Fabricated Traditions: A Critical Assessment of Traditions on Classification of Caliphs and their Excellences

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Fabricated Traditions: A Critical Assessment of Traditions on Classification of Caliphs and their Excellences

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani
Translator: Sayyid Abur Rauf Afzali
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Fabricated Traditions: A Critical Assessment of Traditions on Classification of Caliphs and their Excellences

Fabricated Traditions: A Critical Assessment of Traditions on Classification of Caliphs and their Excellences

Author:
Publisher: www.shiaword.net
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Fabricated Traditions:

A Critical Assessment of Traditions on Classification of Caliphs and their Excellences

Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Millani

Translated by: Dr. Sayyid Abdur Rauf Afzali

In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

Table of Contents

Forward. 5

A Glance at Fabricated Traditions on the classification of Caliphs and Their Excellences 7

Author’s Preface 8

The (first) three caliphs enter Paradise 10

Transmitters tradition. 11

Sharik bin Abi Namr 11

Uthaman bin Ghiyath. 11

Abu Usama 11

Caliphs visit the Holy Prophet (s) 12

Transmitters of Tradition. 12

'Aqil bin Khalid. 12

Zuhri 12

The Holy Prophet (s) talks to Mount Hira. 17

Evaluation of tradition. 17

1. Text of Tradition. 17

2. Chain of transmitters of tradition. 17

As Prophet (s) falls ill he wants to meet someone 19

Evaluation of tradition. 19

Unknown Excellences 20

Evacuation of transmitters of tradition. 21

Sufyan bin Waki'a 21

Dawood 'Attar 21

Qutada 21

Muhammad bin Bashshar 22

Abd al-Wahhab bin Abd al-Majid. 22

Khalid Hazza 22

Abu Qalaba 22

Two points 22

Reporters of Hakim's tradition. 23

Muhammad bin Yazid Rahavi 23

Kawthar bin Hakim. 23

Caliphs build Prophet's mosque 24

Evaluation of tradition. 24

1. Chain of tradition. 24

2. Text of tradition. 24

Messenger of Allah dreams 26

Evaluation of tradition. 26

Caliphs equal Muslim community. 28

'Amr bin Waqid as one of the reporters of this tradition. 28

Caliphs and divine order 28

Sulayman bin Isa Sajzi is among the reporters of this Tradition. 28

Caliphs and glad tiding of Prophet 30

Fabricated tradition from the viewpoint of Khatib Baghdadi 30

Other opinions 31

Caliphs and their distinctive position. 32

Evaluation of tradition. 32

A critique of Ibn Hajar's opinion. 33

Heterogeneous excellences 34

Mukhtar bin Nafi'a 34

Writing on the leaves of Paradise trees 36

Scholars and fabricated tradition. 36

Caliphs on Day of Judgment 38

Fabricated tradition and Dahabi and Asqalani 38

Fabricated traditions and final word. 40

Bibliography. 41

Notes 43

In the Name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

Forward

With the prophetic mission of Prophet Muhammad (s), the seal of the prophets, the last and the most perfect divine religion was conveyed to humanity and prophethood came to an end.

The religion of Islam emerged in Mecca but after twenty three years of arduous efforts made by the Messenger Allah (s) and a handful of his loyal companions it spread all over the Arabian Peninsula.

The continuation of this divine mission was a task that was entrusted publicly on Dhul Hijja, the eighteenth, by Allah, the Glorious, to Ali (a.s), the commander of the faithful and the first personality after the Holy Prophet (a) in the world of Islam.

With the proclamation of Hazrat Ali’s guardianship and succession on this day, divine blessings were completed and the religion of Islam was perfected, being announced as the only religion chosen by Allah. That was how unbelievers and pagans got disappointed from destroying Islam.

