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Al-Mawaaizh (The Sermons)

Al-Mawaaizh (The Sermons)

Author:
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

SHEIKH AS-SADUQ:

AL-MAWAAIZH

(THE SERMONS)

Translated by: Badr Shahin

www.alhassanain.org/english

Notice:

This version is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errors are not corrected.

Table of Contents

THE PUBLISHER’S WORD 5

THE REVISER’S WORD 6

THE REVISION 10

1- AL-MAWAAIZH 10

2. SIFAT USH-SHIA 10

3. FADHAA’IL USH-SHIA 11

BIOGRAPHY OF THE COMPILER 13

Name and Lineage 13

Birth and Early Life 13

Scholastic Journeys 15

Scholastic State and Scholars’ Opinions 16

Teachers and Students 17

His Works 18

His Death 18

INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPILER 20

THE PROPHET’S COMMANDMENTS FOR AMIR UL-MU’MININ 20

Commentary of the compiler: 21

Commentary of The compiler: 22

Brief Sermons of the Prophet 34

Imam Ali and A Syrian Old Man 35

The Commandment of Amir ul-Mu'minin for his Son Mohammed bin al-Hanafiyya 38

Maxims of the Prophet and the Imams 43

Notes 62

THE PUBLISHER’S WORD

In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful

All praise is due to AllahWhose mercy is not desponded and forgiveness is not despaired of. The best blessings and peace be upon the keeper of His revelation, the seal of His messengers, the foreteller of His mercy, and the warner against His punishment-the Prophet Mohammed. The blessings and peace be, too, upon his family and household through whom the right has regained its proper place and the wrong has been overthrown. Cursebe on their enemies among the people of disagreement and hypocrisy who have brought to themselves the sins and made themselves the subject of Hell.

The Imamite Shia are still known of their faithful loyalty to the Prophet’s household, peace be upon them all, since the glorious Prophet had unearthed his immortal mission to mankind. He, however, kept on giving credit to the lofty standings and the qualities by which the Shia should be characterized. In view of that, they were the matter of the glorious Prophet’s glad tidings that he (s) carried. He said:

The Shia of Ali will be the true winners.[1]

O Ali, Allah has forgiven you, your progeny, your sons, your household, your Shia –adherents-, and the adorers of your Shia.[2]

These three books -namely,al-Mawaaizh ,Sifat ush-Shia , andFadhaa’il ush-Shia - that are at the hands of the dear reader are indeed precious moral gems presented to the adherents of the Prophet’s household. They are the works of the master Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah have mercy upon him, who compiled them in different times.

The translator has depended, in his work, on the copy that is published by Al-Maarif Al-Islamiyya Foundation – Qum, and revised by Mr. Mahmoud Al-Badri who exerted remarkable efforts for advancing these precious compilations in such a noteworthy form.

In addition to the original texts of the books, most of the information, notes, and comments that the reviser has added are translated for the purpose of expanding the scope of information and making the contents more understandable and more accessible to all. Furthermore, a brief biography of the compiler Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah may have mercy upon him, is added so as to introduce this unique personality to the readers.

Ansariyan Publications , undertaking the mission of propagandizing for the sect of Ahl ul-Bayt (a) and publicizing the precious immortal works of the master scholars of Shiism, is pleased to advance these three precious works, all in one book, to the dear readers and the seekers of the truth.

We hope the dear reader would find this work convenient and guide to the human perfection and we implore to Allah, Exalted is He, to grant us success to keep on offering the dear readers with the valuable gems of the Islamic heritage.

Ansariyan Publications, 2001.

THE REVISER’S WORD

All praise is due to Allah, the lord of the worlds. All blessings and peace be upon Mohammed and his family-the pure and immaculate. All mercy and content be upon all their adorers and adherents. The content of Allahbe upon the Prophet’s companionswho honestly followed him.

It is well known that Shiism, as a sect and belief, was not the fruit of the political circumstances that took place after the death of the glorious Prophet (s) when some people usurped the leadership from its legal master in the Saqifa of the Banu Saaida. It was also not the product of the political circumstances that came about during the reign of Imam Ali (a) when the Prophet’s widow (Aisha) mutinied, calling for the revenge on those who shed the blood of the killed caliph after she had provoked all people against that very killed caliph in his lifetime, and history has kept her famous call, ‘Kill Naathat[3] , for he has converted to atheism.’

