Verses of Ghadir

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Verses of Ghadir Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Quran Interpretation

Verses of Ghadir

Author: Al-Mustafa Center for Islamic Researches
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
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Verses of Ghadir

Verses of Ghadir

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

Notes:

The Footnotes Numbers marks are left till now, it will be done as soon as possible.

Verses of Ghadir

A Search Regarding the Holy Prophet’s Sermons on the Farewell Hajj and an Exegesis of the Qur`anic Verses Indicating the Incident of Ghadir Khumm

An exegesis of the Quranic verses that point to the even of Ghadir Khumm.

Author(s): Al-Mustafa Center for Islamic Researches

Publisher(s): Ansariyan Publications - Qum

Table of Contents

Introduction 6

The Holy Prophet (S)’s Succession Being a Simple Theme8

The Three Verses of Ghadir9

Notes10

The Three Verses Of Ghadir12

(1) The Holy Prophet (S)’s Succession Was Raised During His Lifetime14

First Evidence14

Story of the Tribe of `Amir Ibn Sa`sa`ah 14

Story of the Tribe of Kindah 14

Story of the Tribe of `Amir Ibn al-Tufayl15

Second Evidence15

Third Evidence16

Notes20

(2) The Prophet (S) Foretells About The Twelve Imams (a.s.)22

Hadith of the Twelve Imams23

(A) The Origin of the Word 26

(B) The Divine Promise of Unknown Leadership is Impracticable29

(C) The Imams are from Quraysh, but from the Ahl al-Bayt30

(D) Hadiths Explaining the Narration of the Twelve Imams31

(E) Twelve Imams and Twelve Months31

(F) Jabir al-Siwa`i; the Reporter of the Narration 33

(G) Marks of Authenticity Given to the Three Narrations34

(H) Contradiction of the Contents of The Three Narrations35

(I) The Twelve Imams are not Nominated According to Means of Election and Homage36

(J) The Narration’s Dedication to Quraysh has been Thrown Away by `Umar37

Wahhabism and the Condition of Belonging to Quraysh 38

(K) Exegetes Blunder in the interpretation of the Twelve Imams39

Scholars’ Involvement in Safinah’s Narration 53

(L) Models of our narrations About the Twelve Imams57

Notes60

(3) The Islamic Principles in the Sermons of the Farewell Hajj61

The Humanitarian Equity 62

Models of the Holy Prophet (S)’s Sermons in the Farewell Hajj62

The Holy Prophet (S)’s Sermon in the Farewell Hajj62

First Basis72

Second Basis72

Third Basis76

Fourth Basis77

Fifth Basis86

The Prophets’ Need For People’s Protection During Conveying The Missions90

Qur’anic Sense of Conveyance90

People of Quraysh; The Reason Beyond The Additional Protection 94

Quraysh; The Root of Villains94

Clans of Quraysh 96

Conquest of Makkah Bewilders the Jurisprudents101

People of Quraysh After the Conquest of Makkah 104

People of Quraysh Gather Around Suhayl Ibn `Amr107

Suhayl Works for Independence109

Consequence of the Incident114

`Umar Attests the Tergiversation of the Qurayshites115

Notes116

The Verse of Ismah 118

The Order of the Verse118

The Place of the Verse118

Sunni Scholars’ Opinions119

First Opinion 119

Al-Shafi`i’s Indirect Reports119

Indirect Reports Turn into Reliable Opinions120

Second Opinion 122

Third Opinion 125

Fourth Opinion 127

Fifth Opinion 128

Sixth Opinion 130

The Opinion Agreeing the Ahl al-Bayt’s Interpretation 131

Wahhabis and the Hadith of Ghadir133

The Ahl al-Bayt’s Opinion 139

General Remarks Regarding the Other Opinions142

First Remark 142

Second Remark 142

Third Remark 143

Evaluation of The Opposing Opinions On The Light Of The Verse143

(1) The Matter to be Delivered 143

(2) Confirmation of The Case and Its Conditions143

(3) The Holy Prophet (S)’s Fear144

(5) The Meaning of Protection Against People144

Two Questions Involving the Verse145

(1) Using the Verse as Weapon Against Imam `Ali145

(2) Using the Verse to Refute the Claim that the Holy Prophet (S) was Bewitched148