Soon after [the demise of the Messenger of Allah (s)], some of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s) based on their pre-hatched conspiracies, brought deviation in the course of guidance and leadership. They closed the gate of the city of knowledge putting Muslims in perplexity. From the very beginning of their rule, they placed the truths of Islam – that were like shinning sun – behind the dark clouds of doubt and skepticism by putting a ban on recording prophetic traditions , spreading fabricated traditions , casting doubts and using hypocrisy and deception.

Obviously, in spite of all conspiracies hatched by the enemies of Islam, the truths of Islam and noble sayings of the Messenger of Allah (s) were promulgated by the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), his successors and a few of his devout companions and those truths kept flowing and manifesting themselves in one way or the other in the course of history.By explaining the truths, they did away with the doubts, hesitation, illusions, and unfounded beliefs inculcated by the enemies of Islam, making truths clear to all.

In this respect, great scholars and men of knowledge such as Sheikh Mufid, Sayyid Murtadha, Khaja Nasir, Allamah Hilli, Qadhi Nurullah, Mir Hamid Husain, Sayyid Sharafuddin, Allamah Amini etc. are like shining stars for they are the ones who defended Islamic truths, explained the realities of the school of Ahlulbayt (a.s.) and dealt with spurious arguments using their tongues and pens.

In our era, one of the of the scholars and researchers who has, with his eloquent pen and expressive writing, explained the truths of the religion of Islam and astutely defended the leadership and wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.) is Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani.

The Islamic Truths Center is proud to embark on reviving the fruitful and precious works of that great researcher by reviewing, translating and publishing them in a bid to make them available to students, scientific figures and those who are in search for Islamic truths.

The book in your hand is a translation of one of his works, intended to acquaint the English audience with Islamic truths. It is expected that this humble effort will earn the pleasure of the Remnant of Allah, the Imam of Time [the twelfth Shiite Imam] may Allah hasten his reappearance.

Islamic Truths Center

A Glance at Fabricated Traditions on the classification of Caliphs and Their Excellences

Author’s Preface

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds and may prayer and peace be upon our master and Prophet, Muhammad, and his pure progeny, and may Allah’s curse be upon all their enemies from the first to the last one.

In one of my studies, commenting on a tradition, I mentioned that all traditions that are about caliphs, relating their names in order are no doubt fabricated and forged.

Some thoughtful readers asked me to prove it through studying various chains of this kind of traditions available in sihah sitta or other credible works.

It was because of this that I began to write the book in your hand. While carrying out the research, I found out that not only the traditions in the section related to the virtues of caliphs but all such traditions found in any sections are fabricated and fake even the traditions that contain such phrases: the Holy Prophet (s) said: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and I came …. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and I went out … Where are Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman?....

Some of these traditions contain the name of Ali (a.s) as well, placing it sometimes before the name of Uthman. The names of Abu Bkr and Umar however always precede the name of Imam Ali (a.s) in these traditions.

More interestingly I found a tradition in which the liars narrate such things from Imam Ali (a.s), commander of the faithful, to show that he himself accepted the virtues of caliphs and thus no one could reject it!

As an instance look at the tradition narrated by Bukhari and Muslim via two channels. Bukhari says: Walid bin Salih narrated from Isa bin Yunus from Umar bin Sa'eed bin Abi al-Husain Makki from Ibn Abi Malika from Ibn Abbas …. Whereas Muslim says: Sa'eed bin Amr Ash'athi, Abu al-Rabi'a Atki and Abu Karib Muhammad bin Alla (this phrase belongs to Abu Karib)[1] narrated from Ibn Mubarak from Amr bin Sa'eed bin Abi Husain, from Ibn Malika from Ibn Abbas

When Umar bin Khattab's corpse was placed in coffin, people gathered around it. Before the coffin was moved, people were praying for Umar and telling his virtues. I was also there among them. All of a sudden a man grabbed my shoulder from behind. I turned back and saw that it was Ali (a.s). He was also asking forgiveness for Umar and addressing him, he said: "You did not leave anyone behind so that we could wish to meet Allah through his deeds. I hope Allah will help you to join the two comrades (the Holy Prophet (s)[2] and Abu Bakr). This is because I frequently heard the Holy Prophet (s) say: I came along with Abu Bakr and Umar, I entered along with Abu Bakr and Umar and got out along with Abu Bakr and Umar. Thus I hope Allah will help you to join them.[3]

In addition to Bukhari and Muslim, it is Ibn Majah who has narrated this tradition from Umar bin Sa'eed from Ibn Abi Malika from Ibn Abbas.

