Al-Abbas (Hazrat Abul Fazl)

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Al-Abbas (Hazrat Abul Fazl)

Author: Abu Talib Al-Tabrizi
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
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Al-Abbas (Hazrat Abul Fazl)

Al-Abbas (Hazrat Abul Fazl)

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

Al-Abbas

Author: Abu Talib Al-Tabrizi

Contents

The Publisher's Word 5

DEDICATION 6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 7

THIS BOOK 8

Preface 10

THE PURE LINEAGE 11

THE IMMACULATE WOMB 11

SERIES OF FATHERS 12

FATHERS 12

ADNAN 13

MAAD 13

NIZAR 14

MADHAR 14

Mudrika 14

AN-NADHR 14

FIHR 14

KAAB 14

KELAB 14

QUSSAY 14

ABD-MENAF 15

HASHIM 15

ABD-UL-MUTTALIB 15

ABU-TALIB 15

ALI 16

UNCLES 16

HAMZA 17

TALIB 17

AQIL 17

Descendants of Aqil 18

JAFAR 18

UMM-UL-BANIN 18

MARRIAGE 18

HER SITUATIONS 18

IN THE SIGHT OF THE AHL-UL-BAYT 19

IN THE SIGHT OF MUSLIMS 19

BROTHERS AND SISTERS 19

THE TWO IMAMS 19

MOHAMMAD IBN AL-HANAFIYYA 20

FULL BROTHERS 20

ZAYNAB 20

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE 20

YEAR OF BIRTH 21

NAME 21

AL-ABBAS IN ARABIC 21

HIS MOTHER'S VERSES 21

Nicknames 23

PREDICTIONS 23

EARLY LIFE 23

EPITHETS 24

BAB UL-HUSSEIN 24

QAMAR BANI HASHIM 24

AS-SAQQAA 25

AL-ABBAS AND WATERING 25

BATTAL UL-ALQAMI 26

HAMIL UL-LIWAA 27

Kebsh Ul-Kateeba 27

AL-AMEED 28

HAMI AZ-ZHAEENA 28

BAB UL-HAWAAIJ 28

ASH-SHAHID.28

AL-ABD US-SALIH 28

AL-AABID 28

PERSONALITY 30

COURAGE 30

FAITH 30

DISDAIN 31

PATIENCE 31

LOYALTY 31

LOYALTY TO THE RELIGION 31

LOYALTY TO THE NATION 31

LOYALTY TO THE HOMELAND 32

LOYALTY TO HIS BROTHER 32

WILLPOWER 32

MERCY AND KINDNESS 32

Al-Abbas in The Imams' Sight 33

1) IMAM ALI 33

2) IMAM AL-HUSSEIN 33

3) IMAM ZAYN UL-ABIDIN 33

4) IMAM AS-SADIQ 34

A. CLEAR-SIGHTEDNESS 34

B. STEADFAST FAITH 34

C. FIGHTING WITH IMAM AL-HUSSEIN 34

ZIYARA OF IMAM AS-SADIQ 34

A. SUBMISSION 34

B. BELIEF 35

C. LOYALTY 35

D. SINCERITY 35

5) IMAM AL-MAHDI 35

THE HOLY SHRINE 37

LOCATION 38

RIVER AL-ALQAMI 39

BURIAL PLACE OF THE HEAD 40

BURIAL PLACE OF THE TWO HANDS 40

CONSTRUCTION 41

PILGRIMAGE 42

The Ziyara of Al-Abbas 44

CHARISMATA 46

Descendants of Al-Abbas 50

EVENTS AND MARTYRDOM 51

MOTIVE OF RIVALRY; THE OLD ENVY 51

ACTIVITIES AGAINST THE PROPHET 51

AFTER THE CONQUEST OF MECCA 52

AFTER THE PROPHET 53

AL-ABBAS IN THE EVENTS 54

THE GOVERNMENT OF IMAM ALI 54

Al-Abbas in The Battle of Siffen 58

MORE ORDEALS 58

THE REIGN OF IMAM AL-HASAN 60

MUAWIYA'S REIGN; HORRIBLE NIGHTMARE 60

THE REVOLUTION OF IMAM AL-HUSSEIN 62

IMAM AL-HUSSEIN REJECTS YAZID'S LEADERSHIP 62

TO MECCA 63

THE SHIA'S REVOLT IN KUFA 64

Ubaidullah in Kufa 65

TO THE LAND OF MARTYRDOM..67

AL-ABBAS FETCHES WATER FOR THE AHL-UL-BAYT 72

GRANT OF REPRIEVE FOR AL-ABBAS 73

Day of Ashura 75

THE WAR 76

MARTYRDOM OF AL-ABBAS 79

Endnotes 81

The Publisher's Word

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT THE MERCIFUL

Great personalities contribute strongly in the composition of perfect character through their model conducts and high standards. From this cause it has been important to introduce such characters to the seekers of perfection so that they will be acquainted with the qualifications that authorized such characters to attain perfection and become cynosures of humankind.

