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A Glance at the World of Youth

A Glance at the World of Youth

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

3. Problems of the Youths

Every stage of life has its own features from mind and bodily formations, as well as, bodily diseases, psychological problems, and behavioral practices. So, every stage of childhood and the stage before puberty, as well as, the puberty stage, itself, and, likewise, elderliness has its own features, and in every stage a person carries the features of the past stage which often paves the way for the subsequent stage. Any problem found in the stage of puberty and youth will be the most dangerous one and the most important. It is of great benefit to mention this problem which happens to the youths and causes inconvenience to them, as well as, to their families and community, they are:

1. The Youth and Abandoning School

2. Rebellion

3. Supremacy of Imagination and Reverie

4. Pride and CarelessnessAbout the Future

5. Anxiety

6. Youths and the Sexual Urge

7. Taking Drugs and Smoking

8. Idleness

1. The Youth and Abandoning School

Education, knowledge and preparing for life, is a fundamental issue in human life, hence, whoever lacks a good education, which prepares him to be beneficial to the community and be a good mannered person, morally and spiritually, becomes very dangerous, both to himself and his community. And aperson who lacks sufficient knowledge and awareness in his life, is an ignorant fellow who harms himself and his community, neither playing a role in the growth of himself or his community.Consequenthy , ignorant parents will not know how to educate their children; an ignorant wife will not know how to deal with her husband, and an ignorant farmer will not know how to use modern ways on his farm and, likewise, an ignorant rich man will not be able to use his wealth and property correctly.

This is how ignorance affects every angle of life. More than that, ignorance is the source of all evils and backwardness and even being the fundamental cause of all crimes in the society. Thus, an ignorant society will not be able to undertake any plans of development or preventing crime, or solving its political, security, economican social problems.

Likewise, an illiterate youth or he who does not have enough knowledge and awareness will not be able to play any role in the development of the society, nor help himself or his family, as expected. The researches and statistics show that illiteracy and ignorance, as well as, lack of consciousness and civilization are among the fundamental causes of youths' problems. Therefore, the problems of illiteracy and unemployment are among the most important problems which face the states and the families. Furthermore, there are the problems of school abandoning in the primary, secondary or university level. Surely, they are among the greatest problems which direct the life and future of the youths towards danger, and encourage them towards idleness, wandering, committing crimes and other vices. Indeed, abandoning school has its own spiritual, intellectual, social, economic, psychological and, sometimes, health problems. Also, vagrancy and loss of shelter resulting from political persecutions, and having no peaceful stability, play their greatest roles in the abandoning of school and the spread of illiteracy. Likewise, the mistreatment by school authorities or teachers' bad conduct toward the students, contribute, immensely, to the abandoning of school by some students.

Certainly, a student's facing psychological problems may be caused by the family, parents' bad conduct or problems among themselves. Even the problem of divorce often causes a split between children or the slackness of the parents toward their children's education and welfare, as well as, preparing ways for the continuation of their education may all play a part in the disruption of a child's education and cause some students to abandon school.

Also, lack of desire towards education by a student, and his relation with bad friends and those who are unsuccessful in their lives, helps a lot in the abandoning of school by a student. However, poverty is among the most important factors in causing the giving up of studies, because poor families cannot provide the necessary needs for their children to study, which contributes in the abandoning of school by a student in the early stage, and will leave him with insufficient means to find a good job that will support his social needs. Thus, these problems, and the like, need to be thoroughly studied in order to find suitable solutions to them.

2. Rebellion

The word rebellion absolutely gives a negative image or meaning, for it always means disobedience and disapproval if supported. But, in Islamic terminology it means going against the power, laws,ideologies and conducts that are pure and right or going against things which deservehonour and respect. Rebellion is not mere rejection and disapproving of what people like, because there are some laws, ideologies and opinions which are not right and are liable to rebellion and disapproval.

