Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English0%

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Supplications and Ziyarat

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Sheikh Abbas Al-Qummi
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: visits: 201803
Download: 58593

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English
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Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


Notes:

We worked on this book in several formats, because there was not any English translation of this book free downloadable in word, html and pdf as we have been searching it since last year except some parts of it on some sites.

The method of our work was as following:

1- We took the software (android) of Mafatih from the version of Erfan.ir

2- We transfered all parts even page by page into html format by sending one by one of them by sharing on our email: http://alhassanain2014@gmail.com

3- Then, we pasted them into unformatted text, and started to recheck whether there is any error or not, so, we found out that Surah al-Rum has only 26 verses, and like other errors.

4- We saw that this version does has not any chapterizing, so, we chapterized it according to the original text of Persian and then Arabic Translation of it.

5- .....

 

Despite of all we have done, if you see any error, please inform us on our email mentioned above, we welcome it and will try to recorrect as soon as possible.

 

May Allah accept our endeavours in His path, Amen!

Good Luck

http://www.alhassanain.org/english

SEVENTH CHAPTER: MUHARRAM

AAMAL FOR THE 1ST DAY & NIGHT OF THE MONTH OF MUHARRAM

The month of Muharram is the month of sadness for the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) and their followers. In this respect, Imam al-Rida(a.s.) is reported to have said, “With the beginning of Muharram, my father (a.s.) would never smile at all. He would be dominated by depression for ten days. The tenth of this month would be the day of his misfortune, sadness, and weeping. He used to say that on this day Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) was slain.”

THE FIRST NIGHT OF MUHARRAM

Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in Iqbal al-A’mal, has mentioned that a number of prayers should be advisably offered at this night:

First Prayer: A one hundred unit prayer with Surahs al-Faatehah and al-Tawheed.

Second Prayer: A two unit prayer at the first of which Surahs al-Faatehah and al-An’am (No. 6) are recited and at the second unit Surahs al-Faatehah and Yasin (No. 36).

Third Prayer: A two unit prayer at each of which Surah al-Faatehah is recited once and Surah al-Tawheed is repeated eleven times is offered.

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is reported to have said that whoever offers this prayer at this night and observes fasting the next day, which is the first day in the new year, the new year will be wholly good for him, and he will be saved throughout the year, and if he dies, he will be allowed Paradise.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has also mentioned a lengthy supplicatory prayer to be said at the sight of the new moon of Muharram.

THE FIRST DAY OF MUHARRAM

Being the first day in the new year, there are two acts that are advisably practiced on the first of Muharram:

First: It is recommended to observe fasting on this day. Rayyan ibn Shabib has reported that Imam al-Rida(a.s.) said, “Just as He responded to the prayer of Prophet Zachariah, Almighty Allah shall respond the prayer of one who observes fasting on this day and prays Him.”

Second: Imam al-Rida(a.s.) is reported to have said that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), on the first of Muharram, used to offer a two unit prayer. When he finished, he would raise his hands towards the heavens and repeat the following supplicatory prayer three times:

اللّٰهُمَّ اَنْتَ الْاِلَهُ الْقَدِيمُ وَ هَذِهِ سَنَةٌ جَدِيدَةٌ فَاَسْاَلُكَ فِيهَا الْعِصْمَةَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ وَ الْقُوَّةَ عَلَى هَذِهِ النَّفْسِ الْاَمَّارَةِ بِالسُّوءِ وَ الاشْتِغَالَ بِمَا يُقَرِّبُنِي اِلَيْكَ يَا كَرِيمُ يَا ذَا الْجَلالِ وَ الْاِكْرَامِ يَا عِمَادَ مَنْ لا عِمَادَ لَهُ يَا ذَخِيرَةَ مَنْ لا ذَخِيرَةَ لَهُ يَا حِرْزَ مَنْ لا حِرْزَ لَهُ يَا غِيَاثَ مَنْ لا غِيَاثَ لَهُ يَا سَنَدَ مَنْ لا سَنَدَ لَهُ يَا كَنْزَ مَنْ لا كَنْزَ لَهُ يَا حَسَنَ الْبَلاءِ يَا عَظِيمَ الرَّجَاءِ يَا عِزَّ الضُّعَفَاءِ يَا مُنْقِذَ الْغَرْقَى يَا مُنْجِيَ الْهَلْكَى يَا مُنْعِمُ يَا مُجْمِلُ يَا مُفْضِلُ يَا مُحْسِنُ، اَنْتَ الَّذِي سَجَدَ لَكَ سَوَادُ اللَّيْلِ وَ نُورُ النَّهَارِ وَ ضَوْءُ الْقَمَرِ وَ شُعَاعُ الشَّمْسِ وَ دَوِيُّ الْمَاءِ وَ حَفِيفُ الشَّجَرِ يَا اللّٰهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَكَ اللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْنَا خَيْرا مِمَّا يَظُنُّونَ وَ اغْفِرْ لَنَا مَا لا يَعْلَمُونَ وَ لا تُؤَاخِذْنَا بِمَا يَقُولُونَ حَسْبِيَ اللّٰهُ لا اِلَهَ اِلا هُوَ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَ هُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا وَ مَا يَذَّكَّرُ اِلا اُولُوا الْاَلْبَابِ رَبَّنَا لا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ اِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَ هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ

THE THIRD OF MUHARRAM

On this day, Prophet Joseph (a.s.) was freed from his prison. Hence, if one observes fasting on this day, Almighty Allah will make easy any difficulty he may face and will relieve any trouble that may face him. According to a Hadith reported from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Almighty Allah will respond to the prayer of him who observes fasting on this day.

