Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English0%

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Supplications and Ziyarat

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Sheikh Abbas Al-Qummi
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: visits: 227409
Download: 66609

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English
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Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


Notes:

We worked on this book in several formats, because there was not any English translation of this book free downloadable in word, html and pdf as we have been searching it since last year except some parts of it on some sites.

The method of our work was as following:

1- We took the software (android) of Mafatih from the version of Erfan.ir

2- We transfered all parts even page by page into html format by sending one by one of them by sharing on our email: http://alhassanain2014@gmail.com

3- Then, we pasted them into unformatted text, and started to recheck whether there is any error or not, so, we found out that Surah al-Rum has only 26 verses, and like other errors.

4- We saw that this version does has not any chapterizing, so, we chapterized it according to the original text of Persian and then Arabic Translation of it.

5- .....

 

Despite of all we have done, if you see any error, please inform us on our email mentioned above, we welcome it and will try to recorrect as soon as possible.

 

May Allah accept our endeavours in His path, Amen!

Good Luck

http://www.alhassanain.org/english

3RD JAMADI AL AKHIRAH (MARTYRDOM OF LADY FATIMAH AL-ZAHRA (S))

On the third of Jamadi al-Akhirah, AH 11, Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) departed life. The Shi’ah are thus required to hold consolation ceremonies, visit her, and curse those who wronged her and usurped her right.

As he mentions that Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) departed life on this day, Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in Iqbal al-A’mal, has mentioned the following form of Ziyarah that is dedicated to her:

السَّلامُ عَلَيْكِ يَا سَيِّدَةَ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكِ يَا وَالِدَةَ الْحُجَجِ عَلَى النَّاسِ اَجْمَعِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكِ اَيَّتُهَا الْمَظْلُومَةُ الْمَمْنُوعَةُ حَقَّهَا اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى اَمَتِكَ وَ ابْنَةِ نَبِيِّكَ وَ زَوْجَةِ وَصِيِّ نَبِيِّكَ صَلاةً تُزْلِفُهَا فَوْقَ زُلْفَى عِبَادِكَ الْمُكَرَّمِينَ مِنْ اَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ اَهْلِ الْاَرَضِينَ

It has been narrated that if one visits Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) with this form of Ziyarah and then implores for Almighty Allah’s forgiveness, Almighty Allah will forgive his sins and allow him Paradise.

This very form of Ziyarah has also been mentioned by the son of Sayyid Ibn Tawus in his book entitled Zawa’id al-Fawa’id adding that it is dedicated to the day of Lady Fatimah’s demise, which is the third of Jumada al-Akhirah. He adds that the method of saying this Ziyarah is to begin with offering the Ziyarah Prayer or the prayer of Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.), which is a two unit prayer at each of which Surah al-Faatehah is recited once and Surah al-Tawheed repeated sixty times if possible, otherwise Surah al-Faatehah and Surah al-Tawheed are recited in the first unit and Surah al-Faatehah and Surah al-Kafirun in the second. After accomplishment, the aforementioned form of Ziyarah is recited.

20TH JAMADI AL AKHIRAH (BIRTHDAY OF LADY FATIMA AL-ZAHRA (S))

On the twentieth of Jamadi al-Akhirah, Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) was born five or two years after the beginning of the Holy Prophet’s Divine Mission. It is appropriate to practice the following rites on this day:

First: It is proper to observe fasting.

Second: It is recommended to give alms and offer good things to the believers.

Third: It is recommended to visit Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’(a.s.) - the Doyenne of the women of this world as well as the world to come - by saying the forms of Ziyarah, which will be cited in the coming book.

GENERAL AAMAL OF EACH MONTHS

The general rites to be advisably done in each month are as follows:

First: It is recommended to say the famous supplicatory prayers at the sight of the new moon. The most preferable of these is the supplication No. 43 of al-Sahifah al-Sajjadiyyah, which has been mentioned within the rites at the beginning of Ramadan.

Second: It is recommended to recite Surah al-Faatehah seven times in order to escape eye ache.

Third: It is recommended to have some cheese, for it has been narrated that one who usually eats some cheese at the beginning of each month will have almost all his requests answered.

Fourth: At the first night of each month, it is recommended to offer a two unit prayer with Surah al-Faatehah and Surah al-An’am (No. 6). One may then pray Almighty Allah to save him from any terror or pain and to make him live throughout that month peacefully and safely.

Fifth: On the first day of each month, it is recommended to offer a two unit prayer in the first unit of which, Surah al-Faatehah is recited once and Surah al-Tawheed repeated thirty times. In the second unit, Surah al-Faatehah is recited once and Surah al-Qadr repeated thirty times. After accomplishment, alms should be given. Whoever offers this prayer each month, will win safety throughout that month. According to other narrations, the following supplicatory prayer, which is a number of Quranic verses, may be said after the accomplishment of the prayer:

