A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.)

A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.)0%

A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.) Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Fatima al-Zahra
ISBN: 9976-956-86-7

A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.)

Author: M.M. Dungersi Ph.D
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category:

ISBN: 9976-956-86-7
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A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.)

A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.)

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
ISBN: 9976-956-86-7
English

A Brief Biography of Hazrat Fatima (A.S.)

Author: M.M. Dungersi Ph.D

Table of Contents

Preface 4

Chapter 1: Hazrat Fatima (S.A): The Birth and Naming of The Child  5

GENERAL. 5

EVENTS LEADING TO HER BIRTH. 5

BIRTH OF HA/RAT FAT I MA (S.A) 6

NAMING OF THE CHILD. 6

HER OTHER NAMES. 7

Chapter 2: Hazrat Fatima's Parents 8

HER FATHER: THE PROPHET (S.A.W.W.) 8

HER MOTHER: HAZRAT KHADIJA, DAUGHTER OFKHUWAYLID. 8

HAZRAT KHADIJA: BEFORE HER MARRIAGE. 8

HER MARRIAGE. 9

HAZRAT KHADIJA'S SERVICES TO ISLAM.. 10

Chapter 3: Hazrat Fatima's Childhood and Adulthood  13

BEFORE MARRIAGE, HER CHILDHOOD. 13

HER MIGRATION TO MEDINA. 13

LIFE IN MEDINA. 14

Chapter 4: Hazrat Fatima's Marriage 15

PROPOSALS TO MARRY HAZRAT FATIMA (A.S) 15

THE MARRIAGE CEREMONY. 15

THE NIGHT OF THE MARRIAGE. 16

HAZRATR FATIMA’S DOWRY. 16

Chapter 5: Hazrat Fatima (S.A): An Ideal Woman  18

HAZRAT FATIMA (S.A) AS AN EXAMPLE FOR ALL WOMEN. 18

HAZRAT FATIMA (S.A) AS A DAUGHTER. 18

HAZRAT FATIMA (S.A) AS A HOUSEWIFE. 19

FATIMA (S.A) AS A MOTHER. 19

Chapter 6: Hazrat Fatima's Character and Personality  21

SIDDIQA (The truthful one) 21

MUBAREKAH (The Blessed One) 21

TAHIRA (The Virtuous) AND ZAKEEAH (Pure) 22

RADHIA (One who is satisfied) and MARDHIA (The one who satisfies) 22

ZAHRA (The Lady of Light) 22

BATUL (The Virgin One) 23

Her Other Characteristics 23

1. HER PIETY. 23

2. HER MODESTY. 24

3. HER GENEROSITY. 24

4. HER KNOWLEDGE. 24

Chapter 7: Hazrat Fatima's Death and Burial 26

THE PROPHET'S DEATH. 26

HAZRAT FATIMA'S HOUSE ON FIRE. 26

HAZRAT FATIMA'S (S.A) PROPERTY, FADAK, IS CONFISCATED. 27

HAZRAT FATIMA (S.A) MOURNS FOR HER FATHER. 29

HAZRAT FATIMA'S LAST DAY OF THIS EARTH. 29

HAZRAT FATIMA'S BURIAL. 30

Chapter 8: Hazrat Fatima (S.A): Her Position in Islam   31

HAZRAT FATIMA'S (S.A) POSITION IN THE PRESENCE OF ALLAH  31

HAZRAT FATIMA'S POSITION IN THE EYE OF THE PROPHET (S.A.W.W) 31

HAZRAT FATIMA'S POSITIION IN THE EYE OF IMAM ALI (A.S) 32

Chapter 9: Hazrat Fatima's (S.A) Family  34

HER HUSBAND. 34

HER CHILDREN. 34

Hazrat Zainab (A.S) 34

UM KULTHUM.. 35

Questions 37

CHAPTER 1. 37

CHAPTER 2. 37

CHAPTER 3. 38

CHAPTER 4. 38

CHAPTER 5. 39

CHAPTER 6. 39

Preface

This short biography of Hazrat Fatima (S.A) was written essentially as a part of a course-work for those enrolled in the correspondence with Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania.