Shiism, also, was not the product of the political circumstances that occurred when Muawiya mutinied, carrying the shirt of Othman[4] and calling for the revenge on his killers. That event, however, was the reason beyond the founding of the Khawarij[5] one of whose members killed Amirul- Mu'minin (a) while he was offering a prayer in his mihrab.

Shiism, too, is not the product of the political circumstances that the Muslims had to encounter after the savage massacre of Karbala, which was committed against the Prophet’s household (a) at the hands of the Umayyad ruling authorities.

It is quite true that Shiism was not the product of any of the previous circumstances, as some please to say. Shiism came to light and appeared on the theater of the political and religious life since the first sparks of the Islamic history. The embracers of Shiism raised the slogan of the love and loyalty to the Prophet’s household, peace be upon them all, adopted their goals, and believed purely that they are the most meritorious of taking the position of the Prophet (s). They also believed that Imam Ali bin Abi Talib -Amir ul-Mu'minin, the head of the religion, the leader of the white-forheaded honorables, the husband of the pure lady, the father of the two grandsons (of the Prophet) al-Hasan and al-Hussein- is the true successor of the Prophet (s) the door to the city of his knowledge, and the keeper of his wisdom. They also believed that the immaculate Imams are the true successors of the Prophet (s) the leaders of his community, and the conveyers of his divine mission.

The dawn of Shiism broke since the first days of the blessed prophetic mission. It was the Prophet (s) who planted this blessed seed, cultivated, and supervised it all over the stages of his noble lifetime. This can be proved through the many hadiths that attached the quality of Shiism to the followers of Imam Ali (a) praised them, and revealed to them the glad tidings of having the highest ranks in the Supreme Paradise.

The Prophet (s) said:

O Ali, you, as well as your Shia, will join me on the Divine Pool.[6]

O Ali, your Shia and you will come to Allah with content and pleasure. Your enemies will come with anger and will beunable to bend their heads to find their ways. [7]

On the Day of Resurrection, Ali and his Shia will be the winners.[8]

O Ali, Allah has forgiven you, your progeny, your sons, your household, your Shia, and the adorers of your Shia.[9]

The Shia of Ali will be the true winners.[10]

Moreover, the hadith that is called ‘Hadith ud-Dar’ is one of the strongest irrefutable evidences on our claim.

((At-Tabari, in his book of history, records that Ibn Abbas narrated that Ali bin Abi Talib (a) said:

After the revelation of the Verse, “And warn your nearest relations,” the Prophet (s) summoned me and said: “O Ali, Allah had ordered me to warn my near relatives, but I was unable to bear this order because I knew that they would show me detestable things if I would approach such a matter with them. I therefore kept it secret until the Archangel Gabriel came to me and said that my Lord would punish me if I would shun that order. Now, I want you to make some food with meat of a ewe and bring a jar of milk for us, then gather the sons of Abdul-Muttalib so that I will speak to them and convey the matter that I was ordered to convey.”

I did as he asked me and invited them. They were about forty men among whom there were his uncles-Abu Talib, Hamza, al-Abbas and Abu Lahab. When they all attended, he asked me to fetch that food and I did. When I put it before them, the Prophet (s) took a piece of the meat, tore it with his teeth, threw its pieces around the bowl,then said: “Here you are, by the Name of Allah.” Each one of them took his sufficiency completely and I could see only the places of their hands. I swear by Allah, each one of them ate the quantity that I served to all of them. The Prophet (s) then asked me to serve milk to them. I fetched that jar and they all drank from it. By Allah I swear, each one of them drank the quantity that I served to all of them.

When the Prophet (s) tried to speak, Abu Lahab overtook and prevented him from speaking. He said: “This man has bewitched you.” Hence, they left without letting the Prophet (s) speak to them.

On the next day, the Prophet said to me: “O Ali, that man overtook me and said the statement that you had heard. They left before I could speak to them. Make for us food like that which you did then gather them to me.”

I did and invited them all. He then asked me to serve them the food. I served it for them and he repeated the same thing that he had done the previous day. Each one of them had his sufficiency completely. He then asked me to serve them with the milk. I fetched the same jar and they all drank from it to their sufficiency. Then, the Prophet (s) spoke:

“O sons of Abdul-Muttalib, I do not know any young Arab man who has brought to his people a thing that is better than that which I have brought to you. I have brought to you the goodness of this world as well as the world to come. Allah, Exalted is He, has ordered me to call you to accept this matter. Which one of you will support me in this regard and he will be my brother, successor, and representative among you?”

