Revelation and Prophethood

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Revelation and Prophethood Author:
Publisher: Islamic Seminary Publications
Category: Prophethood

Revelation and Prophethood

Author: Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari
Publisher: Islamic Seminary Publications
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Revelation and Prophethood

Revelation and Prophethood

Author:
Publisher: Islamic Seminary Publications
English

www.alhassanain.org/english

Revelation andProphethood

[Man and Universe]

Author(s):Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari

Publisher(s): Islamic Seminary Publications

www.alhassanain.org/english

Notice:

This versionis published on behalf of www.alhassanain.org/english

The composing errorsare not corrected .

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Revelation and Prophethood 6

Universal Guidance 6

Characteristics of Prophets 7

(i) Miracles: 7

(ii) Infallibility: 7

Immunity from Sins: 8

Difference Between Prophets and Geniuses 8

(iii) Guidance: 9

(iv) Sincerity of Purpose: 9

(v) Constructiveness: 10

(vi) Struggle and Conflict: 10

(vii) Human Aspect: 11

(viii) Prophets Having A Divine Legal Code: 11

Chapter 2: Historical Role of the Prophet 13

(i) Education: 15

(ii) Affirmation of Agreements and Covenants: 15

(iii) Emancipation from Social Bondage: 15

Chapter 3: The Object of Prophethood 17

Chapter 4: Religion or Religions 20

Chapter 5: Finality of Prophethood 22

Reasons of the Renewal of Prophethood 22

Miracles of the Final Prophet 27

Note 29

Chapter 6: Miracle of Finality 30

Is this occurrence not a supernatural event and a miracle? 33

Value and Effect of a Miracle 36

Value of a Miracle From the Viewpoint of the Qur'an 36

Nature of the Holy Prophet's Guidance 36

Chapter 7: The Holy Qur'an 40

Great Interest of Muslims in the Holy Qur'an 40

Inimitability of the Holy Qur'an 40

Various Aspects of the Inimitability of the Holy Qur'an 41

Wording of the Holy Qur'an 41

Contents of the Holy Qur'an 43

Vastness of Meanings 46

Allah in the Holy Qur’an 46

Man's Relation with Allah 47

Qur’an, Tawrat and Injil 48

Historical Stories 48

The Holy Qur'an and Predictions 48

Chapter 8: Distinguishing Features of Islam 49

1. The Methods of Knowing 51

(i) Is it possible to identify the truth? 51

(ii) What are the Sources of Knowledge? 52

(iii) What are the means of Acquiring Knowledge? 52

(iv) Subjects of Knowledge 53

2. Conception of the World 53

Ideological Aspect 57

Chapter 9: The Holy Prophet 64

His Childhood 64

Abhorrence of Idleness and Lethargy 65

Honesty 65

Combat with Tyranny 65

Family Behavior 65

Treatment of Slaves 66

Cleanliness and Use of Perfume 66

Social Behavior 66

Soft as well as Tough 66

Worship 67

Austerity and Simple Living 67

Resolution and Perseverance 68

Leadership, Administration and Consultation 68

Regularity and Orderliness 68

Capacity to Listen to Criticism and Dislike of Flattery and Undue Compliments 69

Fight Against Weak Points 69

Possession of the Necessary Qualities of Leadership 69

Method of Preaching 70

Encouragement of Knowledge 70

Chapter 1: Revelation andProphethood

Universal Guidance

A belief in revelation andProphethood emanates from a particular conception of the world and man, which involves a belief in the universality of Divine guidance. The principle of universal guidance is a part of the monotheistic conception of the world as presented by Islam. As Allah, the Almighty is a compulsorily self-existing in every respect and absolutelyBeneficent, He extends Hisfavour to every species of the existing things in accordance with its capability and guides it on its evolutionary journey. This guidance covers everything from the tiniest particle to the largest star and from the lowest lifeless existence to the highest livingbeing known to us, that is man. That is why the Holy Qur'an has used the word revelation in connection with the guidance of inorganic material,plants and animals as it has used it in connection with the guidance of man.

No existing thing in this world is at rest. Everything is moving towards its goal. At the sametime all indications show that everything is pushed to its goal by a mysterious force existing within it.It is this force that is called Divine guidance. The Holy Qur'an reports that Prophet Musa said to theFir'awn of his time:

"Our Lord is He who gave everything its distinctive nature and then guided it." (Surah Ta Ha, 20:50)

Our world is a world of goals. Everythingis being attracted to its evolutionary goal by an inner force, or Divine guidance.