The major concern has been to provide brief and introductory notes on the main aspects of the illustrious life history of our "Lady of Light, Hazrat Fatima (S.A) for readers who have had no previous understanding of the role of this great personality in Islamic history.

In no way therefore should this work be taken as a comprehensive and complete study on Hazrat Fatima (S.A). As a matter of fact, circumstances under which this work was prepared may necessitate extensive additions and/ or deletions - in future, God willing.

In the preparation of this booklet I found the following works very useful.

Fatima The Gracious By: Odeh A. Muhawesh

Fatima Al-Zahra By: Al-Balagh Foundation

Fatima Zahra By: Peermahomed Frbrahim Trust

Mohamedraza M Dungersi, Ph D

October, 1993

Jamadiul Thani - 1414

New York

Chapter 1: Hazrat Fatima (S.A): The Birth and Naming of The Child

GENERAL

The study of the biography of the Prophet, Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W.) and that of the twelve Imams remains incomplete if we exclude from it the biography of Ha/rat Fatima (S.A).

This is because she is the main link between the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) and the twelve Imams. This link can be looked at in two different ways.

Firstly, this link is explained in the tradition of the mantle ("Hadise Kisa"), when the Archangel Gibrael asks Allah as to who are in the Mantle. Allah says, ""They arc: I'annul her father, her husband and her sons".

Secondly, she is the Grandmother to nine Imams (beginning the fourth Imam, Ha/rat Ali. Zainulabidin), all being the direct descendants of her son Imam Husain (AS) The progeny of the Prophet continues through her. On this matter the Prophet himself is reported to have said:

"Allah made the offspring of every Prophet in that Prophets loins, and he made my offspring in I he loins of Ali..." All sons are linked to their farther except the sons of Fatima. For I am their leather and their closest relative. "

Moreover, for the Muslim men, the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) was the example from whom they could learn how to live a life of excellence ("Uswatul Hasana").

For the Muslim women, Hazrat Fatima (S.A) became the model on which Muslim women could learn to lead a life of virtue and excellence.

EVENTS LEADING TO HER BIRTH

Allah made special arrangements so that Hazrat Fatima (S.A) would be born pure in body and in spirit. Allama Majlisi, a well known scholar, reports in his book Bihar-AI-Anwar ("The Seas of Light"), that before Hazrat Fatima (S.A) was conceived in her mother's womb, the Archangel Gibrael came to the Prophet (S.A. W.W.) telling him that Allah wished him (the Prophet) to stay away from his wife Khadija for fourty days. He did as he was told.

On the fortieth day, Gibrael came back to congratulate the Prophet (S.A. W.W.) for the heavenly gift that he was about to get from Allah Then came the Angel Michael with heavenly food, letting the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) know that it was Allah's wish that on that night the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) should break his fast with the heavenly food. The Prophet did what Allah wished He broke his fast with the dates and grapes from heaven.

After that, the Prophet was told to go to his wife Hazrat Khadija. They stayed together. Hazrat Khadija became pregnant that night. Hazrat Fatima (S.A) was thus conceived in her mother's womb that night.

One of the miracles of Hazrat Fatima is: while she was still in her mother's womb she spoke with her! The Sunni Scholar, Abdulrehman Shafie says in his book, "Nuzhat Al-Majils", that Hazrat Khadija said, "When I was pregnant, she would speak with me from within my womb”.

Another Sunni Scholar and historian called Shah Abdul Aziz Dahlawi reports in his book, 'Tajhiz Al-Jaish", the following incident:

“When Khadija was pregnant with Fatima, Fatima used to speak to her mother from her mother s womb Khadija kept this secret from the Prophet "

"One day the Prophet found Khadija talking to someone though there was no one around in the house. He therefore asked her about it. She replied, 'The one who is in my womb speaks with me’.

Then the Prophet said, "Be happy Oh! Khadija. For the one in Your womb is a girl who will, by command of Allah be Mother of eleven of my successors..... "

Another Sunni Scholar called Shuab B. Saad Al Misry, adds to the above incident, saying that Hazrat Fatima (AS) while still in her mother's womb would give courage and hope to her mother Khadija when Khadija was feeling sad.

BIRTH OF HA/RAT FAT I MA (S.A)

Some historians say that she was born five years before the Prophet announced his Prophethood But the more reliable historians and scholars such as Kulayni and Shahr Ashub say that she was born five years after Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.A.W) had told the people that he was their Prophet.

