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The Concept Of Servitude in Islam

The Concept Of Servitude in Islam

Author:
Publisher: Al Balagh Foundation
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

The ConceptOf Servitude in Islam

Author: AlBalagh Foundation

www.alhassanain.org/english

Notice:

This versionis published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errorsare not corrected .

Table of Contents

Introduction 5

Servitude 6

Man and Servitude 8

1. GENETIC SERVITUDE 9

2. OPTIONAL SERVITUDE 10

Servitude As A Must 11

1. PURE SERVITUDE TO ALLAH 12

2. SERVITUDE TO OTHER THAN ALLAH 14

Why Servitude To Allah 15

1. CREATION IS ALLAH'S 16

2. SOVEREIGNTY IS ALLAH'S 17

3. POWER BELONGS TO ALLAH 18

4. COMMAND BELONGS TO ALLAH 19

5. LORDSHIP BELONGS TO ALLAH 21

The Psychological Motives For Worship 22

1. LOVE AND EAGERNESS 23

2. FEAR AND HOPE 25

Aspects Of Servitude 26

1- RATIONAL SUBMISSION 27

2. TRUSTING ALLAH AND CONFIDING IN HIM 28

3-SERVITUDE IS TO ALLAH 29

4- SERVITUDE IS IMPLEMENTED 30

The Role of Servitude in Man's Life 31

1. PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT 32

2. SOCIAL EFFECT 33

3. CIVIL EFFECT 34

Endnotes 35

Introduction

The concept of servitude to Allah Exalted be He, is the essential cornerstone in forming man's inner being and in planning and organizing his general conduct and activities.This is because Islam takes servitude to Allah as the basis on which a Muslim builds his thoughts, molds the surrounding environment and makes his connections with the world and his Creator; submission to Allah thus becomes a plan for life, a way ofbehaviour and a method of thinking that distinguishes a Muslim individual and a Muslim society from the ignorant individuals and communities of diverse beliefs, different ideologies and value systems down through the ages.

Therefore, in this study, 'servitude to Allah' is regarded as the basis of the Islamic concepts to be discussed in this series through a correlated, systematic method, taking into consideration the logical progression and natural connection between Islamic ideas and concepts.

This method will make it easier for the reader to follow the chain of Islamic thought in an orderly and systematic manner.In this way it is easier to draw a distinctive and detailed picture of Islamic thought and its content - a picture capable of better presenting a genuine Islamic understanding, providing the Muslim intellectuals and students of Islamic culture with clear Islamic concepts which are now under siege in the current ideological struggle being waged against the very existence of the Muslims and their culture.

The aim of this series of publications is to lead support to the sincere Islamic intellectual and cultural groups, and share the responsibility of protecting Islamic thought against falsification, and loss.

Our aim is also to stress the unity of Islamic thought and to disclose the forgery and illusion of alien and ignorant thought and culture, as a response to Allah's command:

“And it is not for the believers to go forth all together (to fight). So why should not some people from each group of believers seek knowledge in religion, and to warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware.” Holy Qur'an (9:122)

“And say (to them): Act! Allah will see your actions, and (so will) His messenger and the believers....” Holy Qur'an (9:105)

Finally, we hope it willhe of interest to our dear readers and beseech Allah the Almighty to accept our simple work.Surely He undertakes the welfare of the believers.

AL-BALAGH FOUNDATION

Servitude

Prostration,submission and surrender are all definitions of a single truth: servitude to Allah. Servitude, in this sense, is a fact imposed on all of Allah's creation. The entire universe, with its various realms of matter, livingbeings and other creatures, is directed through its construction and evolution, to be connected to Allah's will, in the form of prostration, submission and surrender, completely and absolutely, to Allah the Exalted.

