A Brief Of Islamic Law

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A Brief Of Islamic Law Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Jurisprudence Principles Science

A Brief Of Islamic Law

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Ayatullah Seyyed Ali Sistani
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: visits: 6902
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A Brief Of Islamic Law

A Brief Of Islamic Law

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

A Brief Of Islamic Law

Author: Ayatullah Seyyed Ali Sistani

www.alhassanain.org/english

Notice:

This work is published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The typing errors are n’t corrected.

Table of Contents

TAQLI'D 7

Following a Mujtahid 7

TAHARAH (PURITY) 10

Unmixed and Mixed Water 10

I. Kurr Water 10

II. Under-kurr Water 10

III. Running Water 10

IV. Rain Water 11

V. Well Water 11

VI. Rules Regarding Waters: 11

VII. Rules of Lavatory 12

Istibra: 13

Impure Things (Najàsàt) 14

Urine and Faeces 14

Semen 14

Dead Body 14

Blood 15

Dogs and Pigs 15

Kàfir 15

Wine 16

Sweat of an Animal Who Persistently Eats Najasah 16

Ways of Proving Najasah 16

How a Tahir thing Becomes Najis 16

Rules Regarding Najàsàt 17

Mutahhirat (Purifying Agents) 18

I.Water 18

II.Earth 19

III.The Sun 20

IV. Transformation (Istia*àlah) 20

Change (Inqilab) 20

VI. Transfer (Intiqal) 21

VII. Islam 21

VIII. subjection (TABA ‘IYYAH) 21

IX. Remoral of Najis-ul ‘Ayn 21

X. Istipa’ of an animal which Eats Najasah 22

XI. Disappeance of aMuslim 22

XII. Flowing out of a slau ghtered Animal’s Blood in Normal Quantity 22

Rule of Gold and Silver Utensils 22

Ghosl 23

Ghusl for Touching a Dead Body 25

Rules Related to a Dying Person 25

The obligation of Ghusl, Kafn (Shrouding),Salat and Burial 25

‏ The Method of Ghusl of Mayyit 25

Rules Regarding Kafn (Shrouding) 26

Rules of Hunot 27

Rules ofSalat -ul-Mayyit 27

Method ofSalat-ul-Mayyit 28

Rules About Burial of the Dead Body 28

Exhumation 29

Recommended Ghusls 29

Tayammum 30

Things on which Tayammum is Allowed 31

Method of performing Tayammum Instead of Ghusl or Ghosl 32

Orders Regarding Tayammum 32

Rules of Salat 35

Obligatory prayers 35

Obligatory DailySalats 36

Time for Tuhr and ‘Aar prayers 36

Friday prayer 36

Time for Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers 37

Time for Subh (Fajr = Dawn) prayer 38

Rules RegardingSalat Times 38

Mustahab Prayers 38

The Timings of the Daily Nàfilah Prayers 39

Ghufaylah Prayer 39

Rules of Qiblah 39

Covering the Body in Prayers 40

Conditions for Dress Worn during Prayer 40

Exceptional Cases 43

Place WhereSalat Can Be Prayed 44

Rules Regarding a Mosque 45

Adhan and Iqamah 47

Obligatory Acts Relating toSalat 49

Intention 49

Takbirat-In-Ihram 51

Qiyam (To Stand) 51

Qira'ah (Reciting the Surat-ul-Hamd and Other Surah of holy Qur'an) 52

Ruku (Bowing) 53

Prostration 55

Things on which Sajdah is Allowed 58

The Mustahab and Makruh Things in Sajdah 58

Obligatory Prostrations in the Holy Qur'an 58

Tashahhud 59

Salam in the Prayers 59

Tartib (Sequence) 60

Muwalat (Maintenance of Succession) 60

Qunut 60

Taqibat (Supplications after Prayers) 61

Salawat on the Holy Prophet 61

Things which Invalidate Prayers 62

Doubts Which Are Valid 64

Method of Offering Salat-ul-Ihtiyat 64

Sajdat-us-Sahv (Sajdah for Forgotten Acts) 65

The Method of Offering Sajdat-us-Sahv 66

Qada of the forgotten Sajdah 66

Addition and omission of the Acts and conditions of Prayers 66

Prayer of a Traveller (Musafir) 67