She was born in Mecca on 20th Jamadiul Akhar on I'riday AD 615).

Muffazzal B. Omar, a companion of Imam Jaffer Sadiq (AS) asked the Imam to tell him about the birth of the Imam's Grandmother, Hazrat Fatima (S.A). What follows is a summary of what the Imam told Muffazal.

Hazrat Khadija (Hazrat Fatima's mother) was advised by her friends and women of Kuraish not to get married to Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W.), but she did not follow their advice As a result they were very angry with her and stopped visiting her.

When the time of the birth of Hazrat Fatima came near, she called them to help her deliver the child but they all refused to come. At that time four beautiful though strange looking women came to help Hazrat Khadija.

They introduced themselves as Hawwa (Nabi, Adam's wife), Kulthum (Nabi Musa's sister), Mariam (Nabi Isa's mother), Asia (The Pharo's wife). They told Hazrat Khadija that Allah had sent them to help her in the delivery of the child.

The child was then bom She read the fc'Qalma" and went into the "Sajda".

NAMING OF THE CHILD

Allama Majlisi reports in his book, "Bihar-ul-Anvar", that Imam Jaffer Sadiq (A.S.) says that, "When Fatima (S.A) was born, Allah instructed an Angel to utter this name (FATIMA) with the Prophet's tongue, and then Allah said,

4I have given you knowledge and protected you from (the dirt of menstruation) discharge of blood women of certain age experience for a few days every month"'.

Several leasons have been given to explain why she was named Fatima; some of these reasons are as follows:

- Abdulla B. Abbas reports that he heard the Prophet iS.A.W.W) say Fatima was given that name "because she and her followers are protected from heir.

- Our sixth Imam, Imam Jaffer B. Mohammed (also known as Sadiq) is reported to have said that his grandmother Fatima (S.A) is called by the name because she is safeguarded from evil.

It is for these reasons that the Prophet (S.A.W.W) and his successors (the Imams) liked this name very much Once Imam Jailer Sadiq (A.S) learned that one of his followers had a daughter who was named Fatima; then the Imam said, "Fatima' May the peace from Allah be upon Fatima. Now that you have named your daughter Fatima do not beat or abuse her. Instead, honour her."

HER OTHER NAMES

According to the Shia scholar, Ibne Babawayya, Imam Jaffer Sadiq (A.S.) has said, "Fatima (S.A) has nine names in the presence of Allah These names are:

FATIMA (The safeguarded one)

SIDD1QA (The truthful one)

MlBARAKFH (The Blessed one)

TAHIRA (The virtuous one)

ZAKEEAH (The pure one)

RADHIA (The one who is satisfied)

MARDHIA (The one who pleases)

MUHADD1SA (The one speaking with angels)

ZAHRA (The lady of light)

Each of these names tells us about her high character and greatness We shall talk about these in chapter six in more detail.

Chapter 2: Hazrat Fatima's Parents

HER FATHER: THE PROPHET (S.A.W.W.)

Her Father was the Prophet of Islam, Hazrat Muhammad (S A,W W ). As we have studied his life under a separate unit (Number one) we do not intend to repeat his biography again.

Before her birth, her two brothers called Qassim and Tahir were born. Both of a them died when still young. Some historians say that the Prophet had also three daughters from Hazrat Khadija (Zainab, Um Kulthum and Ruqaia),

but more reliable historians such as Shahr Ashub say that Hazrat Fatima (S,A) was the only daughter born from Hazrat Khadija We shall discuss on this matter when we look at the life history of Hazrat Khadija.

Hazrat Fatima (A.S) had one step-brother, Ibrahim, who was born from Maria Qibtia. But he, too, died when still young.

HER MOTHER: HAZRAT KHADIJA, DAUGHTER OFKHUWAYLID

All scholars do not agree on her age or on the number of children that she had. Most of the Sunm authors believe that Lady Khadija was a widow of forty-five years when she was married to the Prophet (S. A. W W.) Some of them also say that from this early marriage she had three daughters:

Zainab, Um Kuthum and Ruqaia. Others say that these daughters were born after her marriage with the Prophet (S.A.W.W.).