In view of this, the rebellion that occurs in the life of the youths, which are caused by the feeling of power and challenging the need for change, has two opposite outlooks; a negative and harmful outlook and a positive outlook which helps in the community's progress and safeguarding its interests. Certainly, the negative rebellion which occurs in the youths and young children is the most serious and complicated one which faces families and societies.

Likewise, negative rebellion or therebellion against what deserves respect andhonour , like pure ideology and laws, subjective, as well as, objective, have causes which deserve to be studied with consciousness and wisdom. Because rebellion by the youths is a dangerous matter to the family and the community at large, and it starts from the cradles of the family, and by refusing the commands of the parents or the pure cultures and ideologies of the family and going against them, children put themselves in great danger.

Then, there is rebellion against the school laws, which are comprised of coming to school on time and every day, writing class work, respecting the teachers, as well as, fellow students, and at the same time, rebellion against the community's rules and regulations. Statistics conducted in 1970 show that: "20 % of the youths of France who were under 30 years of age and 30 % from the men who were below 40 years of age participated in a demonstration in May of 1968 in France. It was confirmed, by this analysis, that the younger generations of the community, in a short time, could react or participate in any rebellion against the ruling power, however, it was confirmed by another research that it is not possible to generalize this result."(15) Rebellion has its own causes which encourageit, and those which may be the most apparent, are the following:

a. Dictatorial relationship of some parents towards their children,supprssing their wills and insisting on restricting them of things which are not restricted by theShari'a . The parents do not change their relationship with the youths, continuing to treat them like a child, who is not conscious, by their commands, interfere in their affairs like studies, marriage, work, dailyactivites and economic matters and even their mode of dress.......which forces some children to rebellion and disapproval and ends up in the showing of no respect for the ideas and commandments of the parents. Thus, problems occur and misunderstandings begin to appear between them, and sometimes end in bad results, disrespect or even leaving the parents' house.

Indeed, Islam has studied carefully these problems so as to bring obedience and respect between both sides. However, Islam differentiates between loyalty to one's parents and submission to them, as it differentiates between guidance, directing and educating, and forcing and dictating their will and desires on the children.

The Islamic jurisprudence necessitates the loyalty and goodness to parents, but, it does not necessitate submission except to Allah, the Almighty, and anything which is not against His laws, for instance, the IslamicShari'a does not necessitate submission upon a girl or a boy to their parents when the parents want to conduct their marriage against their own choice and wish.

The parents' duty is to guide their children to the right path and protect them against what is harmful to them, starting from the legal responsibility, necessity of enjoining good andforbiding evil, holding any pure means for their living less they fall into crisis and failure in their life, as well as, making them understand that the disapproval of the parents to the choice of their children is just for their own good and they should do so with a cool temper and wisdom. This is the best way to change them and keep them from falling into crisis and calamities. It is a mistake for the parents to force their ideas, thoughts and their own way of life, which is not founded legally, upon their children, but, for mere affinity or intimacy or social custom, which makes them strike against their children's ideas and their modern way of life.

Imam Ali (a.s .) has warned parents against this, in his famous saying:

"Do not force your ethics or customs on your children, because they are created in an era different from yours."(16) Surely, this Islamic analysis on the means of life's progress and what occurs betweengenerations, will shed light on most of the complicated matters between parents and children, which often result in rebellion anddisobedence . When Islam studies and analyzes this matter, it calls for thorough investigation, on the matter, as an issue of civilization in the life of a human being based on the fundamentals of good morals. Surely, Islam has warned parents and stops them from bad relationships with their childrenwhich may result in rebellion anddisobedence .

It is reported in a Prophetic tradition that the prophet said: "Oh Ali! Allah and religion has cursed those who hold their children responsible for their disobedience (because they, themselves, did not train them)."(17) All this is to preserve and safeguard the new generations from negative rebellion which the family, nations and communities face that incline toward the materialistic idea and which contradicts the Islamic perspectives on this matter. Even though the parents take on this responsibility, it is important that they guide and encourage their children to love their parents, respect them, listen to their advice, as well as, refrain from rebelling against them.