The Story Of Ghadir150

The Qurayshites During the Farewell Hajj150

Results of the Farewell Hajj151

The Holy Prophet (S) Under Pressure152

The Divine Revelation Stops the Caravan 152

Al-Juhafah and Ghadir Khumm 157

Notes159

The Verse of Ikmal al-Din (The Final Verse)161

Surah al-Ma`idah; the Final161

The Ahl al-Bayt’s Opinion 161

Sunni Narrations Agreeing to the Ahl Al-Bayt’s Opinion 162

The Other Opinions163

The Verse in the Holy Qur’an 166

The Forbidden Meat166

The Ahl al-Bayt and the Verse of Ikmal al-Din 166

Sunni Opinion Agreeing to the Ahl al-Bayt’s168

`Umar’s Opinion 169

Factors Supporting the Ahl al-Bayt’s Opinion 169

(1) Factor of Time169

(2) Factor of Contradiction 169

(3) Factor of the Holy Prophet (S)’s Eternal Instruction 170

(4) Factor of Inconsistency 170

(5) Factor of Other Scholars’ Opposing Opinion 170

(6) Factor of Historical Fact170

(7) Factor of `Umar’s Contradictory Reports170

(8) Factor of `Umar’s Poor Reply 171

(9) Factor of Logic172

(10) Factor of Other Events172

Notes175

The Verse of Sa`il178

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful178

Events Stimulated by People of Quraysh 178

First Event178

Second Event178

Third Event179

Fourth Event179

Fifth Event180

Sixth Event180

Seventh Event181

Eighth Event181

Ninth Event181

Tenth Event181

Eleventh Event182

New Preparations after the Day of Ghadir182

Stones from Heaven upon the Spokesmen of Quraysh 183

(1) Sunni Reference Books of Hadith Record the Incident184

(2) Surah of Maarij was Revealed in Makkah or al-Madinah 184

(4) Sunni Judgment on the Hadith of Stones from Heaven 186

(5) Nasibis’ Opinion About the Hadith 187

(6) Ways of Narration and Documentation 188

A. Ways of narration and documentation of Sunni Reference Books188

B. Al-Hasakani’s two ways from Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah 188

C. Al-Hasakani’s Report from Jabir al-Ju`fi188

D. Al-Hasakani’s Report from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman 189

E. Al-Hasakani’s Report from Abu-Hurayrah 189

Shiite Reports from Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah 189

A. Furat’s Reports189

B. Muhammad ibn al-`Abbas’s Reports189

C. Sharif al-Murtada’s Reports189

D. Muntajab al-Din al-Razi’s Reports189

E. Al-Tabrasi’s Reports190

Shiite Reports from Other Narrators190

A. Al-Kulayni’s Reports190

B. Furat al-Kufi’s Reports190

C. Muhammad ibn al-`Abbas’s report190

D. Shaykh al-Saduq’s Reports191

E. Al-Bahrani’s Reports191

F. Ibn Sahrashub’s Report191

G. `Ali ibn Ibrahim Al-Qummi’s Report191

The Narration is Authentic and the Divine Chastisement Was Repeated 191

(7) People of the Befalling Chastisement192

Banu-`Abd al-Dar; the Standard-Bearers of the Polytheists192

Banu- `Abd al-Dar Give A Lesson in Self-Defense192

Al-Nadr ibn al-Harith; the Chief of Banu-`Abd al-Dar193

Al-Nudayr; al-Nadr’s Brother and Successor193

The Two Most Licentious of Quraysh 194

Notes194

References196

Introduction

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All Praise belongs to Allah alone, and honorable and perfect blessings be upon Muhammad and his infallible, immaculate Progeny.

Unfortunately, scholars have not regarded adequately three questions concerning the Prophets’ missions. The first question is the conveyance of the Lord’s message being the original mission of the Prophets. This point is in fact the pivot on which the Prophets’ missions and actions are grounded, and is purposed for substantiating the Lord’s claim on His servants. A Prophet is then a conveyor of an epistle; he fears the Lord and works for evading His ire and torment in case he violates the instructions. For this reason, the Prophets were wont to call people to witness on the perfection of their conveyance. In addition, they are not asked to enforce people to admit and accept their promulgations and, similarly, not admitted to submit people to their missions.

As a second rule, coercion in matters of the divine religion is rejected. It is obligatory to preserve people’s freedom of believing or refutation. They are, likewise, free to commit themselves to the religion or to deviate. This is the very meaning of opening the school of life in this world and testing people in guidance or deviation by giving them the ability to do good and evil, and the result will be declared on another stage and in another world. Drawing people to the religion by force is contrary to the principles of this divine test as well as to the freedom of choice.