Miscellaneous Rules 73

Qada Prayers 73

Fasting 75

Intention for Fasting 75

Things Which Make a Fast void 76

I. Eating and Drinking 76

II. Sexual Intercourse 77

III. Istimna (Masturbation) 77

IV. Ascribing lies to Allah and the Holy Prophet 77

V. Letting Dust Reach One's Throat 77

VI. Remaining in Janabah or Haydh or Nifas Till Fajr Time 78

VII. Enema 79

VIII. Vomiting 79

Rules Regarding Things which Invalidate a Fast 80

Obligatory Qada Fast and Kaffarah 81

Kaffarah for Fast 82

Occasions on which it is obligatory to Observe the Qada Only 84

Rules Regarding the Qada’ Fasts 85

Fasting by a Traveller 86

People on Whom Fasting is Not Obligatory 87

Method of Ascertaining the First Dayod a Month 88

Halal (allowed) and Makruh and Mustaa*ab Fasts 89

Khums 90

Disposal of Khums 94

ZAKA`T 96

Conditions for Obligatory of Zakàt 96

Zakàt of Wheat, Barley, Dates and Raisins 96

Zakàt Payable on Camel, Cow and Sheep (Including Goat) 97

Minimum Taxable limit of Camels 98

The Minimum Taxable Limit of Cows 99

Taxable limit of Sheep (Including Goats) 99

Zakàt on Business Goods 100

Disposal of Zakàt 101

Transactions 102

Halal (allowed) Transactions 102

Conditions of a Seller and a Buyer 104

Conditions Regarding Commodity and what is Obtained in Exchange 105

Cash and Credit 106

Conditions for Contract by Advance Payment 106

Circumstance in Which One Has a Right to Cancel a Transaction 107

Laws of Partnership 110

Orders Regarding Compromise (Sulh) 111

Rules Regarding Lease/Rent 112

Conditions Regarding the Property Given on lease 113

Conditions for the Utilisation of the Property Given on Lease 113

Miscellaneous Rules Relating to Lease/Rent 114

Rules Regarding Ju`alah (Payment of Reward) 115

Persons who Have No Right of Disposal or Discretion Over Their Own Property 117

Rules Regarding Agency (Wikalah) 118

Rules Regarding Mortgage (Rahn) 119

Marriage 120

Marriage 120

The Method of Pronouncing the Marriage Formula 120

Conditions for Marriage Contract 121

Mut'ah (Temporary Marriage) 123

Divorce 124

Iddah of Divorce (The Waiting Period after Divorce) 124

Iddah (Waiting Period) of a Widow 126

Irrevocable and Revocable Divorce 126

Orders Regarding Return (Ruju) 127

Khul Divorce or Talaq-ul-Khul 127

Mubàràt Divorce 128

Various Rules Regarding Divorce 128

Usurpation (Ghasb) 130

Rules of the Lost Property When Found 132

Vow and Covenant (Nadhr and `Ahd) 134

TAQLI'D

Following a Mujtahid

1. It is necessary for a Muslim to believe in the fundamentals of faith with his own insight and understanding, and he cannot follow anyone in this respect, i.e. he can not accept the word o f another who knows them, simply because he has said it. Ho were, one who has faith in the true tenets of Islam, and manifests it by his deeds, is a Muslim and Mu’min, even if he is not very profound, and the laws related to a Muslim will hold good for him. In matters of religious laws, apart from the ones clearly defined, or ones which are indisputable, a person must:

· Either be a Mujtahid (jurist) himself, capable of inferring and deducing from the religious sources and evidence;

· Or if he is not a Mujtahid himself, he should follow one, i.e. he should act according to the verdicts (Fatàwà) of a Mujtahid;

· Or if he is neither a Mujtahid nor a follower (Muqallid), he should act on such precaution which should assure him that he has fulfilled his religious obligation. For example, if some Mujtahids consider an act to be unlawful (Halal (allowed)), while others say that it is not, he should not perform that act.