It has to be however said that this tradition is absolutely fake and Imam Ali (a.s), commander of the faithful never said such things. This is because Ibn Malika who is the axis of the reporters of this tradition is among the foes

of Imam Ali (a.s) and Ahl al-Bayt. He was the judge and mu'zzin (one who calls for prayer) of Abdullah bin Zubair.[4]

It has to be mentioned here that we appeal to this kind of traditions only to silence our opponents.

We ask Allah to help us do our deeds only for Him and assist us to find out the truth and act in accordance with it. Allah is kind and benevolent.

Sayyid Ali Husaini Milani

The (first) three caliphs enter Paradise

Sunni scholars narrate traditions from the Holy Prophet (s) which talk about the virtues and excellences of the caliphs. We will now deal with fourteen traditions, studying them carefully and critically. The first tradition is taken fromSahih Bukhari .

In hisSahih , Bukhari narrates from Abu al-Hasan Muhammad bin Miskin, from Yahya bin Hisan from Sulayman from Sharik bin Abi Namr from Sa'eed bin Musayyib who quotes Abu Musa 'Ash'ari as saying:

One day, I performed ablution in my house and then went out and said, "Today I shall stick to Allah's Apostle and stay with him all this day of mine (in his service)." I went to the mosque and asked about the Prophet (s). They said, "He got out of the mosque and went in this direction." So I followed his way, asking about him till he entered a place called Bir Aris. I sat at its gate that was made of date-palm leaves till the Prophet finished answering the call of nature and performed ablution. Then I went up to him to see him sitting at the well of Aris at the middle of its edge with his legs uncovered, hanging in the well. I greeted him and went back and sat at the gate. I said, "Today I will be the gatekeeper of the Prophet (s)." After a short while, Abu Bakr came and pushed the gate. I asked, "Who is it?" He said, "Abu Bakr." I told him to wait, went in and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Abu Bakr asks for permission to enter." He said, "Admit him and give him the glad tidings that he will be in Paradise." So I went out and said to Abu Bakr, "Come in, and Allah's Apostle gives you the glad tidings that you will be in Paradise" Abu Bakr entered and sat on the right side of Allah's Apostle on the built edge of the well and hung his legs in the well as the Prophet did and uncovered his legs. I then returned and sat (at the gate). I had left my brother performing ablution and he intended to follow me. So I said (to myself). "If Allah wants good for so-and-so (i.e. my brother) He will bring him here." Suddenly somebody moved the door. I asked, "Who is it?" He said, "'Umar bin Al-Khattab." I asked him to wait, went to Allah's Apostle, greeted him and said, 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission to enter." He said, "Admit him, and give him the glad tidings that he will be in Paradise." I went to "Umar and said "Come in, and Allah's Apostle, gives you the glad tidings that you will be in Paradise." So he entered and sat beside Allah's Apostle on the built edge of the well on the left side and hung his legs in the well. I returned and sat (at the gate) and said, (to myself), "If Allah wants good for so-and-so, He will bring him here." Somebody came and moved the door. I asked "Who is it?" He replied, "Uthman bin Affan." I asked him to wait and went to the Prophet and informed him. He said, "Admit him, and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise, I asked him to wait and went to the Prophet and informed him. He said, "Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise after a calamity that will befall him." So I went up to him and said to him, "Come in; Allah's Apostle gives you the glad tidings of entering Paradise after a calamity that will befall you."Uthman then came in and found that the built edge of the well was occupied, so he sat opposite to the Prophet on the other side. Said bin Al-Musaiyab said, "I interpret this (narration) in terms of the location of their graves."[5]