The second question is the Prophets’ goals being to minister to the grand issues of people and societies. A messenger of Allah is compared to an engineer specialized in the construction of cultures, societies and history. The Prophets’ missions should thus be looked upon from these angles. A scholar must ask himself how people’s cultures and history should have been if a certain Prophet (S) had not been given the Divine Mission, and what changes had been made when that Prophet (S) conveyed the Lord’s Message.

In other words, we should wonder how paganism would have looked like nowadays if Prophet Abraham had not been chosen for conveying the Divine Mission or if he had not established the principles of monotheism. We should also wonder what the situation in the Arab lands in particular and the whole world in general would have been if Prophet Muhammad (S)1 had not been chosen for the Divine Mission and what would have occurred had he not perfected the belief of monotheism giving it its current form.

The Holy Prophet (S)’s mission was to establish a nation and to lead it to occupy an advanced, if not pioneer, position amongst other nations, and this formation has been proved the best in content and structure. It is undeniable that the Holy Prophet (S) was keen on giving the leadership of the Ummah2 to his Ahl al-Bayt3 (a.s.)4 as they have been the choice of Allah Who purified them thoroughly5 and gave them His Book in heritage exclusively.6 If people reject the Ahl al-Bayt’s divinely commissioned Imamate,7 it will then make no difference for anyone to hold it, in order that Allah might bring about a matter that was to be done, which is the advent of the Concealed Imam (al-Mahdi the Expected).

The third question is that the Holy Prophet (S)’s personality is indisputably present and effective, yet limited and minute, in the process of the conveyance. None can deny the fact that the Holy Prophet (S) was intelligent, genius, worthy of leadership and free to act as well as divinely selected, though his own identity is restricted during the promulgation of the Mission. What is meant by identity is not the opposite of mechanism, since the Holy Prophet (S)’s obedience to what was revealed to him was the result of perfect satisfaction, faith and observance.

The area in which the Holy Prophet (S) was allowed to practice his personal inference formed a narrow point in proportion to the large area of his practices.

Hence, he was just like an engineer whose manager binds him with giving effects to a large project. This engineer is satisfied that he should contact his manager frequently so as to evade any mistake and, meanwhile, he works, thinks and carries on working; still he contacts the center so that he receives the strategies and consults saving from problems. This example is, however, a highly microscopic view of the Holy Prophet (S)’s mission.

Regarding the Center of the Holy Prophet (S), Almighty Allah is unparalleled in entity and deeds. Depending upon the previous, any study of the Holy Prophet (S)’s life account should regard three matters;

(1) the Holy Prophet (S)’s mission was to carry what was revealed to him,

(2) his task was to build a nation and help it find its way in history and,

(3) he ought to follow the Lord’s instructions in each and every action.

A deep look at the Holy Prophet (S)’s life proves the three aforementioned points. Almighty Allah has obviously managed the Holy Prophet (S)’s affairs from start to finish, and the Holy Prophet (S) obeyed his Lord’s instructions submissively. Therefore, the results of his deeds achieved an extraordinary attainment that exceeded all the intellectualities and senses of sociologists.

The Holy Prophet (S) created an international, civilized and ideological extension in a relative period with the least material and humane casualties. Despite the truculence of the Holy Prophet (S)’s foes that waged fierce wars against him, the casualties of both sides did not attain two thousand victims, since it was the Lord who supervised the Holy Prophet (S)’s management.

The Holy Qur’an was uninterruptedly revealed to the Holy Prophetsince the first day of his Mission up to a few days before his decease. Archangel Gabriel visited him frequently with Qur’anic Verses, revelation, instructions, directives, answers and like things. There are innumerable examples on the Divine presence and intervention to save a situation in the life of the Holy Prophet (S) proving that he would not have behaved personally except when he applied the general lines and carried on the detailed commandments drawn by the Divine Revelation. On many occasions, the Holy Prophet (S), having waited for the Revelation, would not act personally. He is reported to have said, ‘I have been given the Book and its like.’

‘Its like’ stands for the instructions carried by Archangel Gabriel that later on took the form of Hadith.8 This means that his traditions were also revealed to him, just like the Holy Qur’an.9 Besides, these instructions included his personal affairs such as marriage, divorce, dress, eating, sleeping, ablution and even brushing the teeth. The Holy Prophet (S)’s endowment, detriment, cherishing, malice, residence, touring, satisfaction and rage; all were determined by revealed instructions.

Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) told the story of an atheist who disputed, belied, harmed and threatened the Holy Prophet (S) face to face. The Holy Prophet (S) became so angry that the vein of ire was clearly seen between his eyes. As he nodded his head down, Archangel Gabriel came to him and revealed, ‘Your Lord asked me to carry His compliments to you and to inform you that the man in front of you is generous and he used to serve food to people.’ At once, the Holy Prophet (S)’s anger vanished; he spoke to the man, ‘I would have banished you and made you an example had not Archangel Gabriel came to me and told, on behalf of my Lord, that you have been generous as you used to serve people with food.’ ‘Does your Lord favor generosity?’ asked the man. ‘Yes, He does,’ answered the Holy Prophet (S). ‘I now declare that there is no god but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. I swear by Him Who sends you with the truth, I have never rejected a beggar’s request,’ declared the man.10

One day, a man asked Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) whether the Holy Prophet (S)’s nomination of Imam `Ali as his successor and the Muslims’ next leader had been a personal conduct or a divine directive. ‘Woe is you!’ Imam al-Baqir said angrily, ‘The Holy Prophet (S) was too reverent to say what Allah did not order him to say. Like the prayers, zakat,11 fasting and Hajj,12 the Holy Prophet (S)’s nominating Imam `Ali for his vicegerencey was a divine order.’13

The Holy Prophet (S)’s Succession Being a Simple Theme

The question of holding the Holy Prophet (S)’s position after his decease is simple, not complicated. The Ahl al-Bayt and their Shi`ah -followers- claim the Holy Prophet (S)’s nominating Imam `Ali (a.s.) as Muslims’ next leader and it is thus unacceptable for people of Quraysh,14 or any others, to choose anyone else since the Holy Prophet (S)’s nomination was only the conveyance of the Lord’s instruction. People of Quraysh, unfortunately, denied this nomination a few hours after the Holy Prophet (S)’s demise15 claiming that the Holy Prophet (S)’s ‘authority’ should be distributed among the twenty-three clans of Quraysh. Therefore, they selected Abu-Bakr who belonged to the Qurayshite clan of Taym ibn Murrah for the leadership. This man nominated `Umar ibn al-Khattab who belonged to the Qurayshite clan of `Adi as his successor. By the so-called Shura (the Advisory Council), `Umar nominated another Qurayshite man who belonged to the clan of Umayyah ibn `Abd-Shams, namely `Uthman ibn `Affan, as his successor.

They neither elected any of Ansar,16 because they were not from Quraysh and thus had no right in the authority of the Qurayshite Prophet (S), nor any of the Hashimites17 though they were the worthiest of this position, because they were, in the view of the conspirators against the leadership of Islam, just like the other Qurayshite clans most of whom did not want for the Hashimites to win the position of leadership after they had won the ‘position of Prophethood’!

Thus, the matter is very simple; did the Holy Prophet (S) nominate a successor or not? Nevertheless, it is very complicated that people of Quraysh and their fans do not want to discuss because it demolishes their structure and legality. Furthermore, they have warned all people not to discuss this matter claiming its being arduous, complicated and even haram18 to be discussed!

The Verses of Ghadir19 are only a part of the Qur’anic texts that declared Imam `Ali and the Ahl al-Bayt as the divinely commissioned leaders of the Ummah. Late and current Sunni and Shiite authors and exegetes have been authoring books discussing the Verses and Hadiths about the Ahl al-Bayt and their roles in the Ummah. In this regard, let us refer to two well-known and available references:

(1) Al-Hafiz Abu-Na`im al-Isfahani: Ma Nazala fi `Ali Min al-Qur’an (Qur’anic Verses respecting `Ali)

(2) Al-Nassa`i: Khasa`is Amir al-Mu`minin `Ali (Peculiarities of `Ali Amir al-Mu`minin).20

The Three Verses of Ghadir

“O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.” [Surah al-Ma`idah 5:67]

“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” [Surah al-Ma`idah 5:3]

“One demanding, demanded the chastisement which must befall.” [Surah al-Maarij 70:1]

Throughout our discussions of these three Verses of Ghadir, we will attract attentions to their firm relation to the Holy Prophet (S)’s sermons during the Farewell Hajj.21 It hence seems necessary to discuss these six sermons as well, since they contain the Holy Prophet (S)’s instructing his people to follow the two weighty (precious) things-the Qur’an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.).22 He also carried the good tidings to his people, in the Sermon of `Arafat, that Almighty Allah has solved the question of the vicegerencey and has thus chosen the twelve divinely commissioned Imams. Moreover, it seems essential to discuss the relationship between the Holy Prophet (S) and the Qurayshite chiefs pertaining to the leadership of the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.).