Similarly, if some Mujtahid consider an act to be obligatory (Wàjib) while others consider it to be recommended (Mustaa*àb), he should perform it.

Therefore, it is obligatory upon those persons who are neither Mujtahids, nor able to act on precautionary measures (Ihtiyat), to follow a Mujtahid.

2. Taqli'd in religious laws means acting according to the verdicts of a Mujtahid it isnecessary for the Mujtahid who is followed, to be male, shi ‘ah Ithna-`Ashariyyah, adult (Bàligh), sane, of legitimate birth, living and just (`Adil).

A person is said to be just when he performs all those acts which are obligatory upon him, and refrains from all those things which are forbidden to him.

And the sign of being just is that one is apparently of good character, so that if enquiries are made about him from the people of his locality, or from his neighbours, or from his nei ghbouers, or from those persons with whom he lives, they would confirm his good conduct. And it is necessary that the Mujtahid who is followed be A’lam (the most learned), who is more capable of understanding the divine laws than any of the contemporary Mujtahids.

3. There are three ways of identifying a Mujtahid, and the A’lam:

· When a person is certain that a particular person is a Mujtahid, or the most learned one. For this, he should be a learned person himself, and should possess the capacity to identify a Mujtahid or an A’lam;

· When two persons, who are learned and just and possess the capacity to identify a Mujtahid or the A’lam, confirm that a person is a Mujtahid or an A’lam, provided that two other learned and just persons do not contradict them. In fact, being a Mujtahid or an A’lam can also be established by a statement of only one trusted and reliable person;

· When a number of learned persons who possess the capacity to identitya Mujtahid or an A ‘lam, certify that a particular person is a Mujtahid or an A’lam, provided that one is satisfied by their statement.

4. There are four ways of obtaining the verdicts of a Mujtahid:

· When one hears from the Mujtahid himself.

· When the verdict of the Mujtahid is quoted by two just persons.

· When one hears the verdict from a person whose statement satisfies him.

· By reading the Mujtahid’s book of Masa’il (religious rules or matters), provided that, one is satisfied about the correctness of the book.

5. If an A’lam Mujtahid gives a Fatwa on some matter, his follower cannot act in that matter on the Fatwà of another Mujtahid. But if he does not give a Fatwà, and expresses a precaution (Ihtiyat) that a man should act in such and such a manner, for example if he says that as a precautionary measure, in the first and second Rak’ah (unit) of the prayer (Salat) he should read a complete Surah after the Surah of A*amd, the follower may either act on this precaution, which is called obligatory precaution (Ihtiyat-ul-Wàjib), or he may act on the Fatwa of another Mujtahid, while consideringthe srquence of learnedness hence, if he (the second Mujtahid) rules that only Surat-ul-A*amd is enough, he (the person offering prayers) may drop the second surah. The position will be the same if the A’lam Mujtahid expresses terms like Ta’ammul (contemplation) or Ishkal (objection).

6. If The A’lam Mujtahid observes precaution after or before having given a Fatwà, for example, if he says that if a Najis (impure) vessel is washed once with a kurr water (about 388 litres), it becomes Tahir (pure ), although as precatonary measure, it should be washed three times, his followers can abandon acting according to this precaution. This precaution is called recommended precaution (Ihtiyat-ul-mustahab).