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَ مَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ فِي الْاَرْضِ اِلا عَلَى اللّٰهِ رِزْقُهَا وَ يَعْلَمُ مُسْتَقَرَّهَا وَ مُسْتَوْدَعَهَا كُلٌّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَ اِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللّٰهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلا كَاشِفَ لَهُ اِلا هُوَ وَ اِنْ يُرِدْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَلا رَادَّ لِفَضْلِهِ يُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ سَيَجْعَلُ اللّٰهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْرا مَا شَاءَ اللّٰهُ لا قُوَّةَ اِلا بِاللّٰهِ حَسْبُنَا اللّٰهُ وَ نِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ وَ اُفَوِّضُ اَمْرِي اِلَى اللّٰهِ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ لا اِلَهَ اِلا اَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ اِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ رَبِّ اِنِّي لِمَا اَنْزَلْتَ اِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ رَبِّ لا تَذَرْنِي فَرْدا وَ اَنْتَ خَيْرُ الْوَارِثِينَ

ELEVENTH CHAPTER: NOVROZ & ROMAN CALENDAR MONTHS

AAMAL OF THE DAY OF NAVROZ

Addressing al-Mu’alla ibn Khunays, Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) said: On the Nayruz Day (the 21st of March; the new day in the Persian Calendar), bathe yourself, put on the cleanest of your clothes, perfume yourself with the best fragrance you have, and, before everything, you must be observing fasting. When you accomplish the supererogatory prayers and offer the Zohr and Asr (obligatory) Prayers, add a four unit prayer, each two alone, in the first of which you may recite Surah al-Faatehah once and repeat Surah al-Qadr ten times. In the second unit, you recite Surah al-Faatehah once and repeat Surah al-Kafirun ten times. In the third, you recite Surah al-Faatehah once and repeat Surah al-Tawheed ten times. In the fourth, you recite Surah al-Faatehah once and repeat Surah al-Nas ten times. After accomplishing this prayer, you may prostrate yourself and say the following:

اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْاَوْصِيَاءِ الْمَرْضِيِّينَ وَ عَلَى جَمِيعِ اَنْبِيَائِكَ وَ رُسُلِكَ بِاَفْضَلِ صَلَوَاتِكَ وَ بَارِكْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِاَفْضَلِ بَرَكَاتِكَ وَ صَلِّ عَلَى اَرْوَاحِهِمْ وَ اَجْسَادِهِمْ اللّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ بَارِكْ لَنَا فِي يَوْمِنَا هٰذَا الَّذِي فَضَّلْتَهُ وَ كَرَّمْتَهُ وَ شَرَّفْتَهُ وَ عَظَّمْتَ خَطَرَهُ اللّٰهُمَّ بَارِكْ لِي فِيمَا اَنْعَمْتَ بِهِ عَلَيَّ حَتَّى لا اَشْكُرَ اَحَدا غَيْرَكَ وَ وَسِّعْ عَلَيَّ فِي رِزْقِي يَا ذَا الْجَلالِ وَ الْاِكْرَامِ اللّٰهُمَّ مَا غَابَ عَنِّي فَلا يَغِيبَنَّ عَنِّي عَوْنُكَ وَ حِفْظُكَ وَ مَا فَقَدْتُ مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَلا تُفْقِدْنِي عَوْنَكَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى لا اَتَكَلَّفَ مَا لا اَحْتَاجُ اِلَيْهِ يَا ذَا الْجَلالِ وَ الْاِكْرَامِ.

If you do and say so, your sins of fifty years will be forgiven. You may repeat the following saying as many as possible:

يا ذالجلال و الاكرام‏

AAMAL ACCORDING TO ROMAN CALENDAR

In this section, I will mention only the recommended acts that are mentioned in the book of Zad al-Ma’ad.

RAINWATER OF APRIL

Sayyid Ibn Tawus, the supreme scholar, has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), once, joined a group of his companions who were sitting in a session. He greeted them and they responded. He then said, “Do you mind if I tell you about a medicine, conveyed to me by Archangel Gabriel, that I will not need any of the ordinary medicines if I use it?” (Imam) Ali, Salman, and others asked, “What medicine is that?” Addressing his words to Imam Ali, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) answered, “You should collect the rainwater of April and recite on it Surah al-Faatehah, Ayah al-Kursi, Surah al-Tawheed, Surah al-Falaq, Surah al-Nas, and Surah al-Kafirun each one seventy times. [According to another narration, Surah al-Qadr, the statement Allahu-akbar (Allah is the Greatest), the statement la-ilaha-illal-lah (There is no god but Allah), and the invocation of blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household –i.e. Allahumma salli ‘alaMuhammadin waali Muhammad- all these are added, each one seventy times] Then, you should drink from that rainfall for seven successive days every morning and evening. I swear by Him Who has chosen me as prophet of the Truth, Archangel Gabriel has told me that Almighty Allah will remove from whoever drinks from that water every physical defect, will make well his body, bones, and all organs, will erase that (tribulation) from the Reserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfuz). I swear by Him Who has chosen me as prophet of the Truth, if one who has not been yet given offspring drinks from that water, he will be given offspring; and if a barren woman drinks from that water, Almighty Allah will give her a baby and she will bear a fetus of the sex she likes (i.e. male or female). Corroborating this, the Holy Qur’an reads, ‘He bestows (children) male or female according to His Will (and Plan) or He bestows both males and females, and He leaves barren whom He will. 42/50’If a headache infected one drinks from that water, his headache will remove by the will of Almighty Allah. One is infected in his eye may drop from that water in his eye, drink from it, and wash his eye with it. Besides, this water strengthens the teeth ridge, makes the mouth smell good, stops saliva that comes from the teeth ridge, stops phlegm, indigestion, gases, backache, stomach troubles, flue complications, toothache, belly troubles, and larvae, dispenses of cupping, saves from hemorrhoids, scratching, measles, lunacy, leprosy, elephantiasis, nosebleed, nausea, blindness, dumbness, deafness, lameness, aqueous humor, diseases spoiling prayers and fasting, and devilish inspirations.”