The majority of Shia scholars and some Sunni scholars too, believed in the following facts:

That at the time of her marriage, Lady Khadija was between twenty-five to twenty-eight years of age;

That she was married only once and that was to the Prophet (S.A.W.W);

That she had only one daughter and that was Hazrat Fatima (AS).

According to a famous scholar of Lucknow India (Hujatul Islam Nasir Husain) Zainab, Um Kulthum and Ruqaia were the daughters of Abu Hind Tamimi When Ins wife died he married Hala, Hazrat Khadija's sister Soon Abu Hind died and Hala, together with the three girls went to live with Hazrat Khadija Because of her kindness and generosity.

Ha/rat Khadija brought up the girls like her nieces As these girls grew in her home and as she loved them like her own daughters, they have come to be regarded as her own daughters And because of her love for them, the Prophet, too, loved them and treated them as his own daughters.

HAZRAT KHADIJA: BEFORE HER MARRIAGE

Her father was Khuwaylid Bin Asad Bin Abdul Uzza Bin Kusay. Her mother was Fatima Bint Zieda. She was a very rich lady in Mecca She was in the business of importing goods from such countries as India and China and exporting them to Syria and Persia.

She had inherited this business from her father and then expanded it using her own ideas and imagination. She had her trade centered in Mecca She hired merchants to take her merchandise to foreign lands and sell for her at a profit.

She would then share the profits with these traders when they came back. One of such traders was Hazrat Abu Talib, the Prophet's uncle. Through Hazrat Abu Talib, the Prophet too joined these trading caravans and travelled to Syria ("Sham").

Although she was a clever business person and was very rich, she was also a very kind and generous lady. She was also religious.

Her cousin, Warka Bin Nawfal nad a good knowledge of religion and was follower of the books revealed to the Prophets of Bani Israel. She was a student of Warka and a follower of true religion of her time. Throughout Arabia people knew her because of her wealth, wisdom and goodness.

Even before she had married the Prophet, she was known as ‘Malikatul Arab’ or the Princess of Arabia, and also as a ‘Tahira’ or the Pure one. She was also called ‘Sayyida’ (or The Leader).

Many chiefs and Princes of Arabia wanted to many her but she refused to get married K .hem From the books of the past and from the discussion she had with Warka, she knew that the last Messenger of Allah was living amongst them.

Her wishes were to get married to him As a matter of fact, scholars use this as a proof that she was never married to any other person other than the Prophet.

Her belief that the last Prophet was living in her society was made strong by a Jewish Rabbi. Once she was at a festival with her friends when an old Jew Rabbi (religious scholar) passed by. He told Hazrat Khadija and her friends that "soon in your town a Prophet will come out.

His name will be Ahmad and lucky will be that woman who he will choose to be his wife". The girls laughed at this scholar. Some of them even threw pieces of stones at him but not Hazrat Khadija. She began thinking very seriously about what he said.

Then she had a dream in which she saw that the sun had come down in her house which became very bright with light. Then the light spread out in all directions. She asked Warka what this meant. He told her that she would be married to a great man who would be a Prophet.

Her investigations made her think that this last Prophet was Hazrat Muhammad (S. A. W.W.).

She became sure that Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W.) was the last Prophet when she received a complete report from her servant Maisarah about the miracles that he saw take place around Hazrat Mohammad (S.A.W.W.), When he was on his business trip to Syria. For example, he told her how trees would bow down as mark of respect towards Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W.) and how throughout the journey clouds would shelter him wherever he went.

Hazrat Khadija made a firm decision: 'If I ever get married it will be to Hazrat Mohammad (S.A.W.W.)."

HER MARRIAGE

The events which ended with the marriage of Hazrat Khadija with the Prophet (S.A W.W) are recorded beautifully by Allama Majlisi in his book, "Biharul An war"; we shall briefly look at them now.

After she had become sure that Hazrat Muhammad (S.A W.W) was the Last Prophet, she told him of her wishes to marry him.

He in turn discussed this matter with his uncle Abu Talib who passed the word to his family members Safiya, Abu Talib's sister, Safiya, went to Lady Khadija and the marriage proposal was accepted.

