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Secrets of the Hajj

Secrets of the Hajj

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Secrets of the Hajj

Secrets, subtle points, and attitudes with which each action of Hajj must be carried out, enabling the Hajj to become more than a physical journey; a journey of the inner soul towards self-purification and the Almighty

Author(s): Ayatullah Husayn Mazaheri

Translator(s): Shaykh Saleem Bhimji

Publisher(s): Islamic Humanitarian Service

Table of Contents

Biography of the Author3

Introduction 4

Note5

The Hajj6

The First Stage of the Hajj7

Notes9

The Second Stage of the Hajj10

Notes23

The Third Stage of the Hajj24

Notes27

Talbiyyah upon wearing the Ihram 28

Sketch of the Ka’bah and Sections Related to the Hajji29

1. The Black Stone29

2. Maqam Ibrahim 30

3. Hijr Isma’il30

4. Mizab ar- Rahmah 30

5. Shadharwan 30

6. Mustajar30

7. Hatwim 31

8. Al- Rukn al- Aimani31

9. Al- Rukn al- Iraf31

10. Al- Rukn al- Shamh 31

Sketch of Jannatul Baqi and the Graves of the members of the Ahl al-Bayt33

Sketch of Makkah, Masjid al Haram and some of the Surrounding Sites34

Biography of the Author

The author of this work, Secret of the Hajj, is the grand Ayatullah al­ Hajj ash- Shaikh Husain Mazaheri. Born into a religious family in 1934 in the city of Isfahan, Iran, Ayatullah Mazaheri was a mere 15 years old when he began his Islamic studies in the Hawza `Ilmiyyah of Isfahan. He completed his `Arabic studies under the guidance of the late Hajj Agha Ahmad Muqaddas. His higher studies were conducted under the guidance of Ayatullah Khadimi, and Ayatullah Fayyad.

Four years later, he moved to Qum to continue his studies under the supervision of the late scholar to- Qum Hajj Shaikh `Abd al- Jawad Jabal al- `Amuli, the late Marja` Ayatullah al- `Uzma al- Sayyid Shahab al- Din Mar'ashi Najafi, and the late Ayatullah Shaikh Murtada Haeri.

For more than eight years, he studied Dars- e- Kharij under Ayatulldh al­`Uzma al- Hajj al- Sayyid Husain Burujerdi, and then ten years under Ayatullah al- `Uzma al- Haj al- Sayyid Ruhullah Musawi Khumayni, and twelve years under Ayatullah al- `Uzma al- Hajj al- Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Damad. He also studied the book Al- Asfar written by Mullah Sadra and ash- Shifa of Abu 'Ali Sind under the late `Allamah al- Sayyid Muhammad Husain Taba'taba'i- author of Al- Mizan Fi Tafsir al- Qur'an.

Since 1980, he has been teaching the higher classes of Fiqh and `Usul, and he recently moved back to Isfahan to take over the responsibility of maintaining the Hawza `Ihniyyah there.

This great teacher of Islamic Ethics has lectured extensively in Iran on ethics and spirituality. In addition to speaking and offering advice to the Muslims, many of his speeches have been compiled into books such as, Jihad Ba Nafs (Struggle with the Soul- four volumes), Upbringing of Children, Commentary on Dua al- Kumayl, Control of One's Sexual Urges, Ma`ad (Resurrection) in the Qur'an, and countless others.

Introduction

What follows in this short book is a glance at the secrets of the Hajj, as expounded by the great scholar and teacher of Akhlaq (Islamic Etiquette) and `Irf- an (Mysticism) Ayatullah al- Hajj ash- Shaikh Husain Mazaheri, presently living in Isfahan, Iran.

Hajj is one of the obligatory acts in Islam, which must be performed by each and every Muslim who is able to at least once in his or her lifetime if certain conditions are fulfilled. The books of ahadith are replete with wisdom from the Prophet of Islam and his twelve Successors (peace be upon all of them) concerning Hajj and the philosophical and mystical aspects behind the various acts performed. In the writing attributed to the sixth Imam, Ja'far ibn Muhammad al- Sadiq (peace be upon him) contained in Lantern of the Path1 , this noble personality explains Hajj in the following words:

“If you intend to go on pilgrimage, before resolving on it devote your heart to Allah , stripping it of every preoccupation and every barrier between you and Allah Entrust all your affairs to your Creator and rely on Him in all your actions and moments of stillness. Surrender to His decree, decision and judgement. Abandon this world, repose, and all creation. Perform those duties which you are bound to fulfil for other people.

Do not rely on your provisions, the animal you will ride, your companions, your food, your youth nor your wealth, for fear that they will become your enemies and be harmful to you; in this way you will realize that there is no power, no strength, no might except by the guardianship of Allah and His granting of success.

Prepare for the pilgrimage as someone who does not hope to return. Keep good company, and be diligent in observing all your obligations to Allah and the Holy Prophet. Take care to show courtesy, endurance, patience, thankfulness, compassion, and generosity- always putting others before yourself- even those who reject you. Then perform an ablution with the water of sincere repentance for wrong actions; and put on the robe of truthfulness, purity, humility and fear. By donning the garments of pilgrimage, withhold yourself from everything which hinders you from remembering Allah , or that may impede you from showing obedience to Him.