The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) then added, “Archangel Gabriel said to me, ‘Whoever drinks from that water, will be completely cured even if he is infected by all diseases in the world. I swear by Him Who has sent you with the truth, if one recites these verses on this rainwater and drinks from it, Almighty Allah will fill his heart with illumination and light, cast inspiration in his intellect, make wisdom flow on his tongue, load his mind with understanding and discerning, bestow upon him with conferrals that He has not given to any of His beings, send to him one thousand items of forgiveness and one thousand items of mercy, and dismiss cheating, betrayal, backbiting, envy, oppression, arrogance, stinginess, parsimony, rage, enmity, malice, calumny, and slander out of his heart.’ In brief, this rainwater is the remedy of all maladies.”

In fact, this famous narration is reported from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar; therefore, its chain of authority is considered doubtful. Yet, I have found the same narration handwritten by Shaykh al-Shahid on the authority of Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) with the same advantages and recitations except that the order is as follows: In April, you may collect rainwater and recite on it Surah al-Faatehah, Ayah al-Kursi, Surah al-Kafirun, Surah al-A’la, Surah al-Falaq, Surah al-Nas, and Surah al-Tawheed each one seventy times. Then, repeat the following invocations and doxological statements seventy times each: “Allahumma salli ‘alaMuhammadin waali Muhammad”, “subhanallahi wal-hamdulillahi wala-ilaha-illAllahu wAllahu akbar.”

In addition to the previous effects, it has been narrated that if a prisoner drinks from that water, he will be released; and drinking from this rainwater saves from frigidity.

Generally speaking, rainwater, whether collected in April or any other month, is blessed and effective. This meaning is confirmed by Imam Ali(a.s.) whom is reported to have said, “Drink from rainwater, for it purifies the bodies and removes maladies.” Confirming this, Almighty Allah says, “He sent down water from the sky upon you that thereby He might purify you and remove from you the fear of Satan and make strong your hearts and firm your feet thereby. (8:11)”

When a group of people gather for reciting these Surahs and statements, it is highly recommended that each individual repeats these Surahs and statements seventy times alone since effects and rewards will be greater for those who recite directly.

It is worth mentioning that April, which is thirty days, begins eleven days after the vernal equinox.

JUNE

Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) is reported to have said, “Do not omit cupping in June. If you miss it, try to do it on the fourteenth of it.”

June is also thirty days. It begins seventy-one days after the vernal equinox.

June is an inauspicious month, as is confirmed by Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) who is reported to have said to those who mentioned June before him, “In this month, (Prophet) Moses invoked Almighty Allah’s curse upon the Israelites; therefore, three hundred thousands Israelites died in a single day and night.”

According to another considerable narration, Imam al-Sadiq(a.s.) said, “Verily, Almighty Allah expedites deaths in June.”

It is worth mentioning that the months of the Roman Calendar are solar; that is, they are accounted according to the march of the sun. Twelve in number, these months are October, November, December, January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September. November, April, June, and September are composed of thirty days; while the other months are thirty-one days except February whose days are twenty-eight days, and twenty-nine days once each four years; that is on the leap years. A year in the Roman Calendar comprises 365 1/4 days. The new year begins with the first of October, which is correspondent to the sun’s passing the nineteenth degree of the Libra. However, I have mentioned this brief discussion of the Roman Calendar because its months have been mentioned in narrations. More details are cited in Bihar al-Anwar.

THIRD SECTION: ZIYARAAT

ETIQUETTES OF TRAVEL

When you decide to go on a journey, you are advised to observe fasting on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, and to begin your journey on Saturday, Tuesday, or Thursday. Avoid traveling on Mondays, Wednesdays, and before noon on Fridays. Also, avoid traveling on the third, fifth, thirteenth, sixteenth,( ) twenty-first, twenty-fourth, and twenty-fifth of each month. Avoid traveling when the moon wanes and when it is in Scorpion. When one has to travel on such days and conditions, it is necessary to say the supplicatory prayers of travel and to give alms. It is narrated that one of the companions of Imam al-Baqir (‘a) visited him to bid him farewell, for he would go on a journey. Advising him, the Imam (‘a) said, “When he would travel for settling his affairs, my father, ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn (‘a), used to buy his safety from Almighty Allah with any possible amount of alms. He used to give alms when he put his leg on the stirrup of his riding animal. When he returned from a journey peacefully, he would praise and thank Almighty Allah by means of giving alms.” Unfortunately, the man violated the advice of Imam al-Baqir (‘a); therefore, he died during the journey. When he was informed about this, Imam al-Baqir (‘a) said, “Had he accepted the advice, he would have been saved.”

