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A Glance at the World of Youth

A Glance at the World of Youth

Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

4. Youths and Wars

Among the major problems facing mankind throughout the centuries has been war and bloody conflicts between nations and races. No matter how war occurs, there must be an oppressor or the blame will be on both sides of the war, and how often mankind has suffered from such oppressive wars. Hence, war can be regarded as a destroyer of human capabilities. It is obvious that wars require bodily capability, fighters, sacrificing huge amount of money, mobilization of troops... etc., and the major part of world armies are comprised of youths. Therefore, wherever it occurs, war's major components and victims are the youths, in addition to their being victims of economic destruction and other evil practices, because, they are the target of economic, political, as well as, social standstill of a war.

Consequently, the young man who is recruited for war usually stays long in the army barracks and at the war fronts, is deprived of family life, like marrying, fathering legitimate children, forming a family, providing the economic prerequisites of life, continuing studies or having a profitable job.

Wars also become the source of anxiety, spiritual, as well as, bodily disorder in the youths' generation, who were recruited and driven to the battle fronts by the order of those who want to make money and have hegemony over the deprived nations or safeguarding the rulers without the prior consent of those youths.

Indeed, the Vietnam and Korean wars, the allied forces versus SaddamHussain in the Gulf war, the Iraq - Iran war, as well as, the two world wars, i.e., the first and second world wars, all these disclose the destructive effects on millions of youths being the victims of depression, racism, suicide and taking of narcotic drugs, as well as, leaving behind millions of orphans, widows and parents who lost their children. Therefore, it is necessary for the youths to be completely alert and conscious of the wars which they were called upon to participate in. But, the just wars, like wars indefence of the right principles, or for safeguarding the interests of the nation, community and human values are holy wars. Thus, this type of war is another example of safeguarding security and peace (of the community) and achieving the human's aim and his interests.

So, Islam, according to its logic and method of understanding life, death and the hereafter, regards `jihad' andmatyrdom among the sacred andholliest principles. Allah, the Most High, says:

"And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord, the record (of deeds) will be placed (open); the prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward, andjudgement shall be given between them with justice, and they will not be wronged (in the least)." Holy Qur'an (The Crowds 39:69) Allah, the Almighty says whileexlpaining some aims of holy fighting in Islam says: "And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah and of the weak among the men and women and the children, (of) those who say: Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors..." Holy Qur'an (Women 4:75)

In another place, the Holy Qur'an explains that war should be against unjust rulers who aggress on the security of mankind and its rights and who practice oppression, corruption and enmity. Allah, the Almighty says: "Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of evil..." Holy Qur'an (Women 4:76)

Thus, in the logic of material wars, the youths are the forerunners used in war and are the troops who safeguard the interests of unjust rulers and the victims of the wars. While in Islamic logic, those who can go to jihad are responsible for safeguarding the rights of the oppressed, as well as, fighting oppression, vices, corruption and aggression on the earth. TheQur'anic call for mankind is a message of love and peace, and not a message of wars and enmity. Allah, the Most High says: "But if the enemies incline towards peace, then (also) incline towards it, and keep your trust in Allah..." Holy Qur'an (The Spoils of War 8:61)

Therefore, war in this logic, is to defend the truth, prevent aggression and remove the obstacles of unjust rulers on the way of guidance and peace. How great is this Islamic principle, which the Holy Prophet confirms in his saying: "Religion is nothing but love."(32), while at the same time the principles and outlooks of ignorant materialism are founded on the basis of wars, enmity and aggression.

The capitalist ideology, for instance, which governs the West, is founded on the basis of monopoly and seeking commercial markets and natural resources like crude oil, gold and uranium (in order to have control over them). It builds its system on exploiting the weak, oppressed nations and spoiling its resources. Thus, to achieve this aim, they plan and invent diverse weapons of mass destruction, like nuclear and biological weapons, as well as, drafting its machineries with the aim of capturing the whole world and having supremacy over the oppressed. They ignite the fire of war and conflicts, everywhere, in order to have control over the major resources and businesses (of those countries), as well as, controlling the strategic places and laying groundwork for selling their destructive weapons, as they are presently doing in different locations of the world at this very moment.

