Islam and Nationalism

Islam and Nationalism0%

Islam and Nationalism Author:
Translator: Dr. Alaedin Pazargadi
Publisher: Islamic Propagation Organization
Category: Ideological Concepts

Islam and Nationalism

Author: Dr. Ali Mohammed Naqvi
Translator: Dr. Alaedin Pazargadi
Publisher: Islamic Propagation Organization
Category:

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Islam and Nationalism

Islam and Nationalism

Author:
Publisher: Islamic Propagation Organization
English

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Islam and Nationalism

An analysis showing how far Islam and Nationalism are compatible. Some questions that areanswered "Can an individual be a Muslim believer and a faithful nationalist at the same time? What has been the historical course of the birth and spread of nationalism in Islamic countries?"

Author(s): Dr. Ali MohammedNaqvi

Translator(s): Dr.Alaedin Pazargadi

Publisher(s): Islamic Propagation Organization

www.alhassanain.org/english

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH

Table of Contents

Foreword 5

Introduction 6

Part One: A Survey of the History of Nationalism 8

Rise of Nationalism as a Creed 8

Creed of Nationalism 9

Nationalism and Colonization 10

The Bond Between Nationalism and Capitalism 12

Nationalism in the 20th Century 13

Notes 14

Part Two: The History of the Inroad of Nationalism in the Islamic World 16

Nationalism as an imported school 16

Napoleon and Frenchmen as pioneers of Egyptian Nationalism 17

Three Jews as inspirers of Turkish nationalism 19

Conclusion 24

Notes 25

Part Three: Definition, Basis and Characteristics of Nationalism 26

Definition of Nationalism 26

Nationalism and Secularism 27

Basis and other characteristics of Nationalism 27

Nationalism as a pseudo-religion 28

Nationalism as an advanced tribal system 28

Notes 29

Part Five: Shortcomings of Nationalism 30

Illogical basis of Nationalism 30

Unity on the above basis is a prelude to differences 33

Nationalism defeats its own objectives 34

Notes 35

Part Six: Dangers of Nationalism 36

Ego-centrism and prejudice 36

Superiority complex and misinterpretation of history 36

Tribal prejudice or fanatical ignorance 36

Nationalism culminates in racism 37

Narrowing man’s mental horizon 38

Notes 39

Part Seven: Islam and Nationalism 40

Islam and nationalism as two opposite poles 40

The Prophet's combat with Qureish nationalism 41

Part Eight: Basis of Nationalism 44

From the Viewpoint of the Quran and Tradition 44

Unity of mankind or racial and national units? 44

Nationalism or Internationalism? 46

Should God be the focus of the loyalty or the country? 47

Islam as a means of goal? 50

Factor of Unity: Faith or Nationality 50

Attachment to territory 56

Attachment of blood and race from the Islamic viewpoint 60

Fanaticism of Ignorance 61

Can an individual be both a Muslim and a nationalist? 62

Foreword

This book was published in 1985 by the Council for the Ten-Day Dawn Celebrationson the occasion of the 6th Anniversary of the victory of the Islamic Revolution. It has benefited a large number of readers.

The subject of nationalism has been very vital for exploiters,oppressors and enemies of Islam. It has been an effective tool in the hands of Superpowers and non-Muslims in general for shattering the verymighty unifying force among Muslims generated on the basis of Islamic principles of the "international" and not the "national" brotherhood.

Horrified by the current Islamic resurgence and aworld-wide rising wave of unity among Muslims, the world oppressive, arrogant and Zionist forces are engaged day and night in sharpening more and more this tool of nationalism and using the same very cunningly against Muslims and all the interests of Islam. Needless to mention that Muslims must beware of all such designs and be ever prepared to deal with these plots most effectively.

Keeping in view the importance of this subject for Muslims, the IPO has decided to publish it again for the benefit, of all the concerned. This book, written originally in Persian language, has been translated in various languages including Arabic,English and Spanish. It deals with the same subject of nationalism explaining that there is no room for this kind of concept in Islam.