We hope these would be useful discussions by which Almighty Allah may reward us in the Hereafter and include us with the intercession (Shafa`ah) of Muhammad and his immaculate progeny, peace be upon them all.

Al-Mustafa Center for Islamic Researches

13 / Rajab / 1419 A.H

Notes

1. (S) abbreviation of “Ŝalla’l-Lāhu °alayhi wa ãlihi wa sallam”: “peace and Allah’s bessings be upon him and his holy progeny”

2. Ummah is the Islamic Nation-the Muslim’s community founded by Prophet (S) Muhammad, comprising individuals bound to one another predominantly by religious ties.

3. The Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House) is a term dedicated to the family of the Holy Prophet (S). More precisely, it is dedicated to definite individuals; namely, Imam `Ali ibn Abi-Talib, Fatimah al-Zahra` (the Holy Prophet (S)’s daughter and Imam `Ali’s wife), al-Hasan ibn `Ali, and al-Husayn ibn `Ali. The nine Immaculate Imams (namely, `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Sajjad, Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Baqir, Ja`far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq, Musa ibn Ja`far al-Kazim, `Ali ibn Musa al-Rida, Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Jawad, `Ali ibn Muhammad al-Hadi, al-Hasan ibn `Ali al-`Askari, and al-Mahdi the Awaited) are also within the Ahl al-Bayt.

4. (a.s.) abbreviation of “°Alayhi-ha-hum assalām”, “peace be upon him, her or them”, that has been used besides the names of the prophets, anglels, the members of Ah al-Bayt and the Women of Paradise (Khadīja, Fātima, Maria, Asyiah).

5. This is an indication to Allah’s saying in the Holy Qur`an (Surah of al-Ahzab 33:33): “Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.”

6. This is an indication to Allah’s saying in the Holy Qur`an (Surah of Fatir 35:32): “Then We gave the Book for an inheritance to those whom We chose from among Our servants.”

7. Imamate is the succession of the Holy Prophet (S).

8. Hadith is the body of traditions concerning the sayings and doings of the Holy Prophet (S), considered to be second in authority to the Holy Qur`an.

9. Sunan al-Darimi; 1/145

10. Al-Kulayni: al-Kafi 4/29.

11. Zakat is the obligatory payment made annually under Islamic law on certain kinds of property and used for charitable and religious objects.

12. Hajj is the pilgrimage to the Sacred Mosque at Makkah undertaken in the twelfth month of the Muslim year and constituting one of the religious duties of Islam.

13. Al-Kulayni: al-Kafi 1/298.

14. Quraysh is the name of the tribe that inhabited Makkah in the time of the Holy Prophet (S) and to which he belonged. Quraysh, yet, was the name of one of the Holy Prophet (S)’s forefathers.

15. In fact, people of Quraysh denied the whole matter and claimed that the Holy Prophet (S) had never nominated or elected anyone for vicegerencey.

16. Ansar is a title said to the people of Yathrib, later on al-Madinah (al-Munawwarah), who supported and received the Holy Prophet (S) and his followers after they had immigrated from Makkah.

17. Hashimites are the sons and descendants of Hashim ibn `Abd-Manaf, the second grandfather of the Holy Prophet (S) and the Hashimites are thus the uncles, cousins, and descendants of the Holy Prophet (S).

18. Illegal according to the Islamic doctrine.

19. Ghadir -or Ghadir Khumm- is a place between Makkah and Medina where the Holy Prophet (S) declared Imam `Ali as the next leader of the Ummah and made it incumbent on Muslims of all generations to obey this leadership and consider it as a divine directive. See Muhammad Baqir Ansari: What Happened in Ghadir, translated by Badr Shahin, Mowlood Kaaba Publications, Qum - Iran, 2000.

20. Al-Tabari has also compiled a book, in two volumes, in this regard entitled al-Wilayah (The Vicegerencey). Unfortunately, this book has not been printed yet.

21. The Farewell Hajj is the final ritual collective pilgrimage led by the Holy Prophet (S).

22. This is an indication to the Holy Prophet (S)’s famous statement: “I am leaving among you that which will save you from deviation forever if you only adhere to: the Book of Allah and my progeny-my household. Have I conveyed (to you this matter)?” Al-Ya`qubi: al-Tarikh (Book of History) 2/92.