Therefore, youths can be divided into two generations; one generation lives under the theory of love and peace, and regard wars as a means of defending the truth, and the othergeneraton lives under the system which regards wars as a means of oppression, exploitation and an aggression on the oppressed and deprived people (of the world).

5. The Culture, and Intellectual Inclination of the Youths

Man differs (with other creatures) in the sense that he is a living thing, sane and intellectual who develops his intellect and knowledge through thought, experience and learning from others, but among the fundamental instincts, which associate man and animals, is the instinct of gathering or the instinct of grouping.

Hence, animals, birds and fishes gather as groups in brooding and resting areas, movement, migration and searching for food and water. An Arabic proverb expresses this view by saying: "Birds are known by their shapes". Thus, we can see the relationship between the grouping ofdeers , birds, and fishes and the gathering of people, when they meet at their different meeting places and assemblies. Indeed, it is obvious that a child grows in a particular atmosphere with a certain culture, civilization, intellectual andcivilizational inclination, therefore, these spiritual andcivilizational atmospheres contribute in the formation of his personality and his life style. The Holy Qur'an disapproves of and refuses the method of blind following and accuses it seriously, but, encourages the use of consciousness, thinking and intellect in deciding matters and taking stances, and choosing the right path, as well as, the intellectual and political inclination, with consciousness and wisdom. The Almighty Allah says:

"Say: This is my way. I call to Allah, I and those who follow me being certain, and glory be to Allah, and I am not one of the polytheists." Holy Qur'an (Joseph 12:108)

Surely the Holy Qur'an, in various verses, disapproves of viciousenviromental inclination or imitation of forefathers, without reasoning, and differentiating between right and wrong. For instance, the Almighty Allah says: "And when it is said to them: Come to what Allah has revealed, and to the Apostle, they say: That on which we found our fathers is sufficient for us. What! Even though their fathers knew nothing and did not follow the right way." Holy Qur'an (The Table Spread 5:104)

The Holy Qur'an also informs us on how the prophets and messengers (a.s .) suffered from their people's act of vain environmental and intellectual inclination, as well as, the results of their imitating the inheritance of their forefathers' civilization. Thus, we see it elaborating on this dangerous phenomenon and warning (people) against it, as in this verse: "Just in the same way, whenever we sent awarner before you to any people, the wealthy ones among them said: "We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we too are followers of their footsteps." Holy Qur'an (Adornments 43:23)

Likewise, the holy prophet (s.a.w .) warns against such blind imitation and the one who cannot decide his own stance and inclination from knowledge, consciousness and pure scientific reasoning; he lives as an imitator and follower of others, or to the environmental condition which he was born in, nor he asks himself or examines what he finds himself in: from ideas, ideologies, conducts andbehaviours , so as to be able to hold the right side of it and do away with the mistakes of the previous people, and purifying the ways for the other generations, as well as, escaping from wrong and dangerous mistakes.

Indeed, we can see, clearly, the warning of the holy prophet (s.a.w .) in this saying: "Do not be a mere imitator with no firm determination. You say, `I am with the people who dogood . And if they do evil, so do I.' But train yourself that if people dogood , so should you. But if they do evil shun their evil deeds."(33)

Surely, among the deep-rooted and inherent matters, in man, is his social conduct - as we have explained before -, as well as, his conscious and unconscious inclination toward the community; for instance, his inclination toward the family or tribe, or toward a certain town, province and nation or toward a particular people or group, on the basis of religion or sect, or toward a particular party, organization and professional institution and even to a particular sporting club and other groups. And the state of group inclination and joining a particular group or party, originated from the instinct of social affection or what the psychologists call "Grouping Instinct", and a person's feeling that he is part of that community or group and, consequently, he is in need of it in his lifeendeavours , as well as, to avoid the feeling of loneliness and isolation, thus, he needs to associate himself with others, so as to achieve his aims.