They all kept silent except me. I said, while I was the youngest among them, “O the Prophet of Allah, I will be your supporter in this matter.” I repeated this statement three times.

The Prophet (s) then took me from the neck and said: “This is my brother, successor, and representative among you. You thus should listen to and obey him.”

They left him laughing and saying to Abu Talib: “He has ordered you to listen to and obey your son!”))[11]

A deep look in this holy hadith proves that the Prophet (s) asked his near relatives, according to the order of Allah, to confess of the oneness of Allah the Exalted and his divine mission, and then ordered them to listen to and obey his brother, successor, and representative Ali bin Abi Talib (a). In other words, the Prophet (s) ordered them to follow and comply with Ali-to be his Shia. The meaning of Shiism is to listen to, obey, and follow.

As a result, the seed of Shiism and the seed of Islam were planted on the same day in the same time at the same hand. All the Muslims who were with the Prophet (s) believed in his prophesy and mission, committed themselves to that which he ordered, listened to him, obeyed him, and listened to and obeyed the one whom he ordered to obey. That one was his cousin, brother, successor, and representative Ali bin Abi Talib (a).

They were considered as listeners and obedient to the Prophet (s) only when they carried out his order of listening to and obeying Ali (a). It was the same order that Allah gave. Consequently, their compliance with the order of the Prophet means their adherence, i.e. Shiism, to Ali, because Shiism means to listen to, obey, and follow.

The light of Shiism, then, glared along with the light of Islam in the Arab Peninsula. The grand companions who believed in the oneness of Allah and the divine message of the Prophet accepted, in the same time, the obligatory loyalty to Ali. Meanwhile, others, among those who turned on their backs just after the death of the Prophet, stood against him.

This work is in fact three books whose topics are connected to each other. One of them, namelySifat ush-Shia , focuses the lights on the qualities that the Shia should have within their moralities. Without such qualities, the Shia would not have won such abundant merits to which the second book, namelyFadhaa’il ush-Shia , refers. The third book, namelyal-Mawaaizh , compiles the maxims and words of wisdom that are said by the Prophet and the Imams, peace be upon them all, on various occasions. It is necessary for the Shiite, before others, to apply such maxims to himself, because they are surely great masterpieces and moral principals.

A deep look into these maxims and qualities proves the fact that the embracement of Shiism is not mere words that everyone can say or ordinary love for Amirul- Mu'minin, as some think. The true Shiite is only he who commits himself to those qualities and applies them to his conducts. The true Shiite is only that whom Imam al-Baqir (a) describes in the following words:

“O Jabir, do you think that it is sufficient for those who claim being Shia to say that they cherish us; the Prophet’s household?

By Allah I swear, our adherents –Shia- are only those who fear and obey Allah. Their signs are modesty, submission, fulfillment of the trusts, very much reference to Allah, fasting, offering prayers, piety to (their) parents, aiding the neighbors especially the poor, the destitute, the indebted, and the orphans, truth, reciting the Quran, and avoiding mentioning people except for praising. In addition, they are the most trustful of the people of their tribes.

Do not misunderstand the matter. It is enough for a man to claim that he loves and follows Ali (a). As a matter of fact, if he claims that he loves the Prophet (s) who is preferable to Ali (a) but he does not follow the Prophet’s traditions and does not act upon his instructions, such claim of love will be definitely useless. Hence, you should fear Allah and work for the cause of obtaining that which He has in possession. There is no relation between Allah and anybody. The most favorable and honorable servants of Allah are the most God-fearing and the most pious.

O Jabir, the only means through which a servant seeks to gain Allah’s favor is the obedience to Him. We –the Prophet’s household- do not carry a patent for saving from Hell. Likewise, none of you has a claim against Allah. He whoever obeys Allah is only our disciple and whoever disobeys Him is our enemy. The loyalty to us cannot be gained except by means of diligent work and piety.”

O Allah, make my life copy the lives of Mohammed and his family. WhenYou seize my soul, make me carry the same beliefs that Mohammed and his family carried. Make me a true adherent of Amirul- Mu'minin. I, also, implore toYou to record for me success, for the efforts that I have exerted in this regard, and reward on the Day of Judgment. I implore toYou to save us from the pursuance of passions and the making of errors and endow upon us with righteousness and appositeness.

All praise is due to Allah, Who guided us to this. Without his guidance, we would not have been right.

Mahmoud al-Badri, 2000.