Muslim Nayshaburi has also narrated this tradition using the same wordings and chain of transmitters.[6]

Bukhari has also narrated this tradition through another chain from Yusuf bin Musa from Abu Usama from Uthman bin Ghiyath from Abu Uthman Nahdi from Abu Musa.[7]

Muslim has similarly narrated this tradition using another chain. He narrates from Muhammad bin Muthanna Itri from Ibn Abi Udai from Uthman bin Ghiyath from Abu Uthman Nahdi from Abu Musa 'Ash'ari.[8]

In addition to Bukhari and Muslim, others have also narrated this tradition.

Transmitters tradition

We will now assess the lives of the narrators of this fabricated tradition.

Sharik bin Abi Namr

One of the narrators in the chain of this tradition is Sharik bin Abi Namr. Though Ibn Mu'aeen has confirmed him, terming his traditions as acceptable other scholars of tradition have rejected him. For example Nisaee (and even Ibn Mu'aeen elsewhere) have said that Sharik is not strong in terms of narrating traditions. Speaking about him, Ibn Udai says that if a reliable narrator narrates from him then he is a reliable narrator. Yahya bin Sa'eed, one of the narrators of this tradition, does not narrate from him. Commenting on him, Saji says that Sharik believes in fatalism (a remark that shows that he was an adherent of a false religion). Ibn Hazm has considered him as weak due to narrating Mi'araj tradition. After narrating this tradition, Zahabi says that this tradition is among the strange traditions narrated by Bukhari.[9]

Uthaman bin Ghiyath

Uthman bin Ghiyath is one of the narrators of the second chain. Scholars of traditions have considered him as weak. Quoting Ibn Mu'aeen Dawri says that Yahya bin Sa'eed has regarded his commentary traditions as weak. Ali bin Madini quotes Yahya (namely Qattan) as saying that Uthman bin Ghiyath has access to books compiled by 'Akrama, which are not authentic. Ajuri quotes Abu Dawood as having said that he is a member of Basran Murji'a.[10] Ahmad says that he is a proponent of Murji'a school of thought.[11]

Abu Usama

It is worth mentioning that Bukhari has narrated this tradition from Uthman bin Ghiyath who has narrated it from Abu Usama (Hammad bin Usama). This narrator has also been criticized. Quoting Mu'aeeti, Azdi says that he usually resorted to deception, though he abandoned this habit later. Commenting on him, Ibn Sa'eed says that he resorts to deception and his deception is plain. Concerning him, Sufyan Thawri is quoted as having said that he is perplexed as to how Usama's traditions are accepted whereas he is well-known for his excelling others in stealing good traditions. Ajuri narrates from Abu Dawood, from Waki'a who said that Abu Usama had buried his books and that was the reason why he prevented him from borrowing book.[12]

Caliphs visit the Holy Prophet (s)

We narrate the second fabricated tradition from Muslim Nayshaburi. In hisSahih , Muslim narrates the following:

Abd al-Malik bin Shuayb bin Laith bin Sa'eed narrates from his father, from his grandfather from Aqil bin Khalid from Ibn Shahab from Yahya bin Sa'eed bin 'As from Sa'eed bin 'As who quote Aisha, wife of the Holy Prophet (s) and Uthman as saying:

Abu Bakr sought permission from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) for entrance (in his apartment) as he had been lying on his bed covered with the bed-sheet of A'isha, and he gave permission to Abu Bakr in that very state and he, having his need fulfilled, went back. Then Umar sought permission and it was given to him in that very state and, after having his need fulfilled, he went back. And 'Uthman reported: Then I sought permission from him and he got up and raid to A'isha: Wrap yourself well with your cloth, then I got my need fulfilled and came back. And A'isha said: Allah's Messenger, why is it that I did not see you feeling any anxiety in case of dressing properly in the presence of Abu Bakr and 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them) as you showed in case of 'Uthman. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Verily Uthman is a person who is very modest and I was afraid that if I permitted him to enter in this very state he would not inform me of his need.[13]

Transmitters of Tradition

We need to evaluate the transmitters of this fabricated tradition. The scholars of the science of rijal hold varied opinions concerning them.