It is obvious that the new generation is witnessing social changes and a new intellectual and political atmosphere, hence, life is composed of movements and changes every moment and these changes and inventions differ according to the community's condition. Thus, for instance, the youth'sgeneration, that lived with Islamic teachings in the time ofprophethood , had faced a tremendous and perfect intellectual, as well as,civilizational changes in its deepest meaning and perfection.

Surely, at the time of revelation, it was the generation of youths that helped and supportedIslam, where as the old generation could not cope and comprehend the new socio-intellectual changes which the Islamicmesssage carried. Likewise, in our present era, the generation of youths (men and women) are the protectors and supporters of Islam, especially in the universities, colleges and other institutions.

For instance, youths, in the Islamic nations, are coping and comprehending the new developments and changes, giving much concern on the future conditions and atmosphere, as well as, acquiring the zeal for change and depending on reality, because in this stage, they feel more challenged with a power which is pushing them against a social and political dictatorship and oppression. Consequently, associations, institutions and clubs play ageat role in educating the youth and guiding their intellect in this stage, especially those that have special programs and ideas for educating, as well as, civilizing their members.

The generation of Muslim youths, are to embrace and accept the Islamic ideas and thought, as well as, incline, with all its might, toward it. It is, also, a target to the deviated ideas and politics, for instance, Marxism and western Capitalism which absorbed a great number of youths. The present state has witnessed ageat change in the Islamic world, intellectual, political and social, at the same time when the world is witnessing a greattechincal and scientific change.

The Marxist civilization crumbled and its ideas became extinguished, after it was able to attract a large number of youths into deviation and, thus, was inits hey day after the second world war, until the time when Marxism was thrown into the dustbin of history. The Western civilization raided the Islamic world after the first world war, and it met an empty, intellectual tendency in the young generation, therefore, it overpowered that generation because of its emptiness and what they had from technical and scientific development, with their great number of soldiers, as well as, propagating the cultural, economic and scientific anxiety which surrounds the Muslim from every angle. But the great problem in this blind and unconscious inclination is the belief that Islam is the maincauser of Muslim's backwardness and that technical and scientific development requires the forsaking of Islam, as a system of life, and exchanging it for Western civilization.

Thus, this is how the Western intellectual war machinery faces the Muslim youths' generation and draws a great number of Muslim children to this deviated path, thinking that it is the solution to the problem of scientific, economic and social backwardness, and achieving freedom and terminating the terroristic systems which govern the Islamic world, through European civilization whose followers, among the Muslims, think that it is the solution to this problem.

Theuniversties , institutions of learning, political parties and the mass media machineries like cinema, television, newspapers, history, drama, poetry and literature books, and the like, are the means and ways of dragging and attracting the youths' generation toward the western material civilization which uses the call for freedom,womens ' rights and sometimes cultural and scientific development as a cover for introducing the bad condition and problems, which the Muslim, especially the youths, are facing in this, our present time. The generation of youths do not understand what this secret plan and conspiracy contains and the hostile and antagonistic aims of eliminating Islam and disuniting the Muslimummah , as well as, fighting them culturally and intellectually, but nevertheless, the conscious elements, the activities of those who are working for Islam and the disclosure of the fakeness of western civilization to the generation of youths, has created a great sense of self-consciousness and thought about the inclination toward the Western ideology. Surely, it becomes clear to the generation of youths that the cause of all human calamities is the material civilization and thecapito -Imperialist system and that man is a victim of this civilization. Because it is a system which practices and encourages terrorism, killing people, plundering their wealth and preparing ground for dictatorship.

All these create a great current in the generation of youths, as well as, the true inclination toward Islam and creating the sense of challenge and revolution against the Western ideology, as well as, their consciously understanding the cause of their backwardness and the total intellectual and political inclination toward Islam.