Ansariyan Publications is pleased to introduce to the gentle readers this book that deals with the personality of one of the heroes of Islam and the exemplary men through whose sacrifices, ideal situations, and high moral standards humanity proceeded many steps onwards. This perfect personality is al-Abbas ibn Ali upon whom the Imams (a) conferred the finest words of praise and laudation.

Through this book, the reader will find chapters covering the whole life account of al-Abbas in addition to a brief presentation of the historical circumstances that led him to be on the top in the list of the heroes of humanity in general and Islam in particular.

Undertaking the mission of the propagation for Islam, the team of the Ansariyan Publications beseech the All-benefactor Lord to grant them the ability to present other similar books dealing with other ideal personalities that contributed in elevating the Islamic spirit to levels befitting its perfection. Thus, in the near future, the dear readers will have in possession similar books about other personalities.

Finally, we hope this book will add new knowledge and contribute, at any extent, in leading to human perfection.

Ansariyan Publications, 2001.

DEDICATION

To the lady who was born by heroes and could carry all the qualifications of giving birth of a hero- the lady who preferred the children of the Prophet to her children- the lady who sacrificed her four sons for God- the lady whom God has made the door to the settlement of needs- the mother who fed her son with heroism, magnanimity, and altruism- the mother of al-Abbas, the righteous servant of God, I dedicate this modest work, hoping for acceptance.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My deep appreciation is extended first of all to the owner of the idea of compiling a book approaching the personality of al-Abbas ibn Ali (a), Mr. Mohammad Taqi Ansariyan who assigned me for this holy task. It is surely a holy task since it deals with the great leader who represented all the meanings of heroism, loyalty, perseverance, and truthfulness.

Appreciation is also shown to Dr. Muhsin Jaffar who offered his considerable notes about the text of this book. I, too, would like to refer to the assistance that I received from Sheikh Abu-Alaa as-Saffar and Mr. Mohammad Gannan who supplied me with precious reference books upon which I relied throughout this work. And, finally, thanks to everybody who encouraged and helped me proceed with this work.

THIS BOOK

This project was, initially, only 'to investigate the best book written about the personality of al-Abbas ibn Ali and then translate it into English.' Having searched the libraries, I, unfortunately, found only few books dealing completely with this personality. Nevertheless, these books were full of topics not related, directly, to the personality of al-Abbas. Therefore, I, after discussing the matter with Mr. Ansariyan, was asked to choose topics related to the life and personality of al-Abbas ibn Ali from the reference books that I could have, and then compile them in a book.

During this work, I have mainly depended upon three books:

1. Al-Muqarram, Sayyid Abd-ur-Razzaq al-Musawi, Al-Abbas. Ash-Sharif ar-Radhi Publications - Qum. First Edition.

2. Al-Qarashi, Baqir Sharif, Al-Abbas ibn Ali: the pioneer of dignity and sacrifice in Islam. Mehdiyyeh Publications - Qum. First Edition, 2000 A.D.- 1420 A.H.

3. Al-Kulbasi, Ayatollah Hajji Mohammad Ibrahim, Al-Khassaaiss ul-Abbasiyya (The particularities of al-Abbas). Al-Maktaba al-Haydariyya Publications - Qum. First Edition, 2000 A.D. - 1420 A.H.

