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Elementary Arabic Syntax

Elementary Arabic Syntax Volume 2

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Elementary Arabic Syntax 2

(MABĀDĪ AL-‛ARABĪYYAH)

A study of syntax of the Arabic language volume 1. Translated by Hamid Hussein Waqar.

Author(s):

    Rashid Al-Shartuni

Translator(s):

    Hamid Hussein Waqar

Table of Contents

Syntax 3

The Nominative and Subjective Cases of the Aorist Tense Verb  4

The Nominative and Subjective Cases of the Aorist Tense Verb  5

The Jussive Cases of the Aorist Tense 6

Nominative Cases of a Noun: The Actor 9

Nominative Cases of a Noun: Subject of a Predication  11

Nominative Cases of a Noun: Inchoative and Predicate 12

Incomplete and Appropinquation Verbs 14

Particles Which Resemble a Verb 16

Objective Compliment 19

Verbs of Wonder 21

Ishtighal 22

Cognate Accusative 24

Adverbial Qualification 25

Adverbal Qualification of Time and Place 26

The MĀ‘ Accusative 28

Exceptive 29

HĀl Accusative 31

Specificative 32

Vocative 33

Jar Prepositions 35

Compliments to Prefixed Nouns 36

Adjectives 37

Conjunctions 39

Emphasis 40

Substitutes 41

Syntax

1. What does syntax teach us?

Syntax teaches us the states of words when they are combined with other words.

2. Do all words combine with other words in the same way?

There are two types of words that are combined with other words:

• Indeclinable: the end of the word does not change.

• Declinable: the end of the word changes due to the different functions that it serves.

3. How does one know what the end of an indeclinable word is?

There is no rule in determining the end of an indeclinable word.

4. How does one know what the end of a declinable word is?

The end of declinable words is determined by the rules that one learns from syntax. One will learn when a verb is put into the nominative, subjective or jussive cases and when a noun is put into the nominative, accusative, or genitive cases.

The Nominative and Subjective Cases of the Aorist Tense Verb

5. When is an aorist tense verb put in the nominative case?

An aorist tense verb is always put into the nominative state unless preceded by a subjective preposition, jussive preposition, or is indeclinable. For example:یُثمرُ الشَّجَرُ (The tree produced fruit.)

6. How many kinds of subjective prepositions are there?

There are two types of subjective prepositions: essential subjective prepositions and subjective prepositions that come after the implied an.

7. How many essential subjective prepositions are there?

There are four essential subjective prepositions:أن ، لَن ، إذن ، کي For example:أریدُ أن أتعَلَّمَ (I want to study.)

8. How many subjective prepositions come after the implied an?

There are four subjective prepositions that come after the implied an:حتی ، اللام ، أو ، الفاء ، الواو for example:اِضرِب المذنبَ حتی یَتوبَ (Hit the criminal so he repents.)

9. What are the conditions of the an preposition?

The preposition an puts a verb into the subjective state if it creates the meaning of an infinitive.

10. What are the conditions of the idhan preposition?

The preposition idhan puts a verb into the subjective state on two conditions:

• It is at the beginning of the response

• There are not any words in between the preposition and the verb.

For example:اِحترم رئیسک إذن یُکرِمَک (Respect your boss so that he will be generous to you.)

The Nominative and Subjective Cases of the Aorist Tense Verb

5. When is an aorist tense verb put in the nominative case?

An aorist tense verb is always put into the nominative state unless preceded by a subjective preposition, jussive preposition, or is indeclinable. For example:یُثمرُ الشَّجَرُ (The tree produced fruit.)

6. How many kinds of subjective prepositions are there?

There are two types of subjective prepositions: essential subjective prepositions and subjective prepositions that come after the implied an.

7. How many essential subjective prepositions are there?

There are four essential subjective prepositions:أن ، لَن ، إذن ، کي For example:أریدُ أن أتعَلَّمَ (I want to study.)

8. How many subjective prepositions come after the implied an?

There are four subjective prepositions that come after the implied an:حتی ، اللام ، أو ، الفاء ، الواو for example:اِضرِب المذنبَ حتی یَتوبَ (Hit the criminal so he repents.)