Therefore, educating a child, showing him the rights of the parents and how to associate and live with them are among the effective factors in controlling rebellion. Surely, family life, especially a good relationship between the parents and the respect between them, or a bad relationship between them, has a great effect in solving or complicating such problems.

b. School: As the parents' conduct and relationship, toward their children, contributes in creating the spirit of negative rebellion, so, also, the school plays a vital role in this field. The system, and complicated ways of dealing with a student, sometimes makes him feel that it is trespassing against his personality and his studies, or it does not correspond with the realty of his life, thus, it forces him to challenge the school's system, create problems and, later on, his leaving the school. Therefore, it is necessary for the school to adjust its communal conditions and systems to the spirit of the times, and deal with a student by considering the nature of a teenager and his problems in this stage, through good conduct and mercy, and not with pressure and punishment, except if it becomes necessary.

c : The nature of a teenager and his morals and spiritual formations: The spiritual nature, as well as, the state of mind, and the level of education, has its own great contribution in rebellion, disapproval and challenges of a teenager. Because the teenage stage is a stage of pride and emotion and power, it is a stage of self feelings, separation from the parent and freedom, likewise, it is a stage of challenging anything that stands in his way, whether it be the family, government or the community: Thus, negative rebellion occurs and, likewise, the positive one.

Therefore, the solution to negative rebellion is to give much concern to the issue of education and make them understand the problem of that stage, as well as, the shunning of the stimulated atmosphere which surrounds teenagers. Hence, young boys and girls who are conscious and civilized will understand this analysis and the problems, as well as, accept the solutions without rebellion or disapproval, not the same as the uncultured and illiterate youth will deal with it; ignorantly.

d. Conditions and circumstances: Surely, economic, intellectual, social and political conditions and circumstances, as well as, the laws and declarations, have a great effect - both positively and negativelyvis -a-vis the government and the laws - on the conduct of the youths and their stance.

Thus, in a condition where the generation of youths are facing poverty and needs, the security of their future activities, through intellectual and political terrorism and racial discrimination, will force them to challenge and rebel against it with all their might, as is happening in some countries of the world. Therefore, intellectual freedom, reforming the economic conditions (and peoples' welfare), and respecting peoples' rights, is the only solution to the problem of negative rebellion and disobedience, not through the use of power and intellectual pressures and terrorism.

3. Supremacy of Imagination and Reverie

Imagination is another intellectual power which has positive, as well as, negative results, and its results return to man according to its usage. In its real sense, it is not an illusion, which controls man and distances him from reality and objectivity, but it is capable of changing into illusion and reverie, which controls man against reality. In the youth stage, the power of imagination activates and stimulates and with its positive outlook, it is the fundamental factor for invention and development. Because through imagination, the youths are able to carry out their technical and graphic works, thus, with imagination the door of invention and progress is opened.

Furthermore, through imagination one can create a new atmosphere different from his own, with the sense of change. Thus, imagination is the ladder and bridge which transforms man from a stagnant atmosphere to a living one that accepts changes and inventions. But, lack of objective experience, in the youths, and the absence of guidance and encouragement from parents or friends and relatives, or the mass media, causes a negative effect and this causes imagination to start working in the generation of youths through their thinking about their future aims like studies, how to live, marriage... etc.

Consequently, the youth starts todecieve himself, by creating things for his future which are not possible and far from reality, as well as, his becoming frustrated whenever his dreams andimagnations fail and do not produce his expected results. Hence, it is necessary to provide the youths with real experiences and knowledge, as well as, warning them against this realty, and guiding them toward the real imagination.

