Universal Government of the Mahdi

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Universal Government of the Mahdi Author:
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
Category: Imam al-Mahdi

Universal Government of the Mahdi

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
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Universal Government of the Mahdi

Universal Government of the Mahdi

Author:
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Universal Government of the Mahdi

This text, authored by Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi sheds light on the nature of the universal government that will exist with the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (AFS) at the end of time. His method of government, awaiting his reappearance and the way victory will be achieved by this great peacemaker is discussed and presented.

Author(s): Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj ash-Shaykh Nasir Makarim Shirazi

Table of Contents

Biography of the Author 5

His Studies 5

Political Activities 6

The Religious Help and Support 7

1. Religious Publications Centre for the Shi`a 7

2. Organizing Gatherings to Offer Lessons in Theology and other Religious Teachings 7

3. Islamic Council to Protect the Youth. 8

4. Struggles Against Deviant Thoughts 8

5. Establishing Organizations and Centres of Learning. 8

6. Writings 9

Introduction. 11

All Curious Persons Ask Themselves 12

Bad Future 14

1) Evolution of Societies 14

2) Coordination with Universal System. 16

3) Social Reactions 17

4) Social Necessities and Obligations 20

A) Establishing Universal Councils and Adoption of Universal Declaration of Human Rights 22

B) Talking about General Disarmament 24

C) The Attack of Peace! 24

D) The Plan of Islamic Government 25

5) Human Nature and "Peace and Universal Justice" 25

A) Love of Peace and Justice 26

B) General Waiting for a Great Peacemaker 27

Great Peacemaker among other Nations 28

Manifestation of this Program in Zoroastrian Books 28

Manifestation of this Belief in Hindu and Brahman Scriptures 28

Signs in the Old Testament 28

Signs in the New Testament 29

This Belief among Chinese, Egyptians, etc 29

Signs of this Belief among Western People 30

References 32

Universal Revolution. 33

Revolution or Gradual Reforms 33

Material or Spiritual Revolution? 34

Defects of Democracy. 36

Necessary Preparations for Universal Government 39

General Preparations 39

1) Intellectual and Cultural Preparation. 39

2) Social Preparations 39

3) Technological and Communicational Preparations 40

Waiting. 42

The Definition of Waiting. 42

Waiting in the Depths of Human Nature 42

The Philosophy of Waiting. 43

Impulsive Judgments 44

Constructive Effects of Waiting. 45

Waiting Means Complete Awareness 48

1) Personal Self-Improvement 49

2) Social Self-Helps 49

3) Not being solved in Corruption of the Environment 50

Great Universal Peacemaker in Islamic Resources 52

Characteristics of Universal Leader 52

Great Universal Peacemaker in Qur'an. 52

Caliphate on Earth. 55

Universal Peacemaker in Sunnis' Hadith Resources 61

Who is the Mahdi? 64

A Living Evidence 64

Logic of Oppositions of Ahadith of Mahdi 70

Logic of Oppositions of Ahadith of Mahdi 70

Mahdi in Shiites’ Hadith Resources 72

References 75

Signs of Beginning of Revolution. 76

Signs of the Advent 76

Diffusion of Tyranny and Corruption. 76

Dajjal (the great deceiver) 88

Appearance of Sufyani 92

References 95

Characteristics of Shiite Belief about Mahdi and Questions Arose from this Belief 96