The formation of civilization is a basic pillar among the pillars of man's personality, and a milestone, as well as, his distinctive element. Thus, the type of a civilization and its size shapes a person with a particular nature. However, culture or civilization is not a material and experienced knowledge and profession which everyone will learn, even if his culture develops, but in a nutshell, we can say the humanknowledges , thoughts, ideas and opinions that are related to his personality's growth, with regard to man's thought toward existence and life, as well as, the danger of his thought and conduct, is what is termed as civilization, e.g., political, literary, historical, beliefs, philosophy and social cultures and others. And, likewise, the community, nation and cultural developments are affected by the type of the culture and civilization that is governing the community.

Thus, an individual's opinions and his understanding of the freedom and human rights, terms and belief in Allah and his responsibility toward his person and his community, as well as, his understanding of life, politics ...etc., is one of the intellectual and cultural terminologies which is supposed to be surrounded by cultural andcivilizational thought and opinions.

And the basic source of man's culture is the divine message,philosophists , books, intellectuals, experts, cultural foundations and massmedias . However, in a single community we can see different thoughts, opinions and cultures competing and challenging each other and even sometimes it will reach a stage of abrogation, and often the cultural and intellectual changes in the community frequently occur and under all circumstances the generation of youths always is in the centre of these conflicts, facing intellectual impasses and witnessing cultural andcivilizational changes. Therefore, it is necessary for a youth to have a cultural personality and civilized identity, and the cultural identity or personality of a Muslim youth is his Islamic identity, but this does not mean that all his cultural undertakings are bound to the religious information which is related to beliefs, history or jurisprudence laws, although given attention and interest in the Muslim youth's culture. Indeed, what we mean by Islamic culture is life consciousness, conducts andbehaviours according to the Islamic way.

Hence, a cultured and civilized Muslim deals with the meaning of freedom and political community, sexual instinct, as well as, relationship with the Lord, the message, wealth, essence, thought...etc., according to the Islamic understanding and way, so this will necessitate the formation of intellectual law, on which the Islamic views will be founded.

Therefore, a Muslim youth needs to understand the Islamic beliefs, the basis ofShari'a laws, prophetic history, be scientifically acquainted with religion, have a knowledge of the Qur'an and the puresunnah . He should start the formation of his culture through Islamic writers and intellectuals who were blessed with the basis and deepness in thought and the modern systems in research and conducts in order to possess the basis and principles of Islam in understanding matters, so as to be able to differentiate between what is Islamic, and what is not Islamic. And how many youths have become a victim of intellectual impasses and conflicts which the human community is afflicted with, especially in our present era, the era of transporting information through the Internet, International television, radio, newspapers, cinema and books, and there are no barricades to become a stumbling block between cultures.

Therefore, the interaction between cultures is an imposed issue naturally and by reality, and we ought todifferientiate between the use of other nations' culture in accordance with Islamic methods, and between their dissolution and deprivation of cultural identity, thus, a Muslim person turns toward blind imitation and becomes overwhelmed or overpowered by what is brought to him of foreign cultures,espcially the western culture. Thus, these are vital issues to look into, and it is the role of the Islamic writers and intellectuals to present the Islamic culture in a developed way, as well as, live presentation, in accordance with the intellectual obligations.

Surely,petrification and imposing retarded formulas toIslam, will drive away the youths from the Islamic thought and teachings. And, surely, what ought to be done, is understanding the present human intellectual problems, such as, the problem of freedom, governing of human rights, the sexual urge, morals, faith and the relationship of knowledge with life, and other phenomenon, as well as, studying itscientifcially , and according to theQur'anic methods, present spirit and its language. Also, it is good to present critical views and opinions which are opposite to Islam, as well as, solving the problems presented by the opponents of Islamic thought with good faith, so the Muslim youths will be well versed in the basics and foundations of Islamic culture and civilization, and understand the weak points of the other thoughts and views, as well as, to be capable of answering the challenges forwarded to the Islamic thought and views.