How beneficial is this advice of Imam Ali (a.s .) in which he (a.s .) encourages the use of experiences to his son ImamHasan (a.s .) when he says, "...so I hastened to mold you properly before your heart hardened up and your mind became occupied, so that you might be ready to accept, through your intelligence, the results of the experience of others and be saved from going through these experiences yourself. In this way, you would avoid the hardship of seeking them and the difficulties of experimenting. Thus, you are getting to know what we had experienced and even those things are becoming clear to you which we might have missed."(18)

4. Pride and CarelessnessAbout the Future

Pride and arrogance is a disease which afflicts man as a result of feeling superior over others, pridinghimself on what he has from strength, wealth, beauty, power, position and knowledge. Surely, this disease is the most dangerous one that affects man and destroys him and puts him in peril. The Holy Qur'an describes it by saying: "Nay!, man is most surely inordinate.Because he sees himself free from want." Holy Qur'an (The Clot 96:6-7)It warns against such acts in the advices ofLuqman to his son: "And do not turn your face away from people in contempt, nor go about in the land exulting overmuch; surely Allah does not love any self-conceited boaster." Holy Qur'an (Luqman 31:18)

"(...and do not go about in the land exulting, for you cannot cut through the earth nor reach the mountains in height." Holy Qur'an (The Children of Israel 17:37)

The youth stage, especially the teenage stage, is among the most pride oriented stage in man's life, and that of disrespecting others and falling into hazards and risks.And how often this feeling has a bad effect on the conduct andbehaviour of the youths. How often pride, for instance, has a negative effect on the young boys andgrils even in choosing a wife or husband or the relationship between themselves, or with their family. Thus, an arrogant youth often cannot marry because he does not see asiutable wife for himself. How many young girls stay unmarried due to pride and arrogance to the extent that they lose their virginity, and their family life becomes a hell and often results in disassociation, when the imagination and expected plans, full of pride and arrogance, fail.

Consequenly , an arrogant youth, due to his bodily strength, deals with people with arrogance and challenge, and often his pride ends him in jail or he becomes a community'shatered ; the victim of pride and arrogance. Many incidents, in which tens ofthousand of youths become victims,happens every year due to recklessness and hazardous ventures.

It is worth mentioning that statistics show that the number of those afflicted bybehavioural episodes is higher than the number of those afflicted by communicable diseases, tuberculosis and other diseases, and that the third world countries are spending 53 billion U.S dollars because of theseoccurences , which is equal to the total number of financial aid they receive from the rich countries. Rather, pride and arrogance may make some youths feel shame if they are related to a certain family, race, town or village when they feel that that thing does not suit their position, or they may feel superior over their parents, especially, if their position is superior to that of their parents.

Sometimes, his higher educational background will make him downgrade the opinion of others and their ideas. This kind of pride and arrogance has contributed, immensely, to underestimating the belief in Allah and the messages of the prophets (a.s .). Certainly, pride and arrogance in the youths, due to their power, beauty, wealth, or feeling of superiority of social position or knowledge over others, are among the social problems in the community which need a solution, and educating the young generation, morally and socially, in the schools, media, and family, on the dangers of pride and arrogance, can be done by showing them the end results of proud and arrogant people.

5. Anxiety:

Anxiety is regarded as the most dangerous human disease which destroys man, and his spiritual and bodily health, as well as, pushes him towards bad conduct. Anxiety is defined as: An action composed of fear and expectation of evil, danger and punishment and self-doubt about one's ability to cope with them. Furthermore, anxiety is among the most dangerous problems of the youth, especially in the teenager, and especially in a youth who grows in an atmosphere which lacks good conduct, as well as, belief is Allah.

Thus, anxiety more often turns into dangerous actions, and crimes, like suicide, taking drugs, recklessness in life, aggression, racism and tribalism, smoking ...etc. The most dangerous stage of anxiety is the stage of intellectual and ideological anxiety or having the lack of a firm stance, ideologically, socially and politically. Therefore, it is easy to attract the youths toward the ideas which come as a change to the community. The most important cause of anxiety in the youths is intellectual emptiness which pushes the youths into embracing ideas which have only imagined authenticity, lack of belief in Allah or its weakness, uncertainty about the future,politicial persecution, idleness and easy living, pessimism in achieving the easy living, fear of failure in academic undertakings, fear of contacting diseases, especially the epidemic ones like Aids, family problems, as well as, the future of married life.