Mahdi the Twelfth Successor of the Prophet (S) 96

First Question. 96

Second Question. 96

Third Question. 96

Who are these twelve caliphs whom prophet has named and has praised? 99

Triple Important Questions 100

The Secret of Longevity. 100

Existence of Exceptional People 103

Who Made this Criticism? 104

The Philosophy of Long Occultation. 106

Preparedness for Acceptance (Mental Preparedness) 107

Cultural and Industrial Evolution. 108

Training a Revolutionary Strike Force 108

The Philosophy of Existence of Imam during the Occultation. 109

Benefit of Existence of Imam during the Occultation. 110

Promising Effect 111

Guarding the Religion of God. 112

Training an Aware Revolutionary Group. 113

Spiritual and Unaware Influence 114

Showing the Goal of Creation. 116

References 118

The Way of the Victory of that Great Peacemaker 119

Does he Rise with Sword. 119

Meaning of Sword. 123

References 126

His Method of Government 127

Three Ages 127

And here, we mention some important parts of them: 127

Extraordinary Development of Industries in that Age 128

Great Economical and Social Justice Development 129

Judiciary Development 133

Longtime Government 136

Rejuvenation of all Intellectual and Cultural Fields 136

Unity of Religion. 139

References 141

False Claimants 142

Hasn't Mahdi Appeared? 142

References 146

Biography of the Author

The eminent scholar, Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj ash-Shaykh Nasir Makarim Shirazi was born in the year 1345 AH (1924 CE) in the city of Shiraz, Iran to a religious family who were well known for their great level of spirituality and noble ethical traits. His Eminence finished his elementary school studies in Shiraz and due to his eagerness to learn, his powerful memorizing capabilities, and other great talents, he was regarded as one of the extraordinary students from amongst his fellow classmates. Thus, he was able to complete two years of studies in one year!

The conditions that existed in Iran in those days obligated this young man, who possessed such a talent and great aptitude, to choose the path of University studies to increase his knowledge and attain advanced levels of secular studies. However through the hand of fate, the blessings of the Maintainer of the Universe, and his own internal desires, this young man developed an attraction to becoming better acquainted and delve deep into the genuine teachings of Islam. This attraction was intensified when after the spring of 1348 AH (1937 CE) (just after he finished his primary school), the Islamic Seminaries went thru a major transformation and had taken on a completely new form.

His Studies

His Eminence started his formal Islamic studies at the age of 14 in Madressah Agha Babakhan Shirazi and within a short period of time, was able to complete the introductory studies such asSarf ,Nahw ,Mantiq ,Bayan , andBadi `, which were all needed to advance to the next level of Islamic studies.

After completing these sciences, he turned his attention towards the fields of Fiqh (Jurisprudence) and Usul al-Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence). Once again, due to the exceptional capabilities that he possessed, he was able to complete all courses in the introductory and intermediate levels of Islamic study in only 4 years—a task which normally takes 12 to 15 years. During this time, a group of students from the Islamic Seminary in Shiraz were also benefiting from the classes that he himself was teaching.

The positive criticisms and personal opinions of His Eminence on the classes being held in Qum, and regarding the need to include additional information in the texts currently being taught in various theological seminaries there, definitely played a role in the bright future that awaited him. While in religious gatherings in this city, his capabilities and genius, as well as meticulous and deep thought were witnessed by others; thus, no one was able to deny his God-given talents.

Although this brilliant star was only a mere 18 years old, through his deep penetrating knowledge and a gift for written expression , he was able to write a commentary on the bookKifayatul Usul (one of the major books of `Ilmul Usul that must be studied in the Theological Seminary). In this commentary he was able to bring to light the ambiguous issues mentioned in this classic book. At the age of 18, he formally entered the Theological Seminary of Qum. For the next five years, he was present in the religious

gatherings and classes of some of the greatest teachers of those days, such as Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj as-Sayyid Muhammad Husain Burujerdi and other great personalities (may Allah be pleased with them all).

In 1369 AH (1950 CE) Ayatullah Shirazi made his ay to the Theological Seminaries of Najaf Al Ashraf. His purpose was to become better acquainted with the great scholars who were studying and teaching there, to learn more about their ideas and thoughts. It was here that he was able to take part in the classes of some of the greatest teachers of that era such as: Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj as-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim, Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj as-Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khu'i and Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj `Abdul Hadi ash-Shirazi and other great teachers (may Allah sanctify their spirits).