Before beginning a journey, you are required to bathe yourself, gather your family members, offer a two unit prayer, pray Almighty Allah for your good, praise and thank Him, invoke His blessings upon the Holy Prophet and his Household, and say the following:

اللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّي اَسْتَوْدِعُكَ الْيَوْمَ نَفْسِي وَ اَهْلِي وَ مَالِي وَ وُلْدِي وَ مَنْ كَانَ مِنِّي بِسَبِيلٍ الشَّاهِدَ مِنْهُمْ وَ الْغَائِبَ اللّٰهُمَّ احْفَظْنَا بِحِفْظِ الْاِيمَانِ وَ احْفَظْ عَلَيْنَا اللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْنَا [اجْمَعْنَا] فِي رَحْمَتِكَ وَ لا تَسْلُبْنَا فَضْلَكَ اِنَّا اِلَيْكَ رَاغِبُونَ اللّٰهُمَّ اِنَّا نَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ وَعْثَاءِ السَّفَرِ وَ كَآبَةِ الْمُنْقَلَبِ وَ سُوءِ الْمَنْظَرِ فِي الْاَهْلِ وَ الْمَالِ وَ الْوَلَدِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ اللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّي اَتَوَجَّهُ اِلَيْكَ هَذَا التَّوَجُّهَ طَلَبا لِمَرْضَاتِكَ وَ تَقَرُّبا اِلَيْكَ [اللّٰهُمَ‏] فَبَلِّغْنِي مَا اُؤَمِّلُهُ وَ اَرْجُوهُ فِيكَ وَ فِي اَوْلِيَائِكَ يَا اَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ.

You may then bid your family members farewell and stand up. At the door of your house, you may say the (famous) Tasbih al-Zahra’ litany and recite Surah al-Fatihah and Ayah al-Kursi in front of you, on your right side, and on your left side. You may then say this supplicatory prayer:

اللّٰهُمَّ اِلَيْكَ وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِي وَ عَلَيْكَ خَلَّفْتُ اَهْلِي وَ مَالِي وَ مَا خَوَّلْتَنِي وَ قَدْ وَثِقْتُ بِكَ فَلا تُخَيِّبْنِي يَا مَنْ لا يُخَيِّبُ مَنْ اَرَادَهُ وَ لا يُضَيِّعُ مَنْ حَفِظَهُ اللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ وَ احْفَظْنِي فِيمَا غِبْتُ عَنْهُ وَ لا تَكِلْنِي اِلَى نَفْسِي يَا اَرْحَمَ الرَّاحِمِينَ.

You may then recite Surah al-Tawhid eleven times, Surah al-Qadr, Ayah al-Kursi, Surah al-Falaq, and Surah al-Nas, and then pass your hand over your entire body, give alms as much as possible, and say the following:

اللّٰهُمَّ اِنِّي اشْتَرَيْتُ بِهَذِهِ الصَّدَقَةِ سَلامَتِي وَ سَلامَةَ سَفَرِي وَ مَا مَعِي اللّٰهُمَّ احْفَظْنِي وَ احْفَظْ مَا مَعِيَ وَ سَلِّمْنِي وَ سَلِّمْ مَا مَعِيَ وَ بَلِّغْنِي وَ بَلِّغْ مَا مَعِيَ بِبَلاغِكَ الْحَسَنِ الْجَمِيلِ.

You may also take with you an almond stick. The Holy Prophet (s) is reported to have said:

Whoever goes on a journey, takes with him an almond stick, and recites the verses of Surah Al-Qasas (28:22-28) Ayat , Almighty Allah will secure him from all beasts, all thieves, and all diseases until he returns home. He will be also accompanied by seventy-seven successive angels asking Almighty Allah to forgive him. These verses are as follows:

It is also recommended that you, at journeys, put a turban and roll it to the lower jaw so as to escape stealth, drowning, and burning. You may also take an amount of the soil of Imam al-Husayn’s tomb (turbat al-husayn) with you, saying:

اللّٰهُمَّ هَذِهِ طِينَةُ قَبْرِ الْحُسَيْنِ عليه السلام وَلِيِّكَ وَ ابْنِ وَلِيِّكَ اتَّخَذْتُهَا حِرْزا لِمَا اَخَافُ وَ مَا لا اَخَافُ

You may also take with you rings whose stones are made of agate and turquoise. It is more preferable to take with you a ring whose stone is made of yellow agate with the following inscription on one side:

ما شاء اللّه لا قوّة الاّ باللّه‏ استغفر اللّه

And on the other side, the following is inscribed:

محمّد و على

NEWS OF SAFI THE SERVANT OF IMAM AL HADI (A) AND HIS JOURNEY TO MASHHAD

In his book entitled Aman al-Akhtar, Sayyid Ibn Tawus mentions that Abu-Muhammad Qasim ibn ‘Ala’ has reported al-Safi, Imam ‘Ali al-Hadi’s servant, as having told the following:

When I asked him to permit me to go on a journey to Tus (currently Mashhad), Imam al-Hadi (‘a) advised me, saying, “You may take with you a ring whose stone is made of yellow agate with the following inscription on one side, ‘ma sha’allahu la quwwata illa billah’ and on the other side, the following is inscribed, ‘muhamadun wa ‘aliy.’ This (ring) secures from robbery, procures safety, and safeguards one’s religion.” When I left the Imam (‘a), I made a ring with the very specifications advised by the Imam (‘a) and carried it with me. I then returned to him, bid him farewell, and left. A few steps forward, the Imam (‘a) ordered me to return to him. When I did, he said to me, “Safi, you may take with you another ring whose stone is made of turquoise. On your way, and specifically between Nayshabur and Tus, a lion will prevent your caravan from proceeding. You may then face the lion, show it the ring, and say, ‘My master orders you to step aside.’” The Imam (‘a) then added, “The turquoise ring must carry the following inscription on one side,

