Elementary Arabic Morphology Volume 3

Elementary Arabic Morphology0%

Elementary Arabic Morphology Author:
Translator: Hamid Hussein Waqar
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
Category: Arabic Language and Literature

Elementary Arabic Morphology

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Rashid Al-Shartuni
Translator: Hamid Hussein Waqar
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
Category: visits: 2792
Download: 1679


Comments:

search inside book
  • Start
  • Previous
  • 51 /
  • Next
  • End
  •  
  • Download HTML
  • Download Word
  • Download PDF
  • visits: 2792 / Download: 1679
Size Size Size
Elementary Arabic Morphology

Elementary Arabic Morphology Volume 3

Author:
Publisher: www.al-islam.org
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Elementary Arabic Morphology 3

(Mabādī Al-‛Arabīyyah)

A study of Arabic Morphology volume 3, Translated by Hamid Hussein Waqar

Author(s): Rashid Al-Shartuni

Translator(s): Hamid Hussein Waqar

Table of Contents

An Introduction To Morphology 4

Preterite, Aorist, and Imperative Verbs 5

Verbs With and Without Increase Letters Added To Their Roots 7

Triliteral and Quadriliteral Verbs with Increase Letters 8

Sound and Unsound Verbs 9

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 10

Active and Passive Verbs 11

Conjugation of A Verb With Its Pronoun  12

Incorporation 14

Weak Letter Transformation 15

Writing a Hamza 16

The wasl and qat‛ hamza 18

Non-Perfect Verbs 19

Emphasis and Non-Emphasis 21

The Conjugation of the Passive Voice 22

The Infinitive 23

The Mimi Infinitive and The Quasi-Infinitive Noun  25

The Nomen Vicis And The Nomen Speciei 26

The Active and Passive Nouns 27

Epithet 28

Comparative and Superlative Nouns 29

The Exaggerated Forms 30

Adverbial Nouns of Place and Time and Instrumental Nouns 31

The Structure of a Noun 32

Maqsur, Mamdud and Manqus Nouns 32

Rules Pertaining to the Dual Form 34

Sound Masculine Plural 35

Sound Feminine Plural 36

Broken Plurals 37

Rules of Broken Plurals 39

Nouns and Epithets 41

Generic and Proper Nouns 42

Masculine And Feminine Nouns 43

Possessive Nouns 45

The Diminutive Form 47

Declination 48

Implied Declinable Signs 50

Conjugational and Non-Conjugational Declinable Nouns 51

Indeclinable Words 52

Pronouns 54

Demonstrative Pronouns 55

Conjuncts 56

The Relative Clause 57

Conditional Nouns 58

Interrogative Nounds 59

Metonymy 60

Adverbial Nounds 61

Verbal Nouns 63

Cardinal Numbers 64

Ordinal Numbers 66

An Introduction To Morphology

1. What is morphology?

2. How many types of words are there?

3. Is morphology applied to all types of words?

4. How are verbs and nouns conjugated?

1. Morphology is a science that discusses the change of a word into various forms in order to achieve the desired meaning. For example, the changing ofصَدَقَ toصادِق . This science also discusses the change of a word without changing its meaning. For example:قَوَلَ toقالَ . All of the changes that are made are called conjugation.

2. There are three types of words: nouns, ex:رَجُل , verbs, ex:شَرِبَ , and prepositions, ex:عَلَیَ

3. Morphology is applied to nouns and verbs, nothing else, because they are conjugated into different forms. It is not applied to prepositions because they remain in one form.

4. Verbs are conjugated by putting them into the preterit, aorist, and imperative cases. Nouns are conjugated by putting them into the single, dual, plural, diminutive, and possessive forms.

Preterite, Aorist, and Imperative Verbs

5. What is a verb and how many types of verbs are there?

6. What is a preterit tense verb?

7. What is an aorist tense verb?

8. How are aorist tense verbs formed?

9. Is the state of the preterit tense changed if it is a triliteral verb?

10. Is the state changed if it is not a triliteral verb?

11. What is an imperative verb and how many types of imperative verbs are there?

12. What is the difference between an imperative by form and an imperative by a lām?

13. How are imperative verbs formed?

14. How is the vowel sign of the alif added to the beginning of imperative verbs determined?

5. A verb is a word that indicates a state, for exampleحَسُنَ or an action, for example:یأخُذُ in the past, present, or future. There are three types of verbs: preterit, aorist, and imperative.