Besides, I referred to other reference books that dealt with this personality whose heroism and high moral standards are too great to be contained. As a matter of fact, all books dealing with the tragic story of Karbala have referred, though in brief, to the personality of al-Abbas ibn Ali. Yet, they have not referred to all the topics and details of his life, because his situation in Karbala that was unique and unmatched in all of its dimensions has taken all the time of such authors to make the other niceties of his life, though important and worthy of reference, seem minor if compared to his situations with his brother, family members, harem of the household of Prophet Mohammed (a) and the companions of his brother on that day in Karbala-these situations have still been working as loadstars for everybody who seeks freedom, dignity, and honor.

This book is of ten chapters related to the whole lifetime of al-Abbas ibn Ali along with factors, matters, and circumstances that contributed in the composition of his great personality, such as the hereditary factors, the family and social environment, and the political circumstances that happened during his lifetime. There is also a chapter dedicated to the discussion of al-Abbas's moral standards, personality, and capacities that qualified him to play that great role in the greatest saga of Islam, which occurred in Karbala, on the tenth of Muharram, AH 61-the encounter that was inevitable for sake of saving Islam from distortion, if not complete eradication.

Another chapter is dedicated to the words of the Immaculate Imams that were said about al-Abbas ibn Ali. I have also referred to the handsome shrine of al-Abbas that is pilgrimaged by thousands of people every day and is still representing that courageous, enthusiastic hero who had offered his two hands, before he offered his soul, for his Lord and religion and for sake of freeing people from wrong and oppression-the hero whose name has become the sign of valor and courage and whose intercession is sought for solving any problem, no matter how complicated it is, because he has enjoyed a special, exalted rank in the sight of God.

I hope the reader will forgive any, certainly unintentional, neglect or shortcoming that he may notice in this work. No one, however, is perfect! Finally, I supplicate to Almighty God to help me, out of His infinite mercy, and lead me, as well as everybody, to success, for His being the one and only source of success.

Preface

Al-Abbas is a full-dimensional history of ancestry, honorable lineage, knowledge, clemency, courage, munificence, adoration, and ascetics as well as all nobilities and virtues.

Al-Abbas is the son of the sinless Imam Amir ul-Mu'minin Ali ibn Abi-Talib.

Al-Abbas is the brother of the two Imams al-Hasan and al-Hussein-the grandsons of Prophet Mohammed (a).

Al-Abbas is the uncle of nine Imams-Ali Zayn ul-Abidin, Mohammed al-Baqir, Ja'far as-Sadiq, Musa al-Kadhim, Ali ar-Ridha, Mohammed al-Jawad, Ali al-Hadi, al-Hasan al-Askari, and al-Mahdi.

Al-Abbas was a good student of the best four immaculate teachers-his father, his two brothers, and his nephew. How great the teachers were and how great their student was!

About him, Imam Ali (a) predicted: "Choose for me a woman who is the descendant of the Arab heroes so that I will marry her and she will give birth of a horseman." To him, Imam al-Hussein (a) addressed: "Ride on, may I be your sacrifice."

About him, Imam Zayn ul-Abidin (a) said: "Allah may have mercy upon my uncle, al-Abbas. He preferred his brother to himself, did well, and sacrificed himself for his brother until he lost his two hands for sake of such." About him, Imam as-Sadiq (a) said:

"My uncle al-Abbas was clear-sighted, steadfastly faithful… etc." About him, Imam al-Mahdi (a) said:

"Salaam be upon Abu'l-Fadl al-Abbas, son of Amir ul-Mu'minin. He preferred his brother to himself, supplied himself with (opportunities of) today for (rewards of) tomorrow, sacrificed himself for his brother, protected him, hurried for fetching him water, and his two hands were cut (for such)." Al-Abbas, after all, was the righteous servant of God and the epitome of heroism.