International Relations Department

Islamic Propagation Organization

Introduction

Nationalism being an issue which has always commanded society's attention, it would be fitting to analyze this concept from a scientific angle. Howcan it be defined and what principles does it entail? How far does Islam accept these principles? Is there any incompatibility between Islam and nationalism? Can an individual be a Muslim believer and a faithful nationalist at the same time? What are the weak strong points of nationalism? What has been the historical course of the birth and spread of nationalism in Islamic countries? It is by means of research and investigation and far from tumultuous propaganda that it becomes clear whether nationalism has a place in a society where an Islamic revolution has taken place in asociety which is decided on establishing Islamic values and an Islamic order.

Communism and nationalism are two living schools in the contemporary West. Today, Islam is not confronting idolatry, Christianity and Zoroastrianism; it is in fact confronting communism and nationalism. Even if the number of Christians may amount to a billion, yet as an active, effective religion and ideology, Christianity has become a 'corpse' which is kept in the church, where its followers go every Sunday to say prayers, or once or twice a year to hold a ceremony in memory of that defunct institution. Christianity is no longer a determining factor in the life of the Westerners or a motive force in their social life. The drivingforces which direct their lives are actually nationalism and communism. That is why a profound study and understanding of nationalism becomes important.

Today, it is mainly with nationalism and communism that Islam, as an ideology is in confrontation. Eastern and Western imperialism in its bid at undermining Islam, expands and imposes these two schools of thought, so that, like Christianity in the West, Islam would be sunk into oblivion, becoming a useless religion which would only serve for homely acts of devotion, and which would eventually decay and disappear.

Nationalism is a new plot hatched by the imperialism of the cross to deal Islam a blow. The aim is to realize that dream whichcould not be realized in the Wars of Crusades. A look at the works of theorientalists can help us to understand this wishful objective of the West and discover the depth of this concoction. Nationalism attempts to break up the unity and solidarity of the world IslamicUmmah which endangers imperialistic interests, and which is a potential threat to colonization in international politics. With the progressive spread of nationalism, imperialism was able to divide the world of Islam into small pieces, and swallow them one by one. Thus, the dangerous dimensions of nationalism make it imperative for the Islamic world to unveil its true visage.

The Islamic Revolution of Iranis founded on monotheism and Islam. Therefore, it is not nationalistic in nature, its fabric being Islam, not nationalism. The nationalists could have been followers of the revolution, but not its pioneers. Infact they constantly tried to check its rapid advance. Objective wise also, the Islamic Revolution of Iran is territorially unlimited and therefore, not confined to Iran; it has a universal mission, being a vanguard of a new dawn for the East, and must spread to any realm where live the Muslims.

It would therefore be fitting to make a survey of the Islamic unity of belief and internationalism and investigate the connection between Islam and nationalism.

The expansion of such ideologies as nationalism,liberalism or communism will deny the revolution its Islamic, essence. It is, therefore, the revolutionary duty of all Muslims to carryon a constant ideological and political war with the said poisonous ideologies. However, this combatmust be based on awareness and strongly supported by intellectual and religious conviction, and the reasons for our rejection of nationalism must be explained both to our compatriots and aliens.

In the Islamic order and monotheistic society, there is no room for nationalism or Marxism, and from a social and political viewpoint, the only acceptable and dominant school is Islam."Surely the (true) religion with Allah is Islam" (3: 18) .But from a subjective viewpoint, every person is allowed freedom of thought and expression, and no compulsion in whatever way, is permissible.

"There is no compulsion in religion." (2: 256)

"Those who listen to the word, then follow the best of it." (39: 18)

Moreover, the weak and strong points of existent ideologiesshould be critically examined in a logical and unprejudiced way, and presented to the society to make it aware of them .

Therefore, the various schools of thoughtmust be analyzed in a lucid way with an open mind, free from fanatical prejudices, and the position of Islam should be clarified in this connection.

We hope that this book will throw light upon various aspects of the problem, and will prove fruitful in the discussion on Islamic ideology.

Ali MuhammadNaqavi

PartOne : A Survey of the History of Nationalism

Rise of Nationalism as a Creed

While some of the characteristics of nationalism may be witnessed in the tribal system of the Greek city-state many thousand years ago1 nationalism as a political,social and ideological school of thought took birth in the West following the French Revolution.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the greatest advocates of this creed. He emphasized the unity, solidarity and the group spirit of the masses and insisted that one should have the highest attachment to one's home and country where onehas been brought up . He believed the fatherland to be the core and center of a person's and a group's love and loyalty. He elevated this belief to a sacred religious duty, and severely condemned the ideaof mankind's collective attachment or a religious societal order.