6. A preterit tense verb is a verb that indicates a state or action that happened in the past, for example:کَرُمَ

7. An aorist tense verb is a verb that indicates a state or action that is happening in the present or will happen in the future. For example:یَحسُنُ

Point: an aorist tense verb is specifically used for the future when a sīn orسوف is added to the beginning of it, for example:سأکتُبُ

Point: It indicates the past when it comes after the jussiveلَم orلَمَّا , for example:زُُرتُکَ و لم تکن في البیتِ

8. An aorist tense verb is formed from the preterite form by adding an aorist letter to the beginning of it. This letter has a dummah if it is quadriliteral, for example:یُزَخرِفُ and it has a fathah in any other case, for example:یَلمَعُ

9. If the preterite form is triliteral, the first root letter is given and sakūn and the second root letter is given a dummah, fathah, or kasrah. For example:یَنصُرُ ، یَفتَحُ ، یَجلِسُ

10. If the preterite form is not triliteral and it has an additional tā' added to the beginning, it will remain the same, for example:یَتَعَلَّمُ . If this is not the case the glottal stop at the beginning will be erased and the letter before the last letter will be given a kasrah, for example:یُرسِلُ

11. The imperative tense verb is a verb that asks for a state or action in the future. For example:اُکتُب . There are two types of imperatives: imperative by form and imperative by lām.

12. The imperative by form is only used with the second person in the active voice, for example:اِجتَهِد . The imperative by lām is used with everything else in the active or passive voice, for example:لِیُکافإ المُجتهِدُ

13. The imperative form is formed from the aorist tense by erasing the aorist letter from the beginning. Then, if the letter after the erased aorist letter has a vowel sign this will be the form, for example:تَعَلَّم . But, if the letter after the erased aorist letter has a sakūn a glottal stop will be added to the beginning of the word, for example:اِنتَبِه

14. The added glottal stop in the imperative form is given a dummah when the aorist tense verb is triliteral and the second root letter has a dummah, for example:اُنظُر . It is given a fathah when the verb is quadriliteral, for example:أکرِم . It is given a kasrah when any other case, for example:اِعلَم . So, when the verb is quadriliteral the glottal stop is a qat‛ glottal stop and in every other case it is a wasl glottal stop.

Verbs With and Without Increase Letters Added To Their Roots

15. What is the difference between verbs without increase letters added to their root and with increase letters added to their root?

16. How many forms do the triliteral verbs without increase letters have?

17. How many forms do the quadriliteral verbs without increase letters have?

15. A verb without increase letters is a verb that only has its root letters, for example:نَصَرَ . A verb with increase letters is a verb that has one or more letters added to its root, for example:أکرَمَ

16. There are six forms for the triliteral verb without increase letters which stems from the different vowel signs given to the second root letter of the preterite and aorist tenses.

    فَعَلَ یَفعِلُ مثل جَلَسَ یَجلِسُ

    فَعَلَ یَفعُلُ مثل نَصَرَ یَنصُرُ

    فَعَلَ یَفعَلُ مثل فَتَحَ یَفتَحُ

    فَعِلَ عَفعَلُ مثل عَلِمَ یَعلَمُ

    فَعِلَ یَفعِلُ مثل حَسِبَ یَحسِبُ

    فَعُلَ یَفعُلُ مثل کَرُمَ یَکرُمُ

There is no way to know the form of a certain verb other than looking it up in a dictionary.

17. There is one form of quadriliteral verbs without increase letters:

    فَعلَلَ یُفَعلِلَ مثل دَحرَجَ یُدَحرِجُ

Triliteral and Quadriliteral Verbs with Increase Letters

18. How many types of triliteral verbs with increase letters are there?

19. How many types of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters are there?

20. Why are letters added to the verb?

18. There are three types of triliteral verbs with increase letters. First, triliteral verbs with one increase letter:فَعَّلَ یُفَعِّلُ ، أفعَلَ یُفعِلُ ، فاعَلَ یُفاعِلُ . Second, triliteral verbs with two increase letters:تَفَعَّلَ یَتَفَعَّلُ ، تَفاعَلَ یَتَفاعَلُ ، اِفتَعَلَ یَفتَعِلُ ، اِنفَعَلَ یَنفَعِلُ ، اِفعَلَّ یَفعَلُّ . Third, triliteral verbs with three increase letters:اِستَفعَلَ یَستَفعِلُ ، اِفعَوعَلَ یَفعَوعِلُ .