At the age of 24, His Eminence was granted the status of having complete Ijtihad from two of the great scholars of Najaf al-Ashraf. In addition, Ayatullah al-`Uzma al-Hajj as-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim even wrote a short, but comprehensive letter of commendation for His Eminence's notes on the lessons of Fiqh (The Book of Taharah).

His thirst for acquiring and gaining more knowledge continued with the great teachers in Najaf al-Ashraf. However, since he did not have the means to survive and continue his studies in this holy city, he was forced to return to Iran in the year 1370 AH (1951 CE). He made his way back to the holy city of Qum which was now the centre of gathering religious scholars. Once again, he joined the circle of scholars who later on, had a profound impact on his life.

After returning to Iran, Ayatullah Nasir Makarim Shirazi began teaching the intermediate and higher level of studies (Kharij) in Usul al-Fiqh and Fiqh. He has been teaching these classes for several decades in the theological seminary, classes which have been warmly accepted and appreciated by a large number of students. In addition, after teaching a large number of the important books of Fiqh, he went on to write summaries and notes of these great works. At present the classes of Kharij of Usul of this great personality are one of the most popular classes in the Hawza `Ilmiyyah of the Shi`a; close to 2,000 of the most dedicated and dynamic students who take part and benefit from his lectures!

From the beginning of his studies, he developed the habit of writing books in various fields of Islamic studies such as Theology, Islamic Awareness and the issue ofWilayah (of the Ahlul Bait). Moving ahead, he started to write on the Exegesis of the Qur'an, Fiqh andUsul al-Fiqh and is currently known and recognized as one of the greatest writers in the Muslim world.

Political Activities

His Eminence was also very active in the early days that culminated in the Islamic Revolution of Iran and it is because of this fact that he was thrown in the despotic ruler's jail many times. In addition, he was even exiled on three separate occasions to three different cities - Chanharat, Mahabad and Anarak. However after the Revolution, he was appointed to the first Council of Representatives and played a pivotal role in writing the first constitution.

The Religious Help and Support

Ayatullah Nasir Makarim Shirazi has been quite active in various fields of teaching and guiding the up-and-coming scholars in the Theological Seminary of Qum, and has embarked on various projects and endeavors, of which we mention just a few:

1. Religious Publications Centre for the Shi`a

From some time back, His Eminence felt the need for the Hawza `Ilmiyyah of Qum to have a general publication organization which would be able to defend the Shi`a from the works that were being published by those wishing to mislead the people, unfortunately whose number is great.

In addition, this is also something that the Muslims expected from such a great Islamic University such as the Hawza `Ilmiyyah, and thus people from different strata of the community starting from the great Mara`ja Taqlid of the Hawza and others also put forward this request that without doubt, a magazine should be published that would be able to answer the religious enquiries of the youth and give them the answers that they were looking for. In addition, such a publication would be able to fight against the books and magazines that were coming out aiming to mislead the people.

Due to the fact that at that time, there were some minds (within the Theological Seminary) that were not ready to accept such a publication, thus, His Eminence sought out serious and original-writing scholars capable of writing original articles to place the heavy responsibility on their shoulders of producing such a publication. In this regard, His Eminence, along with a group of other scholars and the assistance of the leaders of the Hawza `Ilmiyyah of Qum and the financial support of well wishers, launched the magazine, “Maktab-e-Islam”.

This magazine was definitely something which was unparalleled in the Shi`a world and maybe, compared to the various religious magazines being published at that time, from the point of view of its range of circulation was the number one magazine across the entire Muslim world. This magazine brought a fresh new path of direction to the great students and thinkers of the Hawzah.

At present, this publication has been going on strong for over 39 years, offering its valuable services to the Muslim world and the Shi`a communities. The magazine has found a special spot within the hearts of the youth, university students, teachers and other noble personalities and it is through this publication that the light of Islam and Tashayya` has been spread from its focal point (Qum) to the entire world.