The researches and scientific statistics show that anxiety is increasing among the human circles, especially in the youths' circles, and especially in Western countries. People, in such countries like America, and some European and Asian countries, pay little attention to the belief in Allah, the Most High, and religion does not play an important role in their affairs.

Indeed, the ideology of belief in Allah and entrusting all affairs to him, accepting its fate and destiny, wisdom and justice, His love to His creatures and His mercy to them, as well as, undertaking the necessary moral processes for solving man's economic, family and social problems, are the fundamentals, as well as, laws for solving the problem of anxiety and providing a guarantee and security for the life and personality of a human being. Here, we will introduce theQur'anic solutions to these problems, which result from the belief in Divine fate and destiny, as in His saying: "Say nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us..." Holy Qur'an (Repentance 9:51)

"Those who believe, and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah; for without doubt in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find satisfaction." Holy Qur'an (Thunder 13:28)

And a clear guarantee for the life of the human race which Adam (a.s .) was addressed: "Surely it is (ordained) for you that you shall not be hungry therein nor bare of clothing, and that you shall not be thirsty therein nor shall you feel the heat of the sun." Holy Qur'an (TaHa 20:118-119) "So let them serve the Lord of this house who feeds them against hunger and gives them security against fear." Holy Qur'an (TheQuraish 106:3-4)

Surely, this insurance is the most important guarantee to man's spiritual security and eliminates the spirit of anxiety and fear from the impasses of this material life, as well as, calling him to provide social security and political justice, as is in thesaying of Allah, the Most High,: "Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good (to others) and the giving to the kindred, and he forbids indecency and evil and rebellion..." Holy Qur'an (The Bee 16:90)

6. Youths and the Sexual Urge:

Islam regards the issue of sex, and sexual rights, among the fundamental issues in human life, as well as, enacting the necessary laws and system for satisfying the sexual instinct and controlling its zest. In order to shed more light on the subject, let us examine some Islamic laws and their sources which discuss the issue of sex, sexual rights, enjoyment and beauty, and which show the pure sexual civilization free from sexual complications and which are present in some communities and ideologies, as well as, free from sexual declination and pollution.

TheQur'anic texts, Prophetic traditions, as well as, the legal laws extracted from the Qur'an andhadith , shed light on this issue. Indeed, this attention to sex laws confirms the importance of the sexual instinct in human life and the way Islam deals with the sexual issue and solving its problems, although giving detailed analyses to this issue needs a separate book. But, here, we will present an outline of statements and laws, as well as, sexual culture in Islam. Allah, the Most High, says: "And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion..." Holy Qur'an (Rome 30:21)

"...Then as tothose whom you profit by, give them their dowries as appointed..." Holy Qur'an (The Women 4:24) "And leave what your Lord has created for you to be your mates?... " Holy Qur'an (The Poets 26:166) "And they ask you about menstruation. Say: It isa pollution , therefore keep aloof from the women during the menstrual discharge, and do not go near them until they have become clean, then when they have cleansed themselves, go into them as Allah has commanded you..." Holy Qur'an (The Cow 2:222) "And marry those among you who are single and those who are fit among your male slaves and your female slaves..." Holy Qur'an (Light 24:32) "....so marry them with the permission of their masters, and give them their dowries justly, they beingchaste , not fornicating..." Holy Qur'an (The Women 4:25)

"Your wives are atilth for you, so go into yourtilth when you like..." Holy Qur'an (The Cow 2:223) "Or He makes them of both sorts, male and female..." Holy Qur'an (Consultation 42:50) "And let those who do not find the means to marry keep chaste until Allah makes them free from want out of His grace..." Holy Qur'an (Light 24:33) There are tens of verses in the Holy Qur'an which discuss the issue of sex under the title of marriage, and, also, on the subject of woman and her relationship with a man. Also, the prophetic traditions discuss this issue technically, as well as, legally. But, when elaborating on these principles, it is necessary to understand that all these are not only advices and sermons, rather, they are laws and systems which the society, as well as, the individual must build their lives upon, and everyone will be taken to account, like they will be taken to account in the Hereafter.