Themain fabric of the school of nationalism was laid by the French Revolution , where it was first put to practice.It was then that the stimulation of emotions towards the flag and country, the glorification and worship of national heroes, the composition of the national anthem, the emphasis on the sanctity of the French language and race, the creation of great national festivals and ceremonies in the style of religious rites, a pride in the history of France and a belief in the great mission of the French nation, emerged and displayed themselves one after another in the course of the Revolution. But with the rise of the Jacobins to power and the disasters which followed the Revolution, the evils of nationalism evinced themselves from the very beginning. For the Jacobins, nationalism became the means to toy with the masses feelings, general mobilization, aggression upon neighboring countries, expansionism, massacre, corruption,suppression and self-interest, showing that nationalistic sentiments always result in aggression and imperialism. To the Jacobins, French interests were their basis for decisions.

With the progressive influence of the French Revolution in the West, the concept of nationalism rapidly gained popularity2 leavening behind the notions of freedom and democracy. The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte quickened its pace in the West. Napoleon was a staunch believer in the creed of nationalism and, as we shall see, he was the first to scatter its seed in the Islamic world. His strong sense of nationalism laid the grounds for its expansionistic and aggressive policies, his wars and massacres had encouraged a spirit of domination in the French nation, and soon, other nationswere contaminated with nationalistic sentiments. In Germany and Italy, this spirit rose rapidly, and in the name of nationalism, horrible crimes were committed and a desperate fight for powerwas started .

The 19th centuryis called 'the golden age’ of nationalism3 . It was in that century that Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine set up the foundations for American nationalism. In England, Jeremy Bentham gave nationalism a new scope. With William Gladstone, British nationalism reached its height. Nationalism spread as an intellectual movement and school in the whole of central and Western Europe. Mazzini, who rose inItaly is regarded as one of the greatest theoreticians of the school of nationalism of the 19th century. Other greatpropounders and banner-bearers of nationalism in that century were Giuseppe Garibaldi in Italy, Victor Hugo in France and Otto Bismarck in Germany.

Nationalism made history in that century, bringing about some of the greatest events. Belgium secured its independence, while in South and Central America, the colonies of Portugal and Spain declared their independence under the leadership of Simon Bolivar and Jose Martin.But the strongest sentiments of nationalism were roused by Western governments in the European colonies of the Ottoman Empire. Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Croatia were tempted into claiming independence.

Of course, these events were trivial as compared to the unprecedented expansion of imperialism in the Third World, and the political clashes and conflicts of Western governments. History has shown that nationalism has been far more destructive than constructive. British, French colonialist policies and aggressions, and the expansionism of Napoleon III and Bismarck, proved that the deceptive slogans of Western nationalism and liberalism were empty covers and excuses for enslaving oppressed nations.

Creed of Nationalism

Nationalism is a creed, a school and a pseudo-religion which the West created to fill an ideological vacuum.

Man cannot live without a faith, an ideology, to which he can show affection and love. In theMiddle Ages in the West, this faith, ideology, were found in Christianity and the religion of the Church.But Christianity was an unrealistic, imperfect and one dimensional religion, and since it had an unscientific and anti-intellectual basis, it could not last as a permanent and universal religion and ideology.

The Renaissance and subsequent changes dealt the church a heavy blow, and Christianity could no longer make its presence felt as a living faith in Europe, and soon became a dead creed. As we said, Christianity, from the beginning, lacked thedynamism which provides the people with zeal, frenzy, fanaticism and solidarity. After the Renaissance, it retired completely from the political, social,intellectual and emotional life of the people and western ideology was left with an intense vacuum.

In the absence of an inspiring force that would revive them, the westernerswere left in the dark. Christianity was dead. Since man cannot live in a vacuum (of belief) and needs an ideology to follow and love, ‘Azar , the idol-maker’ of Western ideas hewed the idol of nationalism, and offered it to the West as anew religion and anew god that was welcomed by thirsty devotees.This vacuum was later on filled by Marxism , and both these schools owed their creation to the weakness and failure of Christianity in satisfying the religious longing of Westerners.