2. Organizing Gatherings to Offer Lessons in Theology and other Religious Teachings

His Eminence felt that the books that had been written in the field of Islamic Theology were not sufficient, nor were they, with the passing of time, able to answer the questions that were being raised. In addition, these books were also not adequate in addressing the needs of the current era. The traditional books of theology were written centuries ago where the questions that the materialists of today bring up were not mentioned. Also, the traditional books written in the past did not discuss the various world

religions who were hoping to impose their values on the world. In addition, the older books brought up issues which were timely in their own day, like those in relation to the Asha`ris and Mu`tazili, but which may not be pertinent or applicable at the current time. .

Thus His Eminence, relying upon his literary talent and exceptional abilities, was able to present the Theological Islamic beliefs and the five Principles of Religion in an unparalleled way! I through organizing theological discussions with hundreds of people in attendance who were being made aware of these issues, a compact and concise book was compiled and published.

3. Islamic Council to Protect the Youth

His Eminence gave unparalleled lessons on Theology. He also taught other lessons and led discussions, educating his students in eight different subjects from amongst the different schools of thought throughout the world. Through these classes those being trained would be able to discuss and have debates with others, who are busy propagating other beliefs and schools of thought. They would be able to write books concerning their beliefs, and to be able to answer any questions or issues that they put forth.

Within a short period of time, these religious gatherings were able to produce students - each one of whom was firmly grounded and specialized in a particular field of study. And even today, a group of active youth who are well known authors within the Hawza `Ilmiyyah, are busy with these studies... As well, in order to save our dear youth from the clutches of corruption, His Eminence formed an organization called theEducational Assembly for Protection of the Younger Generation . One of the outcomes of this assembly is the publication of material that would be attractive to the youth, and his office made them available to the youth very promptly.

4. Struggles Against Deviant Thoughts

On one of his trips to the city of Shiraz, His Eminence came face to face with one of the Sufi groups in this city. A group of people in Shiraz requested him to write a book that would outline the principles of these Sufis - one that would explain their beliefs in a polite and respectful manner. His Eminence, by making use of the resources available to him, sat down to write this book in the year 1953 CE which outlined their beliefs and thoughts, and he named it ”The Manifestation of Truth”.

The method in which he wrote this book caught the attention of the late Ayatullah al-`Uzma Burujerdi (may Allah be pleased with him) and after requesting His Eminence to see him, he congratulated the author for his valuable efforts. In relation to this book, Ayatullah al-`Uzma Burujerdi (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote the following commendation, “I have gone through this book in my spare time and did not find even the smallest of weak points in it. May Allah reward you for your troubles.”

5. Establishing Organizations and Centres of Learning

In these regards, His Eminence had made the intention of establishing such organizations in the same number of Ma`sumin (peace be upon all of them) that we have (14) and with the praise of Allah up until now, he has been successful in establishing four such important schools within the

Theological Seminary of Qum and two religious organizations for the welfare of the students who are living in the city of Mashad.

6. Writings

The number of publications of His Eminence currently lies at approximately 130 volumes of books which have all been printed - some of which have been reprinted more than 30 times! Some of these have even been translated into more than 10 living languages of the world and have been published in various parts of the world.

The commentary of the Qur'an authored by him, Tafsir-e-Namuna (The Ideal Commentary) has been translated into many languages, including `Arabic (al-Amthal Fi Tafsir al-Qur'an), and can be found in many homes. In addition to this commentary, he has also authored a thematic commentary of the Qur'an entitled Payam-e-Qur'an (The Message of the Qur'an) which has opened up a new chapter in the field of exegesis of the Noble Qur'an.

In addition, the books he has written on the theological beliefs have been a place where others can seek refuge from the assault of books written with false beliefs in them.

Of the books of Fiqh that he has written, we mention a few: Anwar al-Fuqahah, al-Qawa`idul Fiqhiyyah, Anwar al-Usul and the notes and commentaries on the complete text of `Urwatul Wuthqa which has been printed many times over.