9. What are the conditions of the an preposition?

The preposition an puts a verb into the subjective state if it creates the meaning of an infinitive.

10. What are the conditions of the idhan preposition?

The preposition idhan puts a verb into the subjective state on two conditions:

• It is at the beginning of the response

• There are not any words in between the preposition and the verb.

For example:اِحترم رئیسک إذن یُکرِمَک (Respect your boss so that he will be generous to you.)

The Jussive Cases of the Aorist Tense

11. When is an aorist tense verb put into the jussive case?

An aorist tense verb is put into the jussive case if it is preceded by one of the sixteen jussive prepositions.

12. How many types of jussive prepositions are there?

There are two types of jussive prepositions, one that makes one verb jussive and the other that makes two verbs jussive.

13. How many jussive prepositions are there that make one verb jussive?

There are four jussive prepositions that make one verb jussive, for example:

•لَم , for example:لَم یَذهَب أحدٌ (Nobody came.)

•لَمَّا , for example:تَعَلَّمَ القراءَةَ و لَمَّا یَکتُب (He learned how to read and has not written.)

• The imperative lām, for example:لِتَطِب نَفسُکَ (Feel comfortable.)

• The prohibition lām, for example:لا تَیاس من رَحمةِ الله (Don't loose hope in Allah's mercy.)

14. How many jussive prepositions are there that make two verbs jussive?

There are twelve jussive prepositions that put two verbs into the jussive state. All of them are conditional. For example:

•إن , for example:إن تَکسل تَخسَر (If you are lazy you will loose.)

•إذما , for example:إذما تتعلَّم تتقدَّم (If you learn you will progress.)

•مَن , for example:مَن یَطلُب یَجد (Whoever searches will find.)

•ما , for example:ما تَفعَل أفعَل (Whatever you do, I will do.)

•مَهما , for example:مَهما تأمُر بالخیر أفعَله (Whenever you command something good I will do it.)

•أيّ , for example:أيُّ یَجتَهِد یَنجَح (Whoever strives will be successful.)

•کَیفَما , for example:کَیفَما تجلس أجلس (However you sit I will sit.)

•مَتی , for example:متی تَرجِع نُکرِمک (Whenever you return we will respect you.)

•أیَّان , for example:أیَّان تَسألني أجِبکَ (Whenever you ask me I'll answer you.)

•أینما , for example:أینما تَذهَب تَنجَح (Wherever you go you will succeed.)

•أنَّی , for example:أنَّی یَذهَب صاحبُ العلم یُکرَم (Wherever a scholar goes he will be respected.)

•حیثما , for example:حیثما تَسقط تَثبت (Wherever you fall you will remain.)

15. What are the two jussive verbs called?

The first jussive verb is called a conditional verb and the second jussive verb is called a result.

16. Are any of the jussive prepositions considered a noun?

All of the jussive prepositions are really nouns exceptإن andإذما They are real prepositions.

17. Are all of the jussive prepositions declinable or indeclinable?

All of the jussive prepositions are indeclinable exceptأيُّ which is declinable.

18. When is the conditionalإن implied?

The conditionalإن is implied if it comes after a requisition and puts an aorist tense verb into the jussive state. For example:تَعلَّم تَفُز was originallyإن تَتَعلُّم تَفز (If you study you will succeed.)

19. Is the conditional verb and its result in the aorist tense or the preterite tense?

The conditional verb and its result can be:

• Two aorist tense verbs, for example:إن تَصبِر تَظفَر (If you show patience you will be victorious.)

• Two preterite tense verbs, for example:إن صَبرتَ ظَفَرتَ (If you were patient you would have succeeded.)

• A combination of tenses, for example:إن تَصبر ظفرت orإن صبرت تظفر . If the first verb is in the preterite tense and the second in the aorist tense, the second verb can be put into the jussive or nominative cases.

20. When is it necessary to add a fā' to the result?

In the following six cases it is obligatory to add a fā' to the result:

• If the result is in the preterite tense preceeded byقد , for example:إن آمَنتَ فقد خلصتَ (If you believed you would have become pure.)