19. There are two types of quadriliteral verbs with increase letters. First, quadriliteral verbs with one increase letter:تَفَعلَلَ یَتَفَعلَلُ . Second, quadriliteral verbs with two increase letters:اِفعَنلَلَ یَفعَنلِلُ ، اِفعَلَلَّ یَفعَلِلُ .

20. Increase letters are not added to a verb unless to change the meaning of the verb. For example:أفعَلَ andفَعَّلَ are to convert the verb into the transitive form as inأکرَمَ. فاعَل andتفاعل denote a form of dual participation as inشارکتُهُ. تفعّل is to make theفعّل reflexive as inعَلَّمتُهُ فَتَعَلَّمَ. انفعل andافتعل are to make theفَعَلَ reflexive as inنَثرتُهُ فانتَثَرَ. افعلّ is used with an adjective as inاحمَرَّ. استفعل denotes asking for something as inاستَغفَرَ. تفعلل is to make theفعلل reflexive as inدَحرَجتُهُ فَتَدَحرَجَ . All of the other forms are used for emphasis.

Sound and Unsound Verbs

21. How many forms of verbs without increase letters are there with respect to their letters being sound or weak?

22. How many types of sound verbs are there?

23. How many types of unsound verbs are there?

24. How many types of cluster verbs are there?

25. When is a verb considered a verb with a hamza, a verb with double letters, or a verb with weak letters?

21. There are two types of verbs without increase letters: sound verbs, ex:أخَذَ and unsound verbs, ex:وَعَدَ .

22. There are three types of sound verbs: One, perfect verbs. These are verbs that do not have a hamza in its root nor any duplicate letters, for example:نَصَرَ . Two, Double-lettered verbs. These are verbs that have two identical letters in there root, for example:مَدَّ . Three, verbs that have a hamza in their root, for example:أکَلَ .

23. There are three types of unsound verbs: One, quasi-sound verbs. These are verbs whose first root letter is a weak letter, for example:وَعَدَ . Two, hollow verbs. These are verbs whose second root letter is a weak letter, for example:قالَ . Third, defective verbs. These are verbs whose third root letter is a weak letter, for example:دَعا .

24. There are two types of cluster verbs: a cluster verb whose first and third root letters are weak, for example:وَفیَ and a cluster verb whose second and third root letters are weak, for example:شَویَ .

25. Verbs with a hamza, a verb with double letters, or a verb with weak letters are only considered sound or unsound when the mentioned letters are in its root.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

26. What is the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs?

27. When is a verb intransitive?

28. How can an intransitive verb be made transitive?

29. How can a transitive verb be made intransitive?

26. A transitive verb is a verb who, in addition to its agent, occurs on an objective compliment, for example:بَرَیتُ القَلَمَ . An intransitive verb only occurs with an agent, for example:أثمَرَتِ الشَّجَرَةُ . The transitive verb is connected to its objective compliment with preposition or without a preposition but an intransitive verb suffices itself with its agent.

27. A verb intransitive if it denotes a natural characteristic as inشَجُعَ , a form as inطالَ , a color as inزَرِقَ , a defect as inعَوِرَ , a decoration as inغَیِدَ , being clean as inطَهُرَ , Being unclean as inقَذُرَ , being secluded as inفَرَغَ , being full as inشَبِعَ , and different natural states such asمَرِضَ .

28. An intransitive verb is made transitive by adding a hamza to the beginning of the word, for example:أکرَمَ , or doubling the second root letter, for example:کَرَّمَ , or by a jār preposition, for example:رَغِبتُ في العلمِ .

29. A transitive verb is made intransitive if it is put in the forms of mutawa'ah, for example:جمَّعتُهُ فَتَجَمَّعَ .

Active and Passive Verbs

30. What is the difference between active and passive verbs?

31. What is a passive verb formed from?

30. An active verb mentions its agent, as inبَرَیَ التِّلمیذُ قَلَماً . A passive verb erases its agent and places its objective compliment as its subject of the predication, as inبُرِيَ القَلَمُ .

31. A passive verb is formed from an active transitive verb. If it is in the preterite tense, the letter before the last letter is given a kasrah and the letters with vowel signs before it are given dummahs. For example:أُکِلَ . If the verb is in the aorist tense, the letter before the last letter is given a fathah and the aorist letter is given a dummah. For example:یُؤکَلُ .