'Aqil bin Khalid

One of the transmitters this chain includes is 'Aqil bin Khalid. Although Abu Hatam, commenting on him, says that he though not a memorizer of tradition was author of a book and was truthful. Majishun describes him as a policeman. Zahabi says that he was a stupid governor (of one of the Syrian cities). Yahya Qattan regarded 'Aqil as weak in terms of transmitting traditions.[14]

Zuhri

Among others, this chain includes the name of Zuhri. He was among the most well-known figures who was deviated from the straight path of Imam Ali (a.s), commander of the faithful and the Holy Prophet's progeny (a.s) and was thus fabricating traditions with the aim of underrating them and overrating their opponents.

Commenting on this regard, Ibn Abi al-Hadid says: Zuhri was among those figures who were deviated from the straight path of Imam Ali (a.s) and the Holy Prophet's family (a.s). Jarir bin Abd al-Majid quotes Muhammad bin Shaiba as saying: One day I went to the mosque of Medina. I saw that Zuhri and Urwa bin Zubair were sitting there talking ill of Ali (a.s).

Ali bin al-Husain learnt about it and thus he walked towards them. When he reached them he said: O Urwa! My father complained against your father before Allah and Allah passed a judgment in favor of my father against your

father. As far you Zuhri! If I were in Macca I would have shown you the position of your father.

Ibn Abi al-Hadid adds: 'Asim bin Abu 'Amir Bajli narrates from Urawa's son that Yahya bin Urwa said: Whenever my father mentioned the name of Ali he would talk ill of him.[15]

Speaking about Zuhri, Ibn Abd al-Barr says: In his Jami'a, Mu'ammar, quoting Zahri, says: Zaid bin Haritha is the first one who embraced Islam.Abd al-Razzaq says that no one other than Zuhri has made such a claim.[16]

The word mentioned above implies that Zuhri has told a lie, because it was Imam Ali (a.s) who was the first to embrace Islam whereas Zuhri wanted to refute this virtue.

Moreover, Zuhri's hostility towards the Holy Prophet's progeny was so intense that he did not hesitate to narrate from Umar bin Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas! Speaking in this regard, Zahabi says: Umar bin Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas, quoting his father and Ibrahim and Abu Ishaq quoting Umar Sa'ad, say that Zuhri and Qutada narrate from Umar Sa'ad in 'mursal' format.

Ibn Mu'aeen exclaims saying how the killer of Imam Husain could be a credible person.[17]

It has to be said that Zuhri is among the supporters and secret agents of Ummayyid rule. Commenting on him in hisRijal al-Mishkat, Sheikh Muhadith , Abd al-Haq Dihlawi says: Because of accompanying rulers, Zuhrihad a weak faith. Scholars and pious people close to him were critical of him, pinpointing to him the risks of accompanying rulers.

In response, Zuhriwould always say that he was sharing their good deeds and was loathing their evil actions.

The scholars and pious people would, in turn, say: Don't you see that they cherish false ideas and do evil deeds?