The wordwahi meaning revelationhas been repeatedly used in the Holy Qur'an.The way how it has been used and the occasions on which it has been used, show that the Holy Qur'an does not consider the revelation to be confined to man. The Holy Qur'an believes it to be effective in the case of everything, at least in the case of all living beings. That is why it talks of revelation even to the bee. All that may be said is that revelation and guidance havedegrees which vary in accordance with the degree of the evolution of the different things.

The highest degree of revelation is that whichis made to the Prophets. This kind of revelationis based on man's need of Divine guidance so that he may proceed towards a goal beyond the perceptible and material world, to which he must go in any case. In addition, revelation meets man's requirements in his sociallife which needs a Divinely sanctioned law. We have already explained man's need to an evolutionary ideology and his inability to frame such an ideology himself.

The Prophets are a sort of a receiving set in human form. Theyare chosen individuals capable of receiving guidance and knowledge from the invisible world. It is Allah alone who can judge who is fit to be a Prophet. The Holy Qur'an says.

"Allah knows best whom to entrust with His message." (Surah al-An'am , 6:124)

Though revelation is a phenomenon, which is beyond the purview of direct human perception and experiment, its impact can be felt, like the impact of many other forces, in theeffects which it produces. Divine revelation produces a deep and tremendous impact on the personality of itsrecipient, that is the Prophet. It 'raises' the Prophet to truth.In other words, it. stimulates his talents and faculties and brings about a deep and big revolution in his person for the good of humanity. It endows him with an absolute conviction. History has not witnessed such a conviction as that of the Prophets and the persons produced by them.

Characteristics of Prophets

The Prophets who through revelationcome in contact with the source of existence, have certain distinguishing characteristics to which we refer below:

(i ) Miracles:

Every Prophet raised by Allahwas endowed with a kind of supernatural power by means of which he worked one or more miracles to prove the truth and Divinity of his message and mission.

The Holy Qur'an calls the miracles wrought by the Prophets by the will of Allah, 'Ayat ' that is the sign ofProphethood . The Holy Qur'an says that in every age the people have asked the Prophets of their time to work some miracles for them. The demand being reasonable and logical, the Prophets acceded to it, because otherwise it was not possible for those who sought truth, to acknowledge theirProphethood .Anyway the Prophets declined to accede to a request for a miracle if it was made with an intention other than seeking truth. For example, if an offerwas made in the form of a bargain and the people said to a Prophet that they would embrace his faith only if he worked a particular miracle, their request was ignored. However, the Holy Qur'an has recounted many miracles of the Prophets, such as bringing the dead to life, curing the incurable, speaking in the cradle, turning a staff into a serpent, describing the unknown and foretelling future events.

(ii) Infallibility:

Another distinguishing feature of the Prophets is theirinfallibility, that is their immunity from committing a sin or making a mistake. The Prophetsare not carried away by their personal desires. They do not err. Their infallibility is indisputable.But what does their infallibility actually mean? Does it mean that whenever they are about to commit a sin or to make a mistake, an angel comes and stops them in the same way as a father prevents his child from going astray?

Or does it mean that the Prophets have been created in such a way that they are incapable of doing anything wrong just like an angel who, for example, cannot commit adultery for he has no sexual desire, or like a machine, which makes no mistake because it has no brain?

Or is it that the reason why the Prophets do not sin nor do they err is that they have been endowed with a particular degree of intuition, faith and conviction?

Yes, that is the only right explanation. Now let us take up each of these two kinds of immunity separately.

Immunity from Sins:

Man is a free being. He himself determines what is beneficial to him and what is harmful, and on thatbasis he decides what he should do. Hisjudgement plays an important role in his choice. It is impossible that he should choose to do athing which according to hisjudgement is rather harmful to him than beneficial. Forexample a sensible man interested in his life would never throw himself down from a hilltop nor would take a lethal poison.

Individuals vary from the viewpoint of the strength of their faith and the extent of their consciousness of the consequences of a sin. The stronger their faith and the keener their consciousness, the less sins they will commit. Should the faith of a man be so strong that while committing a sin he feels as if he was throwing himself down from the top of a hill, the chance of his sinning will be nil. We call this state infallibility. Here infallibility originates from the perfection of faith and piety. To be infallible and immune, man does not require an external force to restrain him from committing sins, nor is there any need of his being powerless by nature. Not to commit a sin is not commendable if a man is unable to commit it, oris prevented from committing it by an external force. The position of a man who is unable to commit a sin is similar to that of a prisoner who is unable to commit a fraud.Naturally a prisoner cannot be described as an honest and upright man.