Through this submission, all creation attains to the best forms of perfection and preordained performance. In thisway existence evolves flawlessly and the general cosmic order is preserved. If any part of this universe could deviate from the order of creation and development, it would certainly perish andbe destroyed . If the planets changed course from their orbits, or if the earth changed itsposition, or the sun departed this solar system, all the order of the universe would be subject to annihilation. Thus, all beings, the inanimate objects, plants, animals and human beings, are genetically submissive to the general law and order which govern the world according to Allah's will.

This fact is better described by the Glorious Qur'an through its intriguing artistic illustration of the creation's way of surrender,prostration and connection to their Creator.

This submissionis illustrated through diverse verbal images presented in attractive statements, so that we can discern through them the universe as a worshipping entity possessing a genuine submissive reverence, keenly aware of the existence of its Creator and admitting the greatness of its Maker.

The Qur'an refers to this fact concerning the general inclination of the universe towards Allah the Exalted, its ties with Him, its need of Him, and its function according to His will, by way of prostration and surrender as a token of submission and of being humble and obedient. Thus, the whole universeis placed before us on the altar of worship and response to Allah's will and command.

All this is to make us feel in ourselves the meaning of servitude to Allah, and to have the lights of obedience and submission shine in our hearts, so that we may merge in the unity of this universe in its prostration and surrender. This process does not cease as it is the cause of existence, its perfectorder and its expression of the goal of its being.

The Glorious Qur'an describes the prostration of the universe and the worlds, by saying:

“Do not see all the things that Allah has created - casting their shadows to the right and the left, prostrating before Allah in humbleness? To Allah prostrate whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth from among the creatures; and the angels and they do not show arrogance.” Holy Qur'an (16:48-49)

“Do they seek other than the religion ofAllah, and to Him submits whatever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and to Him they shall be returned?” Holy Qur'an (3:83)

Thus, the Qur'an draws the picture of the creatures' prostrating, brings our attention to their worship, rebukes those who are inattentive, and enjoins us to ponder the universe and the worlds around us, where we see everything submissive, overwhelmed,insignificant and obedient to Allah's greatness and will. The earth, the heavens, animals, plants, and everything on which the light of existence shines, have no power to rebel, to be proud, to reject Allah's command, nor can they contradict His wisdom and arrangements.

It is as if the Qur'an, addressing us, says:

Why does not man accept the reality of this truth?

Why does he try to deviate,rebel and be disobedient until he falls into the precipice of misery and wretchedness? Is it not more becoming of him, as a rational being, to merge with the procession of thisuniverse which is continually singing the hymns of praise, and experiencing ecstasy over the delights of glorifying and worshipping? Does not he discern that?

“All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Allah, and He is Almighty, All-Wise?” Holy Qur'an (57:1)

Man and Servitude

Servitude, this cosmic truth running through the depths of existence and the universal characteristic personified throughout the whole world, is such that man cannot but find himself either as individual forcibly revolving along its orbit or as a living will, wavering between its two choices. Thus, to the human who has will and can choose, and is liable to reward and punishment according to his responsibility, servitude to Allah is of two kinds:

1. GENETIC SERVITUDE

Theone who lives with theQur'anic imagery, discerns with his conscience and feelings, the prostration of the universe, of the worlds, of the creatures and of all things. He understands that man, in his entirety, is a part of this world, andis forced to prostrate and submit. He is forced genetically to worship, with no power to dodge from, or to rebel against Allah's inherentdesign which pervades the whole of existence.

Manis forced to live, to die, to grow, to give birth, etc. He cannot choose his physical dimensions,nor his parents, nor the race to which he likes to belong, nor the quality of his genes.

Furthermore, he cannot act contrary to the laws of nature, i.e. the laws of physics,chemistry and biology, to which he is subjected, and which organize his existence. The same principle applies to all other creatures and beings that have no will of their own, as none of them is able to create himself.As a consequence of ·this incapability and need of a Creator, man is but a bondman who is bound by an innate compulsion to submit to Allah's will.