Whatever the case may be, the formation of a subjective culture is among the responsibilities of a Muslim youth, therefore, it is necessary for him to arrange a time for gaining and learning the Islamic culture and thought, and follow the Islamic culturalprogrammes which are publicized in papers, magazines, books and radio stations. Also, it is the duty of Islamic foundations to provide awareness to the youths which comprise the holdings of Islamic lectures and conferences and the publishing of volumes andservies of books which deals with Islamic thought and intellectual development and culture.

6. Guiding the Youth

The youths are the most precious property of a community, and, consequently, in the puberty stage and the beginning of the youth stage, will undertake the responsibility of life, whatever the nature of the society may be, because very soon they will take thereigns of the society, therefore, precautionary powers must make future plans and projects for the guidance of the youth and the protection of the society on which its dignity depends.

And, indeed, thinking on the capabilities of the youths, through the youths' institutions, guiding their capabilities and rearing their power is the responsibility of the government, society and family. Because if the youths' bodily, intellectual and spiritual power is not well guided and protected, it will turn into a destructive element in thesociety, and rather, it will negatively harm the person himself.

Thus, the great importance of the youth's power and the danger or lack of guiding and protecting it, is what forces some countries to establish special ministries to look into the affairs of the youth and guide them to the right way. Because youths have a wide range of power which needs orientation and rehabilitation, their rehabilitation, like teaching them how to use modern, scientific equipment, through rehabilitationcentres , is a fundamental issue. Hence, teaching them how to use the computer and its different programs, items of production and other electrical appliances will give them orientation in different fields, and will rescue them from the danger of idleness and roaming about, which are the major causes of poverty and social, spiritual and security problems.

A large number of youths have the technical and professional capabilities and talents, like the talents of writing and drawing and other hand works, but need a good atmosphere, exhibitions, conferences and seminars to give them self-esteem. Opening special clubs, too, will help by encouraging the youths to develop their talents. Developing the technical and professional fields and engaging the youths and rescuing them from idleness is quite important, as well, because the danger of idleness, in man, is so great and has a negative effect on his person and his conduct. Unfortunately, a great number of youths have the ability to write stories and poetry, but, their efforts end without benefit because of lack of good support. But, their cultural, as well as, literary rehabilitation through the formation of cultural and literary clubs and groups, and likewise, the printing and publication of cultural and literary works, for the youths, and encouraging them to develop their talents, will give the society a great number of writers, poets, inventors and professional experts.

Also, the youths have the capability of inventing in different fields, thus, it is necessary to protect them and give to these inventors, the necessary material support, as well as, scientific encouragement. Consequently, it is necessary for the states and special government institutions to create certain programs, on radio andtelevison , for the youths and their problems, as well as, for guiding them.

The presence of newspapers, magazines and arranging conferences and seminars, for experts, on the affairs of the youths and their problems, as well as, publishing their findings, is a great and important matter of encouragement on the way to solving the problem, guiding the youths and developing their awareness andprovidng them with experiences and advice.

The youths, in this stage, are distinguished with vitality and bodily power. Therefore, developing the spirit of the youths and sports are the fundamental issues in rescuing them from liquidity and disengagement, and that by opening sports clubs, stadiums, swimming pools and race courses, as well as, arranging sports competitions and presenting prizes, is another way of saving the youths. Hence, Islam gives great importance to sports and exercises, so as to raise a powerful generation. Thus, sports are a bodily, as well as, moral and conduct preparation. It is educating the morals power andhonouring the youths by competition and superiority over others, and morals discipline in relation to the power and beauty of the body, far from pride and domination. Indeed, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) has practiced racing, himself, as well as, watching the race and presenting prizes to the victors. Surely, he (s.a.w .) used to encourage his followers to practice sports.

Thus, sports are the most suitable way of gaining bodily power and capability which the Holy Qur'an calls for. Therefore, it is necessary for the generation of youths to exercise and enjoy power free from liquidity and idleness.

7. Youths and Politics

With theadvancemnent of civil life, and the intensification of the role of power and politics in the social and individual life, the relationship between the government and the people has increased.