If the letter before the last letter in the preterite tense is an alif, it will be changed to a yā' and the letter before it will be given a kasrah. For example:صِیمَ .

If the verb is a hollow verb in the aorist tense, the letter before the last is changed into an alif. For example:یُعادُ .

Conjugation of A Verb With Its Pronoun

32. What happens to a verb if it is related to a mentioned noun or an implied nominative pronoun?

33. Does a verb change if it is related to a clear nominative pronoun?

34. What is the difference between an implied pronoun and a clear pronoun?

35. How many clear connected nominative pronouns are there?

36. What happens to the tā'?

37. When is a nā, alif, or yā' used?

38. When is a wāw or nūn used?

39. When is the pronoun implied?

40. When is it permissible to imply a pronoun?

41. When is it obligatory to imply a pronoun?

42. When is it obligatory to imply a pronoun, being an exception to the rule?

43. Does a verb change with accusative or genitive pronouns?

32. A verb does not change if it is related to a mentioned word or an implied nominative pronoun, for example:قامَ الخَطیبُ فَتَکَلَّمَ .

33. The end of a verb should be given a sakūn if connected to a clear nominative pronoun of a sound letter, for example:دَرَستُ . The end of a verb should be given a vowel sign similar to that of the clear nominative pronoun of a weak letter, for example a dummah should be placed before a wāw, as inدَرَسُوا , a fathah should be placed before an alif, as inیَدرُسَانِ , and a kasrah should be placed before a yā', as inتَدرُسِینَ .

34. A clear pronoun is a pronoun that is written and spoken, for example:أنتَ . An implied pronoun is tacitly intended, for example:اِفهَم . In this example a 'you' is implied in the verb.

35. There are six clear connected nominative pronouns:التاء ، نا ، الألف ، الیاء ، الواو و النون المخفَّفة . These pronouns are either agents or the subject of the predications and are only connected to verbs.

36. Theالتاء has a dummah when it is a singular and plural first person pronoun, for example:شَرِبتُ . It has a fathah when it is a masculine singular second person pronoun, for example:شَرِبتَ . It has a kasrah when it is a feminine singular second person pronoun in the preterite tense, for example:شَرِبتِ . It also has a dummah when connected to the dual or plural signs of the second person pronouns and the feminine plural third person pronoun, for example:شَرِبتُما .

37. Theنا is used for the dual and plural first person pronouns, for example:شَرِبنا . Theالألف is used for all dual pronouns, for example:یَشرَبانِ . Theالیاء is used in the aorist tense verbs and in commands, for example:اِشرَبي .

38. Theالواو is used for plural masculine beings with intellects, for example:شَرِبُوا . Theالنون المخفَّفة is used for plural feminine beings with intellects, for example:شَرِبنَ .

39. A pronoun is implied in the preterite and aorist tense with the singular third person pronoun, for example:المسافرُ انطَلَقَ . It is implied in the aorist tense and command with the singular masculine second person pronoun, for example:تَسألُ . It is also implied in the aorist tense with all first person pronouns, for example:أسألُ .

40. It is permissible to imply a pronoun with third person pronouns.

41. It is obligatory to imply a pronoun with first person pronouns and singular second person pronouns.

42. It is obligatory to imply a pronoun, as an exception to the rule, in exceptive verbs, verbs of wonder, comparative/superlative verbs, in the predicate of an appropinquation verb except with the predicate ofعسیَ . They are not implied when they are in the nominative state.

43. A verb does not change when connected to accusative and genitive pronouns.

Incorporation

44. What is incorporation and what are its conditions?

45. In what cases is it permissible to incorporate and not to incorporate?

46. When is it impermissible to incorporate?

44. Incorporation is when two identical letters are joined together. Its conditions are that the two letters are next to each other and the first one does not have a vowel sign while the second one does, and if the first letter has a vowel sign or is preceded by an alif, its vowel sign is erased. For example:مادَّ which was originallyمادَدَ . If the first letter is preceded by a sound letter without a vowel sign, the vowel sign of the first letter is given to the letter preceding it. For example:یَمُدُّ which was originallyیَمدُدُ .

45. It is permissible to incorporate and not to incorporate in two cases: One, in a singular aorist tense verb in the jussive state, as inلَم یَمُدُّ orلَم یَمدُد . The second case is in a singular command verb, as inمُدُّ orاُمدُد .

46. It is impermissible to incorporate when the verb is connected to a sound nominative pronoun with a vowel sign, for example:مَدَدتُ .