In order to make man comprehend this fact, the Qur'an (incessantly) asserts and confirms man's surrender to the Creator of existence. Allah the Exalted says:

“And if Allah were to enlarge the provision for His servants they would surely rebel in the earth, but He sends down by measure as He wills. He is informed, a Seer of His bondmen.” Holy Qur'an (42:27)

“And on the Day when He will assemble them and that which they worship instead of Allah and will say: Was it you who misled theseMy servants or did they (themselves) wonder from the way? Holy Qur'an (25:17)

“There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes to the Beneficent as a servant.” Holy Qur'an (19:93)

In theseverses the Qur'an asserts that all people are Allah's servants by means of their intrinsic relation to Him, be they believers who obey through their own conscience, will and choice, Allah's commands; or rebellious disbelievers who refrain from complying with Allah's orders.

Man is by innate compulsion moving within the orbit of servitude, because he is Allah's bondman and follower, and is submissive to His will. This is why the Qur'an calls the wrongdoers and the misguided servants', as it similarly calls whatever there is in the heavens and the earth, angels and men, servants', whether believers or disbelievers. This kind of servitude, surrender and submission is termed inherent or genetic servitude', i.e. compulsory and natural submission.

2. OPTIONAL SERVITUDE

Man is different from other beings in that he is an intellectual and understanding creature, possessing the will and ability to choose by means of the unique mental power bestowed on him by Allah, and the right given to him to choose his mode of conduct. Through that faculty he can do good or choose the way of evil; go towards Allah and be connected to Him or rebel against His commands and laws and purse the path of deviation and rebellion.

This type of connection to Allah is quite different from that of genetic connection. There, man is compelled and has no choice whatever, while here, in organizing his connection with Allah, he hasfree-will , can choose the divine road leading to Allah's consent; that is, choosing the way of servitude to Allah. Likewise, man can choose the way of perversion, which is the way of servitude and submission to other than Allah; as he may worship his ego, or his desires to which he yields; or he may take asgods human tyrants and despots, follow their commands and place himself at their service.

This servitude which is chosen by man, be it servitude to Allah or to other than Allah, is optional, as it is chosen through his own free will. He therefore is responsible for it andwill be questioned on Judgment Day. Allahsays: “And stop them, for they must be questioned.” Holy Qur'an (37:24)

“We have made the deeds of every human being to cling to his neck.And on the Day of Resurrection We shall bring out for him which he shall find, wide open. Read your book, you yourself suffice this day as areckoner against you. Whoever isguided, is truly guided for his benefit and whoever becomes perverse, is only perverse to his own self.And no laden soul bears the burden of another. We never punish untilWe have sent a messenger.” Holy Qur'an (17:13-15)

ServitudeAs A Must

Every one has a direction to which he turns; so vie with each other for good deeds. Wherever you are, Allah will bring you all together. Surely Allah is powerful over everything.” Holy Qur'an (2:148)

Thus, man must have in his life an object to worship, an entity to which he may submit and direct his will, as everyone of necessity needs a motive for the action and conduct he chooses during his life to which he proceeds.This goal of his is the force that moves him to be active and is the urge behind every act he chooses to do or not to do. Hence, that goal or that principle becomes his object of worship to which he turns, though he may not admit it to himself.

These goals and motives may be different according to man's conscience and choice. He may choose either to worship Allah or his desire. Allah the Exalted says: “Have you seen him who chooses for his god his own lust? Would you then be guardian over Him?” Holy Qur'an (25:43)

Or he may take a tyrant from among the human beings for a god.

However, if his motive to action is Allah the Exalted, then his servitude will be to Allah only; if his motivebe other than Allah, then his surrender will be to that other than Allah, that which is dominating his thought, feelings and deeds.