Fulfill His call with an answer whose meaning is clear, pure and sincere when you call on Him, holding on firmly to your belief in Him. Circumambulate with your heart along with the angels who circumambulate the Throne, just as you circumambulate with the Muslims who go around the Ka'bah. Hasten as you run in flight from your passion, freeing yourself of all your personal assumptions of strength and power. Leave your heedlessness and errors behind when you go out to Mina; do not desire what is unlawful for you and what you do not deserve.

Confess your errors at Arafat- set out your contract with Allah by His Oneness, draw near to Him and fear Him at Muzdalifah. Climb with your soul to the highest assembly when you climb the mountain of Arafat. Slit the throat of passion and greed in the sacrifice. Stone your appetites, baseness, vileness, and blameworthy actions when you stone the Pillar of Aqabah. Shave off your outward and inward faults when you shave your hair. Enter into the security of Allah , His protection, His veil,

His shelter and His watchfulness and abandon the pursuit of your desires by entering the Sacred Precinct. Visit the House, and walk around it to glorify the Master, His wisdom, His majesty and His power.

Embrace the Stone, being content with His decree and humble before His might. Leave everything that is other- than- Him in the valedictory circumambulating. Purify your soul and your innermost being for the meeting with Allah , on the day when you will meet Him when standing on al­ Safa'.

Take on valour and courtesy from Allah by annihilating your attributes at al- Marwah. Be consistent in the conditions of your pilgrimage and fulfil the contract you have made with your Lord, by which you will have obliged yourself to Him on the Day of Judgement.

Know that Allah made the pilgrimage obligatory, and singled it out from all the acts of worship in respect of Himself when He said:

وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا …

“Pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, and [upon] everyone who is able to undertake the journey to it... “ (3:97)

The Holy Prophet (‘s) established the organization of the rituals of pilgrimage, as preparation for and an indication of death, the grave, the resurrection and the Day of Judgement. In this lesson for mankind he discriminates between those who will enter the Garden and those who will enter the Fire, through his demonstrating the pilgrimage rites from beginning to end, to those with intelligence and prudence.

It is hoped that this short booklet which elucidates on some of the subtle points of the Hajj will be of benefit to the brothers and sisters who are making this once in a lifetime journey to the holy cities of Makkah and Madinah. We pray that this small work is accepted by Allah , our Prophet Muhammad (‘s), his close friend, brother, and immediate successor Amir al- Mo'minin 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, and the 11 Imams from his family (as).

May this trip not only be a physical journey, but rather a journey of the inner soul towards self- purification and finally to the final abode- nearness to Allah (SWT) in every way.

May Allah hasten the return of our Mawla and Master, Sahib al- `Asr wa al ­Zaman (may our souls be sacrificed for the dirt under his feet).

Saleem Bhimji

Translator

Note

. This book has been translated into English by Fadlullah Haeri, and was originally published by Zahra Publications. The original title of the book in `Arabic is Misbah al- Shariyah wa Miftah al- Haqiqah.

The Hajj

The entire journey of Hajj is a spirituality excursion that covers three stages:

The First Stage: Cutting oft affinity from all things with the exception of Allah in order to reach to Allah.

سير من الخلق إلى الحق

The Second Stage: Continuing towards Allah and strengthening the alliance (with Him), until one reaches to Allah and (the true) essence of worship.

سير من الحق إلى الحق

The Third Stage: Once a person has reached to the level of perfection and has arrived at the stage of (true) worship, he then returns (to the people) to guide the creations of Allah towards Him

سير من الحق إلى الخلق

The First Stage of the Hajj

In the first stage, above all other things, that which is the most important is repentance (tawbah) and to be vigilant. The meaning of repentance is to shun all devils and all forms of despotism, and turn back towards Allah It means to disregard one's wishes, low desires and the lower soul (al- Nafs al- Ammarah) and proceed towards spirituality and the (higher) qualities (of a human being).

Completing all that was performed in the past such that there is no responsibility or obligation between Allah and His creations on the person's shoulders, the person leaves his city in such a state that not a single person is upset with him- except of course the Devil (Shaitan).

The meaning of being vigilant is that one focuses his attention on the grandeur and majesty of the House of Allah .

He focuses on the fact that it is the Creator and Maintainer of the Universe that has given him this opportunity (to perform the Hajj). He focuses on the fact that on this journey, he must not allow anyone or anything to aggravate him. He focuses on the fact that if he performs a Hajj that is accepted, then without doubt, he has reached to that level which mankind was created to reach to (the level of meeting Allah and the level of true worship). He focuses on the importance of performing all those things, which are obligatory to perform, such as the Salat, etc...