THE REVISION

1- AL-MAWAAIZH

Al-Mawaaizh is the first book in this collection. In 1392 A.H., it was first printed, with its Persian translation of Azizullah Attaridi, in reliance on the only documentary copy that is found in the Library of An-Nassiriyya in Lakanhu, India. Mr. Attaridi mentioned that he had found that copy during his journey to India in 1386 A.H. He also added that the copier chose the titleSheikh As-Saduq’s Al-La’aali al-Ghawali –The Dear Pearls- for the copy that carried the same title in the indexes of that library.

It seems that the copier took this title from the introduction of the compiler who records in its beginning, “So then, these are dear pearls and bright jewels…”

This copy seems to be the only available one that was handwritten in 1235 A.H. by Feda Ali al-Musawi of Lakanhu. In the last of that copy, the following is written:

“On Saturday, the first of Rabi I, 1235 of the hegira, All peace and blessings be upon him who made the hegira and upon his immaculate and pure household, this holy copy titled ‘Al-La’aali al-Ghawali ’ that is compiled by the lofty Sheikh, the most pious, the decent, the master of the sect, the grand, the trustworthy of the Imams, the head of the narrators, the product of the praying of the Sinless, the superior knowledgeable, our master Mohammed bin Babawayh al-Qummi, Allah may have mercy upon him. I am the poor servant Feda Ali son of Sayyid Ali al-Musawi of Nisapur, Lakanhu, and Dahlu.”

In addition to the following evidences, we can prove through the previous statement that this book belongs to Sheikh as-Saduq.

Most of the biographists, who referred to Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah may have mercy upon him, stated that he compiled a book titledal-Mawaaizh –The Sermons-.[12] Besides, the contents of the book are almost sermons, advices, and maxims.

In the last of his book titledMen La Yahdhuruh ul-Faqih ; Chapter:An-Nawadir -The Extraordinary Reports-, Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah may have mercy upon him, records the text of this book.[13]

In the revision of this book, the previously mentioned copy of the book and the last chapter ofMen La Yahdhuruh al-Faqih , since it is the same as the book ofal-Mawaaizh , are relied upon.

2. SIFAT USH-SHIA

About this book, Sheikh at-Tehrani says:

“The book titledSifat ush-Shia is compiled by Sheikh as-Saduq Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh al-Qummi.Ad-Dam’at us-Sakiba , Al-Majlisi’sBihar ul-Anwar , Al-Hurr Al-Aamili’sWassail ush-Shia , andAl-Mustadrak -all these reference books quoted fromSifat ush-Shia . In Tehran, there is a copy of this book, which is handwritten with an old and big script, is found with the Doctor. Other copies are found with Mr. Al-Urdubadi in Najaf and the Library of At-Tehrani in Samarra that is written by our Sheikh an-Nuri and, now, kept by his grandson Mirza Ali Behzadi in Tehran. The book titledFadhaa’il ush-Shia is within this copy.

In the revision of this book, two copies are depended:

The first copy is documentary and stored in Fayziyya School within Group: 1764 No. 4. It is a clear copy, which is ended with the following paragraph:

“This is the end of the book titledSifat ush-Shia and compiled by Sheikh as-Saduq Mohammed bin Ali bin Babawayh al-Qummi; the resident in Ray. All praise is due to Allah primarily, finally, openly, and secretly. The poorservant Hussein bin Mohammed Taqi an-Nuri at-Tabirsi wrote it himself in Najaf… on the seventh of Shawal, 1271 A.H.”

The second is the copy that is found in the Library of At-Tehrani of Samarra to which it was referred in the book titleAth-Thareea . This copy was printed in Najaf by Allama Najmuddin ash-Sharif al-Askari in 1380 A.H. –1958 A.D.- and was attached to his book titledAli wash-Shia . In the end of this book, he writes down:

“This book was copied by ash-Sharif al-Askari Najmuddin, the son of the late scholar Sheikh Mirza Mohammed ash-Sharif al-Askari (of Tehran) in Samarra at the night of Saturday, the twenty-first of Thu’l-Qa’da. Allah may bless Mohammed and his immaculate family.”[14]

3. FADHAA’IL USH-SHIA

About this book, Sheikh at-Tehrani says:

“This book is also calledFadhl ush-Shia . Al-Majlisi quotes from this one as well as the previous. This means that he had them both. Al-Hurr Al-Aamili, also, quotes from them and had them in possession. In the fourth appendix ofWassail ash-Shia , he states the previous fact. The two books, now, are found in Isfahan and Mashhad at the hands of Sheikh Hussein (al-Muqqaddas al-Mashhadi). Mirza Mohammed at-Tehrani took these copies to put them in his library in Samarra.”[15]

For this revision, two copies of the book are depended:

The first one is the documentary copy that is found in the library of Ayatollah al-Mar’ashi an-Najafi (without bearing any number). It is a good copy.