The Prophet's "Nikah" was read by Hazrat Abu Talib. In this sermon ("Khutba") Hazrat Abu Talib not only said that he was on the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS), but he also hinted that Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.W) was the Prophet of Allah. He called Hazrat Muhammad (S. AW W) as “Ashraful Makhlukat” (or The Best of Creation).

As “Mohar”, (Price of marriage that the groom has to give to the bride) Hazrat Abu Talib gave on behalf of his nephew twenty camels and 400 measure of gold.

Also Hazrat Abu Talib arranged the marriage feast ("Walima") for three days, serving free lunch to all people of Mecca, to honour this marriage of Hazrat Muhammad to Hazrat Khadija.

As a marriage gift. Hazrat Khadija gave a very expensive piece of cloth to Warka He refused to take it saying, "What use do I have for such an expensive worldly gift9 What I need from you as my gift is your husband's promise that he would help me with vt (Freedom From Hell) on the Day of Judgement." According to Allama Majlisi, this promise was given by Hazrat Khadija.

HAZRAT KHADIJA'S SERVICES TO ISLAM

After marrying the Prophet (S.A.W.W.), she gave him all her wealth, knowing how much he would need this wealth for Islam very soon. The Prophet(S.A.W.W) and Hazrat Khadija spent very little of this wealth for themselves for fifteen years.

After fifteen years of a quite life, then the Prophet (S.A.W.W) told people about his Prophethood. The people of Mecca, especial the Quraish, became his greatest enemies.

They began to make his life and that of his helpers very difficult. Because of that he was left alone. His two greatest supporters at this time were his uncle Abu-Talib and, of course, his wife Hazrat Khadija.

Hazrat Khadija helped the Prophet of Islam in two ways. Firstly, she believed in his claim that he was the Prophet ai>* encouraged him to go ahead with his mission. She was o:.

his side any time he needed her. When he went to piay at cKaba' she went with him and prayed behind him. When his enemies threw dirt on him she helped him clean himself. When they hurt him, she nursed him. When he was boycotted by the Quraish and went to live in the estate of Hazrat Abu-Talib, she went with him to look after him and help him through life.

She stayed there for three years and died just after the end of the boycott because of hunger and exhaustion. Secondly, when people of Mecca began to accept the Prophet's invitation to become Muslims, they had to go through a lot of trouble. They could not earn enough to buy their daily food and other requirements. The Prophet had to do this for them. Also, some of the new7 Muslims had to leave Mecca to go to Abysinia.

All this required money The money was provided by Hazrat Khadija. Her money was also used to free slaves.

One wonders if Islam would really survive without Hazrat KhaJija's wealth. Her contribution to Islam can be compared with only that of Hazrat Abu-Talib who used his power as head of his clan to support the Prophet (S.A.W.W), and All who used his sword for Islam.

The Prophet (S.A.W.W) used to say, "No property has ever been so useful to me as Khadija’s”, and, "Religion (Islam) succeeded only through Ali's sword and Khadija's wealth."

Her sacrifices for Islam were so valuable to Allah, that he mentions them in the Quran in chapter MCI 11 Verse 8 "And he found you in need, and made you independent (through wealth)".

Also He (Allah) would send Salaams to her when she was alive! It is mentioned in "Sahih Bukhari" and in "Masnad" of Ibne Hambal that Gibrael came to the Prophet (S.A.W.W) and said, "O Messenger of Allah! This is Khadija. She has come carrying a bowl of broth or food or drink. When she comes to you give her greetings from her Lord (Allah) and from me..."

On her death, she was awarded a very high position in Paradise as confirmed from the following event.

After Lady Khadija's death, Hazrat Fatirna (S.A), who was still a child, asked the Prophet (S.A.W.W), "Where is my mother?" Before he could answer hen the Angel Gibrael came with the reply from Allah saying, "Your Lord commands you to inform Fatima that Allah sends His blessings to her and He also says:

'Your mother is in a special house (in heaven) the corners of which are made of gold and the poles of which are of rubies It is located between Asya's and Mariam's houses’”.

The Prophet (S.A.W.W), too, valued Hazrat Khadija’s works towards Islam all his life Every time he remembered her after her death, he did so with praise on his tongue and tears in his eyes.