Immunity of the Prophets from sins and errors is an outcome of their intuition. A mistake occurs when a mancomes into contact with a reality through his internal and external senses and forms some mental pictures of it which he analyses with the help of his mental faculties. In thatcase he may make a mistake in arranging his mental pictures or applying them to the external reality.But when he comprehends an external reality direct through a special sense, having no need of forming any mental picture of it, and his very apprehension of a reality means his direct contact with it, the question of making any mistake does not arise.

The Prophetshave, a contact with the realities of the world from within themselves.Naturally no mistake can be imagined to exist in a reality itself. For example, if we put 100 rosary beads in a receptacle, then put another 100 beads in it and repeat this act 100 times, we may not be able to keep the count correctly and may not be sure whether we have repeated the action 100 times, 99 times or 101 times.But the actual reality cannot be different from what it is. Though the action has been repeated 100 times, the actual number of the beads canneither be less nor more than what it is. The men who are in the midst of reality and close to the root of existence are immune from making any kind of mistake. They are infallible.

DifferenceBetween Prophets and Geniuses

Fromhere the difference between the Prophets and the geniuses also becomes clear. The geniuses are the persons of exalted intellectual power and extraordinary understanding. They work on their own mental data and arrive at a conclusion by means of their intellectual power. They sometimes make mistakes in their calculations.

The Prophets besides being blessed with their intellectual and calculatingpowers, are equipped with an additional power called revelation, which the geniuses lack.Hence there can be no comparison between the geniuses and the Prophets. They belong to two different categories. We can make a comparison between the seeingor the hearing power of two persons, but we cannot compare one man's seeing power with another man's hearing power and say which is stronger. The geniuses have an extraordinary thinking power, whereas the Prophets have quite a different power called revelation. They maintain a close contact with the Source of existence.Therefore it is wrong to draw a comparison between the two.

(iii) Guidance:

TheProphethood begins with a spiritual journey from the creation to Allah and gain proximity to Him, which implies turning away from the externality to the internality. Anyhow, eventually it ends by the Prophet's returning to the people with a view to reforming human life and guiding it to the right path.

InArabic there are two words for the Prophet,Nabi andRasul . The first literally means a bringer of news and the second a messenger.

A Prophet conveys the message of Allah to thepeople and awakens and organizes their dormant powers. He invites them to Allah and to all that pleases Him, namely peace, cordiality, reformation, non-violence, veracity, uprightness, justice, emancipation from everything ungodly,love and all other virtues. A Prophet delivers humanity from the shackles of submission to base desires and false gods.

Dr.Iqbal describing the difference between the Prophets and all other individuals having 'unitary experience' says: "The mystic does not wish to return from the repose of his 'unitary experience'; and even when he does return, as he must, his return does not mean much for mankind at large. The Prophet's return is creative. He returns to insert himself into the sweep of time with a view to control the forces of history, and thereby to create a fresh world of ideals. For the mystic the repose of 'unitary experience' is something final; for the Prophet it is the awakening within him and the unleashing psychological forces, calculated to completely transform the human world."(The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, p. 124).

(iv) Sincerity of Purpose:

As the Prophets have a trust in Allah and are never oblivious of the mission entrusted to them by Him, they accomplish their duty with utmost sincerity. They have no aim other than the guidance of humanity as ordered by Allah, and ask for no remuneration for the performance of their mission.

The Holy Qur'an inSurah ash-Shu'ara has summed up what many of the Prophets said to their peoples. Ofcourse every Prophet had a message for his people which was suited to the problems they faced.Anyhow there was a point which was revealed in the message of every Prophet. Each of them said: "I want no remuneration or wages from you". Therefore sincerity is one of the distinguishing features ofProphethood ; and that is why the message of the Prophets has always been so firm.

As the Prophets felt that they had been 'raised' and they did not entertain the least doubt about the fact that theyhad been entrusted with an essential and useful mission, preached their message and defended it with unprecedented firmness and utmost conviction.

When Prophet Musa and his brother,Harun went toFir'awn , they had no appurtenances with them except the woolen clothes on their body and their wooden staffs in their hands. They askedFir'awn to accept their message and told him firmly that if he would accept it, hishonour would be safeguarded , otherwise he would lose his government.Fir'awn was stunned by what they said.