THE PURE LINEAGE

Undoubtedly the family relation with the great personalities is an honor and dignity, especially when such great personality is the choice of God and the seal of the prophets. Al-Abbas ibn Ali enjoyed a close relation with Prophet Mohammad (a) since he was the son of Ali ibn Abi-Talib who was an independent source of honor and dignity. About Ali, the Prophet (a) and his family, said:

"My brother Ali ibn Abi-Talib enjoys innumerable merits. Neither jinn nor can human beings count them." Mohammed ibn Idris ash-Shafii; the founder of the Shafiite school of law answered those who asked him to say his opinion about Ali: "What can we say about a person whose partisans have had to hide his merits because of fear, and enemies have hidden his merits out of envy? But between these two, his merits that have become widely known are too numerous to be counted."1 Ibn Abi'l-Hadid; the Mutazilite, says:

"The merits of Ali ibn Abi-Talib are too great and familiar to be mentioned or detailed. Even his enemies and rivalries could do nothing but confessing of the unmatched virtue of this man whose advantages are unconcealed and excellences are unrestrained. Everybody knows that when the Umayyads held the reins of the Islamic world, they spared no single effort for extinguishing the light of Imam Ali and inventing flaws against him. Moreover, they issued the decisions of cursing him openly from the mimbars of their mosques and sentenced to death everyone who would mention any of his incalculable merits. They also prevented people from reporting any narration that may refer to any of his excellences. Finally, they even prevented people from calling his name on their newborns. Nevertheless, all these procedures exalted Ali's reputation and took him to more elevated levels. He was like musk whose perfume spreads when it is screened, and like the sun that cannot be screened by one's palm, and like daylight that is seen by many eyes if one eye is closed against it."2

Thus was the father of al-Abbas who has every right to take pride in him and learns from his morals, ethics, and excellences.

THE IMMACULATE WOMB

From the maternal side, al-Abbas was the son of a great lady; namely Umm-ul-Banin, who enjoyed excellent lineage and personality. In addition to her high moral standards, she was well known of her loyalty to the Ahl-ul-Bayt3 and her devoutness. Therefore, she occupied an elevated position in the sight of the Ahl-ul-Bayt who praised her in many occasions and showed her great respect.

Because of such remarkable care for Imam Ali's sons and daughters, God has given Umm-ul-Banin exclusive positions and made her a means that takes to Him and a way through which the suppliants' most complicated problems are solved. On the hands of her noble parents, Umm-ul-Banin was brought up on righteous moralities and the highest ethical standards that she became fit to be the wife of Imam Ali (a) and a compassionate mother for the chiefs of the youth of Paradise.4 This great lady gave birth of four courageous sons the elder among whom was Abu'l-Fadhl al-Abbas. He, as well as his full brothers, acquired the qualities of courage and bravery from their mother whose descendants were the most courageous among the Arabs. Umm-ul-Banin, then, contributed in the composition of the personalities of her four sons who showed unmatched courage on the day of Ashura and sacrificed themselves for their religion and its representative; Imam al-Hussein (a).

SERIES OF FATHERS

Ancestry plays a considerable role in the construction of personalities. It has a great influence in self-discipline and behavior. On that account, genealogy, which is the branch of knowledge that deals with the investigation of the details of ancestry, occupies a significant position in the society because of the influence of heredity, which has been proved through many scientific researches, on the structure of both individuals and communities.

In addition, many Islamic laws have depended mainly on genealogy, especially in fields of inheritance, taxes, regard of relatives, and blood money of the unintentional killing… etc. A genealogist, like any other specialist to whom it is referred in matters relating to his special domain, enjoys a substantial position in the religious, social, and ethical affairs.

Aqil ibn Abi-Talib was the most celebrated in this field. In addition to his being the descendant of that unparalleled pedigree, he was the reference to whom people submit in fields of genealogy. He could discern the sources of glory, distinguish the Arab tribes, and tell between the deep-rooted ones and the disreputable.

In the center of the Prophet's Masjid , Aqil used to be encircled by all those who are interested in genealogy as well as the history and origins of the Arab tribes to listen to him carefully and trust whatever he would tell. Historians have reported uninterruptedly that Imam Ali (a) summoned his brother Aqil and asked:

"Choose for me a woman who is the descendant of the Arab heroes so that I will marry her and she will give birth of a horseman.6 " Aqil answered his brother: "Marry Umm-ul-Banin, from the tribe of Kelab, for no Arab individual is more courageous than her fathers and forefathers."