Weak Letter Transformation

47: What is weak letter transformation?

47: Weak letter transformation is the change of weak letters by erasing them, as inقُل , changing them, as inقالَ , or taking away their vowel sign, as inیَقُولُ . The purpose behind this is to make the words easy to pronounce. There are many rules regarding the transformation of weak letters which one can refer to the fourth volume of Elementary

Writing a Hamza

48. How is a hamza written when it comes at the beginning of a word?

49. How is a hamza written when it comes in the middle of a word and does not have a vowel sign?

50. How is a hamza written when it comes in the middle of a word and does have a vowel sign?

51. How is a hamza written if it has a fathah and comes after a dummah or kasrah?

52. How is a hamza written if it comes in the middle of a word and has a vowel sign while the letter before it does not have a vowel sign?

53. How is a hamza written if it comes after an alif or yā'?

54. How is a hamza written if it comes between an alif and a letter other than a yā' being a pronoun?

55. How is a hamza written if it comes at the end of a word and is preceded by a letter without a vowel sign?

56. How is a hamza written if it comes at the end of a word and is preceded by a letter with a vowel sign?

57. How is a hamza written if it comes at the end of a word, is connected to the feminine tā', and is preceded by a weak letter?

48. When a hamza is written at the beginning of a word, it is written in the form of an alif, for example:إصبَع .

49. When a hamza comes in the middle of a word and does not have a vowel sign, it is written according to the vowel sign of the letter preceding it, for example:ذِئبٌ .

50. When a hamza comes in the middle of a word and has a vowel sign, and the preceding letter has a vowel sign as well, it will take on the form of its vowel sign, for example:سَألَ .

51. If a hamza has a fathah and comes after a letter that has a kasrah or dummah, it will be written according to the vowel sign that precedes it, for example:مُؤَنٌ .

52. If a hamza comes in the middle of a word, has a vowel sign, and is preceded by a letter that does not have a vowel sign, it will be written according to its vowel sign, for example:یَیئِسُ .

53. If a hamza comes between an alif and a yā' it should be written in the form of a yā', for example:الرّاِئي .

54. If a hamza comes between an alif and a pronoun that is not a yā' there are two cases. If it has a kasrah or dummah it is written according to its vowel sign, for example:بَقاؤُهُ , but if it has a fathah it is written as a plain hamza, for example:بَقاءَهُ .

55. If a hamza comes at the end of a word and the letter before it does not have a vowel sign it is written as a plain hamza, for example:جُزءٌ .

56. If a hamza comes at the end of a word and the letter before it has a vowel sign it will be written according the vowel sign of the previous letter, for example:قَرَأ .

57. If a hamza comes at the end of a word and is connected to a feminine tā' ther e are two cases. If the letter before it is a sound letter without a vowel sign the hamza is written in the form of an alif, for example:نَسأة , but if the previous letter has a vowel sign the hamza is written according the vowels sign of the previous letter, for example:فِئَة .

58. If a hamza comes at the end of a word and is connected to a feminine tā' and preceded by a weak letter without a vowel sign, there are two cases. It is written in the form of a yā' if preceded by a yā', for example:خَطیئَة . But, it is written as a plain hamza if preceded by an alif or a wāw, for example:قِراءَة . The same rules apply to the feminine alif.

The wasl and qat‛ hamza

59. What is a wasl hamza and what is a qat‛ hamza?

60. When is the w hamza written according to rules?

61. When is the q hamza written according to rules?

59. A wasl hamza is that which is pronounced at the beginning of speech but is not pronounced in the middle of speech, for example:اِجلِس یا رَجُلُ andیا رَجُلُ اجلِس . The qat‛ hamza is that which is pronounced wherever it occurs, for example:أکرِم یا رَجُلُ andیا رَجُلُ أکرِم .

60. The wasl hamza is written according to the rules in the preterite tense of five and six-letter verbs as well as their imperative and infinitive forms. This is also the case in the imperative case of the triliteral verb. The hamza in all of these verbs is added to the beginning.

61. The qat‛ hamza is written according to the rules in the preterite tense of quadriliteral verbs, as well as their imperative and infinitive forms. This is also the case in all aorist tense verbs. This hamza is sometimes added and sometimes not, is sometimes at the beginning of the verb, sometimes in the middle of it, and sometimes at the end of it.