Once, the Prophet (S.A.W.W) mentioned the name of Lady Khadija in Aisha's presence; this annoyed Aisha, who said, "She was an old lady and Allah replaced her with a better one for you."

The Prophet (S.A.W.W) was angered by what Aisha had said and he replied, "Allah did not give me (any other wife) better than her She accepted me when others rejected me She believed me when others were doubting me.

She shared her wealth with me when others kept their away from me and Allah gave me children only through her."

Tabari, the famous Sunni scholar reports that the Prophet (S.A.W.W) used to praise Khadija saying, "The best women of Paradise are Khadija (daughter of Khuwailid).

Fatima (the daughter of Mohammad (S.A.W.W)), Maryam (daughter of Imran), and Asya (the daughter of Mudaim, the wife of Pharoah) "

It is reported through Aisha that whenever a lamb vas slaughtered, the Prophet (S.A.W.W) would choose the best parts of it and send them to some women. When isha complained, the Prophet (S.A.W.W) told her that this women were very good friends of Khadija and therefore they were being honoured for that.

One last honour which was given to Hazrat Khadija because of her services to Islam is so far as she was alive the Prophet did not many any other woman. He gave his complete attention to her.

Chapter 3: Hazrat Fatima's Childhood and Adulthood

BEFORE MARRIAGE, HER CHILDHOOD

Her total life was of eighteen years only. For ordinary people, a person of this age is considered a child only. But this was not the case with her.

As Allah chose her life to be an example for women of Islam of all ages and all times, it becomes necessary for us to look closely at every stage of her life so that women in their early as well as late life could benefit from her perfect life.

She was born at a time when her parents were going through bad times. The Quraish of (except for a few Hashimites) Mecca were all enemies of her father for preaching Islam You will remember that the women of Quraish had refused to come to help her mother to deliver her.

As a child she was made sad to see her father being troubled by the Quraish of Mecca It must have been very-hard for her as a child of two years to spend her days in the estate of Abu Talib where there wasn't even enough food to eat.

This went on for three years.

Then her mother died when she was not even nine, The death of her mother came as a great shock to her. She stopped crying for her only when Allah sent His Salaams to her informing her through Angle Gibrael that her mother, Khadija, was given a very high position in Paradise.

Although the boycott ended after three years, the cruelty of the Quraish did not. In fact it increased on the death of Hazrat Abu Talib. The enemies of Islam were throwing dirt on her father and even hurting him. She would remove the dirt and bandage his wounds. She would weep seeing how trouble her father was.

But he would calm her saying, "Don't cry my little daughter. Allah will certainly protect your father and give him victory over the enemies of Islam."

As a child, she learned to be patient and courageous. She helped her father when there was no one to do so. Abdulla Ibne Masood says that once when the Prophet (S.A.W.W) was in prostration ("Sajda") somebody from Quraish threw dirt of sheep on his back.

He stayed in that position till when Hazrat Fatima (A.S) had removed the dirt from his back.

Though she was not even nine years yet, she served her father so well that he gave her the title of "Umm Abiha" (The Mother of Her Father).

HER MIGRATION TO MEDINA

After the deaths of Hazrat Khadija and Abu Talib, it became impossible for the Prophet (S.A.W.W) to stay in Mecca The Meccans found it easy to kill the Prophet(S A W.W.) Allah instructed the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) to go to Medina in the darkness of the night. The Prophet (S A W.W) left for Medina secretly.

Imam Ali (A.S) was left behind to take the Prophet's family to Medina.

Having finished all the jobs that had been left to him by the Prophet (S.A.W.W), Imam Ali (AS) started his journey to Medina His caravan was of four women:

Fatima (S. A) (daughter of the Prophet (S.A.W.W)), Fatima (S.A) (Imam Ali's mother(, Fatima (daughter of Hamza) and Fatima (daughter of Zubair Bin Abdul Muttalib). Thus began the first journey of Bibi Fatima - A journey of 450 kms to Medina.

The way was full of dangers. Her caravan was attacked by a gang of eight people of Mecca at a place called Dhajnan. They had been sent by Quraish of Mecca. They wanted to take them back to Mecca. Imam Ali (A.S) fought with them and drove them away.

The caravan then proceeded to Quba, where the Prophet (S.A.W.W) was waiting for them. From there they went to Medina to start a new life at a new place.

