History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S)

History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S)0%

History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S) Author:
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category: Various Books
ISBN: 978-964-529-257-5

History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S)

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Mahdi Pishva'i
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category: ISBN: 978-964-529-257-5
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Download: 2722

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History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S)

History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S)

Author:
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
ISBN: 978-964-529-257-5
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S)

Author(s): Mahdi Pishva'i

Translator(s): Mahmud Farrokhpey

Publisher(s): ABWA Publishing and Printing Center

www.alhassanain.org/english

This book presents the history of Islam and Arabian Peninsula before the advent of Islam and up till the death of the Prophet Muhammad.

It starts giving an overview of the political, social and religious situation Arabian peninsula before the advent of Islam, then it provides an extensive biography of the birth and life of the Prophet Muhammad and the impact of his preaching to the Arab population, the oppositions and wars against the spreading of Islam, the Hijrah (great migration), up till the establishment of Islam as main religion of Arabian Peninsula, and text concludes the narration with the description of the The Farewell Pilgrimage and the political and religious implications of it and the description of the demise of the Prophet.

Miscellaneous information:

History of Islam up to the Demise of the Prophet (S) Author: Mahdi Pishva'i Translator: Dr. Mahmoud Farrokhpey Editor: Badr Shahin Project supervisor: Translation Unit, Cultural Affairs Department /The Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) World Assembly (ABWA) Number of pages: 367 ISBN:978-964-529-257-5 Publisher: The Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) World Assembly First Edition 2007 Printed by: I’timad Press copies: 5000 Rights Reserved For The Ahl Al-Bayt (A. S) World Assembly

Notice:

Thisworkis published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The typing errors are n’t corrected.

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Preface 10

Section 1: Introductory Themes 12

Chapter 1: The Arabian Peninsula; its Geographical, Social and Cultural Status 13