7. If a Mujtahid, who is followed by a person dies, his category will be the same as when he was alive. Based on this, if he is more learned than a living Mujtahid, the follower must continue to remain in his Taqlid. And if the living Mujtahid is more learned, then the follower must turn to him for Taqlid. And if their differencein learnedness is not lenouin or they are identical, he has the option to act on the verdicts of either of them, except in cases of pief knowledge about the duty or raising a pief argument on it, like the cases of diversity of the verdicts in full or shortened (Qa?r) prayer, in which, as an obligatory precaution, both verdicts should be observed. The term. ‘Taqli'd’ used here implies only an intention to follow a particular Mujtahid, and does not include having acted according to his Fatwa.

8. It is obligatory for a follower to learn the Masa’il (matters) which he considers probable that if they are not learned, he may commit sins (i.e. abandon an obligatory act or do an unlawful act).

9. If a person performs his acts for some time without Taqli'd of a Mujtahid, his former actions would be valid if they were according to the verdicts of the new Mujtahid, who can be his Marja’, otherwise they would be valid only when he is considered as ignorant but not negligent, and the defecf of the actions was not in elementals (Rukns) and the like. The actions would be valid also when the person has been negligently ignorant and the defect of the action has been like reciting loudly instead of silently or vice versr, in which the action would be correct in case of ignorance. The previous actions are valid also when the person does not know their quality, except in some cases menticned in Minhaj-us-salihin.

TAHARAH (PURITY)

Unmixed and Mixed Water

10. Water is either unmixed or mixed. Mixed wared (Ma ul-Mudhaf) means the water which is obtained from something, like melon juice or rose water, or a water in which something else is mixed; for example, so much dust is mixed in it that it may on longer be called water.

Any water other than mixed water is called unmixed water (Ma’-ul-mutlaq), and they are of five types:

· Kurr Water.

· Under-Kurr Water (QALIL).

· Running Water (JARI).

· Rain Water.

· Water of a Well.

I. Kurr Water

11. Water, which fills a container whose volume is 36 cubic spans, is equal to a kurr and this is nearly equal to 384 liters.

12. If an essential impurity (Najàsah) like urine and blood, or anything which has become impure (Najis), like an impure cloth, falls in kurr water, it becomes Najis provided the water acquires the smell, colour, or taste of that Najasah; ather wise it does not become Najis.

13. If the smell, colour, or taste of kurr water changes owing to something else, which is not Najis, it does not become Najis.

14. If a Najis object is washed under a tap which is connected with kurr, the water which flows from that object will be Tahir provided it remains connected with kurr, and does not contain essential Najàsah or the smell, colour, or taste of the Najàsah.

II. Under-kurr Water

15. Under-kurr water means water which does not spring forth from the earth, and its quantity is less than a kurr.

16. If under-kurr water is poured on something which is Najis, or if a Najis thing contacts it, it becomes Najis.

17. Under - Kurr water which is poured over a Najis. Object to remove the essential Najàsah will be Najis, as it flows after the contact. Similarly, the under-Kurr water which is poured over a Najis thing to make it pure after the essential Najàsah has been removed, will be Najis, as an obligatory precaution.

18. The under-Kurr water with which the outlets of urine and stool are washed, does not make anything Najis, subject to the following five conditions:

· It does not have the smell, color or taste of Najàsah.

· Extra Najàsah has not reached it from outside.

· Any other Najàsah like blood, has not come out with urine or stool.

· Particles of stool do not appear in the water.

· Najàsah has not spread around the outlet more than usual.

III. Running Water

19. Running water is that water which springs forth from the earth and than flows, like the water of a spring or a subterranean canal (Qanat). The flowing or running water, even if it is less than Kurr, does not become Najis upon contact with any Najàsah, unless its smell, colour, or taste changes due to that Najàsah.

20. If water from the pipes fitted in bathrooms and buildings, pouring through taps and showers, is connected to a tank holding water equal to a Kurr, it will be treated as Kurr water.

IV. Rain Water

21. A Najis thing becomes Tahir if rain water falls on it once, provided that it does not contain an essential Najàsah, except in the cases of clothes and body which have become Najis because of urine, for they become Tahir after being washed twice, as per precaution. And in objects like carpets and dress, it is not necessary to wring or squeeze. By rain is meant a sufficient downpour, and not scanty shower or droplets.