His practical guide for Muslims (Tawdhihul Masail) has also been printed many times and has also been translated into `Arabic, Urdu, Turkish, Azari and English.

A complete list of other publications of this great scholar which have been translated into English and are available is as follows. Most of these can be read on his website at www.makaremshirazi.org.

1. Ethical Discources [40 Lectures on Ethics and Morality] - volume 1, 2 & 3 translated by Saleem Bhimji -published by the World Federation of KSIMC [www.world-federation.org]

2. Khums: The Islamic Tax translated by Saleem Bhimji - published by the Islamic Humanitarian Service [www.al-haqq.com]

3. Lessons in Islamic Beliefs - Tawhid, 'Adalah, Nubuwwah, Imamah, and Ma'ad translated by Laleh Bakhtiyar - published by Ansariyan Publications [www.ansariyan.org]

4. Life Under the Grace of Ethics translated by Monir Shafiei - published by the Office of Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi [www.makaremshirazi.org]

5. Message of the Qur'an - A Thematic Exegesis of the Noble Qur'an volume 1 of 10 translated by Saleem Bhimji - published by the World Federation of KSIMC [www.world-federation.org]

6. One Hundred and Eighty Questions - volumes 1, 2 & 3 translated by Shahnawaz Mahdawi - published by the World Federation of KSIMC [www.world-federation.org]

7. One Hundred and Fifty Lessons for Life translated by the office of Ayatullah al-'Uzma Shaykh Nasir Makarim Shirazi - published by Ansariyan Publications [www.ansariyan.org]

8. Our Beliefs translated by the office of Ayatullah al-'Uzma Shaykh Nasir Makarim Shirazi - published by the Office of Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi [www.makaremshirazi.org]

9. Philosophy of Islamic Rulings written in co-operation with Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani Translated by Sayyid Athar Rizvi - published by Ansariyan Publications [www.ansariyan.org]

10. Summary of the Islamic Rulings translated by 'Ali Abdul Rasheed - published by the Office of Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi [www.makaremshirazi.org]

11. Tafsir of the Noble Qur'an - Suratul Jinn translated by Saleem Bhimji - published by the Islamic Humanitarian Service and the World Federation of KSIMC [www.al-haqq.com] & [www.world-federation.org]

12. The tradition of Ghadir - The Expressive Evidence for Imamate translated by the office of Ayatullah al-'Uzma Shaykh Nasir Makarim Shirazi - published by the Office of Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi [www.makaremshirazi.org]

13. The Noble Qur'an - Translation and Commentary - volume 1 - 4 translated by Mansoor Amini - published by the Office of Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi [www.makaremshirazi.org]

14. The Islamic Laws translated by the office of Ayatullah al-'Uzma Shaykh Nasir Makarim Shirazi - published by the Office of Ayatullah Makarim Shirazi [www.makaremshirazi.org]

Introduction

The day that:

Dark clouds of tyranny and corruption cover the sky worldwide.

The day that:

The evil forces that would devour the world sink their claws even deeper into the throats of suffering people of the world.

The day that:

All principles are hidden from people’s minds when they weigh their thoughts, other than the principles of materialism and hedonism.

The day that:

Powerful waves of propaganda of the tyrants of the east and the west, present the Truth as false, and make falsehood seem to be the Truth, to secure their own illegitimate ends.

And finally the day that:

The lash of unkindness, narrow-mindedness, segregation, prejudice, illiberalities, envies, separations, discriminations, and oppression strike; injuring the backs of the vulnerable people of the world.

Yes!

At that moment, our hopeful eyes are turned toward you, great universal peacemaker.

To your universal revolution and government!

And ask Allah on our behalf that we may have the divinely given success to your God for our success in making ourselves competent, in development of mind and thought, in fighting and jihad and in reforming the world in all aspects, for participating in that great revolutionary program.