Non-Perfect Verbs

62. How are non-perfect verbs conjugated?

63. How is a verb with a hamza changed?

64. How is a double-lettered verb changed?

65. How is a quasi-sound verb changed?

66. How is a hollow verb changed?

67. How is a defective verb changed if the wāw, tā', or yā' pronouns are added to it?

68. How is a defective verb changed if the dual alif or nā is added to it?

62. Non-perfect verbs are like perfect verbs with regards to conjugation, except they are changed a little due to idghām in double-lettered verbs, weak letters in weak verbs, and erasing the hamza in verbs which have one.

63. If there are two hamzas at the beginning of a verb and the second one does not have a vowel sign, the second hamza will be changed into a letter that is in congruence with the vowel sign of the previous letter, for example:آمنتُ ، أومِنُ و اِیذَن which were originallyأأمَنتُ ، أؤمِنُ و اِئذَن .

64. Double-lettered verbs are changed because of idghām. This is obligatory if both of the like letters have vowel signs, for example:مَدَّ . If the first letter has a vowel sign and the second letter does not it is obligatory to write them separately if the sakūn is used to connect the verb to the nominative pronoun with a vowel sign, for example:مَدَدتُ . It is permissible to do idghām or to write the letters separately if it is a aorist tense verb in the jussive case or a verb in the imperative form, for example:لم یَمُدَّ orلم یَمدُد .

65. If the verb is a quasi-sound verb without increase letters, the weak letter is a wāw, and the second root letter in the aorist tense has a kasrah the first root letter is erased in the aorist tense and the imperative form, for example:یَعِدُ . It is forbidden to erase the first root letter if the verb has increase letters, the weak letter is a yā', or the second root letter in the aorist tense does not have a kasrah, for example:أوجَزَ which becomesیُوجِزُ .

66. If a triliteral hollow verb is connected with a pronoun and its third root letter has a vowel sign, the second root letter will remain, for example:قام . But, if the third root letter does not have a vowel sign the second root letter will be erased, for example:صُمتُ .

67. If a defective verb is connected to the plural wāw or the second person yā' its third root letter will be erased. In this case, if the second root letter has a fathah, for example:رَمَی , it will remain the same, for example:رَمَوا . If the second root letter has a dummah, for example:یَدعُو or a kasrah, for example:یَرمِي , it will be given a dummah with the wāw and a kasrah with the yā', for example:یَدعُونَ . The third root letter is also erased if it is an alif connected to the feminine tā', for example:رَمَت .

68. If a defective verb is connected to the dual alif or nā and the third root letter is an alif, it will be changed back to what it originally was, for example:رَمَینا . But, if it is a verb with four or more letters, the third root letter will be changed into a yā', for example:اِهتَدَیتُ .

Emphasis and Non-Emphasis

69. When is a verb emphasized?

70. Is the nūn of emphasis added to all tenses?

71. When is the aorist tense designated for the future only?

72. Is a verb conjugated differently when the nūn of emphasis is added to it?

69. A verb is emphasized when heavy nūn of emphasis is added to it, for example:لیَبتهحَنَّ or the light nūn of emphasis is added to it, for example:لیَفرَحَن .

70. The nūn of emphasis is not added to the preterite tense at all. It is permissible to add it to the imperative form without any conditions. It is added to the aorist tense only with the condition that the aorist tense is designated for the future only.

71. An aorist tense verb is designated for the future if it is mentioned after a talab baleen or be'anf, for example: nahi, imperative, tamani, taraji, aradh, tahdhidh, for example:لا تیأسَنَّ من رحمةِ الله . Or, if it is mentioned after an oath, for example:و أبیکَ لأحفَظَنَّ عَهدَک .

72. The following is a chart of how a verb is conjugated when the nūn of emphasis is added to it.

The aorist tense:لا یَنصُرَنَّ ، لا یَنصُرانِّ ، لا یَنصُرُنَّ ، لا تَنصُرَنَّ ، لا تَنصُرانِّ ، لا یَنصُرنانِّ ، لا تَنصُرَنَّ ، لا تَنصُرانِّ ، لا تَنصُرُنَّ ، لا تَنصُرِنَّ ، لا تَنصُرانِّ ، لا تَنصُرنانِّ ، لا أنصُرَنَّ ، لا نَنصُرَنَّ

The imperative form:اُنصُرَنَّ ، اُنصُرانِّ ، اُنصُرُنَّ ، اُنصُرِنَّ ، اُنصُرانِّ ، اُنصُرنانِّ

The Conjugation of the Passive Voice

73. Where does the conjugation of the passive voice refer to?

73. The conjugation of the passive voice refers to the conjugation of the active voice, except the aorist tense of quasi-sound verbs where the first root letter is always mentioned, and the preterite tense of triliteral hollow verbs and five-letter-verbs where the kasrah that is given to the second root letter is transferred to the letter before it. If the second root letter is a wāw, in this case, it will be changed into a yā', for example:قِیلَ .