Accordingly, man's chosen path of submission can be of two kinds:

1. PURE SERVITUDE TO ALLAH

This is a servitude purely and entirely dedicated to Allah in all of man's acts so that his recognition of Allah is the cause of his acts, and the goal of his deeds, seeking no consent but Allah's, and motivated only by the love for Allah, whether in prayer, fasting, thinking or in intention, feelings and social connections. This is made manifest in his morals, politics, economy, judgment, love, hatred, consent, indignation ..etc ., as well as in his relations with the universe, nature and the world around him.Actually, a believer starts from a fundamental principle, a basic mental foundation, which says: man and the whole universe are His alone; so he has to keep to the line of obedience and to merge in it, in fulfillment of absolute dedication to Him and in pure submission, clear of every trace of impurity that mayeffect its sincerity, i.e. hypocrisy, dissembling, flattery, . .etc.

The Qur'an illustrates the spirit of servitude to Allah by saying:

“I have turned my face towards HimWho created the heavens and the earth, as an upright, and lam not of the polytheists.” Holy Qur'an (6:79)

On this basis there came the sayings of the Prophet (s.a.w .) explaining the idea of being pure and sincere in thought and action, and calling to a unified direction towards Allah the Exalted.

It is said that abedouin came to the Prophet (s.a.w .) and asked him: Who doesgood or gives alms and likes to be praised and rewarded for that? The Prophet did not answer him and kept silent, until a glorious versewas revealed as a complete answer, clarifying the way of salvation, and gratitude to Allah alone:

“Say: surely lam only a mortal like you. Itis revealed to me that God is One God. And whoever yearns for the meeting with hisLord, let him do righteous deeds, and let him associate none with his Lord in serving Him.” Holy Qur'an (18:110)

Thus, the answer of the Qur'an came rejecting polytheism and clarifying the direction between the love of praise and love of getting nearer to Allah the Exalted. The believeris commanded to release himself from this polytheism, the sharing of oneself with worshipping Allah or from combining one's desires to have both the reward from Allah as well as the praise of people. Imam Ali (a.s .) said:

“Blessed be the one who turns in his worship and invocation directly to Allah, and who did not engage his heart with what his eyes see, and who did not forget to remember Allah through what his ears hear, and who did not bring sorrow to his breast because of what the others have. 1

Such is the call of Islam. It stresses that man should maintain human, coherent conduct, with a unified direction and goal, founded on the idea of the Oneness of Allah, with pure sincerity to Him alone. All of thisis done for the sake of freeing man from worshipping the self and defying the ego.

In order that personal desires and selfish whims do not become the cause of actions contrary to Allah's will and that human conduct does not center round these grave and selfish motives, which destroy man through diseases of his morality such as egoism, hypocrisy, two-facedness, lust, indulgence in pleasures, etc.

Moreover, by sincere obedience Islam wants to express a universal truth, the truth of the real relation between Allah and man. This religion wants to liberate man from being the servant of theI' , and from obeying human despots; a position result of purely serving Allah alone.

This inference helps us to discover the meaning of servitude to Allah, and to comprehend its truth which is: To join the line of Divine Will and to haveone's will coincide with Allah's.'

Without this puresincerity one's submission would only be a worship associated with other than Allah, as described by the Qur'an. This kind of obedience is the most dangerous ailment that may afflict the thought,morals and conduct of a Muslim believer - it is the ailment of duality of the split personality and the loss of its unity and primal originality.

When such a misfortune befalls man, he would worship Allah with insincere motives, as these motives would conflict with and sap conviction from his worship of Allah.

Thus, the hypocrite who likes tobe applauded for his doing good; saying his prayers or going on pilgrimage to Mecca, he is actually worshipping himself, and turning to glorify himself, while apparently he seems to be turning to Allah; that is, he worships both himself and Allah as partners simultaneously.

The man of letters who acquires knowledge for fame; the reformer who wages a campaign against corruption in order to become a guide and leader; the rich man who is charitable in order to have his name known among the people, and those who devotedly engage themselves in the love of this world, in collecting wealth, monopolizing interests, gratifying their lust in forbidden pleasure, neglecting to remember Allah, deviating from His love and worship, turning away from Him; all of these and their like cannot be regarded as have sincerely worshipped Him, as they have worshipped themselves, defied their own persons, and desired other than Allah.

