq (a.s.) is reported to have said that anyone who remembers us, and tears, even as little as a fly’s wing rolls from his eyes, Allah will forgive his sins, even if they are equal to the bulbs of the seas. And it is reported that he said; “One who weeps over us and causes one hundred people weep, is entitled to Paradise; one who weeps over us and causes fifty people weep over us, heaven will be his abode; one who weeps and causes twenty persons weep for us will go to Paradise; and one who weeps for us and also causes ten men weep for us will be entitled to Paradise; one who weeps for us and causes one person weep for us will also go to heaven; and the one who weeps for us and makes his face sorrowful will also get Paradise.”

The author, Ali IbnMusa Ibn Ja’far Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tawus Husayn says; “The noble impulses which inspired me to adopt the manner and method of this book, was that after the compilation of the book Misbahuz Zaer wa Jannatul Musafir2 , I felt that various appealing aspects of Ziyarats have been collected therein and hence one who carries it does not need to take with him heavy books to the holy tombs during the Ziyarat time.”

I also wished that a person visiting the holy shrine should not be required to carry Kitab al-Maqtal during the Ziyarat of Ashura in Karbala.

Therefore, I wrote this book so that a visitor needs not to carry any other book along with Misbahuz Zaer; Moreover I have tried to save his time by avoiding details and repetitions. Yet various chapters about KarbalƗ have been included for the faithful people, as we have infused the words with an appropriate spirit, given the title Al-Malhoof ala Qatlat Tafoof to it, and have arranged it in three parts; we seek help from the Merciful Lord.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus

Notes

1. Abul Qasim Ali bin Husayn bin Musa bin Muhammad Musa bin Ibrahim Ibn Imam Kazim (a.s.) is a chief of the Talibiyyin and one of the leading writers and poets and orators. He was born and died in Baghdad. He has narrated from people like Shaykh Mufid, Husayn bin Ali Babawayh. People like Sallar and Abi Salah Hilli and Khatib Baghdadi and Qazi Ibn Qudamah have narrated from him. He has written books like Ash Sha fi fil Imamah...He expired in the year 433 or 436 A.H. [Riyazul Ulama 4/14, Wa fyatul Ayan 3/313, Al -Kunni wal Alqab 2/439, Mizanul Etedal 2/223, Lisanul Mizan 4/223, Jumhiratul Ansab: 56, Al-Elam 4/278]

2. Misbah is the first work of the author, having 20 sections: the first section is about formalities and preliminaries of the journey and the last contains the Ziyarats of the Holy Imams and their sons.