• If the result is made negative byما orلن , for example:إن جاءني ضیفٌ فما أرُدُهُ (If a guest comes to me I will not reject him.)

• If the result is a requisition verb, for example:أن سَقَطَ عدُوُّکَ فلا تَسمَت بِهِ (If your enemy falls do not become happy about it.)

• If the result is an aplastic verb, for example:إن تَرَني أقل مالاً فعسیَ رَبِّي أن یُغنیَني (If you see me poor have hope that my Lord will make me rich.)

• If the result is preceded by a sīn orسوف , for example:إن زُرتَني فسأزورک (If you visited me I will soon visit you.)

• If the result is a nominal sentence, for example:مَهما أردت فأنّي مستعدٌّ لقضائه (Whenever you desire I will surely help you settle it.)

21. When is it permissible to add a fā' to the result?

In the following two cases it is permissable to add a fā' to the result:

• If the result is in the aorist tense and made negative by aلا , for example:إن تَدرُس فَلا تَخسَر (If you study you will not fail.)

• If the result is a positive aorist tense verb, for example:مَن یَطلُب فَیَجِد (Whoever searches will find.)

22. What state is the result in if a fā' is added to it?

If a fā' is added to the result, it is forbidden to put it in the jussive case, instead one must put it in the nominative case as a subjective compliment for an implied inchoative. For example:من یَطلب فَیَجدُ (Whoever searches will find.) is really:من یطلب فهو یجد

23. What function do the conditionalما ، مهما ، أي have?

The conditionalما ، مهما ، من ، أيُّ have the following conditions:

• Inchoative if followed by an intransitive verb. For example:أيُّ یجتهد ینجح (Whoever strives will be successful.)

• Objective compliment if followed be a transitive verb that has not taken an objective compliment. For example:مَن تُکرِم أُکرِم (Whoever you respect I will respect.)

• Genitive prepositional phrase or the word after a prefixed noun, for example:بِمَن تَذهَب أذهَب (Whoever you take I will take.)

24. What function do the conditionalمتی ، أیان ، أینما ، أنَّی ، حیثما have?

The conditionalمتی ، أیَّان ، أینما ، أنَّی ، حیثما are in the accusative state because it is an adverbial noun of time or place. For example:متی تَنم أنم (Whenever you sleep I will sleep.)

25. What state does the conditionalکیفما have?

The conditionalکیفما is in the accusative state because it is a hāl accusative. For example:

کیفما نَتوجَّه نُصادف خیراً (However you face it, it will pass positively.)

Nominative Cases of a Noun: The Actor

26. What is an actor?

An actor is a noun that is mentioned after an active verb and indicates the doer of the verb. For example:لَعِبَ الصَّغیرُ (the child played.)

27. How many kinds of actors are there?

An actor can be:

• A clear noun, for example:طَلَعَتِ الشّمسُ (The sun rose.)

• A mentioned pronoun, for example:نَجَحتُ في الامتحانِ (I passed the exam.)

• An implied pronoun, for example:التِّلمیذُ المجتهد یَنجحُ (A hardworking student will succeed.)

• An verb that is changed into the infinitive form because of the an preposition, for example:

بَلَغني أنَّکَ نَجَحتَ (It has reached me that you have been saved.)

28. Does the verb remain the same if the actor is feminine?

If the actor is feminine the verb is made feminine:

• in the preterite tense by adding a vowel-less tā' to the end of the verb. For example:سافَرَت مَریمُ (Maryam travelled.)

• in the aorist tense by adding the feminine letter to the beginning of the verb. For example:

تُسافرُ مریمُ (Maryam is travelling.)

29. Does the verb change if the actor is a noun in the dual form?

The dual letters are not added to the verb if the actor is a clear noun in the dual form, rather it remains single. For example:قام الرَّجلان (Two men stood up.)

30. Does the verb change if the actor is a noun in the plural form?

The plural letters are not added to the verb if the actor is a clear noun in the plural form, rather it remains single. For example:تَکَلَّمَ الخطباء (The speakers spoke.)