LIFE IN MEDINA

Hazrat Fatima (A.S), as before, was living with her father. She was her father's dublicate Aisha says, "1 have never seen any other person more similar to the Prophet's appearance, conduct; guidance and speech whether sitting or standing than Fatima."

Another wife of the Prophet (S.A.W.W), Umm Salma says, "After moving to Medina, the Messenger of Allah married me. She put Fatima (S.A) to my care. I was supposed to educate her but by Allah she was more educated and learned in all matters than I was."

She grew up to be a beautiful woman combining all the rare qualities found in her father and her mother: purity and piety. Her father used to say, "Fatima is a human 4Huri whenever I think of paradise, I kiss her."

Annas Bin Malik reports his mother saying, "Fatima (S.A) was like a moon on its full night, or the sun covered with no clouds. She was white with a touch of rose colour on her face. Her hair was black and she had the beautiful features of the Messenger of Allah."

Mufazzal B. Umar asked Imam Jaffer Sadiq (A.S) as to why Hazrat Fatima (S.A) was called Zahra, the Imam replied, "because when she stood up to pray, light came out of her and shone for the inhabitants of heaven as lights from planets shine for the inhabitants of the earth." This was the natural beauty that she had been given by Allah.

Chapter 4: Hazrat Fatima's Marriage

PROPOSALS TO MARRY HAZRAT FATIMA (A.S)

She was hardly nine years of age when messages asking for her hand in marriage began to come to her father. Those who showed their desires t the Prophet to marry Hazrat Fatima (S.A) included Abu Baqr and Omar Bin Khattab. The Prophet (S.A.W.W.) refused them all saying that "Her matter is with Allah. Whenever He wishes she will marry".

Then Imam Ali (A.S) went to the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) and asked for Hazrat Fatima's hand in marriage. Umm Salma, one of the wives of the Prophet (S.A.W.W), was present and she reports:

"The Prophet (S.A.W.W) smiled, kept Imam Ali waiting, and went to his daughter and said, "you know how near Ali is to us and how dear he is to Islam.

I have asked Allah to give you in marriage to the best of his creatures and the most beloved to Him. Ali has his wishes to marry you, what do you say?'

Hazrat Fatima (S.A) did not reply but from her face the Prophet knew that she was happy about it.

The Prophet (S.A.W.W) said, "Allahu Akbar. Her silence means her approval."

He went back to Imam Ali and said "Ali! Do you have anything to pay toward Fatima's marriage to you? Imam Ali (A.S) replied, "I have my sword, my coat of mail and my camel which I use to water the date palms."

The Messengers of Allah replied, "Ali, you need your sword to fight in the way of Allah and defend yourself from His enemies. As for your camel you need it to water the date palms and to carry you when you are travelling. But your coat of mail will do, so sell it and bring the money for dowry."

The coat mail which the Prophet (S.A.W.W) had given to Imam Ali (A.S) after the battle of Badr was sold for 500 dirhams. Imam Ali (A.S) gave the money to the Prophet (S.A.W.W).

The Prophet (S.A.W.W) divided it into three parts: one part was to be spent on perfumes and other such things needed in a marriage, one part for buying household things, and the third part to pay towards food to be served in celebrating the marriage.

THE MARRIAGE CEREMONY

The Prophet (S.A.W.W) performed the 'Nikah' ceremony in the mosque. This was on 1st Zilhaj and the marriage celebration also took place in the fourth heaven, at a place called 'Bait Al Mamur".

Both Sunni and Shia scholars have reported this in their books. Suyuti the famous Sunni writer says that the Prophet (S.A.W.W), while in the Mosque, said to Imam Ali (A.S), "Here is Gibrael informing me that Allah gave Fatima to you in marriage, and made forty thousand Angels to witness this marriage He (Allah) made the tree of Tuba to shed gems, rubies and jewellery.

The Houris then rushed to collect them..."

The actual manage took place after about a month from the time it was announced.

Imam AH got a house of his own from Harith Bin Noaman. He then invited all people of Medina to the marriage lunch where cooked meat, bread and butter were served. Everybody ate as much as he or she wanted. There was still food left. This was then distributed to the people to take them home.