22. The Najis earth or ground on which rain falls becomes Tahir, and if it begins flowing on the ground, and while it is still raining it reaches a Najis place under the roof, it makes that place Tahir as well.

23. If it rains on a pure carpet which is spread over a Najis ground, and the water seeps onto the Najis ground while rain continues, the carpet does not become Najis. In fact, the ground also will become Tahir.

V. Well Water

24. The Wather of a well which springs forth frome the earth, (although its quantity may be less than a Kurr) does not become Najis owing to something Najis falling in it, unless its colour, smell, or taste changes.

25. If a Najàsah falls into well water and changes its smell, colour, or taste, it well become Tahir as soon as the change in its smell etc. vanishes. But as an obligatory precaution, it will become Tahir only when it is mixed with fresh water springing from the earth.

VI. Rules Regarding Waters:

26. Mixed water, whose meaning has been explained in Article 15, does not make any Najis thing Tahir, and its use is not allowed for Ghusl or Ghosl.

27. Mixed water, however large its quantity may be, becomes Najis when even a small particle of Najàsah falls in it.

28. When Najis mixed water is mixed with Kurr or running water, in a manner that it can no longer be called mixed water, it becomes Tahir.

29. If a Najis objeet is made Tahir in Kurr or running water, the water which drops from the object after it has become Tahir, is Tahir.

30. Water, which has been originally Tahir, and it is not known whether it has become Najis, will be deemed Tahir; and water, which has been originally Najis, and it is not known whether it has become Tahir, is Najis.

VII. Rules of Lavatory

31. it is obligatory to conceal one’s private parts in the toilet and at all times from adult persons even if they are one’s close relatives (Maharim) like mother, sister etc. Similarly, it is obligatory to conceal one’s private parts from insane persons and children who can discern between good and evil. However, husband and wife are exempted from this obligation.

32. While using the toilet for urination or defecation, the front or the back part of one’s body should not as an obligatory precaution, face the holy Ka`bah.

33. The urinary organ cannot be made Tahir without water. And washing it once will suffice.

34. The anus can be made Tahir with stone, clod or cloth provided they are dry and Tahir. if there is slight moisture on it, which does not, wet the site there is no objection.

Istibra:

35. Istipà, is a recommended act for men after urinating. Its object is to ensure that no more urine is left in the urethra.

There are certain ways of performing Istipà, the best of which is that after the passing of urine, if the anus also has become Najis it is made Tahir first. Thereafter, from the anus up to the root of penis should be pressed thrice, with the middle finger of the left hand. Then the thumb is placed on the penis, and the forefinger below it pressing three times up to the point of circumcision, then the front part of the penis should be pressed three times.

36. The moisture which is discharged from penis during wooing and courtship, is called Madh. It is Tahir, and so is the liquid which is seen after ejeculation, which is called Wadh. Similarly, the liquid which at times comes out after urination, is called wadh and it is Tahir if urine has not reached it. If a person performs Istipà’ after urinating, and then discharges some liquid doubting whether it is urine or one of the above mentioned three liquids, that liquid is Tahir.

37. When enough time has lapsed since urinating, and one becomes sure that no urine is left in urethra, and then he sees some liquid, doubting whether it is Tahir or not, he will consider it as Tahir, even if he had not done Istipà’. If he has Wudu, it will be valid.

38. Istipà’ is not meant for women, and if she sees any liquid and she doubts whether it is urine, that liquid is Tahir, and it will not invalidate Ghosl and Ghusl.

Impure Things (Najàsàt)

39. The following ten things are essentially Najis:

· Urine

· Faeces

· Semen

· Dead body

· Blood

· Dog

· Pig

· Kàfir

· Wine

· The sweat of an animal who persistently eats Najàsah.