31. When is it permissible to make the verb masculine or feminine?

A verb can be put into the feminine or masculine form in three cases:

• If the actor is feminine and is separated from the verb, for example:سافرت أو سافر الیومَ مریمُ (Maryam traveled today.)

• If the actor is an unnatural feminine, for example:أثمَرَت أو أثمَرَ الشَّجَرَةُ (The tree produced fruit.)

• If the actor is a broken plural, for example:جاءَت أو جاءَ الجواري (The female servants came.)

32. What is a sentence comprised of a verb and an actor called?

A sentence that is comprised of a verb and an actor is called a verbal sentence. For example:

نزلَ المَطرُ (Rain fell down.)

Nominative Cases of a Noun: Subject of a Predication

33. What is a subject of the predication?

A subject of the predication is an objective compliment that comes after a passive verb and takes the place of the actor that has been erased. For example:قُتِلَ اللّصُّ (The thief was killed.)

34. What should be done if the verb is transitive and takes on more than one objective compliment?

If the verb is transitive and takes on more than one objective compliment, the first objective compliment is put into the nominative case as the subject of the predication and the second objective compliment remains in the accusative case. For example:رُزِقَ الفقیرُ مالاٌ (The poor man was given money.)

35. Does the verb remain in the same form if the subject of the predication is feminine?

If the subject of the predication is feminine the verb is made feminine:

• in the preterite tense by adding a vowel-less tā' to the end of the verb, for example:

سُرِقَت ساعةٌ (A watch was stolen.)

• in the aorist tense by adding a feminine letter to the beginning of the verb, for example:

تُغرَسُ الشَّجرةُ (The tree was planted.)

36. Does the verb change if the subject of the predication is a noun in the dual form?

The dual letters are not added to the verb if the subject of the predicate is a clear noun in the dual form, rather it remains single. For example:ضُرِبَ اللّصانِ (The two thieves were hit.)

37. Does the verb change if the subject of the predication is a noun in the plural form?

The plural letters are not added to the verb if the subject of the predicate is a clear noun in the plural form, rather it remains single. For example:سُمِعَ الشَّهودُ (The witnesses were heard.)

38. What is a sentence comprised of a verb and a subject of the predication called?

A sentence that is comprised of a verb and a subject of the predicate is called a verbal sentence. For example:زُرِعَ الحبُّ (The grains were planted.)

Nominative Cases of a Noun: Inchoative and Predicate

39. What is an inchoative?

An inchoative is a noun in the nominative case that is mentioned at the beginning of a sentence. For example:العلمُ نافعٌ (Knowledge is beneficial.)

40. What is a predicate?

A predicate is a word that completes the meaning of the inchoative. For example:المطرُ غزیرٌ (The rain is heavy.)

41. What is the rule regarding inchoatives and predicates?

The inchoative is a definite noun that comes first and a predicate is an indefinite noun, if it is a noun, which comes after the inchoative.

42. Is it possible for an inchoative to be an indefinite noun?

The inchoative can be indefinite if it is useful. For example:شمسٌ مضیئةٌ ظَهَرَت (A luminous sun appeared.)

43. When does the predicate come before the inchoative?

The predicate comes before the inchoative if:

• the inchoative is intended by itself. For example:ما عادلٌ إلا اللهُ (There is no just being except Allah.). This means that Allah, nothing else, was intended.

• the predicate is a adverbial noun of time or place or a genitive prepositional phrase and the inchoative is indefinite. For example:في البیت لصٌ (A thief is in the house.)

• the predicate is one of the words that must come at the beginning of a sentence. For example:

أینَ الطریقٌ (Where is the path?)

• if the inchoative is connected to a pronoun that refers to the predicate. For example:

في الدارِ صاحبُها (The owner of the house is in the house.)

44. What is a sentence comprised of an inchoative and a predicate called?

A sentence comprised of an inchoative and a predicate is called a nominal sentence. For example:الکسلُ عاقبتُهُ الفقرُ (The end of a lazy person is poverty.)

45. How many types of predicates are there?

There are three types of predicates:

• Noun, for example:عليٌ أسدٌ ('Alī is a lion.)