To elaborate more we quote, here, some prophetic traditions, that the holy prophet (s.a.w .) said: "I like three things in this your world: perfume, women and prayer."(19)

"Whoever marries has completed half of his religion."(20) "Whoever wants to meet Allah in purity, he should meet him with a wife."(21)Ummu Salma related to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) that a group of his companions prohibited women from eating in the day time and sleeping at night with themselves. The holy prophet (s.a.w .) addressed them, saying: "Are you running from women when I am coming to the women, eating in the day time and sleeping together in the night. Whoever turns away from my tradition (sunna ) is not of me," and, so Allah revealed this verse: "... Do not forbid (yourselves) the good things which Allah has made lawful for you and do not exceed the limits, surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits..."(22)

Holy Qur'an (The Table Spread 5:87)Surely , from the above texts, we can detect the following expressions and terms which show the importance of sex in human life, they are: "...that you may find rest in them..." Holy Qur'an (Rome 30:21) "...then as to those whom you profit by,... " Holy Qur'an (The Women 4:24) "And leave what your Lord has created for you to be your mates..." Holy Qur'an (The Poets 26:166) "...Your wives are atilth for you..." Holy Qur'an (The Cow 2:223) "So go into yourtilth when you like..." Holy Qur'an (The Cow 2:223)

All these principles call for legally respecting sex and satisfying the sexual urges and, at the same, warn against fornication, deviation and other sexual vices, as well as, pointing out the severity of punishments for illegal sexual relations like fornication, homosexuality... etc. And, also, through the statistics recorded by the institutions of health and crime, we can deduce why Islam prohibited these illegal conducts, and why itprescibed hard and severe punishment for them. Surely, if we understood the tragic and harmful effects of those illegal actions, we would be able to detect the justice and wisdom of those laws and that they are enacted for man's security and benefit not for rejecting and proscribing his sexual rights.

7. Taking Drugs and Smoking

Among the great problems, as well as, social, health and security tragedies which are afflicting the present, materialistic civilization and the uncultured individual, is the drug problem and its addiction. Statistics conducted by some institutions concerned, confirmed that among the most complicated problems of youths and teenagers is the taking of drugs. Indeed, these substances have destructive effects and negative results on the body and spiritual health, the economy and in the field of crime and general deviated conduct and, likewise, on the family and social relationships. Thus, drugs are substances which destroy the capability of man and spiritual, as well as, power of conscience and, likewise, social position and, at long last, became a tragedy to the society.

Also, taking drugs and their subsequent addiction has its own spiritual and intellectual factors which government and other institutions are trying hard to prevent through educating their citizens, especially the youths and teenagers, on their evil effects. In view of this, many laws were enacted, international resolutions made, and many conferences held for the prevention of drug use and production. In addition to the efforts of some governments to bring an end to this dangerous calamity, though this is not the end, physicians, as well as, criminologists and sociologists...etc., have rendered great efforts in studying the issue of drugs and their addiction, as well as, their negative effects on the body and society's health and man's activities generally, but, at long last, all these studies confirm one point and that is that man and the society must be prevented from the dangers of drugs.

In conclusion, all these scientific researches and the studies of the experts, in different fields, end in agreement with the Islamicshari'a's stance of prohibiting the use of alcohol and drugs and the severe punishment for the offender. Thus, in their reformatory efforts, the nations and reformatory organizations are trying hard, by adopting the addicts and the drug traffickers socially, i.e., by providing work and occupations for them, as well as, social respect in the community's eye and, likewise, rehabilitating them, morally, after their deviation from the true way of life and morals. Efforts are made by the experts, media, family, school, laws, government and reformatory organizations in rescuing people from this dangerous epidemic triumph, but a youth is more worthier in salvaging himself, salvaging his personality from collapsing, his conduct from deviation and social disrespect, preventing his life and health from danger and turning himself around to be a benefit to the community and its source of respect, thereby, rescuing the downfall of his personality and exposing it to danger. The most dangerous drugs, taken by addicted people,which are harmful to the health, as well as, the society and the system, as the statistics of the experts show, are:

1. Alcohol

2. Opium and its by-products

3. Cannabis (marijuana)

4. Cocaine

5. Kat (khat -Cathaedulis )

6. LSD and other hallucinogens

7. Heroine ...etc.

Already the IslamicShari'a has prohibited the drinking of alcohol, as well as, the use of drugs, due to their harmful effects to the mind, spirit, body and wealth, and, likewise, the prescribed punishment for those who indulge in their use, for preserving theindvidual , as well as, the community's health from the evil of this epidemic, and it discourages from rape, theft, aggression, family problems and other negative effects on the children of the addicted persons. Allah, the Most High, says:

"O you who believe! Intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrficing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are onlyan uncleanness , theShaitan's work; shun it..." Holy Qur'an (The Table Spread 5:90)

It is in view of this, that the Qur'an terms alcohol as filth and an atrocity which must be shunned, as the Qur'an also regards alcohol among the causes of misunderstanding and security problems where it calls it enmity and hatred. Allah, the Most High, says:

"TheShaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance..." Holy Qur'an (The Table Spread 5:91)And , it is reported that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) said:"Any intoxicant is forbidden."(23) Due to the danger that afflicts whoever takes this deadly substance, Islam prohibits the manufacturing of beer, transactions of it, drinking, as well as, the selling of the substances used in its production, if it is known that they will be used for illegal purposes. And, surely, much concern is being given, educationally, and through the mass media on its prohibition, as well as, its danger to life, and was founded on the aim of safeguarding human life and protection from its evil effects.

Consequently, among the most dangerous effects of taking this substance, is its effect on the intellect and lack of consciousness which results in sexual violation (rape) and acts which destroy man's personality and dignity, as it causes the waste of billions of dollars annually in the taking of this substance and its cure, whereas (if not because of this) this huge amount of wealth could be used to fight poverty and on other welfare programs likesufficent health and educational services to the community. But these extravagant acts cause the suffering of millions of people all over the globe. In addition, the negative effect on man's health is caused by this deadly and destructive substance.

8. Idleness

Surely, idleness is not only an economic problem, but it is also a spiritual, social, security, as well as, political problem. And the youths' generation is a generation of work and production, because it is the generation of power, capability, skillfulness and experience. Consequently, the youth is thinking about the growth of his condition, economically, as well as, socially, by depending on himself through work and production,espcially the able-bodied ones and graduates who spend the most important part of their life in school, as, also, millions of youths are suffering from idleness, because of insufficient capability and lack of sufficient knowledge and experience due to their government or families slackness and carelessness. The statistics show that there are millions of youths, all over the world, who are jobless, and in the end they are suffering from poverty, needs and deprivation, as well as, bad conditions of health or lateness in marriage, and the growth of their family or their inability to sustain their families.

Another scientific statistic shows that idleness has its own bad effect on the surety of spirit due to the effect it has on the body's health. Indeed, large number of unemployed persons showed signs of lost spiritual esteem, feelings of frustration, feeling inferior to others, and it confirms that some of them were overpowered by weariness and that they were deprived, bodily, as well as, intellectually,(24) and, likewise, the statistic showed that idleness obstructed the spiritual growth of youths. It not only found that anxiety and dejection, as well as, gloominess increased among the jobless people, rather these circumstances extended negatively to the relationship with the wife and children, thereby, increasing the family's problems. Another factor which pushes people to the act of taking their own life is trying to escape debt, and it has been found that 69% of those committing suicide are jobless people, where the percentage of crimes, like manslaughter, and aggression increases between the ranks of jobless persons as a result of spiritual tension and strain.