But in Islamic East, there never existed such a vacuum. Here, Islam was already present as a living, dynamic and universal ideology. It contained such dynamism that in the first century after its advent, it unified all the lands stretching from North Africa to the farthest parts of Asia, and from Spain to Mongolia, andjoined together peoples of different races, languages and cultures as a singleUmmah . Even now, Islam still possesses in the Muslim worldafar greater power of rousing revolutionary zeal,devotion and solidarity than any other ideology. It can inspire its followers to sacrifice their life and wealth in the way of the school, and for thatreason there is no need in the Islamic world to import nationalism as a Western commodity which is produced in accordance with the peculiar conditions of that region.

Nationalists and Western intellectuals of the Islamic world ignore the facts of their own country and its cultures and fancy that anyexperiment which has been successful in the West, may be repeated in the East.But this is illusory thinking. A blind imitation of such so-called intellectuals has left them no power of discernment to realize that the West possessed specialconditions which differed from those of the world of Islam. The West was faced with a decadent Christianity and church, whereas, here is a revolutionary and dynamic Islam. It is unable to understandthis reality that Islam and Christianity are two wholly different phenomena.

While Christianity is a collection of dogmas and religious rites of priests, Islam is a living, comprehensive ideology containing intellectual and practical issues, concerning both the individual and society.

Nationalism and Colonization

Colonialism and Capitalism were two otherfactors which encouraged the spread of nationalism.

In the 19th century, the Westerners embarked on a fearful race for colonization and plundering the Third World countries. They pounded upon Asian and African nations like bloodthirsty wolves. With such actions, they badly needed a strong ideology to justify their pillage and crimes, while, at the same time, to provide a motive for further plunder and colonization. Thus, in the heat of these attempts at colonization, nationalism rose as an ideology and a living creed of the West.

The school of nationalism in connection with colonization played three significant parts:

1- It was firstly the source of colonization. Intense patriotic feelings, a belief in national and racial superiority, a tribal pride and a glorification of one's own history and culture, emerged from nationalism, providing the ground for political expansionism and economic self-axism . Imperialism is the illegitimate offspring of these same nationalistic inclinations.

2- Nationalism was a means to justify colonization and the savage acts of Western colonizers under the guise of “national exigencies” and «revival of the country's greatness.

3- Thirdly, it was the strong motiveforce which maintained the spirit of colonization. By kindling intense nationalistic sentiments and a spirit of self-sacrifice for the fatherland, the motive for colonization was set, giving fresh impetus to English,French and Germans in their close and stubborn race for domination over Asia and Africa.

Francis Cooker, the well-known Western thinkerwrites: “In the 19th century, most nationalists out of their fanatical nationalism were convinced and claimed that advanced nations had a lofty history and culture, and a racial and national superiority; therefore they were not justified in confining their talents to their own borders. Their national and patriotic dutymust not be summed up in their defense and preservation of the independence and territorial integrity of their own country. They have a universal mission to expand the radius of their political and national cultural influence to all parts of the world in the interest of mankind, and help to civilize retarded lands even by force and violence if necessary.”

The aboveview which was the logical conclusion of nationalistic thought was the root of colonization and a means of justifying savage plunder by imperialism.

A survey of the words and writings of the founders of the nationalistic school in the 19th century reveals how stubbornly they propagated this idea that our national duty compels us not only to defend our frontiers, but also to engage in military and political ventures even thousands of kilometers away from those frontiers for the sake of the country’s greatness.

Dr.Bridgehet a national thinker of the 19th centurywrites: “Being pleased with our territorial Integrity is not enough, since dropping behind in the international, political and military race would mean neglecting our duty of guarding the historical greatness of our country. If we abstain from expansionism, our national pridewill be damaged . It is only by being adventurous and warlike that our national pride may be preserved4 .”

Nationalism also extended Darwin's view about the survival of the fittest to the social and political realms. Ernest Haeckel propagated it strongly in Germany, stating: “Only strong and powerful nations have the right to live and to swallow weak and retarded nations”. Thismay be called “the collective cannibalism of modern civilization.” Karl Pearson, another prominent nationalist too, considers the survival of the fittest as «the natural law of the relationship of nations.”