THE NINTH OF MUHARRAM

The ninth of Muharram is called Tasu’a’.Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) is reported to have said, “On the ninth of Muharram, Imam al-Husayn, along with his companions, was besieged in Karbala’ when the Syrian horsemen surrounded him leaving for him but a narrow area. The son of Marjanah (i.e. ‘Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad) and ‘Umar ibn Sa’d were delighted due to the great numbers of the horsemen who participated in that encounter against Imam al-Husayn (a.s.). Thus, the enemy became sure that no supporter would join the army of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) and the people of Iraq, in particular, would not back him.” Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) then added, “May I sacrifice my father for the weak and the stranger (i.e. Imam al-Husayn).”

THE 10TH DAY & NIGHT OF MUHARRAM (ASHURA)

THE ‘ASHURA’ NIGHT

Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in Iqbal al-A’mal, has mentioned a number of supplicatory prayers and a big number of prayers that are advisably said and offered at this tenth night of Muharram. He has also cited the big rewards of saying and offering these supplications and prayers. For instance, it is recommended to offer a one hundred unit prayer with Surah al-Faatehah once and Surah al-Tawheed three times. After accomplishment, the doxological statements are repeated seventy times:

سُبْحَانَ اللّٰهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَ لا اِلَهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ وَ اللّٰهُ اَكْبَرُ وَ لا حَوْلَ وَ لا قُوَّةَ اِلا بِاللّٰهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ

According to another narration, one should implore for Almighty Allah’s forgiveness after the previously mentioned statements.

It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer at the last of this night, reciting Surah al-Faatehah once and repeating Ayah al-Kursi and Surahs al-Tawheed, al-Falaq, al-Nas ten times each. After accomplishment, Surah al-Tawheed is repeated one hundred times.

It is also recommended to offer a four unit prayer with Surah al-Faatehah once and Surah al-Tawheed fifty times. Matching the prayer of Imam AliAmeer al-Momineen(a.s.), which brings about a tremendous reward, Sayyid Ibn Tawus says after citing this prayer, “When you finish the fourth units, you may mention Almighty Allah, invoke blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, and curse their enemies as many times as possible.

As regarding the reward of spending this whole night with acts of worship, it has been narrated that one who does so shall be considered having worshipped Almighty Allah with the worship of all the angels. Furthermore, to practice acts of worship at this night is equal to seventy-year worship. Moreover, as for one who succeeds to visit the tomb of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) at this night and spends the whole night there up to morning, Almighty Allah shall resurrect him, on the Judgment Day, spotted with the blood of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) in the group of those who were martyred with him.

THE 10TH OF MUHARRAM (THE DAY OF ASHURA)

On this day, Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) was martyred. It is indeed the day of the calamitous misfortune and the day of grief for the Holy Imams (a.s.) and their adherents. Thus, the Shi’ah are required to stop earning any worldly benefit, stop storing anything in their houses, and devote themselves to weeping and mourning the misfortunes of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.). They are thus required to hold consolation ceremonies in the same way as they do for their dead sons and relatives. They are also required to visit the holy tomb of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) with the famous form of Ziyarah (Ziyarat ‘Ashura’) that will be later on cited in this book. They are also required to invoke curse upon the enemies and slayers of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) and to express sympathy to each other, saying,

اَعْظَمَ اللّٰهُ اُجُورَنَا بِمُصَابِنَا بِالْحُسَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَ جَعَلَنَا وَ اِيَّاكُمْ مِنَ الطَّالِبِينَ بِثَارِهِ مَعَ وَلِيِّهِ الْاِمَامِ الْمَهْدِيِّ مِنْ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِمُ [عَلَيْهِ‏] السَّلامُ.

The adherents (Shi’ah) of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) should confer the martyrdom of their Imam and should weep for him. It is narrated that when Prophet Moses (a.s.) was ordered to meet the Scholar, namely al-Khadir (a.s.),the first matter they discussed was the misfortune that the Household of Prophet Muhammad(a.s.) would face. They therefore wept heavily for these misfortunes.

Ibn ‘Abbas is reported to have said, “When I accompanied Imam Ali(a.s.) in Dhi-Qar, he took out a paper comprising the dictations of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and handwritten by Imam Ali(a.s.) himself. He read some segments of that paper and I heard. It contained the story of Imam al-Husayn’s martyrdom with full details of the way he would be killed, the person who would kill him, those who would support him, and those who would be martyred with him. Imam Ali(a.s.) then wept heavily and caused me to weep.”

There is not enough space in this book to mention a part of the story of Imam al-Husayn’s martyrdom; therefore, the complete story can be seen in the books specified for this respect. These books are called al-maqtal.