Among the problems of idleness, which has its own negative, as well as, positive effect, is the problem of emigration and leaving the family and the community. The fundamental cause of this problem, between the jobless people, is poverty and lack of life sustenance. Indeed, the crippling of bodily capability due to idleness, especially between the capable and experienced youths who do not have the means to practice it, will force this capability to turn into a disaster for them and, at long last, cause problems for them (and their community). And furthermore, idleness has become a major complication in some countries, and even brings down some governments, due to demonstrations and rebellion toward the rulers and financial administrators whom the jobless term as the causers of idleness and unemployment.

But, surely, Islam has solved the problem ofpovety and idleness spiritually, as well as, materialistically! It is reported that the holy prophet (s.a.w .) said: "A soul (spirit) becomes steady when it attains its power."(25) And ImamJa'far Al-Sadiq (a.s .) said: "A soul defiles its owner, if it does not have what it needs to stand on, but if it gains its power becomes steady."(26)

These traditions disclose the scientific analysis on the relation between the spiritual side of man and material sufficiency, and its effect,vis -a-vis , steady and spiritual calmness, and that lacking and poverty causes grief, anxiety and unsteadiness, and, health problems like hypertension, digestive tract disease, bodily pain...etc. Therefore, idleness is the major cause of poverty,insufficency and deprivation. It is in view of this that Islam calls people to work and discourages them from idleness and laziness. Rather, it, also, necessitates work in order to sustain life with necessary needs for himself and those under his care.

For controlling idleness, Islam calls for the learning of some professions like businesstransactions, mechancial works, tailoring services, farming... etc. It is related in a prophetic tradition that: "Allah loves an honest professional."(27) The Holy Qur'an calls on people to work and seek wealth, where it says: "therefore go about in the spacious tracts thereof, and eat of His sustenance, and to Him is the return..." Holy Qur'an (Dominion 67:15)

"But when the prayer is over, then disperse abroad in the land and seek of Allah's grace..." Holy Qur'an (Friday 62:10)

And the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) regards work as Jihad in Allah's cause. It is reported that he (s.a.w .)said : "Ahardworker for sustaining his family's needs is like amujahid (Islamic warrior) in Allah's cause."(28) It is also reported from Imam Ali (a.s ) that he said: "Laziness and impotence merge as things merge, resulting in poverty."(29) For discouraging and warning against idleness and laziness, we quote what is reported from ImamRidha (a.s .) quoting his father, Imam Musa binJa'far al-Kazim (a.s .), who said: "My father cautioned some of his children to be wary of laziness and boredom, because it prevents one from fortune and luck both in this world and the hereafter."(30)

And indeed the prophet, the holy Imams and the pious servants have manifested these principles practically, because they used to raise animals, practice farming, transactions, tailoring andcarpentary . And Imam Ali bin Musa al-Ridha (a.s .) has disclosed this which has been related from one of his companions that: "I sawAbul-Hasan working on his land, his back wet with sweat, then I said to him: `May I be your ransom, where are the men?' He said: `The holy prophet (s.a.w .), Imam Ali and the rest of myfathers (peace be upon them all) have worked with their hands, and it is the work of prophets, messengers, ministers of state and pious servants.' "(31)

Surely, allthese give the generation of youths an awareness of the importance of work and the danger of idleness and gives them the material capability, as well as, personalhonour and respect and discourages them from idleness and laziness. Consequently, among the major prerequisites of work, in the present world,is knowledge and professional capabilities . Thus, work fills thevaccum and rescues the youths from spiritual impasses, as well as, prepares a way for their success and future growth. And how many times the governmentalparatacticals , especially in the capitalist countries and other monopoly corporations, unjustly accuse the youths in the third world of seizing their goods and wealth, as well as, causing problems and crises which causes the death of millions of people. When the wealth of these people is destroyed and they are forced to stay in poverty, idleness and deprivation, it is necessary for us to be politically, as well as, socially conscious and work toward the growth of our wealth and render our services to the present and future generations.