• Sentence, for example:الکسل عاقبته الفقر

• Fragment, for example:بَلاء الإنسانِ مِن اللسانِ (Man's tribulations come from the tongue.)

Incomplete and Appropinquation Verbs

46. What is an annular?

An annular is a word that is added to an inchoative and predicate and changes their situation. An annular is either a verb (incomplete verbs or appropinquation verbs) or prepositions (particles which resemble a verb and the lā which denies a whole genus).

47. What is the rule of annulars if they are verbs?

If an annular is a verb it is added to an inchoative and predicate and makes the inchoative its subject and puts it in the nominative case and puts the predicate in the accusative case. For example:

کانَ الجوُّ صافیاً (The weather was clear.)

48. What are incomplete verbs?

Incomplete verbs are verbs that denote the state of a person or thing. They are not completed with the subject alone, rather they are in need of a predicate to complete the meaning as well. For example:کانَ الرجلُ مریضاً (The man was sick.)

49. How many incomplete verbs are there?

The incomplete verbs are:

•کانَ ، أصبح ، أضحیَ ، ظلَّ ، صار ، أمسیَ ، بات ، مادام All of these are conjugated in the preterite, aorist and imperative tenses.

•مازال ، ما فتیَ ، ما برح ، ما انفکَّ All of these are conjugated in the preterite and aorist tenses.

•لیسَ This incomplete verb is only conjugated in the preterite tense.

50. Are these incomplete verbs always incomplete?

No, sometimes they have complete meanings, just like any other regular verb. This is the case when they denote an event not a state. For example:کانَ لیلٌ (It was night.)

51. How many kinds of predicates of incomplete verbs are there?

The predicate of incomplete verbs is the same as the predicate of inchoatives in that they can be nouns, sentences, or fragments. For example:کان عليٌّ أسداً ('Alī was a lion.) orأصبَحتم في حزنٍ شدیدٍ (They were found in a heavy state of grief).

52. When does the predicate of an incomplete verb come before its subject?

The predicate of an incomplete verb comes before the subject in the same cases that was mentioned of the predicate of an inchoative coming before the inchoative.

53. Is it permissible to add a 'ba' to the predicate of an incomplete verb?

Yes, it is permissible to add a bā' to the predicate of an incomplete verb if:

• the incomplete verb isکان which is preceded by a negative word. For example:ما کان اللهُ بظالمٍ (Allah was not an oppressor.)

• the incomplete verb isلیس for example:لیس اللهُ بظلّام للعبید (Allah is not oppressive to servants.)

54. What makes the verb kāna stand out from all of its sisters?

Kāna stands out because it is added after a mā of wonder and it is erased with its subject after a conditional in or law. For example:الظالم هالکٌ و لو (کان الظالم) مَلِکاً (An oppressor will become destroyed even if (the oppressor was) a king.)

55. What is an appropinquation verb?

Appropinquation verbs are verbs that denote the closeness of an occurrence, hope of an occurrence, or the start of an action. Similar to the incomplete verbs, appropinquation verbs have a subject in the nominative case and a predicate in the accusative case. For example:کاد الولدُ یَغرقُ (The boy was about to drown.)

56. How many appropinquation verbs are there?

The appropinquation verbs are:

•کاد ، کَرَبَ ، أوشکَ which denote the closeness of an occurrence

•اخلَولَقَ ، حَریَ ، عسیَ which denote the hope of an occurrence

•أخَذَ ، جَعَلَ ، شَرعَ طَفِقَ علقَ هبَّ which denote the start of an action

57. Do the meanings of these verbs always have something to do with closeness?

No, sometimes they are used as transitive or intransitive verbs. In these cases they are like any other regular verb. For example:أخذتُ الکتابَ عنِ الطاولةِ (I took the book off of the table.)

58. What form is the predicate of an appropinquation verb in?

The predicate of appropinquation verbs is always a verb in the aorist tense. For example:

کاد الولدُ یَغرقُ

Particles Which Resemble a Verb

59. What are particles which resemble a verb?

Particles which resemble a verb are added to an inchoative and predicate and make the inchoative, its subject, in the accusative form and put the predicate into the nominative form. For example:

إنَّ البردَ قارسٌ (Verily, the cold weather is severe.)