At any rate, if one offers water to people on this day at the holy tomb of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.), his reward will be similar to the reward of one who offered water to the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) at Karbala’. A great reward is also recorded for one who repeats Surah al-Tawheed one thousand times on this day. It is narrated that Almighty Allah shall have a merciful look at one who repeats this Surah one thousand times on this day.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned a supplicatory prayer similar to Dua al-Ashraat to be said on this day. More specifically, this supplicatory prayer seems to be the same as Dua al-Ashraat but according to another narration.

Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned that ‘Abdullah ibn Sinan reported from Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) a four unit prayer and a supplicatory prayer to be offered and said at the first hours of this day; but on account of briefness, they will not be cited in this book. They, however, can be seen in the book of Zad al-Ma’ad.

The adherents of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) are required not to eat or drink anything on this day, but not in the intention of ritual fasting, and to break this abstention from food and drink with a meal that is usually offered to the unfortunate people, such as yoghurt, milk, or the like meals; and that should be at the last hour of this day after the afternoon time. In other words, they should avoid having rich or delicious meals on this day, for it is a day of misfortune. They are also required to put on clean dresses and to unfasten the buttons and raise their sleeves just like the unfortunate people.

FORGERIES OF THE ENEMIES OF IMAM AL-HUSAYN

In Zad al-Ma’ad, ‘Allamah al-Majlisi says that it is preferable not to observe fasting on the ninth and tenth of Muharram because the Umayyads used to observe fasting on these two days in order to express delight for and to gloat over the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.). Having seen a good omen in the killing of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.), the Umayyads and their fans fabricated many lies against the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and falsely ascribed to him that he mentioned many merits to be the reward of those who would observe fasting on these two days. On the other hand, the Holy Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s.) are reported to have warned against observing fasting on these two days in general and on the tenth of Muhammad, the Day of ‘Ashura’, in particular.

The Umayyads - may Allah curse them - used to store up their annual nutriment in their houses on the tenth of Muharram; accordingly, Imam al-Rida(a.s.) is reported to have said, “If one refrains from arranging for any worldly benefit on the tenth of Muharram, Almighty Allah will grant him all his needs for this world and the world to come. If one considers the tenth of Muharram to be the day of his misfortune, sadness, and weeping, Almighty Allah will make the Resurrection Day the day of his delight and happiness; and he will be delighted by us in Paradise. If one considers the tenth of Muharram to be a blessed day and he thus stores up any annual nutriment on that day, Almighty Allah will not bless that which he stored up and will add him to the gang of Yazid, ‘Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, and ‘Umar ibn Sa’d - may Allah curse them all.”

In conclusion, it is required to suspend any worldly activity on this day and to devote oneself to weeping, mourning the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.), recalling his misfortunes, and ordering one’s family members to hold a consolation ceremony in the same way as one may hold for his dearest people. It is also required to abstain from eating and drinking up to the last hour of the day at which one may break the abstention with a drink of water at least, without intending ritual fasting, since to observe fasting on this day is discommended except in cases of obligatory fasting, such as vow fasting and the like. It is also required not to store up anything in the houses, not to laugh, not to entertain oneself, and not to play. It is recommended, on this day, to invoke Almighty Allah to lay curse on the slayers of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) one thousand times by saying following statement:

اللّٰهُمَّ الْعَنْ قَتَلَةَ الْحُسَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ

FORGERIES OF THE ENEMIES OF IMAM HUSAYN (A)

The summary of the aforementioned worthy essay of ‘Allamah al-Majlisi is that the reports that are ascribed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) concerning the merits of the tenth of Muharram, the Day of ‘Ashura’, are all in all fabricated. This topic has been discussed at length by the author of Shifa’ al-Sudurat explaining the famous Ziyarat ‘Ashura’ and, precisely, the statement that reads, “O Allah, verily, the descendants of Umayyah saw a good omen in this day... etc.”

The summary of the author’s explanation is as follows: The Umayyads used to regard this day as good omen and they thus used to do many things on it.

(1) They betook as custom on this day storing up the annual nutriment considering such to achieve happiness, good livelihood, and luxury up to the next year. In order to deny this bad habit, the Holy Imams (a.s.) warned against it in many narrations.

(2) They considered the tenth of Muharram a feast day on which they would commit to the manners of celebration, such as conferring upon the family members with whatever they need, procuring new clothes, having one’s mustache cut, trimming the nails, and shaking hands with each other as well as other norms.

(3) They and their fans have been observing fasting on the tenth of Muharram after they have fabricated numerous traditions entailing the significance of observing fasting on this day.

(4) They and their fans have declared that it is recommended to supplicate Almighty Allah on this day. In order to confirm this forgery, they have invented many merits for this day, included them with fabricated supplications, and taught them to the miscreants of the nation so that they would confuse people and make the matter ambiguous for them. The pro-Umayyad orators used to declare before people that a good event occurred to each Prophet on this day, such as that the fire that Nimrod the tyrannical ruler provoked in order to throw Prophet Abraham (a.s.) there was extinguished on the tenth of Muharram! Pharaoh who chased Prophet Moses (a.s.) was drowned on the tenth of Muharram! Prophet Jesus was saved from crucifixion on the tenth of Muharram!