All Curious Persons Ask Themselves

1) Is peace, justice, security and freedom of people from the hands of any kind of oppression, injustice, discrimination and imperialism, the future destiny of humanity?

Or, as some people predict, chaos increases, distances become more, disharmonies and imbalances advance and finally a nuclear or super-nuclear world war destroys human civilization and if some humans remain on the earth then they will be retarded, handicapped, forlorn and helpless?

2) If the first opinion is correct and peace and justice is the destiny then why?

3) If the world should go to "justice", "peace" and "brotherhood" then are they achievable without a revolution? And in other words, are "gradual corrections" and "reforms" capable of changing the general feature of the world with this much of conflicts?

4) If it is necessary for a revolution to happen then is it possible solely through material laws, or it isn't possible without using immaterial principles and genuine human values?

5) And again, if we accept that it is possible to make such revolution, in any way, and then what should be the characteristics of the leader of this revolution?

6) Is the result of this revolution necessarily a "universal united government"?

7) Isn't any preparation necessary in advance for such revolution?

8) Are these preparations available in the present world or not? And if they are not available then presently, is the world going toward these preparations or against them?

9) Are these matters, in any way, related to general belief of religions about the advent of a great divine peacemaker?

10) How is the general belief of Muslims about the advent of "Mahdi" and what is its relation with these future-maker issues?

11) Does believing in such advent draw us toward general reformation of the world through a multilateral revolution, or as some people assume, takes us far from that?

12) Is this general concept and belief of religions an objective reality and the result of logical reasons, or is it just an imagination for false saturation of repressed desires of humans in the general missing way which is "peace" and "justice’?

In this book, it is tried to answer these questions free of fanatical and extremist inclinations and free of illogical prejudices; answers which come from the depths of the soul, which are compatible with wisdom and answers which can satisfy the "wisdom", "feelings", "soul" and "spirit".

It was a while that I was providing notes about the foresaid discussions, but congestion of the tasks in Qom didn't permit me to "explain", "organize" and "complete" them, and perpetual temptation which I have in writing a book prevented me to publish them in that form, and truly they were raw and incomplete.

But adventures and happenings took me to the place, which I did never believe.

The Port of Chabahar! Which means the most far-off and insalubrious place of Iran, which is approximately 2300 km far from Tehran and has very limited facilities for living and its people are unbelievably deprived.

Fortunately, this forced journey happened in winter, a winter which was sometimes spring and sometimes summer with its water and ices and cooling equipment’s!

Since maybe 90 percent of the people were Sunnis, it was an opportunity to contact some of their educated ones, remembering the time when I was in Hejaz, and gatherings were made which were mostly formed by these religious brothers; fortunately, the result of these gatherings were interesting and considerable.

In this desert region, beside blue waters of Sea of Oman, under its sky full of stars, and in this corner of solitude, naturally there were more opportunities for studying; and by using this unexpected opportunity, one of the first discussions which I began to study was this discussion (and beside that, some jurisprudential studies which were not possible to be performed in this way in Qom); and totally I concluded that according to" عَسى أَنْ تَکْرَهُوا شَیئاً وَهُوَ خَیرٌ لَکُم " (maybe you dislike a thing but it is good for you) maybe spending these times of "exile" was necessary in different aspects.

I hope that the discussions of this book would be an answer to the request of educated persons who intend to study the issue of the advent of the great universal peacemaker as a research.

Also, I hope that reading this book gives us new visions for the fight which we have began against "oppression and corruption" and we continue this fight until the end of domination of tyrants over our society.

Albeit, certainly it is possible that the content of this book has deficiencies especially because few research books have been written in this subject.

The author will appreciate any opinion, correction and criticism of dear readers and experts to be sent directly to him (to Qom seminary).

Chabahar, Nasir Makarim Shirazi

Safar 1398 - Bahman 1356 - February 1978