Similar are those who claim that they believe in Allah and worship Him in their prayers, fasting and pilgrimage, but they disobey His commands concerning other deeds, in order to obtain the consent of other than Allah, for fear of mortals. They become wrongdoers and oppress people, neglect the right and keep silent in the face of corruption, as if they have not heard the call of the Qur'an, and they do not want to be among those whom it praised by saying:“And bind yourself with those who call upon their Lord at morning and evening desiring His favor.” Holy Qur'an (18:28)

“As for that abode of the Hereafter, We assign it to those who seek not oppressionIn the earth, nor yet corruption. The (good) sequel is for the god fearing.” Holy Qur'an (28:83)

But they put themselves among those of whom the Qur'an says:“They have taken their rabbis and their monks as lords beside Allah.” Holy Qur'an (9:31)

2. SERVITUDE TO OTHER THAN ALLAH

Man, through successive ages, has been subjected to the ailment of ignoranceboth in his thought and soul , which means rejecting servitude to Allah and turning to other beings, natural and human forces, self-deification and indulgence in unrestrained personal desires and pleasures.

This is true in respect to the idolaters, the infidels who do not believe in God, and the pagans who worship animals or natural phenomena, etc. They all take themselves as gods, and regard their desires and whims as their lords through which they worship and follow their self-centered inclinations.

The Qur'an distinctively describes those groups by saying:

“Have you seen him who chooses for his god his own lust? Would you then be guardian over him?” Holy Qur'an (25:43)

This is the inevitable direction they take, having turned away from the divine direction, and as such, they no longer have a clear program; no explicit law and no proper human conduct, as they can only follow the urges of their lust,pleasures and desires. They fabricate laws and regulations, and philosophize on life, man'sgoals and his beliefs according to their own desires, and their limited and shortsighted understanding.

All this is because of man's ignorance and his being too proud to worship Allah, taking himself as a god on the earth, after rejecting the Supreme Deity and servitude to Him. This is the beginning of tragedy and misery, causingfor mankind much suffering, injustice, despotism, tyranny and bitter struggle among diverse interests, desires and selfishness.

These tendencies of ignorance in the soul and thought have registered grave consequences on society andbehaviour . Humanity has thus been invaded by waves of oppression, poverty, ignorance,suppression and arbitrariness, as a minority of the elite usurped rule and domination, and indulged in the pleasures and the delights of life in which they believe. Meanwhile, the greater majority of peoplewere left suffering this unjust servitude imposed by false humandefication .

Why ServitudeTo Allah

One question revolves in the mind of everyone contemplating the universe and life, and in the thought of every sane person scrutinizing the meanings of servitude and submission in order to give the correct answersto :

Whyshould Allah be worshipped alone?

Why shouldman's will melt and merge with Allah's will?

Why should man's thinking, emotions,conduct and other inclinations conform to the Divine Will, free of disobedience or deviation? Man would soon find the answers in the Qur'an, together with a number of preliminary facts proving that servitude to Allah alone is atruth which is a natural result in this world, dictated by the essence of the relation between man and his Creator.

We may list the basicfacts which lead to the inevitable belief that worshipping Allah alone is a truth, as explained by the Qur'an, which makes a connection between every cause and its effect, through many of its verses. It stresses this reality through the following:

1. CREATION IS ALLAH'S

The Qur'an speaks of the creation, innovation and the genetic being of man, and connects these to servitude and submission to Allah, as two correlated and inseparable truths. Allah the Exalted says:

“O mankind! Worship your Lord Who created you and those before you, so that you may be god fearing: Who assigned to you the earth for a couch, and the heaven for a dome; and sent down out of heaven water, wherewith He brought forth fruits for your sustenance; so, set up not compeers rivals to Allah while you know.” Holy Qur'an (2:21-22)

“That is Allah, your Lord, there is nogod but Him, the Creator of everything, therefore worship Him. And He is the Guardian overeverything .” Holy Qur'an (8:102)

Here the Qur'an regards servitude to Allah as a result naturally born of the fact that everything belongs to Allah, considering servitude to Him to be an existing truth in man's life, traversing the realm of the equation between creation and relation to Allah the Exalted.