Thus, the government takes care of the mission of education and teaching. It is the one which designs and determines information, and is responsible for security and planning, and it handles the economic and financial affairs. It is the one which presents services to people and the nation. It is the one which arranges the relationship of its subjects and other nations, interims of war or peace, friendliness or enmity, transactions or sanctions.

So, that is how the fate of an individual or a people becomes related to the government, and the relationship with the government means a relationship with politics and political life. Thus, politics and political life becomes an important part in the life of an individual. Therefore, it is necessary for him to give more effort and concentration toward the politico-governmental affairs and the type of system which it is governing; because it is the determiner of his fate and destiny, and has a say in all hiswordly affirs , and his hereafter. Thus, Islam regards politics and political activities as a collective responsibility on the whole community. It is reported in a Prophetic Tradition that: "All of you are shepherds and all of you are responsible for your flocks (subjects)".( 34) And it was also reported that he (s.a.w .) said: "Whoever wakes up and does not have concern for the Muslims' affairs, is not a Muslim."(35) And since politics is a guardianship of the society's affairs, so it is the most apparent affair which is necessary for the individual and society to put more attention on.

The struggle of peoples and nations against oppressive and dictatorial regimes and states is a continuous struggle. Surely, the oppression and dictatorship of some regimes has been, and will continue to be, the biggest problem facing humanity and against the well being and advancement of human beings, so this is what forces the society to rise against a cruel regime and to participate inpolitcial activities, in order to free itself and bring better living conditions, planning its fate and destiny and gives way to a regime which will take care of its life. And among theforerenners and vanguards of political activities and political life are the youths, and there are some reasons for this, among them are:

1. The youths represent both bodily and spiritual power which enables them to face struggles and challenges more than others. That is why they are more capable to resist against terrorism,opression and political dictatorship.

2. Political activities require an action under political groups, and in this stage, the youths look for collective inclination, i.e., collaboration with people, which pushes them instinctively towards political activities, in addition to intellectual satisfaction.

3. In the stage of youth and puberty, man faces inventions and changes, especially when the civil life circumstances rapidly advance in the field of knowledge, science and technology. Therefore, theyouths turn toward political activities, as an expression of their desire to change and reform and shows their interest in development and civil advancement.

4. In the youth stage, the ambition of possessing a social role,i.e , position is power, is what pushes youths to join some groups and political parties, in order to gain social power and position in the society.

In 1971, a German analyst,Kavz , had stressed that: "There are differences between students and non-students among the youths, especially on matters of their concern in political activities, political as well as, ideological views...". Kavz also stressed that the demonstrations thatoccured in France in 1968 in which approximately 95% of those participating were students, while only 5% of them were non-students, shows that students are the most concerned about the political and ideological matters more than others from the ranks of the youth and other members of the society."(36) Indeed, among themost clearest proofs of the role of the youths in a political struggle is the PalestinianIntifatha against the Zionist's occupation, and their "stones" revolution which is frightening the terroristic Jews, even with all the power and weapons which they possess.

The youths are the vanguards of this revolution or uprising which has no weapons except rocks, but serves as a stumbling block to the aggressive Zionists, despite the thousands of Palestinian youths who were martyred or injured and tens of thousands which are in prison undergoing different kinds of inhumane torture and punishments.

Of course, these factors differ from one person toanother, and from one environment to another and from one political atmosphere to another. Surely, Islam guides and trains all these stimulants and subjective motives, in order to act correctly and move according to the right views and complete intellectual,behaviorial , as well as, political line and path, and move under the pretext of worship and the general interests and services to the people, as well as, interplaying with the society, its aims and legal interests.

Consequently, the Islamic political education, trains an individual to become mindful and give more concern to politics and the society's future as his ideological and legal duty, because he understands that the Islamic political view believes in the role of the society and nation in politics and joins relations between the state and the people based on consultation, respecting others' views and enjoining good and forbidding evil, respecting people's rights and will, and that power, society's interests, wealth and its future are in the hands of a leader, who is responsible for steering it toward the Islamic system.