In the early days of hisProphethood when the number of the Muslims did not exceed that of the fingers of the two hands, the Holy Prophet of Islam one day, known in history as the Day of the Warning, assembled elders of theBani Hashim , conveyed his message to them and firmly and expressly told them that his religion was going to spread throughout the world and that it was in their own interest to embrace it. To them these words were unbelievable. They looked at each other withwide open eyes and dispersed without uttering a word.

When his uncle, AbuTalib conveyed to him the message of theQuraysh , saying that they were willing to select him their king, to give to him in marriage the most beautiful daughter of the tribe and make him the most wealthy member of their society, provided he gave up hispreachings , the Holy Prophet said in reply that he was not going to budge an inch from his sacred mission even if they put the sun in one of his hands and the moon in the other.

Just as infallibility is a necessary outcome of a Prophet's communication with Allah, similarly sincerity and firmness are also the essential characteristics ofProphethood .

(v) Constructiveness:

The Prophets harness all the forces at their disposal and set them in motion for constructive purposes, that is to reform both the individual and society or in other words, to ensure human welfare. It is impossible that their activities should corrupt any individual or cause harm tosociety at large . Therefore if thepreachings of a claimant ofProphethood lead to corruption or indecency, paralyze human power or cause decline ofsociety, that is clear proof of his being an imposter. DrIqbal in this connection has very aptly said: "Another way of judging the value of a Prophet's religious experience would be to examine the type of manhood that he has created, and the cultural world that has sprung out of the spirit of his message". (The Reconstruction of Religious thought in Islam, p. 124)

(vi) Struggle and Conflict:

His struggle against idolatry, myths, ignorance, falseideas and tyranny is another sign of the truth of a Prophet. It is impossible that in the message of a person selected by Allah to be His Prophet there should be anything smacking of idolatry, supporting tyranny and injustice or tolerating polytheism, ignorance, myths, cruelty or despotism.

Monotheism,reason and justice are some of the principles which have been preached by all the Prophets. The message of only those who preach these principles is worth consideration and they alonecan be asked to produce a proof or a miracle. If the message preached by a person contains an element indisputably unreasonable or contrary to the principles of monotheism and justice, or supporting tyranny, then it is not worth consideration at all. In such acase it is absolutely unnecessary to ask him to produce a proof of his claim. Similar is the case of a pretender, who commits a sin, makes a blunder or is unable to guide people because of a physical defect or some loathsome disease like leprosy, or because his teachings do not have constructive effect on human life. Even if such a pretender works miracles, it is absurd to follow him.

(vii) Human Aspect:

The Prophets, in spite of having many supernatural qualities, such as infallibility, the power of working miracles, the incomparable power of guidance, and reconstruction and the power of making unique struggle against polytheism, myths and tyranny, are after all human beings. They, like all other men eat, sleep, walk,beget and eventually die. They are subject to all essential human needs. They are obligated to perform the same religious duties as others. They like others are subject to all the religious laws conveyed through them.

Sometimes they have even some additional duties. The pre-dawnprayers which are supererogatory for others were obligatory for the Holy Prophet. The Prophets never considered themselves tobe exempted from any religious injunctions. They, more than others had fear of Allah and they more than others worshipped Him. They offered prayers; kept fast; took part in the holy war; paidzakat and showed kindness to others. The Prophets worked hard for their own weal as well as the weal for the others. They were never a burden on anyone else in their life.

The revelation and the features connected with it constitute the only difference between the Prophets and others. The fact that they receive revelation does not exclude them from the category of human being. On the otherhand it makes them a model of the perfect man. That is the reason why they are so fit to guide others.

(viii) Prophets HavingA Divine Legal Code:

Generally speaking, the Prophets can be divided into two categories: The first category, which is in minority, is composed of those Prophets to whom independent codes of law were revealed, and who were ordered to guide the people on the basis of these codes. The Holy Qur'an has termed them the 'high-minded' Prophets. We do not know their number exactly. The Holy Qur'an expressly says that it has recounted the stories of only a few of the Prophets. Had it recounted the stories of all of them or at least had stated that it had recounted the stories of all those who were important among them, we might have known the number of the high-minded Prophets. Anyhow, we know thatNuh , Ibrahim, Musa, 'Isa and Muhammad, the last Prophet (Peace be on them) are included among them. Independent codes of law were revealed to all 'high-minded' Prophets, who were asked to train their followerson the basis of them.