Urine and Faeces

40. Urine and faeces of the following living beings are Najis:

· Human beings

· Animals whose meat is Halal (allowed) to eat, and whose blood gushes out forcefully when its large vein (jugular) is slit.

The excretion of those animals who are Halal (allowed) to eat, but their blood does not gush forth forcefully when killed, like Halal (allowed) fish, is Tahir. Similarly, droppings of such small animals as mosquito and flies whose meat is scarce are Tahir. Of course, the uring of an animal whose meat is Halal (allowed) and its blood does not gush forth when killed, should be avoided as per obligatory precaution.

41. The urine and droppings of those birds which are Halal (allowed) to eat, is Tahir, but it is better to avoid them.

Semen

42. The semen of human beings, and of every animal whose blood gushes when its large vein (jugular) is cut and its meat is Halal (allowed), and as per obligatory precaution even those whose meat isHalal (allowed), is Najis.

Dead Body

43. The dead body of a human being is Najis. Similarly the de ad body of any animal whose blood gushes forth with force is Najis, irrespective of whether it dies a natural death or is killed in a manner other than that prescribed by Islam. As the blood of a fish does not gush forth, its dead body is Tahir, even if it dies in water.

44. Those parts of a dead body which do not contain life, like wool, hair, teeth, nails, bones and horns are Tahir.

45. If flesh, orany otherpart whieh contains life, is cut off from the body of aliving human being, oralivinganimal whose blood gushes forth, it will be Najis.

46. Small pieces of skin which peel off easily from the lips, or other parts of the body, are Tahir, providing they do not contain life.

47. The liquid medicines, perfumes, ghee, soap and wax polish which are imported, are Tahir, if one is not sure of their being Najis.

48. Fat, meat or hide or an animal, about which there is a probability that it may have been slaughtered according to the Islamic law, are Tahir. However, if these things are obtained from a non-Muslim, or from a Muslim who himself obtained them from a non-Muslim, without investigating whether the animal was slaughtered according to Islamic law, it is Halal (allowed) to eat that meat and fat, but prayer in that hide will be permissible. But, if these things are obtained from Muslim market, or a Muslim, and it is not known that he got them from a non-Muslim, or if it is konwn that he got from a non-Muslim but there is a great probability that he has investigated about it being slaughtered according to Shariah, then eating such meat and fat is permissible, provided that the Muslim has done an act on it, which is done only when the meat isHalal (allowed), like when he is selling it for eating.

Blood

49. The blood of a human being, and of every animal whose blood gushes forth when its large (jugular) vein is cut, is Najis. The blood of an animal like a fish, or an insect like mosquito, is Tahir because it does not gush forth.

50. If an animal whose meat is lawful to eat, is slaughtered in accordance with the method prescribed by Shari`ah, and enough blood flows out, the blood which is still left in its body is Tahir. However, the blood which goes back into the body of the animal due to peath, or because of its head having been at a higher level at the time of its slaughtering, is Najis.

51. As a recommended precaution, one should refrain from eating an egg which has even the smallest amount of blood in it. However, if the blood is in the yolk (yellow portion), the albumen (white portion) will be Tahir, as long as the skin over the yolk is not torn.

52. If the blood which comes from the gums of the teeth, vanish as it gets mixed with the saliva, the saliva is Tahir.

53. If the blood which dries under the nail or skin, on account of being hurt, can no longer be called blood, it is Tahir. But if it is called blood and is presented on the surface, it will be Najis. Thus if a hole appears in the nail or the skin, and it is difficult to remove the blood and to make it Tahir for the purpose of Ghosl or Ghusl, one should perform Tayammum (ablution with soil).

54. If a person cannot discern whether it is dried blood under the skin, or that the flesh has turned that way because of being hit, it is Tahir.

55. When a wound is healing, and pus forms around it, that substance is Tahir if it is not known to have been mixed with blood.

Dogs and Pigs

56. Dogs and pigs are Najis, and even their hair, bones, paws and nails, and every liquid substance of their body, is Najis.