74. What is a noun?

75. How many categories of nouns are there?

76. What is a conjugational noun?

77. What is a non-conjugational noun?

78. How many types of conjugational nouns are there?

79. What is the difference between apalistic and derived nouns?

80. What is the principle derived noun?

81. How many derived nouns are there?

74. A noun is that which denotes a meaning which in itself is not accompanied by time, for example:کتاب .

75. There are two categories of nouns: conjugational and non-conjugational.

76. A conjugational noun is that which is put into the dual, plural, diminutive, and the possessive forms, for exampleمدینة which is put into the following forms:مَدِینتانِ ، مُدُنٌ ، مُدِینَةٌ ، و مَدَنِيٌّ .

77. A non-conjugational noun is that which remains in one state, for example:مَن which remains in the same state if it is used with a masculine or feminine word and if it is in the single, dual, or plural form.

78. There are two types of mutasaraf nouns: apalistic and derived.

79. An apalistic noun is a noun that which is derived from a verb, for example:رَجُلٌ . A derived noun is that which is taken from a noun, for example:مَریضٌ .

80. The principle derived noun is the infinitive of verbs without increase letters, but the infinitive of verbs with increase letters are also derived nouns.

81. There are eight types of derived nouns: active participle nouns, passive participle nouns, epithets, comparatives/superlatives, the exaggerated form, adverbial nouns of place, adverbial nouns of time, and instrumental nouns.

The Infinitive

82. What is an infinitive?

83. How many categories of infinitives are there?

84. How many categories of infinitives for verbs without increase letters are there?

85. Are infinitives formed by grammatical rules or are they formed by usage alone?

86. Do triliteral verbs have prominent infinitive forms?

87. How many infinitives are there for the quadriliteral verb without increase letters?

88. List the infinitives for verbs with increase letters.

82. An infinitive is that which denotes a state or an action without denoting its time, for example:حُسنٌ .

83. There are three categories of infinitives: infinitives for verbs without increase letters, infinitives for verbs with increase letters, and mīmī infinitives.

84. There are two categories of infinitives for verbs without increase letters: triliteral, for example:فَضل and quadriliteral, for example:زَلزَلة .

85. All infinitives are formed by grammatical rules except infinitives for triliteral verbs without increase letters, for there are many forms which cannot be known except by referring to dictionaries.

86. The prominent infinitive forms (that do not always occur) for triliteral verbs are as follows: the formفَعُلَ usually produces infinitives in the forms ofفُعُولة ، فَعالة، و فَعَل , for example:سُهُولة . The formفَعِلَ of intransitive verbs usually produces infinitives in the forms ofفَعَل و فُعُول , for example:فَرَح . The formsفَعَلَ و فَعِلَ of transitive verbs usually produce infinitives in the form ofفَعل , for example:فَهم .

87. There are two infinitives for quadriliteral verbs without increase letters:فَعلَلَة و فِعلال . The second one follows the rules in double-lettered verbs, for example:وَسوَسَ وَسوَسَة و وِسواس and is according to how Arabs use them in other than double-lettered verbs, for example:دَحرَجَ دَجرَجَة و دِحراج .

88. The infinitives for verbs with increase letters are as follows:

•فَعَّلَ becomesتَفعیل و تَفعیلَة

•فاعَلَ becomesمُفاعَلَة و فِعال

•أفعَلَ becomesإفعال

•تَفَعَّلَ becomesتَفَعُّل

•تفاعَلَ becomesتَفاعُل

•اِفتَعَلَ becomesاِفتِعال

•اِنفَعَلَ becomesاِنفِعال

•اِفعَّلَ becomesاِفعِلال

•اِستَفعَلَ becomesاِستِفعال

•اِفعَوعَلَ becomesاِفعِیعال

•تَفَعلَلَ becomesتَفَعلُل

•اِفعَنلَلَ becomesاِفعِنلال

•اِفعَلَلَّ becomesاِفعِلَّال

The Mimi Infinitive and The Quasi-Infinitive Noun

89. What do you understand about the mīmī infinitive?

90. How is the mīmī infinitive formed?

91. What do you understand about the quasi-infinitive noun?

89. The mīmī infinitive is that which does not have any meaning other than that of the non- mīmī infinitive. It is formed from all verbs by adding a mīm.