Supporting this, Shaykh al-Saduq has reported that Jibillah al-Makkiyyah said that she heard Maytham al-Tammar - may Allah sanctify his soul - saying, “By Allah I swear, this nation will kill the grandson of their Prophet on the tenth of Muharram. The enemies of Allah will betake that day as blessed day. This shall inevitably take place, because it has been already cited in the eternal knowledge of Almighty Allah. I knew these facts from my master and the commander of the believers (namely, Imam Ali ibn Abi-Talib) (a.s.).”

Jibillah (the reporter) then said that she asked Maytham, “How come that the people will betake the day on which al-Husayn (a.s.) will be slain as blessed day?”

As he wept, Maytham answered, “They will fabricate traditions and will falsely claim that Almighty Allah accepted the repentance of Prophet Adam on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that Almighty Allah accepted the repentance of Prophet Adam (a.s.) in Dhi’l-Hijjah. They will falsely claim that Almighty Allah saved Prophet Jonah from the fish that had swallowed him on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that the event was in Dhi’l-Qa’dah. They will falsely claim that the Ark of Prophet Noah rested on Mount Judi on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that the Ark rested on the tenth of Dhi’l-Hijjah. They will falsely claim that Almighty Allah split the river for Prophet Moses to cross on the tenth of Muharram. The truth about this is that the event occurred in Rabi’ al-Awwal... etc.”

This narration of Maytham al-Tammar has, openly and plainly, confirmed that such traditions were invented and fabricated against the Holy Infallibles (a.s.). It is also one of the signs indicating the true Prophethood of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(a.s.) and the true Divinely commissioned leadership of the Holy Imams (a.s.). Finally, it acts as one of the proofs on the veracity and honesty of Shi’ism. In this narration, Imam Ali(a.s.) undoubtedly predicted that which we have been experiencing and witnessing, which is the fabrications and the forgery of lies against the Holy Infallibles (a.s.).

Despite all that, the most surprising thing is to notice that some people contrive a supplicatory prayer comprising the aforementioned lies and some unskilled and inexpert writers add such a fabricated supplication to their books that take their way to the publics who will then recite it, although it is surely forbidden to believe in such a false supplication, because it is fabricated. Beginning with statements of praise and glorification of Almighty Allah, this false supplication comprises statements such as “O He Who accepted the repentance of Adam on the Day of ‘Ashura’! O He Who raised Idris to the heavens on the Day of ‘Ashura’! O He Who made the Ark of Noah rest on Mount Judi on the Day of ‘Ashura’! O He Who saved Abraham from fire on the Day of ‘Ashura’... etc.”

Undoubtedly, this supplication was invented by the Nasibis (or Nawasib)of al-Madinah, the Khawarij of Muscat, or their likes who imitated the Umayyads in their wrongdoings against the Household of the Holy Prophet.

AAMAL FOR DAY OF ASHURA

At the last hours of the Day of ‘Ashura’, it is necessary to bring to mind the situation of Imam al-Husayn’s harem at those hours when they were taken as captives in Karbala’ while they were unimaginably depressed and unfortunate that they could do nothing but weeping. No author can ever describe the actual manner of Imam al-Husayn’s harem, daughters, and children at these hours since the misfortunes that they had to encounter had never stricken any human being on this earth.

فاجِعَةٌ اِنْ اَرَدْتُ اَکْتُبُهامُجْمَلَةً ذِکْرَةً لِمُدِّکِرٍ

جَرَتْ دُمُوعى فَحالَ حائِلُهاما بَیْنَ لَحْظِ الْجُفُونِ وَالزُّبُرِ

وَقالَ قَلْبى بُقْیا عَلَىَّ فَلاوَاللّهِ ما قَدْ طُبِعْتُ مِنْ حَجَرٍ

بَکَتْلَهَاالاْرْضُوَالسَّماَّءُوَمابَیْنَهُما فى مَدامِعٍ حُمُرٍ

ZIYARAH OF CONDOLENCE TO HOLY PROPHET (S) AND HIS IMMACULATE PROGENY

After that, it is recommended to stand up and address and offer condolences to the Holy Prophet, Imam Ali, Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’, Imam al-Hasan, and the Holy Imams from the offspring of Imam al-Husayn - the chief of martyrs - on these astounding misfortunes with passionate heart and teary eyes. Then, it is recommended to address them with the following form of Ziyarah:

السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ آدَمَ صَفْوَةِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ نُوحٍ نَبِيِّ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ اِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ مُوسَى كَلِيمِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ عِيسَى رُوحِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ مُحَمَّدٍ حَبِيبِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ عَلِيٍّ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيِّ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ الْحَسَنِ الشَّهِيدِ سِبْطِ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ الْبَشِيرِ النَّذِيرِ وَ ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ فَاطِمَةَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا خِيَرَةَ اللّٰهِ وَ ابْنَ خِيَرَتِهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ثَارَ اللّٰهِ وَ ابْنَ ثَارِهِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا الْوِتْرُ الْمَوْتُورُ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ اَيُّهَا الْاِمَامُ الْهَادِي الزَّكِيُّ وَ عَلَى اَرْوَاحٍ حَلَّتْ بِفِنَائِكَ وَ اَقَامَتْ فِي جِوَارِكَ وَ وَفَدَتْ مَعَ زُوَّارِكَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ مِنِّي مَا بَقِيتُ وَ بَقِيَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ فَلَقَدْ عَظُمَتْ بِكَ الرَّزِيَّةُ وَ جَلَّ الْمُصَابُ فِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَ فِي اَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ اَجْمَعِينَ وَ فِي سُكَّانِ الْاَرَضِينَ فَاِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَ اِنَّا اِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ وَ صَلَوَاتُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ وَ تَحِيَّاتُهُ عَلَيْكَ وَ عَلَى آبَائِكَ الطَّاهِرِينَ الطَّيِّبِينَ الْمُنْتَجَبِينَ وَ عَلَى ذَرَارِيِّهِمُ الْهُدَاةِ الْمَهْدِيِّينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلايَ وَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ عَلَى رُوحِكَ وَ عَلَى اَرْوَاحِهِمْ وَ عَلَى تُرْبَتِكَ وَ عَلَى تُرْبَتِهِمْ اللّٰهُمَّ لَقِّهِمْ رَحْمَةً وَ رِضْوَانا وَ رَوْحا وَ رَيْحَانا السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلايَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ يَا ابْنَ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ، وَ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّينَ وَ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا شَهِيدُ يَا ابْنَ الشَّهِيدِ يَا اَخَ الشَّهِيدِ يَا اَبَا الشُّهَدَاءِ اللّٰهُمَّ بَلِّغْهُ عَنِّي فِي هَذِهِ السَّاعَةِ وَ فِي هٰذَا الْيَوْمِ وَ فِي هٰذَا الْوَقْتِ وَ فِي كُلِّ وَقْتٍ تَحِيَّةً كَثِيرَةً وَ سَلاما سَلامُ اللّٰهِ عَلَيْكَ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ عَلَى الْمُسْتَشْهَدِينَ مَعَكَ سَلاما مُتَّصِلا مَا اتَّصَلَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الشَّهِيدِ السَّلامُ عَلَى عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ الشَّهِيدِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الشَّهِيدِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحَسَنِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَى الشُّهَدَاءِ مِنْ وُلْدِ جَعْفَرٍ وَ عَقِيلٍ السَّلامُ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْتَشْهَدٍ مَعَهُمْ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ. اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ بَلِّغْهُمْ عَنِّي تَحِيَّةً كَثِيرَةً وَ سَلاما السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللّٰهِ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكَ الْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكِ يَا فَاطِمَةُ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكِ الْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكِ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكَ الْعَزَاءَ فِي وَلَدِكَ الْحُسَيْنِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ الْحَسَنَ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ لَكَ الْعَزَاءَ فِي اَخِيكَ الْحُسَيْنِ يَا مَوْلايَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ اَنَا ضَيْفُ اللّٰهِ وَ ضَيْفُكَ وَ جَارُ اللّٰهِ وَ جَارُكَ وَ لِكُلِّ ضَيْفٍ وَ جَارٍ قِرًى وَ قِرَايَ فِي هٰذَا الْوَقْتِ اَنْ تَسْاَلَ اللّٰهَ سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى اَنْ يَرْزُقَنِي فَكَاكَ رَقَبَتِي مِنَ النَّارِ اِنَّهُ سَمِيعُ الدُّعَاءِ قَرِيبٌ مُجِيبٌ.

THE TWENTY-FIFTH OF MUHARRAM

Imam Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-’Abidin(a.s.) departed life on the twenty-fifth of Muharram, AH 94, or on the twelfth of Muharram AH 95, which was called the Year of Scholars.

EIGHTH CHAPTER: SAFAR

THE MONTH OF SAFAR

The month of Safar is well-known for bringing bad luck; and nothing can remove bad luck except almsgiving, supplication to Almighty Allah, and traditional supplications of seeking His protection against Satan and bad things.

Al-Muhaddith al-Fayd and other scholars have mentioned that if you desire to be saved from the misfortunes and bad luck of the month of Safar, you may repeat the following supplicatory prayer ten times every day in this month:

يَا شَدِيدَ الْقُوَى وَ يَا شَدِيدَ الْمِحَالِ يَا عَزِيزُ يَا عَزِيزُ يَا عَزِيزُ ذَلَّتْ بِعَظَمَتِكَ جَمِيعُ خَلْقِكَ فَاكْفِنِي شَرَّ خَلْقِكَ يَا مُحْسِنُ يَا مُجْمِلُ يَا مُنْعِمُ يَا مُفْضِلُ يَا لا اِلَهَ اِلا اَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ اِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ وَ نَجَّيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْغَمِّ وَ كَذَلِكَ نُنْجِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ الطَّيِّبِينَ الطَّاهِرِينَ.