2. SOVEREIGNTY IS ALLAH'S

The secondtruth which translates into the inevitability of worshipping Allah is the fact that man, like everything else in this universe, belongs to Allah.Man is owned by his Creator and he owns nothing of himself, nor of this world, though he makes use of himself, of the universe, of the earth, of property, of wealth, and of every like means, by way of the authority of Allah the Exalted.So , he has to submit to His will and organize his life accordingly, whereupon he will be Allah's servant. The Qur'an refers to this when it addresses man, saying that whatever is in his possession in this life is Allah's, and not his. Man is destined to leave everything behind for others to use. Hewill be absented from life and taken away empty- handed .

Allah, the Exalted says:

“And indeed you have come to us alone, as We created you the first time, and you have left what We conferred on you behind your backs;...” Holy Qur'an (6:94)

At anotherjuncture the Qur'an connects Allah's sovereignty over everything with servitude to Him alone, and states that the one in whose hands are creation, death and life, is the only One Who should be worshipped. Servitude is but absolute submission and complete surrender to the worshipped. It is not becoming of servant wholly owned to surrender to other than his owner.

“Say (O Muhammad): O mankind!l am the messenger of Allah to you all. To Him belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth. There is no god butHe . He gives life and causes to die. So, believe in Allah and His messenger, the unlettered Prophet who believes in Allah and in His words. And follow him so that you may be guided.” Holy Qur'an (7:158)

3. POWER BELONGS TO ALLAH

The third truth that requires service to be for Allah alone, is that He is the Almighty and that it is Hiswill which is operative. No individual has the ability to resist His sovereignty and will. It follows that man can butsubmit to the will of his Creator, carry out His commands and surrender to His judgment:

“He is the Omnipotent over His servants, and He is All-wise, All-Cognizant.” Holy Qur'an (6:18)

“O my fellow prisoners, are sundry lords better or God, the One, the Omnipotent. What you worship, apart from Him,are nothing but mere names that you and your fathers named, for which God has not sent down any authority.Surely the rule is only for God. He ordains that you worship none but Him. This is the upright religion, but most people know not.” Holy Qur'an (12:39-40)

“Say (to them, O Muhammad) lam only awarner , and there is no god but Him, the One, the Almighty.” Holy Qur'an (38:65)

However, this surrender to Allah's mighty will is founded on belief in to His Justice,Wisdom and Mercy. It does not resemble the surrender shown by a weak man to an unjust despot. There is a difference in the inner feelings in the two cases: In oneinstance he submits to a wrong and unjust will, imposed on him by oppression and force, making him accept the situation reluctantly. Had he the power to rebel against it and set himself free from the bondage, he would have done it, since he does not believe in the justness of such forced and unjust submission.

The other instance is that in which man submits to an overwhelming power willingly, because of his belief that the connection, between this weak existence and the existence of that divine supreme power, is a just one. This relationship truth expresses the reality of two beings, his and hisCreator's .

There is no injustice in this mutual connection, as it is based on justice,love and mercy:“Therefore ask forgiveness of your Lord and then turn to Him. Surely my Lord is Merciful, Loving.” Holy Qur'an (11:90)

“Surely Allah wrongs not so much the weight of an atom; and if there it be a good deed, He will multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.” Holy Qur'an (4:40)

4. COMMAND BELONGS TO ALLAH

The fourthtruth which causes man to become Allah's servants is the fact that he exercises no control over any part of this world, nor can he determine any of its events, or handle the incidents that may befall him, such as death, life and other happenings. He has no choice but to accept unquestioningly and without objection.Thus his submission to such events is an innately compelled submission to Allah's command and will:

“No soul is to die save by Allah's leave and at an appointed term. Whoever desires the reward of this world,We will give him of it; and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, We will give him of it; We will reward the thankful.” Holy Qur'an (3:145)

“No calamity befalls save by Allah's leave.And whoever believes in Allah, He guides his heart. And Allah is Omniscient of everything.” Holy Qur'an (64:10)

Naturally then, man has but to submit to Allah all his affairs, to handle them as He wishes, consenting to the fate and destiny prescribed by Allah:

“…They said: Have we any part in the matter? Say (O Muhammad): The matter belongs to Allah entirely...” Holy Qur'an (3:154)

“...His is the creation and the command. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the worlds! .” Holy Qur'an (7:54)

Consequently, a believer wouldsay: “...I confide my matter to Allah. Allah is seer of (His) servants.” Holy Qur'an (40:44)

Obviously then, handling “the cause of events is beyond the ken of man's ability. Organizing the universe, life, events and in fact all phenomena, are done according to Allah's will.Thus the reality of man's surrender to Allah the Exalted is made clear. In this connection, man embodies the truth of consent,submission and servitude to Allah's volition and wisdom. He is unable to act or influence events independently, except by Allah's permission.

“Yet you will not, unless Allah wills for Allah is Omniscient, All- wise.” Holy Qur'an (76:30)

In the glorioushadith (saying, tradition), from Imam Ali bin Musa Al-Ridha (a.s .) it is said that Allah the Almighty had said: “O son of A dam, on the basis of My will you can will whatever you like for yourself, and on the basis of the authority delegated by Me to you, you can perform your duties as divinely (ordained for) you. It ison the basis of My favor to you that you have become capable of disobeying Me.

I have bestowed upon you the ability to hear, tosee and to be strong. Hence, whatever good you received, you receive it from Allah.And whatever evil befalls you is because of your own self. As to your good deeds, lam closer than you yourself are.And to your evil deeds you yourself are closer than lam. This is why lam not accountable for whatI do. It is they (mankind) who are accountable.”

The fact that Allah has sovereignty that is, His absolute management of the creation and the universe, by way of deciding their fate,destiny and consequent of events, is a natural product of the fact that all power and possession are Allah's. The powerful Owner is the One Who manages and arranges things and happenings, according to His own forceful, creative will, capable of enacting the good and carrying it throughout.

Thus, man sees himself abeing tied to the orbit of an orderly, cosmic servitude and surrender to Allah, leading him to his intentional and freely chosen submission.

5. LORDSHIP BELONGS TO ALLAH

The fifth truth that makes man serve Allah is the fact that Allah is the Lord, the Benefactor and the patron of man. It is He Who bestowed upon man his means of living and whatever he may need in this life, and favored him with His care,kindness and compassion, from when he was but semen in his mother's womb, until the Last moment of his life. Logically then it is this Beneficent Lord Who deserves thanksgiving and worship. There is nobestower , nor a giver in the world other than Allah the Exalted.

In this respect the call of the Qur'an came as a reminder to man, awakening him from his sloth and carelessness:“Say: O people of the Book'! Come to a word common between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate none with Him, and we take not one another for Lords, a part from Allah.' And if they turn away, then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims.” Holy Qur'an (3:64)

“I shall withdraw from you and that to which you pray beside Allah, and I shall pray to my Lord. It may be that, in prayer to my Lord, I shall not beunblest .” Holy Qur'an (19:48)

“Nay, but Allah must you serve, and be among the thankful!” Holy Qur'an (39:66)

In thisway the Qur'an confirms the inseparable connection between thanksgiving and servitude, and the bestowing of gifts and grace. It regards admitting Allah's munificence, and offering gratitude through worshipping Him, as a universal duty expected for His acts of provision. It also regards denying the bounties and the gifts of Allah as infidelity and rebellion against the principle of servitude to Allah the Exalted.