THE NIGHT OF THE MARRIAGE

By instructions of the Prophet (S. A. W.W), the bride was made ready with a nice dress and perfume. The Prophet made her ride his horse and asked Salman, the Persian, to lead the horse. The marriage procession then left for Imam Ali's house.

Ibne Abbas has described this marriage procession so well that we shall reproduce parts of these descriptions in the following lines:

"When Fatima was taken to Ali's house on her wedding night the Prophet was in front, the Angel Gabriel was on her right and Michael was on the left Seventy thousand Angels followed her. These Angels praised Allah until dawn.

"The Hashimite men, Abdul Muttalib's daughters and Mohajirin's and Ansar's women went with Fatima on that night.

The Prophet's wives were walking in the front and entered (Her) house first.

"On reaching Ali's house, the Prophet (S.A.W.W) put Fatima's hand in Ali's hand and said:

'May Allah bless His messenger's daughter, Ali! This is Fatima, you are responsible for her Ali! What an excellent wife Fatima is. Fatima! What an excellent husband Ali is.

“O Allah , Bless them, their lives and their children. Oh Allah they are the most beloved to me from amongst your creatures, so love them too and be their guardian. I put them and their progeny in your protection from the evils of devil...' He then ordered all the women to leave the house.."

Another companion of the Prophet (S. A, W. W) called Said- Al Ansari reports that on the day of the marriage the Prophet (S. A. W. W) visited the newlyweds. He told Hazrat Fatima (S. A), "I have married you to the Lord of this World and a righteous person of the Hereafter" He then gave a cup of yoghurt first to her and then to Imam AH asking them to drink it.

HAZRATR FATIMA’S DOWRY

The Prophet (S.A.W. W) limited this to 500 dirhams. After this event all marriages that took place in the house of the Prophet (S.A.W.W.) were limited to this amount.

The marriage of Hazrat Fatima (S.A) was carried out under the personal supervision of the Prophet (S.A.W.W) himself He made sure that his daughter got the most necessary things and at a very small cost. The things which she took to her husband's house are:

• one shirt (costing 7 dirhams)

• one veil (costing 4 dirhams)

• a black piece of velvet cloak made at Khaiber

• a bedspread with ribbons

• two mattresses of Egyptian canvas (one filled with palm fibres another with wool)

• four pillows made from hide and stuffed with sweet smelling plains - made from Taif

• a thin woollen screen

• a stone bowl for drinking water or you hurt

• a bowl for storing water

• a pitcher

• a porcelain mug

• pieces of skin

• a cotton cloth

• a waterskin

Seeing these things the Prophet (S.A.W. W) said, "Oh Allah bless them (the bride and the bridegroom). For they are of those people most of whose belongings are made of natural materials."

Although the marriage of Hazrat Fatima (S.A) was done on a simple level with less costs, no other marriage was as blessed as this one for the following reasons:

- Allah Himself decided as to who was to marry her. For according to the Sunni scholar, Tabrani, The Prophet (S. A. W. W) is reported to have said to his daughter Fatima, "Surely, Allah has examined people of the earth and chose your Father to be the Prophet (S.A.W.W). He, then examine them and chose your husband, then revealed to me that I give you to him in marriage and appoint him my successor."

- The marriage ceremony was held not only on this earth but also in the heavens by Allah's orders. Jabir B. Abdullah Ansari reports to have heard the Prophet (S.A.W.W) say: "By Allah who sent me with honour and made me His Messenger,

when Allah gave Fatima (S.A) to Ali in marriage, he ordered Angels including Gibrael, Michael and Israfiel to surround the Throne. He (Allah) ordered birds to sing and ordered the tree of Tuba to shed pearls, green stones and red rubies."

- Angels took part in this marriage here on the earth

- The Prophet (S.A.W.W) himself supervised the mamage

- Allah gave Hazrat Fatima (S.A), as wedding gift, the authonty to speak for sinners on the day of judgement and save them from hell fire.

The occasion of Hazrat Fatima’s marriage can be summarized in a very good way in the words of the Prophet's well known companion, Jabbir B. Abdullah Ansar who is reported to have said, "We were present at Fatima's and Ali's (A.S.) wedding ceremony and indeed we have not seen any ceremony better than that one ..."