As for Sayyid Ibn Tawus, he has mentioned a supplicatory prayer that is said at the sight the new moon of Safar.

THE FIRST DAY OF SAFAR

On the first of Safar, AH 37, the battle of Siffin broke out. According to some narrations, on this day in AH 61, the head of Imam al-Husayn, the chief of martyrs, entered the city of Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad rulers, on spearheads after it had been carried to it from al-Kufah, Iraq. Therefore, the Umayyads betook that day as feast day. A poet says,

كانت مآتم بالعراق تعدهاأموية بالشام من أعيادها

In fact, on this day, the grievances of Imam al-Husayn’s adherents should be aroused.

According to some narrations, on the first, or the third, of Safar, Zayd ibn Ali ibn al-Husayn was martyred.

THE THIRD OF SAFAR

Sayyid Ibn Tawus writes down on the authority of the books of some Imamiyyah scholars that it is recommended, on the third of Safar, to offer a two unit prayer at the first of which Surah al-Faatehah and Surah al-Fath (No. 48) should be recited and at the second, Surah al-Faatehah and Surah al-Tawheed should be recited. After accomplishment, invocation of blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, invocation of curse upon the Umayyad, and imploration for forgiveness repeated one hundred times each. After all that, one may pray for granting his needs. The invocation of curse upon the Umayyads should be in the following form:

اللّهمّ العن ال ابى سفيان

THE SEVENTH OF SAFAR

According to the opinions of al-Shahid and al-Kaf’ami, Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba(a.s.) was martyred on the seventh of Safar, AH 50. As for the two Shaykhs, Imam al-Hasan (a.s.) was martyred on the twenty-eighth of Safar.

On the seventh of Safar, AH 128, Imam Musa ibn Ja’far al-Kazim (a.s.) was born at al-Abwa’ - a place between Makkah and al-Madinah.

20TH SAFAR (ARBAEEN - 40TH DAY)

In the word of the two Shaykhs, on the twenties of Safar, the harem of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) arrived in al-Madinah returning from Syria. On this day too, Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ansari, the first to visit the tomb of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.), arrived there. It is recommended to visit the holy tomb of Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) on this day. Concerning this, Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari(a.s.) is reported to have said:

“The signs of a true believer are five: (1) offering a fifty-one units of Daily obligatory and supererogatory prayers, (2) visiting the tomb of Imam al-Husayn on the twentieth of Safar (i.e. Ziyarat al-Arba’in), (3) putting a ring in the right hand, (4) covering one’s forehead with dust (i.e. prostrating oneself to Almighty Allah earnestly), and (5) repeating the Basmalah (Bismil-lahir-rahmanir-rahim: In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful) audibly in certain prayers.

In Tahdhib al-Ahkam and al-Misbah, Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned a form of Ziyarah that is dedicated to this day. Later in the book, this form will be cited.

28TH OF SAFAR

On the twenty-eight of Safar, AH 11, the Holy Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets, departed life. As is unanimously agreed, it was Monday. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was sixty-three years old when he departed life. At the age of forty, he was commissioned, by Almighty Allah, to convey the Divine Mission; and Archangel Gabriel began conveying to him the commandments of Almighty Allah and the Divine Revelation. At Makkah, he invited people to follow the religion of monotheism for thirteen years. He then immigrated to al-Madinah at the age of fifty-three. He departed life in the tenth year after his immigration (Hegira). Hence, Imam AliAmeer al-Momineen(a.s.) did the funeral rituals and then offered the ritual Prayer of the Dead for his soul. The companions, in groups, then would come near him to offer prayers individually without having any imam to lead them in prayer. Imam Ali(a.s.) buried him in the holy room where he - may Allah send peace and blessings upon him and his Household - departed life.

It has been narrated that Anas ibn Malik said, “As soon as we accomplished the ceremonies of burying the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Lady Fatimah (a.s.) came to me and said, ‘How could you be bold enough to pile up soil on the face of the Messenger of Allah?’ She then wept and shouted, ‘Oh for my father whose prayers were responded by the Lord! Oh for my father; how nigh he is from his Lord!’…etc.”

According to a considerable narration, Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) took a handful of the soil of the Holy Prophet’s tomb, put it between her eyes, and said,

مَا ذَا عَلَى الْمُشْتَمِّ تُرْبَةَ اَحْمَدَاَنْ لا يَشَمَّ مَدَى الزَّمَانِ غَوَالِيَا

صُبَّتْ عَلَيَّ مَصَائِبُ لَوْ اَنَّهَاصُبَّتْ عَلَى الْاَيَّامِ صِرْنَ لَيَالِيَا

In his book of al-Durr al-Nazim, Shaykh Yusuf al-Shami has mentioned that Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) composed the following verses, elegizing her father (s.a.w.a.):

قُلْ لِلْمُغَيَّبِ تَحْتَ اَطْبَاقِ الثَّرَىاِنْ كُنْتَ تَسْمَعُ صَرْخَتِي وَ نِدَائِيَا