Divisions of the Arabian Peninsula 13

Division on the Basis of Natural Conditions (The south and the North) 13

Life Conditions in the Southern Section (Yemen) 14

A Prosperous Civilization in the South of Arabia 14

The Destruction of Ma'rib Dam 15

The Effects of the fall of the Southern Civilization on Arabia 16

The Conditions of the Northern Section of the Arabian Peninsula (Hijaz) 17

Nomads 18

The Tribal Order 18

Racial Affiliation 19

The Tribal Chief 19

Tribal Zeal and Devotion 19

Tribal Revenge 20

Tribal Rivalries and Boastings 21

The Significance of Parentage 21

Tribal Wars 22

Manslaughter and Plunder 23

The Forbidden Months 24

Women in the Arab Society 25

The Tragedy of Women 25

Chapter 2: Moral Features of the Arabs 28

Opposing Traits 28

The Roots for the Arab's Good Manners 28

Ignorance and Superstition 28

Arab Sciences and Arts 29

An illiterate nation 29

Poetry 29

Arabs and the Neighboring Civilizations 30

The Arab's Inferiority vis-à-vis Iran and Rome 31

Imaginary Pride 32

The Ignorance Era 32

Chapter 3: Sects and Religions in the Arabian Peninsula and its Surroundings 34

Monotheists 34

Christianity 34

Christianity in Yemen 35

Christianity in Hirah 35

Judaism 36

Jews in Yemen 36

The Sabians 36

Manichaeism 37

Star Worshipping 37

The Worshipping of Jinn and Angels 38

The Appearance of Mecca 39

The Remnants of Abraham's Religion: Hanifiyyah 39

The Beginning of Idolatry among Arabs 39

Did Idolaters Believe in Allah? 40

The Chaotic State of Religion 42

Drastic Changes in the Light of the Appearance of Islam 42

The Development and Significance of Mecca 43

The commercial position 44

The Holy Kaaba 44

Trade and Custodianship of Quraysh 45

Quraysh's Power and Influences 46

Notes 46

Section 2: Muhammad From Birth to Prophethood 55

Chapter 1: the Holy Prophet’s Ancestors 56

Muhammad's Lineage 56

‘Abd al-Muttalib’s Personality 56

The Household of Monotheism 57

Chapter 2: The Holy Prophet’s Childhood and Adolescence 58

The Birth 58

Infancy and Childhood 58

His Mother’s Demise and ‘Abd al-Muttalib's Guardianship 59

‘Abd al-Muttalib’s Demise and Abu-Talib's Guardianship 59

Journey to Damascus and the Monk's Prediction 59

Historical Distortions by the Christians 60

Chapter 3: The Holy Prophet’s Youth 62

Hilf al-Fudhul 62

Second Journey to Damascus 62

Marrying Khadijah 63

Installation of the Black Stone 63

‘Ali in the School of Muhammad 64

Notes 65

Section 3: From Prophethood To Migration 70

Chapter 1: Prophethood and promulgation of the Religion 71

On the Threshold of Prophethood 71

The Start of Prophethood 71

An Untrue Account of the Start of the Revelation 72

Criticism 73

Secret Invitation to the New Religion 74

The First Muslim Woman and Man 75

The Reasons behind ‘Ali's Taking the Lead 75

The Pioneer Groups in Acceptance of Islam 76

A) The youth 76

B) The Deprived and the Oppressed 77

Inviting His Relatives to the New Religion 78

Chapter 2: The Public Propagation and the Start of Oppositions 80

The Start of the Public Invitation 80

Struggle with Quraysh 80

Abu-Talib's Announcement of Assistance 80

Motives of Quraysh's Oppositions 81

(1) Worry over the disintegration of the social order 81

(2) Economic Worries 82

(3) Fear of the Neighboring Power 83

(4) Tribal Competition and Jealousy 83

Chapter 3: The consequences and reactions of Opposition to the Qur'an 85

Torturing Muslims 85

Emigration to Abyssinia 85

The Birth of Fatimah 86

The Night Ascension (Mi’raj) 86

The Evaluation of the Narrations on mi’raj 87

Economic and Social Boycott Imposed on Banu-Hashim 87

The Death of Khadijah and Abu-Talib 89

The Role of Khadijah 89

The Role of Abu-Talib 89

Abu-Talib's Faith 89

(1) His Poems and Statements 90

(2) His Protection of the Holy Prophet 90

The Prophet's wives 91

The Holy Prophet's Journey to Ta’if 93

Did the Holy Prophet seek Refuge? 94

Attraction of the Holy Qur'an 95

Accusation of Magic 95

Inviting the Arab Tribes to Islam 96

Notes 97

Section 4: From Hegira to the Universal Invitation 104

Chapter 1: Emigration to Yathrib 105

The Basis of Islam's Influences in Yathrib 105

The First Muslim Group of Yathrib 105

The First Treaty of ‘Aqabah 106

The Second Treaty of ‘Aqabah 106

The initial Stages of emigration to Yathrib 106

Conspiracy of murdering the Holy Prophet 107

The Prophet's Migration 107

A Great Sacrifice 108

The Prophet's Arrival at Quba 108

Arrival at Yathrib 109

The Start of the Hijri Calendar 109

Chapter 2: The Prophet's Major proceedings in Medina 111

The Construction of a Mosque 111

The Suffah Followers 111

General Treaty (Contract) 111

A Brotherly Contract between Muhajirun and Ansar 112

Nonaggression Pact with Three Jewish Tribes 113

The Hypocrites 113

Chapter 3: Conspiracies of the Jews 115

The Jews' Sabotage 115

Motives of the Jews' Oppositions 115

Changing the kiblah 116

Chapter 4: Establishment of Muslim Military Forces 118

Formation of the Islamic Army 118

Military Maneuvers 118

The Prophet's Objectives of Military Maneuvers 119

The Expedition of ‘Abdullah Ibn Jahsh 120

The Battle of Badr 121

Factors of Victory 122

Results of Muslims' Victory 122

Breach of Banu-Qaynuqa’ Treaty 123

The Marriage of Imam ‘Ali and Lady Fatimah 124

The Battle of Uhud 125

Muslims’ victory at the initial stage to the battle 125

The Enemy’s Victory 126

Consequences of the defeat at Uhud 127

The Unsuccessful Attack of Banu-Asad 128

The Event of Bi’r Ma’unah 128

Campaign against Banu Nadhir 128

The Battle of the Ditch 129

The Treason of Banu-Quray¨ah 131

Reasons of the failure of the Allies 131

(1) Disagreement between Banu-Quray¨ah and the Allies 131

(2) The killing of ‘Amr ibn ‘Abd-Wudd 131

(3) Divine Assistance 132

The War of Banu-Quray¨ah 133

Analysis and Criticism 133

The War of Banu’l-Muztalaq 134

The Journey for ‘Umrah 135

The Ridhwan Allegiance 135

The Hudaybiyah Truce 135

The Prophet’s Prediction 136

Bearings of the Hudaybiyah Truce 136

Notes 137

Section 5: From the Universal Invitation to the Departure of the Holy Prophet 148