The Holy Qur'an outlines this fact by saying:

"Surely Allah commands to make over trusts to their owners and that when you judge between people, you judge with justice..." Holy Qur'an (The Women 4:58)

The Almighty Allah, also, says: "And do not incline to those who are unjust, lest the fire touch you..." Holy Qur'an (Hud 11:113)

The Most High, also, says: "...And their rule is to take counsel among themselves..." Holy Qur'an (Consultation 42:38)

He, the Most High, says: "And from among you there should be a party who invites to good and enjoins what is right and forbids the wrong, and these it is that shall be successful." Holy Qur'an (The Family ofImran 3:104)

However, among the negative effects of political activities seen in the Muslim youths or what leads to evil and deviation, is the joining of political parties and institutions which have Western views, and ideologies, and under the shade of freedom is able to engulf a great number of youths. Also, a great number of them were dragged to the Marxism ideology during which a great number of lives were sacrificed for this sake. And how many times have the youths lost their lives, capabilities, and intellects because of the call to the Western and Marxist views and ideologies? These calls and propagations turned against the Muslim community and its ambitions, without any fruitful result, and still the Muslim nation and its subjects are faced with a state of concern and political anarchy and chaos.

Consequently, the problem of terrorism and political dictatorship, in our Islamic world, is among the most dangerous and complicated human problems in our present era. Surely, the hegemony and domination of the arrogant powers over the political power of the society, has portrayed all its weight and capability in order to prevent the Islamic current from existence and supremacy, and leading the society, especially in the circle of the intellectuals and the generation of the youths. It is worth mentioning that the present Islamic cautions and vigilance, has created an Islamic ideological and political awareness, capable of changing the path and future of the society.

8. Youths and Heritage

Heritage is a `present culture of civilization' terminology, which takes its course and role in the culture and intellect of the people, and becomes an object of debate and differences, in such a way, that even non-Islamic, intellectual writers are using it, as well as, the Islamic writers and intellectuals. The last two decades have witnessed various researches and critique, as well as, analytic studies on the intellectual and cultural heritage of the Muslims.

Thus, heritage is termed as `an intellectual and cultural inheritance, which the present generation inherits from the past generation'. This includes the methods of study, history,jurisprudence and its principles philosophy, ideology, morals, literature, grammar, interpretation, the science ofhadith and chain of narrators. And, rather, some of the non-Islamic writers say that the history of the Prophet and his traditions and what is narrated from the holy twelve Imams (Ahlul -Bait) (a.s ) are considered as a part of heritage. However, the criticism, which heritage faces by some secularist and Muslim writers, shows two extreme approaches:

1. An approach which sanctifies anything inherent, and defends everything called heritage.

2. Another approach tries to downgrade the importance of heritage, and works toward its destruction through creating doubts about its value. It tries to show that heritage is an exudation of the past which does not have a role in the present era, and as a result, it tries to separate the pasta of nation and its present.

Both these approaches have passed the limits and made mistakes. There is a misunderstanding of what heritage is, and which must go under careful scrutiny and purification, to determine whatisShari'a and Divine values and what is not heritage. That which does not need purification is the Holy Qur'an and the authentic Traditions (sunna ) (of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) and the infallible Imams (a.s )), but, since not all of what is ascribed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) and the Holy Imams (a.s ) is authentic and correct, they must be evaluated. Because all of what is left out by thephilosophes , theologians, historians, interpreters and jurists concerning the affairs of jurisprudence, politics and narrations should be under criticism and purification, and none of these views, opinions and approaches will be termed as authentic, unless after thorough examination and investigation.

Therefore, authentic is what is confirmed to be authentic, by clear proofs and scientific examination. In view of this, not all of what reaches us from the Prophet's companions, followers, religious scholars, from books and other scientific sources, and what is reported from historical events, and the traditions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w .) and the twelve Imams (a.s ) are solely authentic, rather, they are authentic and non-authentic.