The second category of the Prophets consists of those who hadnot their own independent codes of law but were asked to preach and propagate the already existing Divine laws. Most of the Prophets belong to this category which includes such names as those ofHud ,Salih ,Lut ,Ishaq ,Yaqub , Yusuf,Yushu ,Shuayb ,Harun ,Zachariyyah andYahya (may peace be upon them).

Chapter 2: Historical Role of the Prophet

Have the Prophets any positive or negative role in the movement of history? If they have, what is that? Is it positive or negative?

Even the anti-religious people admit that the Prophets have had an effective role in history. In thepast they represented a great source of national power. In olden days the national power, was distinguished from blood relationships, tribalaffinities and patriotic feelings or from religious tendencies and doctrinal bonds. The tribal heads and the national chiefs represented the first tendency and the Prophets and religious leaders the second. There are no two opinions about the fact that the Prophets constituted a force because of their religious influence. Anyhow, there are several views as to how this force worked:

(i ) A section of people in their writings generallyargue that as the Prophets had a spiritual and anti-temporal outlook, their role has been negative. These people hold that the central point of the teachings of the Prophets has been the renunciation of this world, concentration on the next, and introspection and escape from the external realities. That is why the force of religion and the Prophets, who have been a symbol of this force, have always discouraged people from taking interest in the worldly life and have applied a brake to progress.Thus the role of the Prophets has always been negative in history. This is theview which is expressed generally by those who claim to be broad-minded.

(ii) There is another section of people, who also maintain that the religious people have played a negative role, but the argument advanced by them is quite different. They maintain that the religious people are actuallyworldly-oriented and their spiritual orientation is merely a disguise to deceive the simple-minded. The efforts of the religious people have always been, directed toward securing the interests of the oppressors and, beguiling the oppressed. They haveendeavoured to maintain the status quo, and opposed the evolution of society.

The supporters of this view say that history like any other phenomenon has a dialectical movement, which originates from its internal contradiction. With the emergence of proprietorship society was divided into two conflicting classes, one of them being the ruling and exploiting class and the other the deprived and exploited. With a view to protect its own special position the ruling class has always been anxious to maintain the existing situation and in spite of the inevitable development of production implements has wanted to keep society as it is.But the subjugated class in consonance with the development of the production implements wants to change the existing situation and to replace it with a more developed one.

The ruling class has used various tactics, and to achieve its nefarious ends has employed the three factors of force,wealth and deceit. In thisgame the role of the man of religion has been to hoodwink the people in the interest of the tyrants and exploiters. The people of religion have not been seriously interested in the Hereafter. Their pretention of godliness is only a disguise to conceal their worldliness andis intended to divert the attention of the underprivileged and the revolutionaries.

Thus the role of the men of religion has always been negative for they have always supported the wealthy and the powerful people interested in maintaining the existing institutions. This is the theory put forward by the Marxists to explain historical development. According to Marxism the three factors of religion,government and wealth are coeval with private property and all over history have played a role against the interests of the masses.

(iii) Some other people interpret history in a way different from that of the Marxists.Anyhow they too consider the role of religion and the Prophets to be negative. They hold that the law of natural evolution and the law of the development of historyare based on the domination of the strong and the elimination of the weak. The strong have contributed and are contributing to the progress of history, whereas the weak have been and are responsible for its stagnation and decline. Religionhas been invented by the weak to apply a brake to the strong.

The proponents of religions have invented such slavish moral conceptions as justice, freedom, virtue, love, compassion, cooperation etc. They did so in the interest of the weak, that is the lower classes and to the disadvantage of the strong, that is the upperclasses which bring about progress and development. The people of religion brought the psychological forces of the strong under their control and prevented the elimination of the weak.Thus they have hampered the improvement of human race and the birth of the heroes.

Therefore the role of religion and the Prophets who represent it has been negative, because they have supported the slavish mentality against the masterly qualities which contribute to the advancement of history and society. This is the view of the German philosopher, Nietzsche.

(iv) Besides theabove mentioned three groups, there are others which also include some anti-religious people. They admit that the role of the Prophets in the past has been positive and fruitful and contributed to the progress of history. These groups give due consideration to the social and moral content of the teachings of the Prophets and to the historical events connected therewith. They admit that in the past the Prophets played the most fundamental role in the reform,welfare and progress of their society.