Chapter 1: Universal Invitation to Islam 149

The Holy Prophet’s Universal Mission 149

The Start of the Universal Invitation 149

Conquest of Khaybar 150

The Fate of the Jews of Khaybar 152

Fadak 152

Chapter 2: The spread of Islam 153

The war of Mu’tah 153

The conquest of Mecca 153

The Quraysh breach of truce 153

The Prophet’s General Amnesty 154

The Outcomes of the conquest of Mecca 155

The War of Hunayn 155

The War of Tabuk 157

Imam ‘Ali; the Holy Prophet's successor in Medina 157

Hardships and obstacles on the way 158

The Holy Prophet's treaties with local governors 159

The consequences of the war of Tabuk 159

The spread of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula 159

Disavowal of Unbelievers Announcement 160

General treaties 160

Long-termed treaties with Arab tribes 160

The Prophet's special envoy and representative 160

Announcement of Disavowal and Warning 161

Mutual Cursing with the Najran Christians 161

Chapter 3: The Farewell Pilgrimage and the Demise of the Prophet 163

The Farewell Pilgrimage 163

The Prophet's Historical Sermon 163

A great virtue 164

The Event of Ghadir and the introducing of the future leader 164

Witnesses and signs 168

The Brigade of Usamah 171

The Prophet's Supreme Objective 171

The Unrecorded Will 172

The Demise of the Great Leader of Islam 173

A Perspective on the New Community of Muslims 173

Notes 175

Publisher’s Preface

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

The precious legacy left behind by the Holy Prophet’s Household [ahl al-bayt] (may peace be upon them all) and their followers’ preservation of this legacy from the menace of extinction is a perfect example of the all-encompassing school [madrasah] that embraces all the different branches of Islamic knowledge. This school has been able to train many talented personalities by quenching them with this gushing fountain.

This school has given scholars to the Muslim ummah who, by following the Holy Prophet’s Household (a.s), have done their best in order to clear up the doubts and skepticisms put forth by various creeds and intellectual currents both inside and outside the Muslim society. Throughout the past centuries, they have presented the firmest answers and solutions to these doubts.

Anchored to the responsibilities upon its shoulders, the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) World Assembly has embarked on defending the sanctity of risalah [message] and its authentic beliefs which have always been opposed by the chiefs and leaders of anti-Islamic sects, religions and trends. In this sacred path, the Assembly regards itself as a follower of the upright pupils of the School of the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) - those who have always been ready to refute those accusations and calumnies and have tried to be always in the frontline of this struggle on the basis of the expediencies of time and space.

The experiences in this field, contained in the books of the scholars belong to the School of the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s), are unique in their own right. It is because these experiences are based upon knowledge and preeminence of intellect and reasoning, and because they are devoid of blind fanaticism or whims and caprices. These experiences address experts, scholars and thinkers in a manner that appeals to healthy minds and pure human natural disposition [fitrah].

In a bid to assist those who are in quest of truth, the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) World Assembly has endeavored to enter a new phase of these worthy experiences by doing researches and translating the works of contemporary Shi’ah writers or those who, through divine guidance, have embraced this noble school.

The Assembly is also engaged in the study and publication of the valuable works of pious predecessors and outstanding Shi’ah personalities so that those who search for the truth may quench their thirst from this palatable fountain where they find the truth which the School of the Prophet’s Household (a.s) offers to the entire world.

It is hoped that the dear readers will not deprive the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) World Assembly of their valuable opinions, suggestions, and constructive criticisms in this arena.

We also invite scholars, translators and other institutions to assist us in propagating the pure Muhammadan Islam.

We ask God, the Exalted, to accept this humble effort and give us success to enhance it under the auspices of His vicegerent on earth, al-Mahdi (may Allah, the Exalted, expedite his glorious advent).

It is appropriate here to express our utmost gratitude to Mr. Mahdi Pishva'i for writing the book, to Dr. Farrukh Pey for translating it, to Badr Shahin for editing the translation. We should also like to thank colleagues who took part in accomplishing this task especially the staff of the Translation Office for fulfilling their responsibility.

Cultural Affairs Department

The Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) World Assembly

Section 1: Introductory Themes

Chapter One: The Arabian Peninsula; its Geographical, Social and Cultural Status

Chapter Two: Moral Features of the Arabs

Chapter Three: Sects and Religions in the Arabian Peninsula and its Surroundings