60. How many particles are there which resemble a verb?

There are six particles which resemble a verb:إنَّ ، أنَّ ، کَأنَّ ، لَکنَّ ، لیتَ ، لعلَّ

61. Why do these particles resemble verbs?

The reason that these particles resemble a verb is because they carry the meaning of a verb.أنَّ andإنَّ have the meaning of emphasis,کَأنَّ has the meaning of similarity,لَکنَّ has the meaning of but,لیتَ has the meaning of an impossible hope, andلعلَّ has the meaning of hope.

62. What is the ruling concerning these particles if a mā is added to them?

If a mā is added to one of these particles they do not put the inchoative into the accusative case and they may be written before nouns or verbs. For example:إنَّما الصَّبرُ مفیدٌ (Verily, patience is useful.)

63. How many types of predicates of particles which resemble a verb are there?

The predicate of particles which resemble a verb is either a noun, for example:کَأنَّ علیاً أسدٌ ('Alī is like a lion.), a sentence, for example:لعلَّ التِّلمیذَ یَنجَحُ (Hopefully the students will be successful.), or a fragment, for example:إنَّ الصدیقَ عندنا (Verily Sadīq is with us.)

64. When is it obligatory for the predicate of particles which resemble a verb to come before the subject?

It is obligatory for the predicate of these particles to be mentioned before the subject if the predicate is an adverbial noun of time or place or a prepositional phrase and:

• the subject is indefinite. For example:إنَّ مَعَ العُسرِ یُسراً (Verily, with difficulty there is ease.)

• the subject is connected to a pronoun that refers to the predicate. For example:إنَّ في الدارِ صاحبَها (Verily in the house is its owner.)

65. When is it permissible for the predicate of particles which resemble a verb to come before the subject?

It is permissible for the predicate of these particles to be mentioned before the subject if the predicate is an adverbial noun of time or place or a prepositional phrase and the subject is definite, for example:إنَّ في الصَّومِ صحَّةَ البدنِ (Verily in fasting there is health.)

66. When is the hamzah of inna given a kasrah?

The hamzah of inna given a kasrah if:

• it is at the beginning of a sentence, for example:إنَّ اللهَ غفورٌ (Verily Allah is forgiving.)

• it is after the verbقال , for example:قلتُ إنَّکَ وَدودٌ (I said: “Verily you are friendly.)

• it is after a request, for example:أفِق إنَّ الفجرَ قد طَلَع (Get up for verily dawn has arrived.)

• it is after a vocative, for example:یا بطرسٌ إنَّکَ تکفر بي (O' Peter, you have disbelieved in me.)

• it is afterثمّ , for example:ثمَّ أنَّه نَهَضَ فتکلَّمَ (Then, verily he got up and spoke.)

• it is afterحیثُ , for example:من حیثُ أنَّه عالمٌ خَطَبَ بفصاحةٍ (From one viewpoint he is a scholar who speaks eloquently.)

• it is afterإذ , for example:تُب إذ إنَّ اللهَ راحمٌ (Repent, for surely Allah is merciful.)

• it is after the interrogativeألا , for example:ألا إنَّ الدنیا کأحلامِ نائمٍ (Don't you know that the world is like a dream.)

67. When is the hamzah of inna given a fathah?

The hamzah of inna given a fathah if it, with its predicate, have the meaning of an infinitive. Examples of this in the different cases are:

• in the nominative case:بَلَغَني أنَّکَ راحل (It has reached me that you are leaving.)

• in the accusative case:عرفتُ أنَّکَ قادمٌ (I know that you are coming.)

• in the genitive case:تعلَّم في صغرِک لأنَّ الوقتَ قصیرٌ (Learn in your youth because of short time.)

68. Is the inchoative lām added to the subject or predicate of inna?

The inchoative lām added to the subject or predicate of inna for emphasis. It is added to whichever one comes last. For example:إنَّ اللهَ لغفورٌ (Verily Allah is forgiving) orأنَّ في الدارِ لزَیداً (Verily Zayd is in the house.)