The second is printed. It is the same copy ofSifat ush-Shia to which we have previously referred and found in the Library of At-Tehrani in Samarra.

In the end of this copy, the following is written:

“Thanks to Allah the Exalted, the book titledFadhaa’il ush-Shia and compiled by Sheikh as-Saduq, Allah may have mercy upon him, has come to its end on the hands of Najmuddin ash-Sharif al-Askari (of Tehran), the son of the late scholar Sheikh Mirza Mohammed al-Askari at-Tehrani on the eighth of Shaban, 1380 A.H.

Allah may bless Mohammed and his immaculate household.”

For the sake of providing the texts as accurate as possible, the reviser did not depend on a single definite copy of the book. He moved between all of the available copies, in addition to the other reliable reference books, including the compilations of Sheikh as-Saduq himself, such asAl-Amali, At-Tawhid, Me’aani al-Akhbar , and the other reference books such asBihar ul-Anwar, Wassail ush-Shia and many others.

The other tasks that the reviser did are as follows:

He compared the Quranic texts that are mentioned in these books with the holy Quran.

He referred to the same narrations that are mentioned in other reference books.

He added to the texts of series of relaters the statements that are found in other reliable reference books.

He referred to only some differences between the copies of the books intended and the other reference books.

He added some important comments that are considered necessary.

He used guide titles for each narration so as to enable the dear reader and the searcher to benefit by them.

In the end of each book, he attached a number of useful indexes.

BIOGRAPHY OF THE COMPILER

Name and Lineage

Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh; Abu Ja’far As-Saduq* al-Qummi –i.e. of Qum-; the master Sheikh and the head of the narrators.

His father was the respectful Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh: the master Sheikh of Qum in his time. He was also the most precedent, the master jurisprudent, and the most trustful of the ulema of his time.[16]

Birth and Early Life

Sheikh As-Saduq was born in Qum. Although it was impossible to define the very year in which he was born, it is well known that he was born after the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari (the second representative),[17] which was in the year 305 A.H. That was the opening year of the representation of Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein bin Rawh (the third representative), who died in 326 A.H.

As confirmation of this estimation, we provide the words of Sheikh As-Saduq himself in his book titledKamal ud-Dinwa Tamam un-Ni’ma :

Abu Ja'far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad related to us:

After the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari, Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh (i.e. As-Saduq’s father) asked me to tell Abu al-Qasim Ar-Rawhi –i.e. bin Rawh- to ask our master Sahib uz-Zaman[18] to pray to Allah for giving him a male baby.

Abu al-Qasim informed that he asked the Imam, who rejected. Three days later, Abu al-Qasim informed that the Imam (a) had prayed to Allah for Ali bin al-Hussein and he would be given a blessed male baby who would be the means by which Allah, Exalted is He, would benefit (many people). Moreover, many boys would come after that baby.

(Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad said) After a period, Ali bin al-Hussein was given Mohammed (i.e. As-Saduq) followed by many other boys.[19]

(Another Narrative)

Sheikh At-Tusi said that some people narrated from Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh and Abu Abdullah al-Hussein bin Ali bin Musa bin Babawayh (his brother) that Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad related to us:

After the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari, Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh (i.e. As-Saduq’s father) asked me to tell Abu al-Qasim Ar-Rawhi to ask our master Sahib uz-Zaman (a) to pray to Allah for giving him a male baby.

Abu al-Qasim informed that he asked the Imam, who rejected. Three days later, Abu al-Qasim informed that the Imam (a) had prayed to Allah for Ali bin al-Hussein and he would be given a blessed male baby who would be the means by which Allah, Exalted is He, would benefit (many people). Moreover, many boys would come after that baby.

(Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad said) I asked him to pray to Allah to give me a male baby, but he did not answer. He said: This is impossible.

After a period, Ali bin al-Hussein was given Mohammed (i.e. As-Saduq) followed by many other boys. For me, I was not given anything.