Ibn Khallakan says that Zuhriwent on accompanying Abd al-Malik and his son, Hisham, after his father's death. Yazid bin Abd al-Malik used to make use of him in in judiciary matters.[18]

It was because of this that Ibn Mu'aeen criticized him. Quoting Ibn Mu'aeen, Hakim Nayshaburi says: Best chains are those in which 'Amash narrates from Ibrahim from 'Alqama from Abdullah. Somebody addressing Ibn Mu'aeen said that 'Amash is also like Zuhri. Ibn Mu'aeen in response said: You regard 'Amash as equal to Zuhri! Zuhriis after worldly gains working for Ummayids. This is while A'amash is a forbearing fakir who knows the Holy Quran and keeps distance from rulers.[19]

It was on account of this that Imam Zayn al-'Abdidin (a.s) wrote him a letter, admonishing him, reminding him of Allah['s wrath] and the hereafter and telling him about the bad consequences of accompanying rulers and staying in their castles.

God save you and us from seditious matters and guard you against the Fire (of Hell) out of His mercy. You have been enjoying a state due to which it is serving for anyone who knows you to show compassion to you. You have been overburdened with the graces of God Who has given you a good physical health and a long age. Furthermore, He has constituted His claims against you when He charged you with the responsibility of His

Book, made you understand His religion, introduced to you the traditions of His Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him and his family). He has also imposed upon you a responsibility in every favor that He has done to you and every claim that He has instituted against you. He has tested your gratitude in every matter that He has done to you and every grace through which He has shown His favors to you. He says:

If you give thanks, I shall give you greater (favors), but if you show ingratitude, know that My retribution is severe. Consider to which party you will be added when you will (inevitably) stand before God Who will ask you about His graces; how you acted upon them, and about His claims; how you treated them. Never think that God will accept your unjustifiable excuses or will be satisfied with your negligence. Too far is that! Too far is that! It is definitely not in that manner. God has ordered the scholars (to show people and not to hide any part of it) in His Book when He said:

When God made a covenant with the People of the Book saying: Tell the people about it without hiding any part.You should know that the least of concealing knowledge and the lightest burden is to entertain the estrangement of an unjust person and pave the way of seduction to him through responding to him when he sought your nearness and called upon you. I am too afraid that you will acknowledge your sins with the betrayers tomorrow and will be asked about whatever you have gotten due to your supporting the unjust in oppression, since you have taken the gift that was not yours, you have been close to him who did not give back anyone's right, you have not rejected a wrongdoing when he approached you, and you have responded to him who antagonized God. As the unjust ones invited you, they make you the axis of the hand-mill of their wrongdoings, the bridge on which they cross to their misfortunes, and the stairs to their deviation.

You have been the propagandist of their temptation when you took their courses. They have employed you as the means through which they aroused doubts against the scholars and dragged the hearts of the ignorant to them. The best one in their government and the most powerful of them could not achieve success like that which you have attained through showing their corrupt affairs as honest and attracting the attentions of the celebrities as well as the ordinary people to you. If you compare what you have done to them with what they have given to you, you will find it too little. Likewise, they have built for you very trivial thing while they ruined your great things. Look in yourself, for no one will look in you except you yourself, and maintain judgment with yourself as if you are the judge. Look into your gratitude to Him Who nourished you with His graces when you were little and when you became old. I am too afraid you will be one of those about whom God says in His Book:

Their descendants who inherited the Book gained (by bribery only) worthless things from the worldly life saying, "We shall be forgiven (for what we have done). You are not living in a permanent abode; you are in a temporary house that you will leave soon. How does a man stay after the departure of his matches? Blessed be those who are fearful of this world. How miserable those who die and leave their sins after them are! Beware; you have been told. Take the initiative; you have been respited. You are

dealing with Him Who is never ignorant. He who counts your deeds is never remiss. Supply yourself (with the necessary provisions); the long journey is approaching you. Correct your guilt; it has been inflicted by a cureless malady.

Do not think that I wanted only to censure, reproach, and dishonor you. I only wanted God to revive the opinions that you have missed and give you back your religious affairs that you have lost. This is because I remembered God's saying: Keep on reminding them. This benefits the believers. You neglected the reference to your old men and friends who passed away while you remained after them like a hornless sheep. See whether they had suffered what you suffered or faced what you faced. Had they neglected a good-deed that you did or had they been unaware of something that you retained?