صُبَّتْ عَلَيَّ مَصَائِبُ لَوْ اَنَّهَاصُبَّتْ عَلَى الْاَيَّامِ صِرْنَ لَيَالِيَا

قَدْ كُنْتُ ذَاتَ حِمًى بِظِلِّ مُحَمَّدٍلا اَخْشَ مِنْ ضَيْمٍ وَ كَانَ حِمَیً لِيَا

فَالْيَوْمَ اَخْضَعُ لِلذَّلِيلِ وَ اَتَّقِيضَيْمِي وَ اَدْفَعُ ظَالِمِي بِرِدَائِيَا

فَاِذَا بَكَتْ قُمْرِيَّةٌ فِي لَيْلِهَاشَجَنا عَلَى غُصْنٍ بَكَيْتُ صَبَاحِيَا

فَلَاَجْعَلَنَّ الْحُزْنَ بَعْدَكَ مُونِسِيوَ لَاَجْعَلَنَّ الدَّمْعَ فِيكَ وِشَاحِيَا

THE LAST DAY OF SAFAR

According to the narration of al-Yabirsi and Ibn al-Athir, Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Rida(a.s.) was martyred on the last day of Safar, AH 203, because of poison that was mixed with grapes and offered to him. He was fifty-five years old when he departed life. His tomb was at the house of Hamid ibn Qahtabah in the village of Sanabad in the city of Yus. In the same house, Harun, the ‘Abbasid ruler, was buried, too.

NINTH CHAPTER: RABI AL AWWAL

1ST, 8TH & 9TH OF RABI AL AWWAL

1ST NIGHT OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

At the first night of Rabi’ al-Awwal, twelve years after the outset of his Divine Mission, the Holy Prophet migrated from Makkah to al-Madinah. At this night, he hid in Cave Thawr. Imam Ali(a.s.) sacrificed himself for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) at this night, when he spent the night in the place of the Holy Prophet so as to give the latter enough time to leave Makkah safely and to arrive at his destination. Imam Ali(a.s.) challenged the polytheists who had plotted to assassinate the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) by attacking him in his bed collectively. Thus, everybody confessed of Imam Ali’s bravery and courage, as well as his love for and fraternity with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Immortalizing this event, Almighty Allah revealed the following holy verse: “And among men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Affectionate to the servants. 2/207”

1ST DAY OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

Scholars maintain that it is recommended to observe fasting on this day to express gratitude to Almighty Allah for His marvelous favor of having saved the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali - peace be upon them and their Household. It is also appropriate to visit their holy tombs on this day. In Iqbal al-A’mal, Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned a supplicatory prayer to be said on this day.

According to Shaykh al-Tusi and al-Kaf’ami, Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari(a.s.) departed life on this day. Yet, the most familiar report is that the Imam (a.s.) departed life on the eighth of Rabi’ al-Awwal. Probably, his ailment began on this day.

8TH OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

On the eighth of Rabi’ al-Awwal AH 260, Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari departed life; and his son, the Patron of the Age, was appointed as the twelfth Imam. It is thus appropriate to visit both of them on this day.

9TH OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

The ninth of Rabi’ al-Awwal is a feast day, which is called ‘Id al-Baqr (Feast of Stabbing). The details are so lengthy; therefore, we will omit them, and they may be investigated in other books.

It has been narrated that to give alms on this day brings about forgiveness of sins. It has been also said that it is recommended, on this day, to offer food, give pleasure to one’s brethren-in-faith, confer upon one’s family members with gifts, new clothes, and all that they need, praise and thank Almighty Allah, and practice acts of worship to Him. This day, which is also a holy day, is thus the day of removing grievances and sorrows. As the past day was the day of Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari’s martyrdom, the ninth of Rabi’ al-Awwal is thus the first day in the Imamate of Imam al-Mahdi, may Allah hasten his advent. This is an additional point of happiness on this day.

AAMAL FROM 12TH TO 17TH NIGHTS OF RABI AL AWWAL

12TH OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

According to the opinion of al-Kulayni and al-Mas’udi, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was born on the twelfth of Rabi’ al-Awwal. This is also the unanimous opinion of the other Muslim sects. It is thus recommended to offer a two unit prayer with Surah al-Faatehah once and Surah al-Tawheed three times at the first unit, and Surah al-Faatehah once and Surah al-Kafirun (No. 109) three times at the second.

On this day too, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) entered the holy city of al-Madinah after he had left Makkah.

Shaykh al-Tusi adds that on this day in AH 132, the Marwanid Dynasty perished.

14TH OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

On the fourteenth of Rabi’ al-Awwal AH 64, Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah, the Umayyad tyrant, perished and, thus, hurried to join the lowest stage of Hellfire. According to the book of Akhbar al-Duwal, Yazid was infected by pleurisy in Hawran. His dead body was thus moved to Damascus where he was buried in al-Bab al-Saghir. His grave is now a dunghill. He lived thirty-seven years and ruled for three years and nine months.

17TH NIGHT OF RABI’ AL-AWWAL

At the seventeenth night of Rabi’ al-Awwal, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the Seal of the Prophets, was born. It is thus a very blessed night.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has narrated that one year before Hegira, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) ascended to the seven heavens at the seventeenth night of Rabi’ al-Awwal.