A woman performing the Hajj safeguards her modesty and her Islamic attire (hijab). She focuses on the importance of refraining from all sins, and she knows and understands that Allah does not accept the deeds of those who commit sins. The acceptance of all actions is connected to one's piety (taqwa). Thus, Allah does not accept the Hajj from those people who commit sins:

إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

“Verily Allah only accepts from those who guard (against evil).”1

The person must keep in mind the importance of performing the recommended (mustahab) acts, most importantly of which is serving the creations of Allah, which is one of the ways that the obligatory (wajib) acts are accepted.

The person must keep in mind that especially during this journey, wherever he may be and in whatever state he is, he is constantly in the presence of Allah , the Noble Prophet (s) and the Pure A'immah (as) (such as we are told in the Qur'an):

وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ

“Say- Work! Allah will see your work and (so will) His Messenger and the believers...”2

The person must keep in mind that using any forbidden (haram) wealth or property on this trip- rather in any act of worship, will not lead to anything except the accumulation of sins, transgression and misfortune in this world and in the next life.

After repentance and being vigilant, the person must also reach to a stage of emptiness and annihilation, such that if he can not reach to the level where he is able to remove all the detestable characteristics such as jealousy, miserliness, pride, greatness, worship of the world, etc... then he should at least try to acquire the praiseworthy characteristics such as mercy, generosity, humility, asceticism, and freeing the soul from all that it is attached to within himself.

A person should try to at least control those detestable attributes that he possesses and not allow them to take power over him.

Similarly, one must try to allow justice, equity and the fear of Allah to rule over himself such that unknowingly and on its own, the soul gains control in a way that all the obligatory (wajib) actions are performed and all sins are refrained from. This should be accomplished at least to the extent that these (positive traits) take control over one's al- Nafs al- Ammarah and over one's own wishes and desires, and do not drag the person towards sin.

Once this has been accomplished, then one, through the pleasures of the religion (Salat, fasting, recitation of Qur'an, supplication, humility and humbleness while in the presence of Allah , pleasing the creations of Allah , etc ...) and through seeking help by way of Tawassul to the Ahl al- Bait (as) (it is better to go to Madinah after performing the Hajj, if one is able to), especially seeking help from Imam Wali al- Asr (may Allah hasten his noble return and may my soul and the souls of all of those of the universe be sacrificed for the dirt under his feet) and by the continuous recitation of Ziyarat Jami`ah al- Kabirah which is one of the best forms of Tawassul to the 12th Imam, one will reach to the level of glory and praise- meaning that our soul will become illuminated by the light (Nur) of Allah .

وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِي النَّاسِ

“And we placed for him, a light (Nur) by which he walks amongst the people..”3

In this blessed journey, while in the security of the Truth, one should be able to reach to a level of true servitude, where one can distinguish between good and bad, friend and enemy, and what Allah (swt) wants, from what one's own evil soul wants...

إِنْ تَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَكُمْ فُرْقَانًا

“If you are careful of (your duty to) Allah, then He will grant you a distinction.”4

What is more important than which has been mentioned is at this stage, one must attain sincerity (khulus). This means that in one's heart and thoughts during this journey, nothing should remain except Allah and the performance of the Hajj exactly as the way Prophet Ibrahim (as) performed it.

وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

“Surely I have turned myself, being upright, wholly to Him Who originated the heavens and the earth, and I am not of the polytheists.”5

The person should not perform Hajj simply for people to congratulate him; or, may Allah protect us, to make other people work hard and go through troubles, meaning his Hajj is not simply to use other people. In fact, his Hajj should not even be for Allah to bestow upon him, both in this world and in the next, blessings and bounties. Rather, all of his attention and focus on this journey must be for Allah , the goal of reaching to Him and to the true worship, such that no one else or anything will be in his sight except the pleasure of Allah .

وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ نِعْمَةٍ تُجْزَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِ الْأَعْلَى

`And no one has with him any blessing for which he should be rewarded, except the seeking of the pleasure of his Lord, the Most High.`6

In summary, at this stage, one's intention must be sincere and there must not be anything of the worldly pleasure, in fact not even the pleasures of the next life should be in his sight. Just as the Qur'an mentions, the best colour is the colour of Allah

صِبْغَةَ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ صِبْغَةً

“(Receive) the colour of Allah, and who is better than Allah in colouring?”7

The worst of colours is the colour of conceit, and it is clear that if Allah forbid, through one's actions, speech, or if in one's heart or soul this trait is already there, then he has reached to the stage of disbelief (kufr):

فَوَيْلٌ لِلْمُصَلِّينَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنْ صَلَاتِهِمْ سَاهُونَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ يُرَاءُونَ وَيَمْنَعُونَ الْمَاعُونَ

“So woe to the praying ones, those who are unmindful of their prayers, Who do (good) to be seen, And withhold the necessities of life.”8

Notes

1. Surah al- Maidah (5), Verse 27

2. Surah al- Tawbah (9), Verse 105

3. Surah al- An'am (6), Verse 122

4. Surah al- Anfal (8), Verse 29

5. Surah al- An'am (6), Verse 79

6. Surah al- Lail (92), Verses 19- 20

7. Surah al- Baqarah (2), Verses 138

8. Surah al- Ma'un (107), Verses 4- 7