FATHERS

Al-Abbas is the son of Ali, son of Abu-Talib, son of Abd-ul-Muttalib, son of Hashim, son of Abd-Menaf, son of Qussay, son of Kelab, son of Murra, son of Kaab, son of Luway, son of Ghalib, son of Fihr, son of Malik, son of an-Nadhr, son of Kenana, son of Khuzayma, son of Mudrika, son of Ilias, son of Madhar, son of Nizar, son of Maad, son of Adnan…

As we recite the Prophet's saying, 'When you refer to my fathers, you should stop at Adnan,' we have to stop at him, because of, as it seems, the difficulty in pronouncing the names of the other fathers utterly or because errors might occur in the series of their names. However, it is unacceptable to mistake intentionally the names of those whose descendant was the great Prophet Mohammed (s). To have little discussion about fathers of the Prophet (s), we may refer, first of all, to the following point:

We believe that all fathers of the Prophet (s) up to Adam are pure in birth and belief. In other words, all ancestors of the Prophet (a) were believers as none of them had ever worshipped an idol or anything other than Almighty God. The holy Quran proves this fact by saying: "And rely on the Mighty, the Merciful Who sees you when you stand up and (watched you during) your turning over and over among those (ancestors) who prostrate themselves before Allah. Surely, He is the Hearing, the Knowing."7

Any contrary matter that may be arisen must be interpreted in a way befitting this principle. For instance, the one to whom the holy Quran has referred as being Prophet Abraham's father was not his father. He was either his uncle or maternal grandfather. All historians have proved that Prophet Abraham's father was called 'Tarikh', not 'Azar,' as the Quran says -(Consider when Abraham asked his father, Azar, "Why do you believe idols to be your gods? I find you and your people in absolute error."8 -

In addition, the holy Quran, in another situation, refers to the uncle as father: (Were you-believers-there when death approached Jacob? When he asked his sons, "Whom will you worship after my death?" They replied, "We will worship your Lord, the Lord of your fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, and Isaac. He is the only Lord, and to Him we have submitted ourselves."9 )

Prophet Isaac was the uncle of Jacob. Nevertheless, the Lord has added him to 'fathers'. Prophet Mohammed (s) declared that all his ancestors were not worshippers of anything other than Almighty God, and were not the products of illegitimate copulation: "When Allah wanted to create us, He made us in a form of a pillar of light in the spine of Adam. Hence, that light was shining in his forehead. That pillar, then, moved to Shith his successor who received the commandment of his father that he must not put that pillar in any place other than wombs of purified women. With the moving of this pillar of light, this commandment moved with it. Hence, only the celebrities could carry that pillar of light and only the purified women carried it. When it reached the spine of Abd-ul-Muttalib, that pillar was divided into two parts-one went to Abdullah who moved it to the womb of Amina, and the other went to Abu-Talib who moved it to the womb of Fatima bint Asad."10 Let us now refer briefly to the fathers of al-Abbas:

ADNAN

Historical reports have conveyed that Adnan, through many speeches, foretold about the coming of Prophet Mohammed (s) who would be one of his descendants. He also commanded the next generations to follow him.

MAAD

Maad, who was following the religion of his forefather Prophet Abraham, was a great warrior. He used to lead campaigns against the Israelites who apostatized the belief of monotheism. When Nebuchadnezzar besieged and destroyed Jerusalem, God gave His orders to one of his prophets to carry Maad with him so as to save him from any injury. The Lord also told, by revelation, that prophet that one of the descendants of Maad would be the seal of the prophets. Hence, Maad was taken to Syria until that campaign ceased.11

NIZAR

Historians have also told that Nizar was a famous celebrity from whose forehead light of prophecy was glittering.12

MADHAR

It is related that Prophet Mohammad (s) warned against reviling at Madhar (and Rab?'a) because these were two faithful individuals who believed in Almighty God. Besides, Madhar was a wise man some of whose maxims have been recorded in books of history. ILIAS Ilias ibn Madhar was the chief of his people. He was the first to offer camels as sacrifices to the Holy House of God and the first to recognize the Standing-Place of Abraham after the flood that covered the Holy House in Mecca. Finally, he was faithful monotheist. It is also related that Prophet Mohammad (s) warned against reviling at him.

Mudrika

Mudrika was good-looking, high-ranking celebrity. He acted as the reference of the Arabs who used to visit him for learning from his knowledge and virtue. He also predicted the coming of Prophet Mohammad (s) through many speeches of wisdom that he used to deliver. History has recorded for him many maxims.