17TH OF RABI AL AWWAL (BIRTHDAY OF HOLY PROPHET (S))

The seventeenth of Rabi’ al-Awwal is the birthday of the Holy Prophet, Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah - may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his Household. This is the famous opinion adopted by the Imamiyyah scholars. It is well-known that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was born in Makkah, in his house, at the break of the morning of Friday in the year known as “The Elephant Year” during the reign of the Anushirwan, the fair king of Persia (also called Khosrow the Just).

Also, on the seventeenth of Rabi’ al-Awwal, AH 83, Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq(a.s.) was born. This event has added further honor to this day.

In brief, the devotional acts that should be practiced on this holy day are as follows:

First: it is recommended to bathe oneself on this day.

Second: It is recommended to observe fasting on this day, since this brings about many rewards. In this respect, it is narrated that to observe fasting on this day brings about the reward of observing fasting for a whole year. It is, in fact, one of the four days the observance of fasting on which has been exclusively confirmed.

Third: It is recommended to visit the tomb of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) from near or remote distance.

Fourth: It is recommended to visit the tomb of Imam AliAmeer al-Momineen(a.s.) with the form of Ziyarah that Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq(a.s.) taught to Muhammad ibn Muslim. This form will be cited in the coming book of Ziyarat.

Fifth: It is recommended to offer, in the forenoon, a two unit prayer and to recite at each of which Surah al-Faatehah once and repeat Surah al-Qadr ten times and Surah al-Tawheed ten times. After accomplished, it is recommended to sit in one’s place of prayer and say the supplicatory prayer that begins with the following statement:

اللّهمّ انت حىّ لا تموت

Because I could not find this lengthy supplicatory prayer reported from any of the Holy Infallibles (a.s.), I will not mention it herein for fear of lengthiness. Yet, it is found in the book of Zad al-Ma’ad.

Sixth: Muslims are advised to honor this day; they may give alms, do righteous deeds, give pleasure to the brethren-in-faith, and visit the holy mausoleums. In Iqbal al-A’mal, Sayyid Ibn Tawus has expatiated upon the necessity of honoring this day, saying, “I noticed that Christians and some Muslims honor the birthday of Prophet Jesus (a.s.) in a matchless, remarkable way. I thus wonder how those Muslims accept to honor the birthday of their Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in a way less than their honoring another Prophet!”b

TENTH CHAPTER: RABI AL SAANI & JAMADI AL ULA & JAMADI AL AKHIRAH

AAMAL OF THE MONTH OF RABI AL SAANI & JAMADI AL ULA

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned a supplicatory prayer that is exclusively said at the beginning of these three months.

10th RABI AL SAANI

Shaykh al-Mufid has mentioned that on the tenth of Rabi’ al Saani, AH 232, Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari(a.s.) was born. It is thus a holy day on which it is recommended to observe fasting as thanks to Almighty Allah for this splendid favor.

13TH, 14TH, AND 15TH OF JUMADI AL ULA

It is proper to visit Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) and to hold consolation ceremonies on these three days, for it has been narrated that she lived after her father only seventy-five days. Accordingly, she must have departed life on one of these three days because the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) departed life on the twenty-eighth of Safar.

On the fifteenth of Jumadi al Ula, AH 36, Imam AliAmeer al-Momineen(a.s.) conquered the city of al-Basrah. Also, Imam Zayn al-’Abidin(a.s.) was born on this day; therefore, it is proper to visit both the Imams (a.s.) on this day.

AAMAL IN JAMADI AL AKHIRAH

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned that, at any time in the month of Jumada al-Akhirah, it is recommended to offer a four unit prayer each two alone. In the first unit, Surah al-Faatehah is recited once, Ayah al-Kursi once, and Surah al-Qadr repeated twenty-five times. In the second unit, Surah al-Faatehah is recited once, Surah al-Takathur (No. 102) once, and Surah al-Tawheed repeated twenty-five times. In the third unit, Surah al-Faatehah is recited once, Surah al-Kafirun (No. 109) once, and Surah al-Falaq (No. 113) repeated twenty-five times. In the fourth unit, Surah al-Faatehah is recited once, Surah al-Nasr (No. 110) once, and Surah al-Nas (No. 114) repeated twenty-five times. After the accomplishment of the four units, it is recommended to repeat the following doxological prayer seventy times:

سُبْحَانَ اللّٰهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَ لا اِلَهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ وَ اللّٰهُ اَكْبَرُ

The following invocation of blessings may be repeated seven times, too:

اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

After that, the following imploration is repeated three times:

اللّٰهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ

After that, one should prostrate and repeat the following three times:

يَا حَيُّ يَا قَيُّومُ يَا ذَا الْجَلالِ وَ الْاِكْرَامِ يَا اللّٰهُ يَا رَحْمَانُ يَا رَحِيمُ يَا اَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ

Then, one may pray Almighty Allah for granting one’s requests.

If one does all this, he, as well as his property, wife, sons, religion, and worldly affairs, will be saved up to the next year. If he dies during that year, he will be rewarded as martyred.