“They know the favor of Allah and then deny it. Most of them are the unbelievers.” Holy Qur'an (16:83)

“So eat of the lawful and good (thing) that Allah haspro vided you, andthank for the bounty of Allah if it is Him you worship.” Holy Qur'an (16:114)

Clearly then, the aforementioned truths: Creation, Sovereignty, Omnipotence, Command and Lordship, areAllah's . These attributes all coalesce to draw for us the picture of the relation between man and his Creator. They explain the shape of that relation,so as to assert the motives of man's submission to Allah alone, and his surrender to His will, intentionally, willingly and consciously, by way of contemplating on this relationship established between man and his Creator.In this way man can comprehend the difference between man and his Creator, and the difference between genetic and voluntary servitude, from which he may infer that: Since it is Allah Who is the Creator, the Owner, the Omnipotent, the Dominant, the Lord, the Beneficent, the Benevolent, the Patron, then, we must worship Him alone, and be sincere in our servitude to Him only.

The Psychological MotivesFor Worship

The concept of servitude and submission to Allah the Exalted in man's soul is foundedon a psychological bases , which enlivens the idea of servitude and grants it vitality and a spiritual and conscious force that urges man to cling to Allah and be connected to Him.

These psychological roots and the resultant deep innerfeelings, are:

1. LOVE AND EAGERNESS

When love of Allah occupies man's mind and heart, and when it interacts with his feelings and emotions, filling his soul and conscience, it becomes devotion, a way of life, which affects the entirety of hisbehaviour . Its spiritis reflected in all his activities and emotions. Thus, his servitude to Allah is ingrained in his soulon the basis of love and pure eagerness for his God, in Whom he discerns every · loveable attribute; nay, more; he sees in Him the infinite perfection and the ultimate goal.

Consequently, this love and eagerness towards Allah continually urges him - in the direction of his Lord, and restlessly pushes him to do whatever may bring him nearer to Him, and to try whatever may attract His approval.

By enjoying such a love, and living in this state of eagerness, man feels as if he were imbibing the most delicious pleasures of life, at the highest stages of bliss, which takes him still nearer to the proximity of his Creator, with utmost love and longing. The ways of expressing worship practiced by man through praying, fasting, fighting for the sake of Allah, invocation, etc. cannot have their full meaning penetrate in the human soul, without its first feeling a pure love and longing for Allah.

This is why the believer carries in his soul and mind the message of servitude to Allah (religion), speaks about it, is proud of it, and sacrifices for it all his wealth, comfort, himself and his kinsmen; because all these cannot be compared with the love for his Lord.

This is very expressively, though briefly, described in the Qur'an:

“O you who believe! Should any among you turns back from his religion, Allah will soon raise a people whom He loves and who love Him...” Holy Qur'an (5:54)

“And those who believe, their love of Allahbe more intensely...” Holy Qur'an (2:165)

In the invocation of the great Prophet (s.a.w .), we find a genuine expression of the fountains of divine love and longing. He says: “O God, grant me to loveYou , to love who loves You, and love the one who brings me nearer to loving You. LetYour love be more dear to me than a drink of cold water.2

Here isHussain bin Ali binAbi Talib (a.s .), the grandson of Prophet (s.a.w .) who dips from the fountain of divine love, and illustrating its sweet taste, proclaims the drinker would not like to turn to any other than it: “It was You Who wiped away the others from the hearts of Your lovers, so as to love no one save You and to take refuge with no one but You .3 ImamJa'far Al-Sadiq (a.s .) referred to the relation between the lover and Allah, and its impression on his conduct and feelings, saying: “The lover is the most sincere, the truest speaker and the strictest keeper of his promise, to Allah. 4 But when this glowing flame dies away in man's soul, and when this flowing fountain dries up, man feels thedessication of life, the accumulation of darkness in his being, the misery of his living. He wanders at random in his worship, ambling aimlessly in the world of the astray, far from Allah. If he, in this case, practices religious rites, such as saying his prayers, fasting and other good deeds, they will be void of real meaning andthey spiritual contents that raise man to high degrees of human progress and perfection.