History Of The Caliphs

History Of The Caliphs0%

History Of The Caliphs Author:
Translator: Ali Ebrahimi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
Category: Various Books
ISBN: 964-438-457-1

History Of The Caliphs

Author: Rasul Ja'farian
Translator: Ali Ebrahimi
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
Category:

ISBN: 964-438-457-1
visits: 7286
Download: 1250

Comments:

History Of The Caliphs
search inside book
  • Start
  • Previous
  • 22 /
  • Next
  • End
  •  
  • Download HTML
  • Download Word
  • Download PDF
  • visits: 7286 / Download: 1250
Size Size Size
History Of The Caliphs

History Of The Caliphs

Author:
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
ISBN: 964-438-457-1
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

HISTOR OF THE CALIPHS

From The Death of the Messenger (s) to the Decline of The Umayyad Dynasty

11-132 AH

Vol.2

By: Rasul Ja’farian

Translated by: Ali Ebrahimi

Ansariyan Publications - Qum

www.alhassanain.org/english

تاريخ خلفا جلد دوم

HISTORY OF THE CALIPHS

From The Death of the Messenger (s) to the Decline of The Umayyad Dynasty 11-132 AH

Author: Rasul Ja’farian

Translated by: Ali Ebrahimi

Publisher: Ansariyan Publications - Qum

First Edition 1382 - 1424 - 2003

ISBN: 964-438-457-1

ALL RIGHTS RECORDED AND RESERVED FOR THE PUBLISHER

www.ansariyan.org & www.ansariyan.net

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,

Notice:

This version is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errors are not corrected.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE 9