The only difference between you and them is that you have occupied a distinctive standing in people's minds that they have been pursuing your opinions and carrying out your orders. They deem lawful anything that you deem lawful and deem unlawful anything that you deem unlawful. You are not fit enough for so. It is, in fact, the departure of their scholars, the prevalence of ignorance upon them and you, the fondness of leadership, and the seeking of the worldly pleasures that they, as well as you, enjoy-these matters made them overcome you through their desire to gain what you have in possession.

Can you not feel the ignorance and deception that you live, while people are indulging into misfortunes and sedition? You have exposed them to misfortunes and tempted them by precluding them from their earnings because of what they have seen from you. Hence, they longed for attaining the level of knowledge that you have attained or obtaining, through it, what you have obtained. They therefore have drowned in a bottomless ocean and an immeasurable misfortune. God give you and us. He is the One Whose help is sought. So then, leave all that in which you are engaged so that you may catch up with the virtuous ones whom were buried with their tatters while their bellies were stuck to their backs. No screen was put between God and them. The worldly pleasures could not charm them and they paid no attention to them (such pleasures). They longed for (God), sought (Him), and soon caught up (with Him). If this world makes you in such a manner, while you are attaining such an age, enjoying such a deep-rooted knowledge, and being so near of death, how can then a juvenile be saved (against the worldly pleasures), while he is ignorant, weak-minded, and brainless? We are Allah's and to Him we will return.

Upon whom should we depend? Whom should we blame? We should only complain of our grief and what are we suffering to God. We only charge our misfortune about you to God's account. Look into your gratitude to Him Who nourished you with His graces when you were little and when you became old, your magnifying Him Who makes you handsome among people through His religion, your preserving the dress of Him Who covered you up among people through His dress, and your closeness or remoteness from Him Who ordered you to come near and be modest to Him. Why do you not wake up from your slumber, and reform yourself after your

stumble? You should have said: By God I swear, I have not done any act for the sake of God and for stimulating one of the rites of His religion or terminating one of the wrong customs. Do you show gratitude to Him Who settled all your needs in this way?

I am too afraid you are one of those about whom God the Exalted says: (They) neglected their prayers and followed their worldly desires. They will certainly be lost. God has ordered you to carry His Book and deposited His knowledge with you, but you have wasted them both. We thank God Who has saved us from that with which He has inflicted you. Salaam.[20]

The Holy Prophet (s) talks to Mount Hira

The third fabricated tradition is narrated by Muslim in hisSahih in a chapter devoted to the excellences of Talha and Zubair. He narrates from Ubaidullah bin Muhammad bn Yazid bin Khanis and Ahmad bin Ysuf bin Azdi from Ismael bin Yunus bin Abu Uwais from Sulayman bin Bilal from Yahya bin Sa'eed from Sahl bin Abu Salih from his father who quotes Abu Huraira as saying:

Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was on the mountain of Hira' that it stirred; thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Hira! be calm, for there is none upon you but a Prophet, a Siddiq, a martyr, and there were upon it Allah's Prophet (may peace be upon him), Abu Bakr, 'Umar, Uthman, 'Ali, Talha, Zubair, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas.[21]

Evaluation of tradition

Though the tradition mentioned above does not arrange the names of caliphs on the basis of the order of their caliphate, we, however, look at it from two angles: First, the inventor of this tradition has dealt with the issue of the order of the names of caliphs elsewhere in this tradition, using the language of the Holy Prophet (s). Two, in addition, this tradition intends to attributethe adjective 'siddiq' to Abu Bakr and the adjective 'shahid' to all others who follow him. It has to be however mentioned that this tradition is fabricated on two grounds: its text and its chain of transmitters.