Likewise, not all of what we inherit from views and opinions of the religious scholars in the fields of politics, ideology, history,culture andQur'anic explanation is sacred and pure. Rather, the scientific method proved by the Holy Qur'an, is the correct method of proof and reasoning and scientific criticism. Therefore, it is necessary for us to embrace heritage and deal with it as a method and with the present thought and views of the Islamists, as well as, non-Islamists. However, the youths face two opposite powers: A power which tries to separate the present generation from the heritage, and isolate it from its past, and at last from its ideology and Islamic values, under the guise that heritage is only useful to the past. And another power which tries to impose solidification and backwardness on the intellect under the guise of protecting the heritage, in all its contents, even those that need purification, with the excuse that doubting these heritages will end in doubting the ideology and the sanctity of the past.

Hence, the generation of youths stands between two attractive powers being pulled, by each, to their own respective power. The present terminologies, inventions andtransfering from the past to the present, has attracted and seduced a great number of the youths. Also, the secularist writers, and those who are creating doubt about the value of the inherit Islamicthought, have taken advantage of the limited civilization and intellect of the youths to create doubts about the heritage. Thus, it is necessary for the youths to understand and know the value and greatness of their nation and its past thoughts and views, and what the Muslims present in the field of science and technology, the scientific methods of research and the thinking for the human race, in general, and their own present advancements.

Consequently, the roots and foundations of the present advancements, in reality, depend on what the Islamic intellectuals and scholars offered to the scientific, as well as, intellectual foundations, and the method of scientific studies which was transferred to Europe through Spain, and translating the books of Muslim scholars after the dark ages witnessed by the West in the Middle Ages. Hence, Islam is the path finder and pace setter of scientific advancement and the helper of the mind and the founder of human civilization.

And what the generation of youths should believe is that the correct method of dealing with the heritage, and the greatness of the nation's heritagedepends on scientific research and proofs. This can be achieved by the spreading and publishing of scientific and inherited works in the field of thought, civilization, technology and morals, and the new and present subsistence. Activating the criticism movement and purifying the heritage from the mistakes it carries is another way of dealing with the problem. Separating Islam, as a belief and greatShari'a from the results of the researches of religious scholars (Ulama ), researchers and the people of views and opinions of the past generations, helps so that we cannot ascribe anything to Islam unless it is proved and confirmed by proofs through the pure argumentative and deductive method.

Thus, it is necessary for the youths to be conscious of the great conspiracies and plots against Islam and humanity, through the intellectual thesis and treatise which carries the present terminologies and hide under the guise of intellectual freedom, which, in its real sense, is an attempt to destroy the intellectual structure and essence of the nation and dissolve its cultural identity, being the secret of its power, advancement and dignity in life.

The Islamicummah (community) has lived in a period of intellectual loss, and the generation of youths and the intellectuals live in this loss, influenced by the present, material culture and civilization, which shielded humanity with war and colonization, and the exploitation of its wealth; oppressing it.

But, this does not mean that we should not use the present scientific technology witnessed by Western countries, rather, the required thing is to choose the pure thought and culture which corresponds with our Islamic culture and civilization. Surely, the superpowers fear the greatness of Islam and the Islamic intellectual ability in building a strong nation and a pure civilization, which goes hand in hand with knowledge, beliefs and morals. Consequently, the mass media and cultural institutions, as well as, writers have subjugated the Islamic thought by mixing and mingling matters and concepts, exploiting the spirit of the intellectual impulse, desire of studying for invention and the good future of the youths.

Indeed, critical studies on other's thoughts which face Islam, will give the youths an understanding of the falseness and forgery of the claims and allegations of such treatise against the IslamicUmmah . A thorough study of Islamic thought from its original source, and with the spirit of knowledge and the intellectual method, will disclose the greatness of Islam and its ability to head the human race and reform its affairs. Finally, there is a basic issue in the study of Islam, and this is the differentiating of Islam and the backward state of the Muslims. The required thing is to upgrade the Muslims to the ideological, legal, as well as, moral standards of Islam, and not measuring Islam on the Muslimsendeavours and dealings which is against Islamic teachings.