Abu Ja’far bin Babawayh commented: As he noticed me attending the classes of our master Mohammed bin al-Hussein bin al-Waleed frequently while I was interested in recording and retaining the items of knowledge, Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad used to say to me, ‘It is not strange for you to have such an insistent desire for learning since you came to this world by the supplication of the Imam (a).[20]

Ar-Rawandi, in hisal-Kharaa’ij , related the like of the previous narrative, yet brief.[21] Besides, At-Tabirsi, in his book titledA’lam ul-Wara [22] , Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani, in hisTabssirat ul-Wali [23] , and Sayyid Ali bin Abdul-Karim An-Najafi, in hisMuntakhab ul-Anwar il-Mudhee’a [24] , referred to the same narrative.

Imaduddin Mohammed bin Ali At-Tusi, in hisThaqib ul-Manaqib ,[25] referred to a part of that narrative.

In his reference to the biography of Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa; As-Saduq’s father, An-Nejashi said that the man was in Iraq when he met Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein bin Rawh, Allah may have mercy be upon him, and asked him many questions. After that, As-Saduq’s father corresponded with Abu al-Qasim at the hands of Ali bin Ja’far bin al-Aswad and asked him to deliver a paper to Imam al-Mahdi, Allah may hasten his return, in which he asked for a male baby.

The answer was, ‘We have prayed to Allah for you and you will be given two virtuous male babies.’

Hence, Abu Ja’far and Abu Abdullah[26] , whose mother was a bondwoman, were born.[27]

From the previous we can conclude that Sheikh As-Saduq, Allah may have mercy be upon him, had come to this world out of the prayer of Imam al-Hujja (a) after the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari; after the year 305 A.H., when his father Sheikh Ali bin al-Hussein traveled to Iraq and met Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein bin Rawh and asked him some questions… etc. Hence, Sheikh As-Saduq was born in about 306 A.H.

Sheikh As-Saduq used to take pride in such a birth and say, ‘I was born due to the prayer of Imam al-Mahdi (a).’[28]

Sheikh As-Saduq grew up in the laps of virtue; his father used to feed him with the knowledge, shower him with the abundance of his knowledge and moralities, and circulate on him the lights of his purity, God-fearing, piety, and ascetics. All these contributed in the scholastic perfection and growth of Sheikh As-Saduq who lived under the wing of his father for more than twenty years during which he drank these knowledges and took from the great flow of his father’s information, moralities, and conducts. In addition, he grew up in the city of Qum which was swarming with the scholars and narrators, such as the master of the scholars of Qum Mohammed bin al-Hasan bin Ahmed bin al-Waleed and Hamza bin Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Ja’far bin Mohammed bin Zaid bin Ali as well as many others whose sessions and lectures were frequently attended by Sheikh As-Saduq.

After a short while, Sheikh As-Saduq became that great figure by whom people were benefiting. He also became such a distinctive sign of retaining and intelligence. He exceeded his companions in fields of virtue and knowledge and became such an unparalleled person.

Furthermore, the political circumstances of that period played a significant role in crystallizing the personality of Sheikh As-Saduq who lived in the reign of the Buyid in Iraq and Persia (321-447 A.H.), the Fatimids in Northern Africa (296-567 A.H.), and the Hamdanian State in Mousel –Northern Iraq- and Syria (333-394 A.H.)

It is well known that all these states were declaring their loyalty to the leadership of the Prophet’s household. In other words, they were Shia.

Scholastic Journeys

Not only was the intention of Sheikh As-Saduq to suffice with receiving knowledge from the master scholars of his town, but also it rose higher to encourage him to travel and emigrate far away from his hometown for seeking studies and knowledge. In the beginning, he traveled to the city of Ray to answer the summons of Rukn ad-Dawla al-Buwayhi (the Buyid), who died in 366 A.H. There, Sheikh As-Saduq met the scholars of that city, such like Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Ali bin Asad al-Asadi whose famous nickname is Abu Jurada al-Barda’i. That was in 347 A.H. He also met Ya’qoub bin Yousuf bin Ya’qoub, Ahmed bin Mohammed bin As-Saqr As-Sa’igh al-Adl (the decent), Abu Ali Ahmed bin al-Hasan al-Qattan and many others.

He then traveled to the city of Khurasan for the visitation of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ar-Ridha (a) in 352 A.H. After that, he returned to the city of Ray.

In 367 A.H., he made his second journey to the Holy Shrine of Imam Ar-Ridha (a). During his third journey which was made in 368 A.H., he passed by the cities of Istrabad[29] and Jurjan[30] where he attended the lectures of Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Mohammed bin al-Qasim Alistrabadi-the famous exegesist (of the Holy Quran) and orator. He also attended the classes of Sheikh Abu Mohammed al-Qasim bin Mohammed Alistrabadi, Sheikh Abu Mohammed Abdous bin Ali bin al-Abbas al-Jurjani, and Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali Alistrabadi.