90. The mīmī infinitive is formed from triliteral verbs in the formمَفعَل , for example:مَنظَر . The exceptions to this are quasi-sound verbs whose first root letter is erased in the aorist tense, these will be in the formمَفعِل , for example:مَوعِد . The mīmī infinitive is formed from verbs with more than three letters by placing them in the passive voice of the aorist tense and replacing the aorist letter with a mīm which has a dummah, for example:مُکرَم .

91. A quasi-infinitive noun is a word which indicates the meaning of an infinitive and takes a letter away from the verb either literally or implicitly, for example:اعطاء the noun ofالإعطاء .

The Nomen Vicis And The Nomen Speciei

92. What is the nomen vicis?

93. What is the nomen speciei?

92. The nomen vicis is an infinitive that intends to denote the singleness of the action. This noun is formed from triliteral verbs in the formفَعلَة , for example:مَشیَة , and from other than three letter verbs in the same form as its infinitive, ending in the feminine tā', for example:اِنطلاقَةً .

93. The nomen speciei is an infinitive that denotes the form of the action. This noun is formed from triliteral verbs in the formفِعلَة , for example:مِشیَة , from other than three letter verbs in the same form as its infinitive, ending in the feminine tā', exactly like the nomen vicis, for example:اِلتفاتَة العغَزالِ .

The Active and Passive Nouns

94. What is an active participle noun?

95. How is an active participle noun formed?

96. What is a passive participle noun?

97. How is a passive participle noun formed?

94. An active participle noun is a form that indicates that which performs an action or indicates a state, for example:کاتِب .

95. An active participle noun is formed from triliteral verbs on the formفاعِل , for example:شاکِر . It is formed from verbs with more than three letters from their active aorist form by replacing the aorist letter with a mīm that has a dummah and giving the next to last letter a kasrah. So, the verbیُکرِم becomesمُکرِم .

96. A passive participle noun is a form that indicates that which the action was performed on, for example:مَکسُور .

97. The passive participle is formed from triliteral verbs on the formمَفعُول , for example;مَنصُور . It is formed from verbs with more than three letters from their passive aorist form by replacing the aorist letter with a mīm that has a dummah, for example:مُکرَّم .

The two formsفَعُول andفَعیل are common for both the active and passive participle nouns. Sometimes they are used to mean an active participle noun, for example:صَبُور and sometimes a passive participle noun, for example:رَسُول .

The passive participle noun is formed from passive transitive verbs whether they accept an objective compliment by themselves or by a intermediary, for example:مکانٌ مَجلوسٌ فیه .

Epithet

98. What is an epithet?

99. How is an epithet formed?

98. An epithet is a form derived from an intransitive verb to denote thabut, for example:حَسَنٌ . What is meant by thabut is that it is mutlaqan in the characterized without any qayd of time. Whatever is derived from a triliteral verb with the meaning of an active participle noun but not in that form and indicates thabut is an epithet.

99. An epithet is formed from non triliteral verbs upon their active participle form, for example:مُعتدِل . It is formed from triliteral verbs that denote color, defect, or trickery in the formأفعَل , for example:أسوَد . It is formed from triliteral verbs that do not denote such things in various forms that do not have a ruling, for example:کَریم .

Comparative and Superlative Nouns

100. What is a comparative/superlative noun?

101. How is a comparative/superlative noun formed?

102. How is a comparative/superlative noun formed from verbs that have more than three letters?

100. A comparative/superlative noun is a form that indicates a characteristic of something that is greater than something else, for example:یوسفُ أکبرُ من یُونس .

101. A comparative/superlative noun is formed from triliteral verbs on the formأفعَل . The conditions are that the verb is able to be conjugated, active, complete, positive, able to be compared, and does not indicate color, defects, or trickery, for example:أنتَ أعلَمُ من أخیکَ .

102. If one wants to form a comparative/superlative from verbs that have more than three letters or from verbs that indicate color, defects, or trickery one must mention its infinitive in the accusative case being a specificative afterأشدّ و أکثر or the likes. So it is said:هو أکثر احتراماً لأبیه .