AN-NADHR

An-Nadhr is Koreish; hence, his descendants are called the Koreishites. He was also man of wisdom, knowledge, and chiefship.

FIHR

When Hassan ibn Abd-Kelal invaded the Kaaba13 to take its stones for building a similar house in Himyar-Yemen, Fihr, who was monotheist, could overcome him in a battle and take him as prisoner. Consequently, the Arabs feared and respected him. He was also eloquent. Historians have recorded some of his maxims.

KAAB

Books of history have mentioned long speeches delivered by Kaab ibn Luway regarding the prediction of the coming of Prophet Mohammed (s) and the commandment to support him. He also composed poetic verses in this regard.14 Because of his high honor and personality, his people put a new calendar beginning with the day of his death.

KELAB

Kelab was well known of his courage. He was light-forheaded because of the light of prophecy.

QUSSAY

Qussay was called chief of the Holy Precinct. He housed his people in Mecca so that the other tribes would fear them. He also constructed the Dar-un-Nidwa, in which people of Koreish used to meet for discussing their affairs. He also founded the custom of serving the pilgrims with food and gained the custody of the Holy House. Historians have recorded many of his words in fields of morals and virtue. One of his speeches proves that he warned his people against drinking wines.

ABD-MENAF

Abd-Menaf was such glorious and honorable personality that he was appointed as chief of his people. Because of his prettiness, he was called "Moon of al-Bat'haa." He was also well known of munificence and generosity.

HASHIM

Following the customs of his fathers, Hashim used to serve the pilgrims with food. His situation in the year of famine is very famous.15 He also enjoyed all virtues. His speeches are recorded in books of history.

ABD-UL-MUTTALIB

Abd-ul-Muttalib was called Shaibat-ul-Hamd -personality of praiseworthiness-, because people praised him so laudably for his remarkable situations of honoring, wisdom, and sagacity. To refer to his rank, it is sufficient to mention the following saying of Prophet Mohammad (s): "O Ali, in the pre-Islamic era, Abd-ul-Muttalib passed five laws that Allah enacted in Islam. He forbade sons from marrying their fathers' women, and Allah revealed: "Do not marry, from now on, the ex-wives of your fathers.16 "

As Abd-ul-Muttalib found a treasure, he gave its one-fifth as alms. Allah revealed: "Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to Allah, the Messenger, the kindred, orphans, the needy and those who need money while on a journey."17

When he dug the Zamzam Spring, he called it 'the watering of the pilgrims'. Allah revealed: "Do you, because you served water to the pilgrims and constructed the Sacred Mosque, consider yourselves equal to those who have believed in Allah, the Day of Judgment, and have fought for the cause of Allah?"18 Abd-ul-Muttalib issued the law that one hundred camels should be paid as the blood money of murdering. Allah passed the same in Islam. For the Koreishites, they did not stop at a limited number of circumambulations around the Kaaba; hence, Abd-ul-Muttalib decided seven circulations for them. In Islam, Allah passed this law. O Ali, Abd-ul-Muttalib used to avoid dividing by casting superstitious and gambling arrows, worshipping the idols, and having the flesh of an animal that had been sacrificed on the stone blocks. He used to say: I follow the religion of my father Abraham the prophet (a). "19

Historians have recorded that Abd-ul-Muttalib was one of the prophets' successors and had full acquaintance with the Heavenly Books. From this cause, he foretold Abu-Talib, his son, about the prophecy of Mohammed (s). In this regard, Abu-Talib was related to have said: "My father had full knowledge of all the Heavenly Books. He once said: A prophet will be from my offspring. I wish I would catch up his time to believe in him. Hence, anyone of my sons who will catch up his time must believe in him.20 "

ABU-TALIB

Like his father, Abu-Talib was the chief of his people and had knowledge of the Heavenly Books. 'He kept the commandments of the prophets until he delivered them to Prophet Mohammed (s).'21

This great personality has become a matter of discussion among historians some of whom, unfortunately, have given credence to the lie that he had departed life before being Muslim-this fabrication was invented by the pro-Umayyads narrators for nothing more than his being the father of Ali the first enemy of the Umayyads. Hence, they -the Umayyads- and their tails wanted to convince people that Abu-Suffian -the mortal enemy of Islam and the father of Muawiya- died as Muslim while Abu-Talib was atheist.