اللّه الملك

And on the other side of the ring, the following should be inscribed:

الملك للّه الواحد القهّار

These are the specifications of the ring that Imam ‘Ali (‘a) used to put. Before caliphate, Imam ‘Ali (‘a) inscribed the following on his ring, ‘almulku-lillah’, and when he became the caliph, he inscribed the following on it, ‘almulku lillahil-wahidil-qahhar’. This ring secures against beasts and achieves victory in wars.”

Al-Safi reported: I swear by Allah, I met the same thing that the Imam (‘a) had told me. I thus did the very thing that he had advised me to do. When I returned home, I told the Imam (‘a) about what had happened during my journey.

“There is only one thing that you have not told me about it,” said the Imam (‘a), “If you wish, I can tell you about it.”

I answered, “Yes, my master! Please, tell me about it perchance I had forgotten it.”

The Imam (‘a) said, “One night, while you were sleeping in Tus, a group of jinn attended there for visiting the tomb of Imam al-Rida (‘a). When they saw the stone of your ring in your hand, they pulled it out of your hand, took it to one of them who was ailing, washed the ring with water, and gave that water to the ailing jinni so as to drink from it. He therefore was healed. They then returned the ring to your hand, but instead of putting it in your right hand, they put it in your left. When you woke up, you were astonished because you could not find a reason. Further, you found near the place of your head a piece of corundum and you carried it with you. It is now with you, is it not? You may take it to the market because you will sell it with eighty dinars. It is a present from those jinn to you” I, al-Safi, took that piece of corundum to the market and sold it with eighty dinars, exactly as my master had predicted.

Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported as saying: If one recites Ayah al-Kursi every night during journey, he, as well as whatever is with him, will be in safety. One may add the following supplicatory prayer:

اللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْ مَسِيرِي عِبَرا وَ صَمْتِي تَفَكُّرا وَ كَلامِي ذِكْرا

Imam Zayn al-’Abidin (‘a) is reported to have said: When I say the following words, I do not care even if both men and jinn help each other against me:

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ وَ بِاللّٰهِ وَ مِنَ اللّٰهِ وَ اِلَى اللّٰهِ وَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّٰهِ اللّٰهُمَّ اِلَيْكَ اَسْلَمْتُ نَفْسِي وَ اِلَيْكَ وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِي وَ اِلَيْكَ فَوَّضْتُ اَمْرِي فَاحْفَظْنِي بِحِفْظِ الْاِيمَانِ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيَّ وَ مِنْ خَلْفِي وَ عَنْ يَمِينِي وَ عَنْ شِمَالِي وَ مِنْ فَوْقِي وَ مِنْ تَحْتِي وَ ادْفَعْ عَنِّي بِحَوْلِكَ وَ قُوَّتِكَ فَاِنَّهُ لا حَوْلَ وَ لا قُوَّةَ اِلا بِاللّٰهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيمِ.

ETIQUETTES OF JOURNEY

In fact, the etiquettes of travel are too many to be mentioned in these pages. Therefore, let us refer to a number of them only.

First: It is required not to forget mentioning Almighty Allah’s Name (i.e. Basmalah; Bismil-lahir-rahmanir-rahim: In the Name of Allah, the All-beneficent, the All-merciful) at the moment of riding (or getting in transportation means).

Second: It is required to save one’s money in a secured place. It is narrated that saving of one’s money in a safe place indicates the traveler’s discernment.

Third: It is recommended for a traveler to help his companions and not to refrain from providing any assistance possible. By doing so, Almighty Allah will relieve him from seventy-three misfortunes, save him from grief and anguish in the worldly life, and relieve him from the supreme horror on the Resurrection Day.

In this respect, It is narrated that Imam Zayn al-’Abidin (‘a) used to travel with people who had not met him before and thus they do not know him so that he could serve them. This is because if they knew him, they would not let him serve them.

It is also narrated that the Noble Prophet Muhammad (s) was with a group of his companions on a journey. As they decided to slaughter a sheep as their food, one of them offered to slaughter it, another one offered to skin it, and a third one offered to cook it. The Holy Prophet (s) offered to gather wood. “We can do this; therefore, you do not have to do it, Allah’s Messenger!” they said. But the Holy Prophet (s) answered, “I know that you can do it. But it is unpleasant for me that I be different from you! Verily, Almighty Allah does not like a servant of Him being different from the others.”

Be it known to you that the most loathsome thing to do in journeys is to be lazy to do a job you are able to do; rather, you wait until the companions will do it on behalf of you.

Fourth: It is recommended to accompany a person of similar expenditure.

Fifth: When you want to drink water from a house you meet on your way, you must first mix it with an amount of water taken from the previous house by which you passed. It is also required that a traveler takes with him some of the soil of his hometown; and whenever he passes by a house, he should put an amount of that soil in the water served in this house and wait until the water becomes pure and then drink it.