In his journey back from the visitation of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ar-Ridha (a) Sheikh As-Saduq passed by the city of Nisapur and resided there for a period.

About this residence, he said:

“After I had satisfied my wishes for the visitation of Imam Ali bin Musa Ar-Ridha (a) I was back in Nisapur where I resided. I found that the majority of the Shia there, who were frequently referring to me, were perplexed by the Invisibility –Ghaybah- and doubted the matter of al-Qa’im (a). They therefore left the right course of the submission (to Allah) to join the path of personal opinions and analogy. Hence, I exerted all my efforts for guiding them to the right and taking them back to the path of correctitude by means of the relevant narratives of the Prophet and the Imams, peacebe upon them.”[31]

In Nisapur, Sheikh As-Saduq related the lessons of most of the scholars of that city, such like Sheikh Abu Ali al-Hussein bin Ahmed al-Bayhaqi, Sheikh Abdul-Wahid bin Mohammed bin Abdous An-Nisapuri, Sheikh Abu Mansour Ahmed bin Ibrahim bin Bakr al-Khuzi, Sheikh Abu Saeed Mohammed bin al-Fadhl bin Mohammed bin Ishaq al-Muthekkir An-Nisapuri, Sheikh Abu at-Tayyib al-Hussein bin Ahmed bin Mohammed Ar-Razi and many others.

As he passed by the cities of Marwalruth and Sarakhs[32] , Sheikh As-Saduq attended the classes of Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali al-Marwalruthi, Sheikh Abu Yousuf bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Malik, and Sheikh Abu Nasr Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Tamim As-Sarakhsi.

In the years 352 and 355 A.H., Sheikh As-Saduq was in Baghdad where he learnt from Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Thabit Ad-Dawalibi, Sheikh Abu Mohammed al-Hasan bin Mohammed bin Yahya al-Husseini al-Alawi; Ibn Tahir, and Sheikh Ibrahim bin Harun al-Hiti as well as many others.

In 354 A.H., Sheikh As-Saduq had the honor to pilgrimage to the Holy House of Allah. In his way, he passed by Kufa and learnt from the master scholars there, such like Sheikh Mohammed bin Bakran An-Naqqash, Sheikh Ahmed bin Ibrahim bin Harun al-Fami, Sheikh al-Hasan bin Mohammed bin Saeed al-Hashimi, Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Easa al-Mujawir, Sheikh Abu Tharr Yahya bin Zaid bin al-Abbas bin al-Waleed al-Bezzaz, Sheikh Abu al-Qasim al-Hasan bin Mohammed As-Sakuni al-Kufi and many others.

He also traveled to many cities such as Hamadan, Ilaq,Balkh, Samarqand, Faraghana[33] and others.

In such journeys, Sheikh as-Saduq attended the lessons of many scholars in the cities that he passed by.

Scholastic State and Scholars’ Opinions

Sheikh As-Saduq, Allah may promote his position, was one of the master scholars of Shiism, great intellectuals, and well-versed men of knowledge. He was such a grand mastermind, abundantknowledgeable, and well informed. In his time, he was one of the most distinguishable scholars to whom everyone referred in questions concerning the rulings of the Sharia and was the sign upon whom everyone acted in the religious problems.

Sheikh At-Tusi; the master scholar of the sect mentioned Sheikh As-Saduq with the following words:

Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh al-Qummi is the lofty master. His surname is Abu Ja’far. He was so admirable, good narrator of hadith, skillful knowing of men, and bright criticizer of narrations. Besides, he was such distinct relater and encyclopedic that no one of the people of Qum could attain his rank. He had written about three hundred books.[34]

An-Nejashi referred to Sheikh As-Saduq with the following wording:

Abu Ja’far al-Qummi who resided in Ray was our Sheikh and master jurisprudent. He was the representative of the sect (of Shiism) in Khurasan.[35]

In hisMe’aalim ul-Ulemaa , Ibn Shahrashoub said the following about Sheikh As-Saduq:

He was the best of the scholars of Qum. He wrote about three hundred books.[36]

InAs-Saraa’ir , Ibn Idris referred to Sheikh As-Saduq with the following wording:

He was trustworthy, highly reverent, well versed in narrations, good criticizer of the reports, well knowing of men, and well memorizer. He was the master of our Sheikh al-Mufid Mohammed bin Mohammed bin An-Nu’man.[37]

Sheikh Hussein bin Abdus-Samad al-Harithi -father of Sheikh al-Bahaa’i- said about Sheikh As-Saduq:

He was highly reverent, high-ranking scholar among the upper class as well as the ordinary people, good narrator of hadith, well knowing of jurisprudence and men, good discerning of the mental and analytical sciences, and good criticizer of reports. He was also the master scholar, jurisprudent, and chief of the Saved Sect (Shia) in Khurasan and Iraq of the non-Arabs; (i.e. Persia).