CHAPTER I: ABU BAKR’S CALIPHATE 10

Saqifa 10

Caliphate After the Prophet (s) 15

The Issue of Apostasy 17

Abu Bakr’s Agents 23

Conquest of Damascus 26

Conquest of Iraq 30

CHAPTER II:‘UMAR’S CALIPHATE 35

About Caliph II 35

the Caliph’s Character 37

‘Umar’s Functionaries 39

Thoughts of the Second Caliph 44

‘Umar’s Murder 56

Continued Conquests in Damascus and Egypt 60

Continued Conquests in Iraq and the Conquest of Iran 63

About Iran’s Conquest 70

CHAPTER III: ‘UTHMAN’S CALIPHATE 74

Caliphate Council and ‘Uthman’s Election 74

‘Uthman’s Caliphate 80

Reasons of Anti-’Uthman Rebellion 82

‘Uthman’s Opponents 88

‘Uthman’s Contact with Dissenters 93

‘Uthman and Mu‘awiya 99

Imam ‘Ali (a) and ‘Uthman 101

Assassination of ‘Uthman 104

Ongoing Victories 107

Effects of Victories and Islamic Community 108

CHAPTER IV: IMAM ‘ALI’S IMAMATE 113

Imam ‘Ali alongside the Prophet 113

Imam ‘Ali and Caliphs 116

Shi‘ism During Imam’s caliphate 121

People’s Allegiance to ‘Ali (a) 131

Qa‘idin and No Congregation Formation 137

Imam’s Problems 139

Reformation, Imam’s Fundamental Policy 144

Imam in the Face of Infidels (Djamal War) 148

Imam Stays in Kufa 160

War with Oppressively perverse People in SiffIn 161

War with Extremist Kharidjites 180

The Kharidjites, Formation and Characteristics 184

Invasions of Damascus Army 190

Imam ‘Ali’s Martyrdom 197

Imam ‘Ali’s Life 198

CHAPTER V: IMAM HASAN’S IMAMATE 201

Acquaintance with the Kufiyans 201

Imam Hasan’s Character 203

Imam Mudjtaba and Imamate 206

First Actions of Imam and Mu‘awiya 210

Mu‘awiya and Request for Compromise 215

Why the Compromise Was Accepted 215

Imam Husayn (a) and Compromise 220

Peace Pact 221

Imam Mudjtaba’s Character 225

Imam Hasan’s Martydom 227

CHAPTER VI: MU‘AWIYA’S MONARCHY 229

Mu‘awiya, the Founder of the Umayyad Monarchy 229

Shi‘ite Muslims in Mu‘awiya’s time 238

The Suppression of Hudjr Ibn ‘Adi’s Shi‘ite Movement 244

Repercussions of Hudjr’s Martyrdom 248

Conquests in Mu‘awiya’s time 249

The Kharidjites in Mu‘awiya’s time 250

Mu‘awiya’s Endeavor for Hereditary Caliphate 254

CHAPTER VII: KARBALA MOVEMENT 261

Imam Husayn’s Opposition to Yazid’s Caliphate 266

Dispatching Muslim to Kufa 267

Imam’s Movement Towards Iraq 270

The People of Kufa and Karbala Event 272

Kufa Under the Pressure of Ibn Ziyad 273

Assessing the Travel to Iraq 277

Imam Versus Iraqi Army 282

The Element of Invisibility in Karbala 287

The Role of Religious Deviations in Karbala Event 289

Political Impacts of the Event of Karbala on Shi‘ism 292

CHAPTER VIII: TRANSFER OF CALIPHATE TO THE MARWANIDS 294

Dispute Between Hidjaz and Damascus 294

The Battle of Harra Waqim 295

The Penitents’ Movement in 65 A.H 298

Here Some Points Merit Attention as Regards to the penitents 303

Mukhtar’s Uprising (66, 67 A.H.) 305

CHAPTER IX: IMAM SAJJAD (A) 317

Imam Sadjdjad(a) 317

Imam Sadjdjad and Shi‘ite Muslims 321

Imam’s Encounter with the Umayyads 325

Imam Sadjdjad’s Profiting from Du‘a (Prayer) 327

Imam Sadjdjad and Slaves 331

CHAPTER X: THE MARWANIDS’ GOVERNMENT 338

Al Marwan’s Rule 338

HadjdjAdj in Iraq 342

‘Abd al-Rahman Ibn Ash‘ath’s Riot 345

‘Umar Ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz’s Administration 348

Encountering the Shi‘ite Muslims 348

Encountering the Kharidjites 350

Standing Against Cruelty and Public Extortion 351

YazId Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik’s Succession 353

YazId Ibn Muhallab’s Uprising 355

HishAm Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik’s Succession 357

Kharidjites’ Rebellion in time of the Marwanids 360

The Foundation of the Kharidjites’ Principles 364

CHAPTER XI: SHI‘ITE MUSLIMS IN THE LAST DECADES OF THE UMAYYAD STATE 366

The Shi‘ite Muslims Under the Pressure of the Umayyads 366

Internal Events of Shi‘ite Muslims 368

Exaggeration and the Exaggerators 369

Confrontation of Imams with the Exaggerators 371

Shi‘ism when Giving Superiority to ‘Ali (a) 376

Zayd Ibn ‘Ali’s Uprising and the Zaydids in Shi‘ism 383

Zayd Ibn ‘Ali in Kufa 385

Zayd Ibn ‘Ali’s Clash with the Umayyads’ Forces 389

Zaydism, Shi‘ism and Zayd Ibn ‘Ali (a) 392

The Twelve-Imam Shi‘ite Muslims and Zayd 397

Yahya Ibn Zayd’s Uprising 406

‘Abd Allah Ibn Mu‘awiya’s Uprising 407

The Shi‘ite Muslims and the ‘Alawites’ Last Position in the Umayyads’s time 410

CHAPTER XII: DECLINE OF THE MARWANIDS 413

Harith Ibn Suraydj in Khurasan 413

The Murdji‘ites and the Djahmites in Harith’s Uprising 415

WalId Ibn YazId’s Caliphate and Extreme Corruption of the Umayyads 417

Yazid Ibn Walid’s Riot 419

The Impacts of Walid’s Death on the Umayyads and Their Fall 422

Marwan Ibn Muhammad and the Decline of the Umayyads 423

Political Views of the Marwanids 425

Scholars Serve Al Marwan 434

Circulation of Israelites and the Prevalence of Story-telling 436

Conquests by the Marwanids Until Late FIRST Century 440

Oriental Conquests 441

Occidental Conquests 443

REFERENCES 445

NOTES 461

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE

History of Caliphs manifests undeniable facts associated with History of Shiism, the facts every Shiite Muslim and those after Shiism find helpful to achieve on understanding of History of Islam. To this aim, the book is mainly written by the author and printed by the publisher, not to mention the translator, knowing that the task in its entirety is a heavy one with a grave responsibility shouldered upon. Certainly, there exists a mission and function before the Almighty God, his Messenger(s), his progeny and the Shiite followers after, part of which is encumbered here in this historically authentic publication. Motives behind the task are legion and great but whatsoever they may be, they lead every Ahl-e Bayt enthusiast to a long road with unending eternality.

Thanks to divine contributions first, accomplishment of such a heavy task, translation, needs plenty of time, energy, patience, knowledge, faith and aim without each one of which delivery and feasibility seemed improbable. It took a good deal of energy and time excluding other factors to bring this to an end but one thing drove me ahead and that was assistance granted by my Lord who removed all hindrances and obscurities and facilitated the task.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that knowledge, competence and performance are the divine blessings bestowed upon me to fulfil this mammoth task. Be it that the Muslim world and the ensuing generations greatly benefit and transfer it to others.

Diacritics applied in the book for the names come from the latest sources as to the encyclopedia. Any descrepancies shall come under the responsibility of the author of the book.

A. Ebrahimi

Translator