Sixth: It is recommended to be polite and self-possessed during journeys.

However, this point will be further discussed in the coming chapter dealing with the etiquettes of pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (‘a).

Seventh: It is recommended to take along provisions, for it is honorable to take good provisions especially when one is on his way to Holy Makkah. However, it is discommended to take such good provisions like grilled meat and sweets, when one is on his way to visit the holy tomb of Imam al-Husayn (‘a).

Concerning this topic, Ibn al-A’sam, a poet, composed the following:

مِنْ شَرَفِ الْاِنْسَانِ فِي الْاَسْفَارِتَطْيِيبُهُ الزَّادَ مَعَ الْاِكْثَارِ

وَ لْيُحْسِنِ الْاِنْسَانُ فِي حَالِ السَّفَرِاَخْلاقَهُ زِيَادَةً عَلَى الْحَضَرِ

وَ لْيَدْعُ عِنْدَ الْوَضْعِ لِلْخِوَانِمَنْ كَانَ حَاضِرا مِنَ الْاِخْوَانِ

وَ لْيُكْثِرِ الْمَزْحَ مَعَ الصَّحْبِ اِذَالَمْ يُسْخِطِ اللّٰهَ وَ لَمْ يَجْلِبْ اَذَى

مَنْ جَاءَ بَلْدَةً فَذَا ضَيْفٌ عَلَىاِخْوَانِهِ فِيهَا اِلَى اَنْ يَرْحَلا

يُبَرُّ لَيْلَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ لْيَأْكُلِمِنْ اَكْلِ اَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ فِي الْمُسْتَقْبِلِ

Eighth: The most important thing in journeys is to keep up performing the obligatory devotional acts, especially the ritual prayers, and maintain their qualities and terms. Obligatory prayers must be performed in their determined times without any delay or any violation of their parts and manners. Unfortunately, some pilgrims violate these obligatory performances when they perform them in late times, while they are riding, with dry ablution (tayammum), or while they are not ceremonially clean. In fact, such acts arise from their underestimating these obligatory undertakings. Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have said, “To perform one obligatory prayer is more preferable than undertaking twenty times of ritual hajj pilgrimage; and to undertake one hajj is more preferable than giving as alms a room full of gold.”

Finally, it is highly recommended not to neglect repeating the following doxology thirty times after each short-form (qasr) prayer:

سبحان اللّه و الحمد للّه و لا اله الاّ اللّه و اللّه اكبر

FIRST CHAPTER: ETIQUETTES OF ZIYARAH

ETIQUETTES OF ZIYARAH

The etiquettes of ziyarah (i.e. pilgrimage to the holy shrines) are many; yet, I will restrict to the following:

First: It is recommended to bathe oneself before beginning the journey of ziyarah.

Second: It is advisable to avoid vain language, disputes, and heated discussions during journeys of ziyarah.

Third: It is recommended to do the bathing dedicated to the visiting of the Holy Imams’ shrines and to say the associated supplicatory prayers. This supplication will be later on mentioned at the beginning of Ziyarat Warith.

Fourth: It is required to be pure from ceremonial impurities.

Fifth: It is recommended to put on pure, clean, and new clothes, preferably white.

Six: At directing to a holy shrine, it is recommended to walk in short steps with tranquility and gravity, to be submissive, to incline one’s head, and to avoid looking upwards or to the sides.

Seventh: It is recommended to perfume oneself except when the holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (‘a) is visited.

Eighth: While directing towards the holy shrine, it is advisable to utter statements of glorifying Almighty Allah, such as alhamdu-lillah (all praise be to Allah), subhanallah (All glory be to Allah), la-ilaha illallah (There is no god but Allah), , and to perfume one’s mouth with the endless scent of ‘allahumma salli ‘ala muhammadin wa ali muhammad (O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and the Household of Muhammad).’

Ninth: It is recommended to stop at the outer gate of the holy shrine and seek entrance permission (from the holy person buried in that shrine). It is also recommended to do one’s best to be at the utmost degree of deference and submission, to ponder over the greatness and eminence of the holy person buried in the visited shrine, to believe that this holy person can see, hear, and respond to the greetings of the visitor, as is confirmed by the forms of asking entrance permission (isti’dhan), to think deeply about his compassion and love for his followers in general and his visitors in particular, and to call in mind one’s corruption and disobedience to the Holy Infallibles (‘a) through breaking their orders and acting unjustly to them as well as to their adherents and followers. In fact, such acts of disobedience cause harm to the Holy Infallibles (‘a) themselves. If a visitor thinks for a few minutes of these matters and ponders over his behavior in general, his feet will no more be able to go on walking, his heart will be fearful, and his eyes will shed tears. This is in fact the heart of the ziyarah etiquettes in general. Being in such case, it is necessary to call in mind the following poetic verses of al-Sakhawi:

قَالُوا غَدا نَأْتِي دِيَارَ الْحِمَىوَ يَنْزِلُ الرَّكْبُ بِمَغْنَاهُمُ

فَكُلُّ مَنْ كَانَ مُطِيعا لَهُمْاَصْبَحَ مَسْرُورا بِلُقْيَاهُمُ

قُلْتُ فَلِي ذَنْبٌ فَمَا حِيلَتِيبِاَيِّ وَجْهٍ اَتَلَقَّاهُمُ

قَالُوا اَ لَيْسَ الْعَفْوُ مِنْ شَأْنِهِمْلا سِيَّمَا عَمَّنْ تَرَجَّاهُمُ

فَجِئْتُهُمْ اَسْعَى اِلَى بَابِهِمْاَرْجُوهُمُ طَوْرا وَ اَخْشَاهُمُ

Quoting the book of ‘Uyun al-Mu’jizat, ‘Allamah al-Majlisi, in his book of Bihar al-Anwar, has mentioned the following precious narration:

‘Ali ibn Yaqtin, the vizier of Harun the ‘Abbasid ruler, did not permit Ibrahim al-Jammal, a poor Shi’ite cameleer, to see the ruler just because the latter was poor. Hence, when ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin undertook the hajj that year, he visited Imam Musa ibn Ja’far (‘a) in al-Madinah, but the Imam did not allow him to enter. The next day, ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin could see the Imam (‘a), “My master, what was my sin due to which you did not allow me to visit you?” asked ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin. The Imam (‘a) answered, “I did not allow you to visit me because you had not allowed your brother, Ibrahim al-Jammal, to see the ruler. For that reason, Almighty Allah has decided that He would not accept your acts (of the ritual hajj) unless Ibrahim al-Jammal would forgive you.” ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin said, “Master, how can I contact Ibrahim at this time while I am in al-Madinah and he is in al-Kufah?” The Imam (‘a) instructed, “When night comes, you may walk to al-Baqi’ alone and do not let any of your servants or companions know about you. There, you will find a saddled camel. You may ride on it and it will take you to al-Kufah.” As he did what he had been instructed, ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin found himself standing in front of Ibrahim al-Jammal’s house in a short time. As he knocked the door and introduced himself, Ibrahim al-Jammal said in surprise, “What is the vizier, ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin, doing at my doorstep?” “I am here for a great matter!” answered ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin and begged Ibrahim to let him in. When Ibrahim did, ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin said, “The Master (i.e. the Imam) has stipulated that you should forgive me lest he would not accept me.” Ibrahim said, “May Allah forgive you!” Insistently, ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin begged Ibrahim to step on his cheek, but Ibrahim refused to do so. When he insisted too much, Ibrahim did. “O Allah! Be the Witness!” repeated ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin. He then left, rode the camel, returned to al-Madinah at the same night, and stopped at the door of Imam Musa al-Kazim’s house. He rode off and knocked the door. He was thus allowed to see the Imam (‘a).

This narration demonstrates the significance of respecting one’s friends and brethren-in-faith.

Tenth: It is recommended to kiss the high threshold of the holy shrine. Shaykh al-Shahid says, “It is even more preferable to prostrate oneself at the threshold in the intention of thanking Almighty Allah for reaching such a sacred place.”

Eleventh: As is done when entering and leaving mosques, it is recommended to enter the holy shrine with the right foot and to leave it with the left.

Twelfth: It is recommended to stop as near as possible to the tomb that one can stick to it. In fact, it is illusive to believe that to stop far away from the tomb is a sort of politeness. Narrations have confirmed that one should lean to and kiss the tomb.

Thirteenth: It is advisable, when saying the ziyarah form, to turn the face towards the tomb and turn the back towards the kiblah direction. Seemingly, this etiquette is dedicated to the ziyarahs of the Holy Infallibles (‘a). After saying the ziyarah form, it is recommended to put the right cheek on the tomb and pray Almighty Allah beseechingly, and, then, to put the left cheek on the tomb and pray Almighty Allah, in the name of the holy person buried in the tomb, to include him/her with the persons for whom the holy person buried in the tomb will intercede. It is also recommended to pray Almighty Allah as insistently as possible and then move to the side of the head (of the holy entombed person), stand erect, face the kiblah direction, and pray Almighty Allah again.

Fourteenth: It is highly advisable to stand erect while uttering the ziyarah form except when one is too weak to stand up for a long time due to an ailment, such as backache, foot ache, and the like.

Fifteenth: Before beginning with the ziyarah, it is recommended to raise the voice with statements of allahu-akbar when the shrine is seen. In this respect, It is narrated that one who utters the following statement at the first sight of a holy shrine will be included with the Grand Pleasure of Almighty Allah:

لا اله الاّ اللّه وده لا شريك له

Sixteenth: It is advisable to follow the instructions that are reported from the Holy Imams (‘a) concerning the etiquettes and forms of ritual ziyarahs. Thus, it is necessary to neglect the fabricated forms of ziyarah that have been invented by some unwise ordinary people in order to attract the attentions of the ignorant people.

Shaykh al-Kulayni reports ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Qasir to have narrated that he, once, visited Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) and said, “May Allah accept me as ransom for you! I have composed a supplicatory prayer (du’a’) for myself.” The Imam (‘a) answered, “Save me from your composition. Whenever you encounter a problem, you may resort to the tomb of the Messenger of Allah (s), offer a two unit prayer there, and provide it as gift to him… etc.”