1. Text of Tradition

This tradition attributes the adjective 'shahid' to the people mentioned above, whereas none of them except Imam Ali (a.s) was martyred. Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas died in his castle a natural death. That is why in a tradition preceding this tradition inSahih Muslim no mention is made of the name of Sa'ad. This in itself is a thought provoking point! Others have however, complying with the implication of the tradition, said that Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas died of plague. Whoever dies of plague is a martyr![22]

2. Chain of transmitters of tradition

In assessing the chain of transmitters of this tradition we suffice to looking at Ismael bin Uwais, omitting thus other reporters this chain includes. Scholars of traditions have given varied comments in regard with him.

Nisaee says he was weak in terms of transmitting traditions.[23] Yahya bin Mu'aeen accuses Ismael and his father of stealing traditions. Dulabi, commenting on weak narrators, quotes Nadr bin Salama Maruzi as saying that Ismael bin Abu Uwais is a full liar. After quoting this quotation, Zahabi says: Ibn Udai narrated three traditions from Ismael and said: He narrated strange traditions from his maternal uncle which are not reliable at all.[24] Ibrahim bin Junaid quotes Yahya as saying: Ismael bin Abu Uwais is a liar. He is not a credible narrator.[25]

In hisal-Muhalla , Ibn Hazm quotes Abu al-Fath Azdi as saying: Saif bin Muhammad told me that Ibn Uwais was in fact fabricating traditions.[26]

Commenting on Ismael, 'Aini says that he himself confessed that he was fabricating traditions. Nisaee has also mentioned the same point, quoting Salma bin Shu'aib.[27]

As Prophet (s) falls ill he wants to meet someone

The fourth fabricated tradition is about the excellence of Uthman. This tradition is mentioned by Ibn Majah in hisSunan . He narrates from Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Namir and Ali bin Muhammad from Waki'a from Ismael bin Abu Khalid from Qays bin Abu Hazim who quotes Aisha as saying:

As the Holy Prophet (s) fell ill he said: I would like to have one my companions with me.

We said: O Messengers of Allah! Should we bring you Abu Bakr?

The Holy Prophet (s) was silent saying nothing.

We said: Should we bring you Umar?

The Holy Prophet (s) was silent saying nothing.

We said: Should we bring you Uthman?

The Holy Prophet (s) said: Yes

We told Uthman to come and he came and met the Messenger of Allah. As the Holy Prophet was talking to him, Uthman's face was turning pale.

Qays quotes Abu Sahla, Uthman's slave as saying that Uthman bin Affan on Yawm al-Dar said: The Messenger of Allah made a covenant with me and I am going to fulfill it.

Ali bin Muhammad has narrated this tradition in a slightly different manner. According to his version, Uthman says: I will continue to keep that covenant.

Qays says: It was believed that the covenant was the day when Uthman was killed.[28]

Hakim has narrated this tradition on his own documentation from Ismael bin Abu Khalid, from Qays bin Abu Hazim from Abu Sahla (Uthman's slave), from Aisha. He adds that the chain of its transmitters is authentic, though Muslim and Bukhari have not reported it.[29]

Evaluation of tradition

One of the narrators this chain includes is Qays bin Abu Hazim about whom scholars of tradition have said different things.

Zahabi and Ibn Hajar narrated something from Ya'aqub bin Shaiba concerning him. In hisMizan al-Itidal , Ibn Hajar says: Companions have talked about Qays. Some have regarded him as great and honorable considering his traditions as the most authentic ones whereas others have criticized him saying that he reported unknown traditions. Those who have praised him have not regarded these traditions as unknown. They have put them in the rank of strange traditions. Others have criticized him saying that he used to criticize Ali (a.s).

It is however clear that he used to prefer Uthman to Ali (a.s) and that is the reason why most Kufis have not reported any tradition from him.[30]

In hisTadrib al-Rawi , commenting on him, Suyuti says: Here I want to mention names that were accused of innovation, but Bukhari and Muslim or one of them have however, reported from them. He considers Qays as one of those who were accused of showing hostility towards Ali (a.s).[31]