Allama al-Mejlisi said: "Unanimously, Shia believe that Abu-Talib had never worshipped an idol. They believe that he was one of the successors of Prophet Abraham (a)."

Through his poetic verses that are related by all historians, people of reason can clearly identify the reality of Abu-Talib, who was the custodian, guardian, and defender of Prophet Mohammad (s) until he, as well as the Hashemites,22 was detained in a col to die there rejecting any submission to the enemies of Islam.23

Finally, let us refer to the following narration as quoted from Tarikh ut-Tabari; 2/214 and as-Seerat ul-Halabiyya; 1/306: Abu-Talib, once, asked his son Ali: "What is this belief you are following?" Ali answered: "Father, I have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and have given credence to him, kept to him, and followed him." Abu-Talib commented: "Certainly, he calls you to nothing but the good. Hence, you must adhere to him."

ALI

The eloquent are too tongue-tied to describe or count the characteristics of Ali ibn Abi-Talib. It is, also, very difficult for any writer to refer to Imam Ali's unparalleled personality in any words.

First, Ali was the foremost to embrace Islam. He in fact had never embraced any belief other than Islam: Prophet Mohammed (s) said: "Ali and I belong to the same tree, while people belong to different trees."24 Since the earliest steps of his divine mission, Prophet Mohammed (s) appointed Ali as his representative, successor, and supporter: Prophet Mohammed (s) said:

"This-Ali- is my brother, successor, and representative among you. You thus should listen to and obey him."25 On the strokes of Ali's sword, the pillars of Islam have relied: Prophet Mohammed (s) said:

"Ali's stroke on Amr ibn Abd-Wudd is equal to the worship of both mankind and jinn.26 " He (s) also said before the conquest of Khaybar:

"I will hand the standard to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger and is loved by Allah and His Messenger. He will come back with conquest.27 " Ali, finally, was the most knowledgeable, most sagacious, most pious, and most eloquent among all Muslims. Because of the aforementioned golden series of fathers of al-Abbas, he could join glory to honor and decency. He therefore gained all the elements of nobility that resulted in the composition of his matchless personality.

UNCLES

Like fathers, uncles play a good role in the structure of personalities. According to the law of heredity, individuals may acquire some characteristics from their paternal uncles. The paternal uncles of , al-Abbas, were such unique personalities whose lives and situations have been matters of pride for humanity in general and Islam in particular.

HAMZA

Hamza won the badge of honor from his nephew, the great Prophet Mohammed (s) who named him, 'Asadulllah wa asadu Rasoulih -the lion of Allah and the lion of His Messenger-', for his unique bravery and courage. He defended Islam fearlessly until he was killed during the battle of Uhud. Hence, the Prophet (s) named him as 'chief of martyrs.' Moreover, many narrations confirm that Hamza had considerable knowledge and outstanding rank in the sight of God. Imam Ali, Imam al-Hasan, Imam al-Hussein, Imam Zayn ul-Abidin, and Imam as-Sadiq mentioned Hamza whenever they wanted to take pride in their lineage or whenever they wanted to refer to the foremost Muslims who defended Islam.

TALIB

Talib ibn Abi-Talib had to conceal his embracement of Islam because he lived in Mecca. During the battle of Badr, the Meccans obliged him, as well as others from the Heshemites, to participate with them. The Prophet (s) therefore declared: "There are some individuals who were coerced to participate in this battle against us; hence, you must avoid fighting them if you meet…"28

AQIL

Aqil was one of the branches of that immaculate tree. He embraced Islam from the beginning; therefore, the Prophet (s) had great love for him: "I love you twice-once for your being Aqil and the other for Abu-Talib's love for you. "29 Historians have evoked rings of suspicion around the personality of Aqil because he joined Muawiya ibn Abi-Suffian. Some claimed that he left the wing of his brother, Imam Ali, to join Muawiya's, because his brother deprived him of additional salaries from the public treasury of the Islamic State. Anyhow, everybody agrees that Aqil, during his stay with Muawiya, did not show any loyalty to him or any disloyalty to the wing of his brother. All indications prove that Aqil had to visit Muawiya who imposed strict blockade against the Hashemites after the death of Imam Ali (a).30