Seventeenth: It is recommended to offer the Ziyarah Prayer (salat al-ziyarah) the least of which is two units. In this respect, Shaykh al-Shahid (i.e. the martyr) says, “As for those who visit the tomb of the Holy Prophet (s), they may offer salat al-ziyarah in the Rawzah. And those who visit the tombs of the Holy Imams (‘a) may offer it near the head of the tomb. It is however legal to offer it at the courtyard of the shrine.”

‘Allamah al-Majlisi says, “In my conception, as for salat al-ziyarah, as well as the other prayers performed in the holy shrines, it is preferable to offer them behind the tomb or to the side of the head.”

In his book of al-Durrah, ‘Allamah Bahr al-’Ulum has composed the following:

وَ مِنْ حَدِيثِ كَرْبَلا وَ الْكَعْبَةِلِكَرْبَلا بَانَ عُلُوُّ الرُّتْبَةِ

وَ غَيْرُهَا مِنْ سَائِرِ الْمَشَاهِدِاَمْثَالُهَا بِالنَّقْلِ ذِي الشَّوَاهِدِ

وَ رَاعِ فِيهِنَّ اقْتِرَابَ الرَّمْسِوَ آثِرِ الصَّلاةَ عِنْدَ الرَّأْسِ

وَ صَلِّ خَلْفَ الْقَبْرِ فَالصَّحِيحُكَغَيْرِهِ فِي نَدْبِهَا صَرِيحٌ

وَ الْفَرْقُ بَيْنَ هَذِهِ الْقُبُورِوَ غَيْرِهَا كَالنُّورِ فَوْقَ الطُّورِ

فَالسَّعْيُ لِلصَّلاةِ عِنْدَهَا نُدِبَوَ قُرْبُهَا بَلِ اللُّصُوقُ قَدْ طُلِبَ

Eighteenth: If there is no particular form of salat al-ziyarah, it is recommended to recite Surah Yasin in the first unit and Surah al-Rahman in the second. It is also recommended to beseech Almighty Allah after these prayers for the worldly welfare as well as success on the Resurrection Day. It is also recommended to pray for all people generally in order that his prayers will be more acceptable.

Nineteenth: Shaykh al-Shahid says, “If one enters a shrine and finds that a congregational prayer is held, the prayer must be offered before doing the ziyarah rites. The same thing must be done if one enters a shrine at the time of an obligatory prayer. Because the ziyarah is the purpose, one may do the ziyarah rites on other conditions. When a congregational prayer is held while one is doing the ziyarah rites, it is recommended to cut off the rites and join the congregational prayer. It is thus discommended to ignore the congregational prayers. Moreover, the supervisors in the shrine must order the za’ir (i.e. performer of ziyarah) to join the congregational prayer.

Twentieth: In the word of Shaykh al-Shahid, to recite a portion of the Holy Qur’an in the shrines and to dedicate the recitation to the soul of the holy person buried in that shrine is one of the etiquettes of ziyarah. Of course, this act brings about rewards to the za’ir and shows honoring of the holy person buried in the shrine.

Twenty-First: It is advisable to refrain from nonsensical and meaningless speech in the holy shrines and to avoid discussing this-worldly affairs. Of course, nonsense and offensive speech are discommended everywhere and at all times. Such language stops sustenance and results in hardheartedness, especially in such pure places and under such superior domes about whose superiority and highness, Almighty Allah has said, “In houses which Allah has permitted to be exalted and that His name may be remembered in them; there glorify Him therein in the mornings and the evenings. 24/36”

Twenty-Second: As I have confirmed in my book of hadiyyat al-za’ir, it is recommended not to raise one’s voice with the recitals of the ziyarah formulas.

Twenty-Third: At leaving, it is recommended to bid farewell to the Imam (‘a) through reciting the formulas dedicated to so (wada’) or any similar formulas.

Twenty-Fourth: It is advisable to declare repentance, implore Almighty Allah for forgiveness, and pray Him to make the deeds and words after the Ziyarah better than one’s deeds and words before it.

Twenty-Fifth: It is recommended to give some money to the custodians of the holy shrines. As a matter of fact, the custodians of the holy shrines must be virtuous, righteous, religious, and honorable. They are required to respect the zuwwar (pl. za’ir) and to stand their behaviors. They must not wreak their wrath upon those zuwwar or shout at them. Instead, they must settle all the needs of the zuwwar and guide the strangers if they are lost. In general, the custodians are required to act as servants, to arrange and guard the holy shrine, to watch over the zuwwar, and to do whatever necessary.

Twenty-Sixth: It is also recommended to give some money to the neighbors of the holy shrines - the poor, the needy, and the modest, especially the Sayyids (i.e. descendants of the Holy Prophet) and the students of religious sciences who accepted to live in poverty, alienation, and neediness for the sake of glorifying the rites of Almighty Allah. Hence, those are the worthiest of receiving charity and custody.

Twenty-Seventh: Shaykh al-Shahid says, “Among the etiquettes of ziyarah is to hurry in leaving the holy shrine when the ziyarah is accomplished, so that the sanctity of the shrine will be preserved and eagerness to repeat ziyarah will be aroused.”

He further says, “When they perform ziyarah, women must isolate themselves from men. Preferably, women may perform ziyarah at night. They may also disguise themselves by putting ordinary clothes rather than precious, so that they will not be recognized. They may also try to hide and veil themselves. However, it is legal, yet discommended, for women to perform ziyarah amongst men.”