The Three Verses Of Ghadir

Almighty Allah has instructed the Holy Prophet (S) to guide his people to the rites of the ritual Hajj after he had guided them to the ritual prayer, fasting and zakat. That was just before starting the Farewell Hajj. He, the Exalted, also instructed his Prophet (S) to show them publicly the next leader. Throughout the history of humankind, the Almighty did the same thing with all of His Prophets who had departed this world only after they had perfected the religion and delivered the divine Mission to their nominated heirs whom they must have designated publicly.

The Holy Prophet (S) carried the Lord’s instruction when he summoned people to participate in that final Hajj so that he would teach them the rites and would nominate Imam `Ali as his vicegerent and people’s leader. Nevertheless, he anticipated that people of Quraysh would object to such a nomination for they had already born envy and malice to the Hashimites. He also expected that they would criticize his divine Prophethood and accuse him of establishing a monarchy for his household similar to these of Khosrow (king of Persia) or Caesar (king of the Romans). If that happened, it would create a movement of apostasy among Muslims. At any rate, the Holy Prophet (S) performed the Farewell Hajj and addressed five sermons in Makkah, `Arafat and Mina in which he guided people to the rites and regulations of the religion, foretold about the coming Twelve Imams out of his progeny and emphasized that people would not be saved against deviation unless they would hold fast to the two weighty things; the Qur’an and the Ahl al-Bayt. He also warned against the devious leaders and against [some of] his companions who would avert and, as a result, the Lord should deprive them of joining the Holy Prophet (S) at the Divine Pool on the Resurrection Day.

Because of people of Quraysh’s irritable situation, the Holy Prophet (S) did not emphasize on the coming leadership of his progeny officially. He tried to pass up ordering them to pay homage to `Ali during the ceremonies of the Farewell Hajj.

During the journey back to al-Madinah, Archangel Gabriel carried to the Holy Prophet (S) Almighty Allah’s saying,

“O Messenger! Deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.” [Surah al-Ma`idah 5:67]

Immediately, the Holy Prophet (S) ordered the caravans to halt at Ghadir Khumm and delivered the Lord’s message. He raised `Ali to the minbarlike height made of saddles, took him up from the arm and declared him as the next leader. He also ordered to establish a tent in which `Ali would sit and Muslims would congratulate him on this leading position. The attendant Muslims offered congratulations and paid him homage. On that occasion, Almighty Allah revealed,

“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” [Surah al-Ma`idah 5:3]

That was on the eighteenth of Dhu’l-Hijjah.

Before and after his arrival at al-Madinah, people of Quraysh and the hypocrites started their activities against the Holy Prophet (S). All of their plots were foiled by the Lord Who protected His Messenger against any movement of mutiny or apostasy during his lifetime. Various means were used for this purpose. One of these was the heavenly chastisement inflicted upon those who objected and protested against him. Jabir ibn al-Nadr ibn al-Harith al-`Abdari whose father was the chief of the [tribe of] `Abd al-Dar and the commander of the polytheists’ army against Muslims during the Battle of Badr was one of those objectors:

Abu-`Ubayd al-Harawi, in Gharib al-Qur’an, records the following:

After the Holy Prophet (S)’s conveyance of the Lord’s commission in Ghadir Khumm had been widely known, al-Harith ibn al-Nu`man al-Fihri (or Jabir ibn al-Nadr ibn al-Harith ibn Kildah al-`Abdari, according to Abu-`Ubayd’s report) came to the Holy Prophet (S) and said, “O Muhammad! You have ordered us, on behalf of Allah, to declare that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad being the Messenger of Allah, perform the prayers, observe fasting in the month of Ramadan, undertake the [obligatory] Hajj and defray the zakat; and we have admitted. Nevertheless, all these have not sufficed you until you raised your cousin from the arm and preceded him to us saying, ‘`Ali will now be the master of him whosever master was me.’ Is this your own directive or is it due to Allah’s?” The Holy Prophet (S) answered, “By Allah there is no god but Whom I take the oath, it is surely Almighty Allah’s directive.” Jabir turned his face towards his riding animal saying, “O Allah! If Muhammad’s words are true, then rain us with a heavenly stone or inflict a painful chastisement upon us.” Before Jabir could reach his animal, the Lord rained him with a stone that fell on the head and went out from the anus. Hence, he was killed and, consequently, Allah revealed,

“One demanding, demanded the chastisement which must befall.” [Surah al-Maarij 70:1

Despite the fact that a good number of Sunni reference books of Tafsir and Hadith have adopted the same exegeses of the three Verses revealed for the event of Ghadir Khumm, others have adopted other opinions most of which are contradictory.

The following discussions are introduced as preliminary introductions to the exegesis of the three Verses of Ghadir.