As a result of such argumentation by the nationalists, at the end of the 19th century, a new wave of aggressive expansionism was witnessed. British colonization led by Gladstone, the English nationalist, made India and many other zones a part of the British Empire. Germany, under Bismarck, another nationalist leader embarked on expansionism. France seized various parts of Africa and made of them its own colonies. England occupied the Suez zone and embarked onmore imperialistic adventures . Germany intended to create a wide Aryan Empire from Berlin to Baghdad. Even thenewly-risen America as a power, influenced by nationalism, entered the race for colonization, occupying the Philippines and other areas of the Far East. The thirst for colonization led to disputes between France and Germany on the question of domination over Morocco, and a similar rivalry emerged between Russia and Britain to make Iran their mandate. All these were the amazing results of nationalism.

Joseph Lighten, the social historian5 writes:

“The whole history of the 19th century is based on an economic-political nationalism resulting in clashes and colonization. Nationalism is the root of the expansionism and friction of various governments.” Some of the greatest nationalists of the 19th century have been active agents for the expansion of aggressive colonization and great criminals of history.

Gladstone, the highest banner-bearer of British nationalism was the man who began a series of aggressive attacks upon the Third World forcing weak nations under his yoke. Robert Clive was the principal agent of the expansion of colonization in India, the man who cruelly massacred the Indians in the Battle ofPelassi . Cecil John Rhodes spread British colonization elsewhere. All these people justified their savage and disgraceful aggressions in the name of nationalism.

Thus, in the 19th century, the high pundits of colonization used nationalism as a motive and a justification for their ventures. Nationalism was the creed of the imperialists and not that of the opponents of colonization.Naturally the establishment of capitalistic order was not without its influence on the expansion of both nationalism and colonization, and there has always existed a close bond of cause and effect between these three factors. Capitalism aided by nationalism directed the national policy of the countries towards expansionism to exhibit its power in all parts of the world so that it could secure new markets where demand was high.

The East India Company which enhanced British colonization in India in the name of 'national greatness' and under the cover of nationalistic slogans, is one of the clearest examples of the connection that exists between nationalism, imperialism and capitalism, a subject which will be discussed in the following chapter.

The BondBetween Nationalism and Capitalism

Nationalism as a tool in the hands of the world-devouring capitalism.

Anotherfactor which was influential in the advance of 19th century nationalism was the capitalistic order which took root in the West6 . Nationalism had become a tool in the hands of big capitalists and factory owners to preserve the home market for their industrial products and rouse national feeling for the sole consumption of local products on the one hand,and also to secure new markets by leading nations and governments towards colonization in the name of national interests. For thisreason the school of nationalism flourished in the 19th century after the growth of capitalism.

World-devouring capitalism ripened following the industrial revolution. A series of discoveries and inventions begun in 1732 by John Key set the wheel turning for the industrial revolution. The discoveries and inventions of ThomasSavery , ThomasNewcomen , James Watt, Richard Arkwright, Samuel Crompton, AbrahamDerbys , HenryCort and Henry Bessemer resulted in the establishment of huge mechanized factories, the rise of millionaire class and middle-class merchants and culminating in the birth of a world-devouring capitalistic order.

This new class of capitalists and merchants used nationalism as a tool for promoting and preserving their wicked and inhuman goals. To theprofiteering class whose factories' production was far higher than the demand at home, securing markets was what mattered the most. Employers and capitalists directed all efforts at selling their products in their bid to win the race theywere engaged in with the capitalists and industrialists of other nations.

These two groups had two objectives:

A) To secure new markets in other parts of the world.

B) To monopolize the home market and prevent the entry of imported goods.

World-devouring capitalism fulfilled both objectives through the injection of nationalisticsentiments which encouraged the masses to choose home made products, rather than imported goods of better qualities.And also by encouraging nationalistic prejudices, capitalism directed the countries' policy towards imperialism and colonization which were considered necessary for securing new markets.

The capitalists made use of nationalism to counter foreign capitalism, and the conflict extended from the economic to the political field. They made use of limited freedom of travel, restricted import and the language barrier to check the entry of foreign goods in the home markets7 .

With this goal in mind, the capitalists propagated the slogan of “homeland”, calling their own profits “national interests”, and mobilizing their compatriots to defend the “country's interests.” Thus, with the rise of capitalism, nationalism became a weapon in a combat between the capitalists of various countries, and in order to monopolies world markets, itwas placed wholly at the service of capitalism. Moreover, plundering capitalists used the creed of nationalism for another evil objective also which was to incite dispersion among oppressed classes.