Kàfir

57. A person w ho does not believe in Allah or his oneness, is Najis. Similarly, ghulat who believe in any of the holy twelve Imàms as God, or that they are incarnations of God, and khawarij and nawasib who express enmity towards the holy Imàms, are also Najis. And similar is the case of those who deny Prophet hood, or any of the necessary laws of Islam, like prayer and fasting, if they result in denying the holy prophet (s). As regards the people of the Scripture (i.e.the Jews, the Christians and the Magian), they are considered Tahir

Wine

58. Wine is Najis and everything else which in toxicates a person is not Najis.

59. All kinds of industrial alcohol used for painting doors, windows, tables, chairs etc are Tahir.

60. If grape juice ferments by itself, or on being cooked, it is Tahir, but it is Halal (allowed) (unlawful) to drink it. Also, as an obligatorw precaution, boiled grope is Halal (allowed) to eat, but is not Najis.

61. If dates, currants, raisins, or their juice ferment, they are Tahir and it isHalal (allowed) (lawful) to eat them.

62. Beer,which lightly intoxicates, and is called Fuqa, is Halal (allowed), and as an obligatory precaution, is Najis. But barlew juice, which does not intoxicate at all, is Tahir andHalal (allowed).

Sweat of an Animal Who Persistently Eats Najasah

63. The perspiration of a camel which eats human Najasah is Najis and as an obligatory precaution, the perspiration of every animal which is habituated to eat human Najasah, is Najis.

64. The perspiration of a person who enters the state of Janàbah (major ritual impurity) by an unlawful act is Tahir, and praying with it is in order.

Ways of Proving Najasah

65. There are three ways of proving the Najasah of anything:

· One is certain, or satisfied that something is Najis.

· If a reliable person who possesses, contro lsor ma nages a thing, says that it is Najis and he or she is not accused of lying.

· If two just men testify that a certain thing is Najis, provided that their testimony deals with the reason for Najaasah, for example they say the thing has met a blood or urine.

If one just man testifies this, the obligatory precaution is to avoid it.

How a Tahir thing Becomes Najis

66. If a Tahir thing touches a najis thing and either or both of them are so wet that the wetness of one reaches the other, the Tahir thing will become Najis. But it will not become Najis with numerous consecutive transmission. For example, if the right hand of a person becomes Najis with urine, and then,while still wet, it touches his left hand, the left hand will also become Najis. Now, if the left hand after having dried up, touches a wet clloth, that cloth will also become Najis, but, if that cloth touches another wet thing, it cannot be said to be Najis. In any case, if the wetness is so little, that it does not affect the other thing, then the Tahir thing will not become Najis, even if it had contacted a Najis-ul-Ayn.

67. When a syrup or oil is in a fluid state, in a manner that if some quantity of it is removed, it does not leave an empty trace, the entire quantity will become Najis immediately when even their slightest part becomes Najis. But if it has solidified, so that when some part of it is removed, a trace of emptiness is seen, only that part which has come in contact with Najasah will be Najis, even if the empty trace gets filled up later. So, if the droppings of a rat fall on it, only that part on which the droppings have fallen will become Najis, and the rest will remain Tahir.

Rules Regarding Najàsàt

68. To make the script and pages of holy Quran Najis, and violate its sanctity, is undoubtedly Halal (allowed), and if it becomes Najis, it should be made Tahir immediately with water. In fact, as an obligatory precaution, it is Halal (allowed) to make it najis even if no violation of sanctity is intended, and it is obligatory to make it Tahir by rinsing it.

69. It is Halal (allowed) to eat or drink or make others eat or drink something which has become Najis. However, one may give such a thing to a child, or an insane person. And if a child or an insane person eats or drinks Najis thing on his own accord, or makes food Najis with his Najis hands before consuming it, it is not necessary to stop him from doing so.

70. If a person sees someone eat drink something Najis, or pray with a Najis dress, it is not necessary to admonish him.