In the fields of narration and abundance of knowledge, he was so distinct over all those who lived in his time.[38]

The previous models have been few wordings of praise and extolment that were said about Sheikh As-Saduq. To know more about this respectful personality, it is recommendable to refer to the numerous reference books that recorded the biography of him some of which we have just excerpted.

Teachers and Students

Because of the many journeys that Sheikh As-Saduq made to various countries for the purpose of seeking studies, he could read, listen, deliver lectures, and gain the license of many scholars and masters of the countries that he passed by in the various fields of knowledge.

A good look in his numerous books, such asal-Amali, Men La Yahdhuruh ul-Faqih, At-Tawhid, Thawab ul-A’maal and many others, proves that he rested upon many of the Shiite and Sunni master scholars in the field of narrations. He also depended upon such scholars in the fields of hadith regarding a great variety of sciences and fields. The famous names of the master scholars upon whom Sheikh As-Saduq depended in relation of the reports are innumerable.

For avoiding lengthiness, we ask the dear reader to refer to the numerous books of biography so as to have an idea about the teachers of Sheikh As-Saduq.

The students and the narrators on the authority of Sheikh As-Saduq are also too many to be mentioned in this book. Reference books of biography referred to some famous names such as the lofty Sheikh Mohammed bin Mohammed bin An-Nu’man At-Tal’akbari whose nickname is Sheikh al-Mufid, the trustworthy Sheikh Ali bin Ahmed bin al-Abbas (father of Sheikh An-Nejashi), Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Ali bin Shathan al-Qummi, Sayyid al-Murtedha Alam ul-Huda, and many others that we could not mention their names in details. To have more information about such names, it is recommendable to refer to the many books that discussed this topic and from which we excerpted this brief biography.

His Works

Sheikh As-Saduq dealt with a great variety of arts and sciences. He wrote many books; more than three hundred ones. Unfortunately, most of these books were lost. We, hereby, refer to some of them:

Ali’tiqadat

al-Amali

Thawab ul-A’maal

al-Khissal

Sifat ush-Shia

Iqab ul-A’maal

Ilal ush-Sharaayi

Uyounu Akhbar ir-Reza

Fadhaa’il ul-Ash’hur ith-Thalatha

Fadhaa’il ush-Shi’a

Kamal ud-Dinwa Tamam un-Ni’ma

Mussadaqat ul-Ikhwan[39]

Me’aani al-Akhbar

al-Muqannaa’ fi al-Fiqh

Men La Yahdhuruh al-Faqih[40]

al-Mawaaizh

al-Hidayatu fi al-Fiqh

Furthermore, there are tens of books most of which were lost, as we have previously mentioned. To have more information about such books, it is recommendable to refer to the books that mentioned the biography of Sheikh As-Saduq.

His Death

Sheikh As-Saduq died in 381 A.H. He was more than seventy years old. He was buried in the city of Ray near the tomb of Abdul-Azheem al-Hasani, Allah be pleased with him.

Today, his tomb is one of the famous shrines whom are frequently visited by people who seek blessings there.

In nearly 1238 A. H., Sultan Fat’h Ali Shah the Qajar reconstructed that holy shrine after the spread of the news of the good charismata that had been seen there.

Al-Khawansari, in hisAr-Rawdhat , al-Mamuqani, in hisTanqeeh ul-Maqaal , and other scholars mentioned a number of charismata of Sheikh As-Saduq (after his death) occurred in his blessed shrine. In the year 1238 A.H., a fissure occurred to the shrine due to the heavy rain. When some people entered inside the shrine for chasing the source of that fissure, they could reach the gutter in which Sheikh As-Saduq was buried. They found that his dead body was laid out while the genitals were covered. It was very sound and handsome. On the nails of the body, they could notice the signs of dye, while on thelimbs, there were old threads of the torn coffin.

As this event was rumored in the city of Tehran, Sultan Fat’h Ali… ordered to reform that fissure and reconstruct that shrine.