The 19th century witnessed the exploitation of the oppressed classes of society in the most ruthless manner by capitalism. The industrial revolution and the appearance machines turned commercial capitalism Into Industrial capitalism and resulted in the concentration of capital and labor. With these conditions, the exploitation of the labor force was multiplied a hundredfold, resulting in a fearful social system where the worker's blood was cruelly sucked.

The inhuman system of capitalism, in order to terrify the oppressed masses and check their rebellion, compelling them to work day and night in pitiful conditions like thoughtless mechanized beings, needed an effectively strong motive, and thiswas found in nationalism. Thus through the slogan and cry of 'homeland', capitalism attained its objective.

With nationalistic sentiments, national zeal and frenzy reaching a crescendo, the oppressed class of society forgot all about social injustice and instead turned to national issues. Due to the national unity banner, they failed to realize the lack of harmony between their interests and those of the arrogant in their society.

Moreover, a natural development of savage exploitation was that the workers' spirit of rebellion and dissatisfaction gained in intensity day by day in other European countries while raising the question of nationalism and kindling the flame of nationalistic sentiments, making it impossible for the world oppressed to make common cause against the arrogant. The oppressed of each nation, out of nationalistic sentiments, allied themselves with the arrogant of that nation, against the oppressed of another nation, thereby preventing an effective alliance of world oppressed against thewhole arrogant world. This was the old policy of divide and rule’ which had long been adopted by oppressors as far as history goes.

Nationalism in the 20th Century

The history of nationalism in the 20th centurycan be divided into two periods:

A- Nationalism in the first half of the 20th century.

B- Nationalism in its second half.

In the first half of the 20th century, up to the Second World War, the clearest manifestation of nationalismwas seen in Europe and Japan resulting in a universal war. It revived in them the dream of colonizing the whole world, and led them to start two calamitous wars. Most scholars admit that the main cause for the First and Second World Wars was nationalistic sentiments. In this period, the true off-springs of nationalism who elevated this school to its highest position and gave it its severest form were Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany, Peron in Argentina, Franco in Spain and Salazar in Portugal. This was the wicked product that nationalism gaveto mankind and this way is still continued. Nationalismis still looked upon as a formal religion by international aggressors such as the U.S.

In the second half of the century, nationalism made its appearance in the Third World. Atfirst it looked like a movement aimed at uprooting colonization, but a close analysis points to the contrary. As the western culture and domination were not compatible with eastern religion, culture, mentality and local traditions, rebellion against colonization was inevitable in these eastern regions, whether nationalism appeared as a motivating force or not. For the people, the motive of revolt was religion and religious fanaticism, not nationalism and nationalistic sentiments.But when the small enlightened group depending on the West realized that the direct domination of colonization was no longer possible they directed the movements in the name of nationalism, so that after the exit of colonization, they would indirectly be able to preserve its values and methods of domination.

In the contemporary world, colonization having become a thing of the past, and the colonies having secured their independence, nationalism has come to be used by colonization and imperialism in another form, and its role is somewhat changed.

Neo-colonization uses nationalism to prevent the union of former colonies,so as to keep them weak and dependent on stronger powers.

The imperialists on realizing that they could no longer keep eastern nations under their direct yoke, and that their union would be a serious threat to their interests, started exporting nationalism to the East in a bid to weaken them and encourage conflicts among the newly independent nations of Asia and Africa. This way, they aimed atsowing the seed of hostility and dispersion among them to check their unity and solidarity. This is why we see that wherever colonization has made an exit,the rein of affairs is held by a westernized educated minority , and nationalistic forces are encouraged to stand against Islamic forces. The bond between nationalism and colonizationis preserved as before, and wherever nationalism raises its head, its root is imperialism.

Notes

1. Some researchers consider Reformation as the beginning of nationalism and others suggest the Westphalia incident in 1648, but the majority of the researchers regard the French Revolution to be a turning point in the emergence of nationalism.

2.Salow Baron: Modern Nationalism, New York, 1927, p. 43.

3. Hans Kohn: The Idea of Nationalism: A study ofit's origin and background, New York, 1944, p. 116.

4. Francis W. Cooker: Recent Political Thought, New York, 1934, p. 443-48.

5. JosephLighten: Social Philosophers in Conflict, New York, 1937, p. 439.

6. Hans Kohn: The idea of Nationalism: A study in its origin and Background. p 79.

7. Carlton Hays: The Historical Evaluation of Modern Nationalism, p. 129.