69. Is anything added to the particles which resemble a verb?

Yes, the lā that denies a whole genus is added to the particles which resemble a verb and performs the same action that the particles do. For example:لا رجلَ حاضرٌ (No man is present.)

70. What is the ruling of the lā that denies a whole genus?

The lā that denies a whole genus puts its subject into the accusative state if it is prefixed to another word. For example:لا کتابَ سفاهةٍ ممدوحٌ (No foolish book is praised.) It makes its subject indeclinable on the accusative sign if it is not prefixed to another noun. For example:لا زائرین عندکم (No pilgrim is with you.)

Objective Compliment

71. What is an objective compliment?

An objective compliment is a noun that indicates what the verb was performed on and does not change the form of the verb. For example:بری التلمیذُ قلماً (The student sharpened a pencil.)

72. Where is the objective compliment placed in a sentence?

It is permissible to write the objective compliment before or after the actor except in the cases where it is obligatory to put the actor first or the cases where it is obligatory to put the objective compliment first. For example:بنی إبراهیمُ البیتَ orبنی البیتَ إبراهیمُ (Abraham built the house.)

73. When is it obligatory for the actor to come before the objective compliment?

It is obligatory for the actor to come before the objective compliment if:

• it would be confused, for example:ضَرَبَ فتاکَ أخي (Your son hit my brother.)

• the actor is a connected pronoun, for example:أکرمتُ الرسولَ (I was generous to the messenger.)

• the objective compliment is an exceptive, for example:لا ینالُ المجتهدُ إلا نجاحاً (He who strives will not reach anything except success.)

74. When is it obligatory for the objective compliment to come before the actor?

It is obligatory for the objective compliment to come before the actor if:

• there is a pronoun connected to the actor that refers to the objective compliment, for example:

کَرَّمَ السَّیَّدَ عبدُهُ (The master's slave was generous to the master.)

• the objective compliment is a connected pronoun and the actor is a noun, for example:

عَذَّبَني المَرَضُ (The sickness is torturing me.)

• the actor is an exceptive, for example:ما عالجَ المَریضَ إلا الطبیبُ (Nothing can cure the disease except the doctor.)

75. When is it obligatory for the objective compliment to come before the actor and the verb?

It is obligatory for the objective compliment to come before the actor and the verb if:

• the objective compliment is one of the words that only come at the beginning of a sentence, for example a conditional noun or an interrogative noun. For example:مَن رأیتَ (Who did you see?)

• the objective compliment is a separated pronoun, for example:إیاک نَعبُدُ (We worship you.)

76. Do some verbs take more than one objective compliment?

Yes, some verbs take more than one objective compliment. Most of the verbs that have the meaning of giving take more than one objective compliment. For example:أعطیَ الغنيُّ الفقیرَ مالاً (The rich person gave the poor person money.)

Verbs of Wonder

77. How many forms of wonder verbs are there?

There are two forms of wonder verbs:أفعَل orأفعِل ب

78. What are the conditions for a verb of wonder?

The conditions for a verb of wonder are the same for comparative/superlative nouns.

79. What is the ruling ofأفعَل

The ruling of the formأفعَل is that it must come after a mā of wonder and the noun that comes after it is in the accusative state being an objective compliment. For example:ما أجمَلَ مَنظَرَ الرِّیاضِ (What a beautiful view of the garden.)

80. What is the ruling ofأفعِل

The ruling of the formأفعِل is that the noun after it is put into the genitive case because of the bā' preposition. For example:أفعِل بمنظَرِ الرِّیاضِ (What a beautiful view of the garden.)

81. How are verbs of wonder made in the past or future tenses?

The verb of wonder is put into the past tense by adding aکان between the mā of wonder and theأفعَل form. For example:ما کان أحسَنَ منظَرَ الرِّیاضِ (What a beautiful view of the garden it was.) The verb of wonder is put into the future tense by adding aیکون between the mā of wonder and theأفعَل form. For example:ما یکونُ أحسنَ منظَرَ الرِّیاضِ (What a beautiful view of the garden it will be.)

Ishtighal

82. What is ishtighal?

Ishtighal is a noun that comes before the verb that is affected by a pronoun which refers to the first noun. For example:الکتاب قرأتُهُ (The book, I read it.)