Human culture has two aspects: Material and Spiritual. The material aspect of culture is its technical and industrialaspect which has continued to develop in every age till today. Its spiritual aspect concerns the mutual relations of the human beings, for the correct determination of which humanity is indebted to the teachings of the Prophets. As it is under the shadow of the spiritual aspect of culture that its material aspect gets an opportunity to grow and develop on correct lines, the role of the Prophets in the development of the spiritual aspect of civilization is direct and in the development of its material aspect indirect. According to thesegroups there can be no doubt about the positive role of the teachings of the Prophets in the past.

Anyhow some of these groups are of the opinion that the time of the positive role of the teachings of the Prophets is now over. They assert that with the advancement ofscience the religious teachings have lost their validity a great deal and in future also they will continue to lose their vitality. In contrast certain other groups hold that the role of faith and religious ideology can never be replaced by science, howsoever progress it may make. Science will always be as unable to replace religion as philosophical schools have been.

The Prophets have had various roles in the past. It is true that there are certain cases in which the collective human conscience is no longer in need of a religious support.But the most fundamental roles performed by the Prophets are those which will be as much required in future as they were in the past. Here are some instances in which the teachings of the Prophets have influenced historical development

(i ) Education:

In the past education had a religiousmotive, and it was this motive which encouraged the teachers and the parents. With the development of socialconscience the need of religious motive has been eliminated in this field.

(ii) Affirmation of Agreements and Covenants:

Social life of man stands on the respect of the treaties,covenants and agreements and on abiding by the promises and undertakings. Respect of the agreements and promises is one of the mainstays of the human aspects of culture. To ensure this respect is a role which religion has always shouldered and for which no replacement has been foundtill today. Will Durant, an atheist, as he is,admits this fact in his book, Lessons from History. He says: "Religion with the help of its rituals has conferred the reverence of man-God relations on human compacts and in this way has brought about constancy and firmness to them".

On the whole religion has provided a strong support to the moral and human values. Moral values minus religion are like currency notes having no financial backing. Such notes soon lose their value.

(iii) Emancipation from Social Bondage:

The role of the Prophets in the fight against despotism, tyranny and all aspects of oppression and persecution is the most basic. The Holy Qur'an lays stress on this role of the Prophets. It describes the establishment of justice as the main object of theirbeing raised . The Holy Qur'anagain and again recounts the stories of the conflict between the Prophets and the representatives of despotism. In a number ofverses it has expressly mentioned that those who constantly opposed the Prophets belonged to this class.

The view expressed by Marx and his followers to the effect that religion, government and wealth are the three facts of the coercion of the ruling class against the underprivileged and the oppressed, is nothing but humbug. It is contrary to the indisputable historical facts. Explaining the view of Marx, DrArani says: "Religion has always been a tool in the hands of the dominating ruling class of society. In order to overpower the suppressed classes the rosary and cross always move side by side with the bayonet".

To be able to accept such an interpretation of history one will have to shut his eyes and overlook the historical facts. Imam Ali is the champion of the sword and the rosary both. He is a swordsman as well as a man of rosary.But he did not use them to suppress the underprivileged. His motto was: "Oppose the oppressor and help the oppressed".

Throughout his life Imam Ali was a votary of the sword against those who possessed pelf and power. As Dr Ali al-Wardi has pointed out in his book, Comedy of Human Intellect, Imam Ali with his personality has refuted the philosophy of Marx.

The view of Nietzsche, which is diametrically opposed to that of Marx, is even more absurd. According to him, religion is a factor of stagnation and decline because it supports the weak while it is the powerfulwho form the most progressive class responsible for the development of society. It appears that in the opinion of Nietzsche human society makes speedy progress only whenit is governed by the law of jungle . According toMarx the underprivileged people are the factor of development and the Prophets were against this class.But Nietzsche thinks that powerful are the factor of development and the Prophets opposed them. Marx says that religion is an invention of the powerful and the wealthy.

Nietzsche, on the other hand maintains that it is an invention of the weak and the underprivileged.Evidently Marx was wrong on several counts.Firstly he interpreted history merely on the basis of the contradiction of class interests, and overlooked its human aspect.Secondly he regarded the underprivileged alone as the factor of development.Thirdly he considered the Prophets to be the supporters of the ruling class. As for Nietzsche, he has made the mistake of regarding the factor of force as the factor of the development of history in the sense that he has equated the more powerful man with the superior man and has believed that the more powerful man alone is the factor that carried history forward.