83. What is the noun that comes first called?

The noun that comes first is called the noun of ishtighal.

84. When is it obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative case?

It is obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative case if it comes after:

• a conditional word, for example;إنِ العِلمَ خَدَمتَهُ فأحسِن إلیه (Verily, I put myself in the service of knowledge and it did good to me.)

• afterألا , for example:ألا التلمیذَ المجتهد تکافِئُونَهُ (Why don't you be like the striving student?)

• afterهلا , for example:هلا خَیرَ نفسِکَ تریدُهُ (The best for yourself, don't you want it?)

• afterهل , for example:هَل سلیماً أهَنتَهُ (Did you disrespect Salīm?)

85. What function does the noun of ishtighal have if it is in the accusative case?

If the noun of ishtighal is in the accusative case it is an objective compliment of an implied verb which is explained by the mentioned verb. For example:هل الثَّمرَ أکلتَهُ؟ (The date, did you eat it?) was really:هل أکلتَ الثمر أکلته؟

86. When is it obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the nominative case?

It is obligatory to put the noun of ishtighal in the nominative case if it comes:

• afterإذا , for example:دَخَلتُ البَیتَ فإذا الولدُ یُوَبِّخُهُ أبوه (I entered the house, and all of a sudden there was a father who was scolding his son.)

• after a hāl accusative hlasjwāw, for example:سافَرتُ و الشعبُ ینهاه الخطیبُ عنِ الحربِ (I traveled while the youth, the speaker was forbidding him from war.)

• before conditional words, interrogative words,ألا , هلا , the inchoative lām, the negative mā, the informative kam, the annular prepositions, and conjuncts.

87. What function does the noun of ishtighal have if it is in the nominative case?

If the noun of ishtighal is in the nominative case it is an inchoative and the verbal sentence after it is the predicate in the nominative case.

88. When is it permissible to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative or nominative cases?

It is permissible to put the noun of ishtighal in the accusative or nominative cases in any other case that was not mentioned. For example:التُّفاحةُ أکلتُها (The apple, I ate it.)

Cognate Accusative

89. What is a cognate accusative?

A cognate accusative is an infinitive mentioned after a verb from the same root as the verb for:

• emphasis:قَتَلَ الحارسُ اللّصَّ قتلاً (The guard killed the thief, a killing.)

• explanation of the type:اصبر صبراً جمیلاً (Be patient, a beautiful patience.)

• explanation of number:دَقَّتَ الساعَةُ دقَّتین (The watch ticked twice.)

90. What word can take the place of a cognate accusative if it is used for emphasis?

If the cognate accusative is used for emphasis it can be replaced by a synonym. For example:

قُمتُ وُقُوفاً (I stood up, a standing.)

91. What words can take the place of a cognate accusative if it is used for explanation?

If the cognate accusative is used for explanation it can be replaced by:

• an adjective:اُذکِروا اللهَ کثیراً (Remember Allah a lot.)

• the wordsکل orبعض: مال کلَّ المیلِ (He inclined a full inclination.)

• demonstrative pronouns:قالَ ذلکَ القولَ (He said those words.)

• numbers:جُلِدَ السارِقُ عَشرَ جَلَداتٍ (The thief was whipped ten whips.)

• tools:ضَرَبتُهُ سَوطاً (I hit him, whipping.)

Adverbial Qualification

92. What is an adverbial qualification?

An adverbial qualification is an infinitive which is mentioned after the verb in order to describe the cause of the verb. For example:وَقَفَ الجُندُ إجلالاً للإمیرِ (The army stopped in order to respect the commander.)

93. Is an adverbial qualification always in the accusative state?

The adverbial qualification can either be:

• in the accusative state with the accusative sign, for example:هربتُ خوفاً (I fled out of fear.) This is usually the case when the infinitive does not have an alif-lām and is not prefixed to another word.

• in the accusative state with the genitive sign, for example:ضربتُ وَلدي لتأدیبهِ (I hit my son to teach him manners.) This is usually the case when the infinitive does have an alif-lām and is prefixed to another word.