Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English0%

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English Author:
Category: Supplications and Ziyarat

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Sheikh Abbas Al-Qummi
Category: visits: 227433
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Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English
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Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English


This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


We worked on this book in several formats, because there was not any English translation of this book free downloadable in word, html and pdf as we have been searching it since last year except some parts of it on some sites.

The method of our work was as following:

1- We took the software (android) of Mafatih from the version of

2- We transfered all parts even page by page into html format by sending one by one of them by sharing on our email:

3- Then, we pasted them into unformatted text, and started to recheck whether there is any error or not, so, we found out that Surah al-Rum has only 26 verses, and like other errors.

4- We saw that this version does has not any chapterizing, so, we chapterized it according to the original text of Persian and then Arabic Translation of it.

5- .....


Despite of all we have done, if you see any error, please inform us on our email mentioned above, we welcome it and will try to recorrect as soon as possible.


May Allah accept our endeavours in His path, Amen!

Good Luck


In this connection, it seems suitable to mention the story of Hajj ‘Ali al-Baghdadi, the delighted, righteous, elite, and pious man whose story has been mentioned by our mentor in his two books of Jannat al-Ma’wa and al-Najm al-Thaqib. In the latter book, he writes, “Even if this book does not comprise anything except this authentically and accurately reported story, which contains abundant advantages and took place in this age, the book will still be highly valuable and precious.”

After some introductory words, the author starts narrating the story:

Hajj ‘Ali, may Allah support him, narrated the following: An amount of eighty Tumans (Persian currency) that I was liable to pay as khumus (one-fifth) tax amassed on me. I therefore traveled to the holy city of al-Najaf to defray twenty Tumans of them to His Eminence Shaykh Murtaza the epitome of true guidance and piety, may Allah raise his status. I defrayed other twenty Tumans to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Husayn al-Mujtahid al-Kazimi and other twenty Tumans to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad al-Shuruqi. So, only twenty Tumans remained with me, which I had the intention to pay to Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Al-Yasin al-Kazimi, may Allah support him, when I would return from al-Najaf. As soon as I arrived in Baghdad, I wished to pay the rest of the khumus tax that I was liable to pay. So, I went directly to al-Kazimiyyah on that day, which was Thursday, and visited the two great Imams; al-Kazim and al-Jawad. I then came to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Hasan, may Allah save him, and gave him a part of that amount of twenty Tumans. I also promised him that I would defray the remainder, by giving it to the beneficiaries respectively, as soon as I would sell some goods of mine. I then prepared myself to leave al-Kazimiyyah after I had refused the Shaykh’s insistent invitation to stay with him. My excuse was that I had to pay the employees in my textile factory their wages, since I had already decided to pay the employees their weekly wages on Thursday afternoons.

I therefore took my way to Baghdad. After I covered a third of the way, I saw a handsome-looking sayyid turning his way towards me while he was directing towards al-Kazimiyyah. He approached me, greeted me, and stretched his hand to shake hands with me. He also embraced and welcomed me, saying, “Welcome!” He then embraced me to his chest and we exchanged kisses.

Turbaned with a vividly green turban and having a big black mole on the face, the man stopped and asked me, “Hajj ‘Ali, where are you heading for?”

“I have visited al-Kazimayn and I am now on my way to Baghdad,” I answered.

“Go back to al-Kazimayn,” the sayyid ordered. “It is Friday night.”

“I cannot go back,” I said.

“Yes, you can,” the sayyid said, “so that I will witness for your being one of the loyalists to my grandfather the Commander of the Faithful and to us. The shaykh will also witness for you, because the All-exalted Lord has said, ‘And call in to witness two witnesses.’”

This was an insinuation to what I have already hoped from the shaykh to write for me a piece of paper so that I would place it in my shroud in which he would witness for me that I am one of the loyalists to the Ahl al-Bayt. I therefore asked him, “How do you know me and how can you witness for me?”

The sayyid answered, “Is it possible for one to ignore those who have carried out their duty towards him?”

“What kind of duty do you mean?” I asked.

“I mean the financial duty that you have defrayed to my deputy,” he answered.

“Who is your deputy?” I asked.

“Shaykh Muhammad Hasan,” he answered.

“Is he your deputy?” I asked.

“He is,” he answered. “So is Sayyid Muhammad.”

As a matter of fact, I had not known this man before but he called me by name; therefore, I thought that we had probably known each other earlier. I also said to myself that the man might have wanted me to give him a part of the khumus duty. I therefore wished to give him something of the Imam’s share of that duty. I thus said to him, “Sayyid, I am liable to pay something of your financial due. I had referred to His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Hasan to allow me to pay this remaining amount to you.”

The sayyid smiled in my face and said, “Yes, you have defrayed a portion of our due to our deputies in the holy city of al-Najaf.”

“Has that portion which I have paid been accepted?” I asked.

“Yes, it has been accepted,” he answered.

I then noticed that this sayyid had been referring to the master scholars as his deputies. This was hard for me to consent. However, I returned to inadvertence of what was going between him and me.

The sayyid then asked me to go back with him to visit his grandfather. I therefore complied with his desire and returned with him. All the way back to al-Kazimiyyah, my left hand was grasping the sayyid’s right hand. While we were walking, I found to our right side a river of pure water. I also found trees of lemon, bitter orange, grapes, pomegranate, and other fruits overshadowing us and all of these trees were fruitful although it was not the season of their fruiting. When I asked the sayyid about this, he answered, “The river and the trees accompany every one of our loyalists when he visits our grandfather and us.”

I then said, “I have a question that I would like to put before you.”

“Yes,” the sayyid said. “Go ahead.”

“One day,” I said, “I joined the class of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzaq, one of the teachers, and could hear him saying, ‘Even if one dedicates his entire lifetime to observing fasting in days and spending the whole nights with acts of worship, and goes on hajj for forty times, and goes on ‘umrah for forty times, and dies while he is standing between Mount al-Safa and Mount al-Marwah, but he was not loyalist to the Commander of the Faithful, he will have no reward at all for all that.’ Is this accurate?”

“Yes, it is,” answered the sayyid. “Such one will have no reward at all.”

I then asked him about one of my relatives whether he is loyalist to the Commander of the Faithful or not. The sayyid answered, “Yes, he is as well as all those who relate to you.”

I then said, “May I ask you another question, sayyid?”

“Yes, you may,” he answered.

I said, “The orators in the consolation ceremonies of Imam al-Husayn (‘a) have narrated that a man came to Sulayman al-A’mash and asked him about visiting the tomb of the Chief of Martyrs (i.e. Imam al-Husayn), but Sulayman answered that it was an unfounded innovative. The man then saw in sleep a hodaw between the sky and the earth carrying Lady Fatimah al-Zahra’ and Lady Khadijah al-Kubra. When he asked where these two ladies were going, he was informed that they were going to visit al-Husayn (‘a) at that very night, which was Friday night. He also saw pieces of paper falling on the earth from that hodaw with the following inscription: This is security against Hellfire for those who visit al-Husayn (‘a) at Friday nights. This is security against Hellfire on the Resurrection Day. Is this tradition authentic?”

The sayyid answered, “Yes, it is completely authentic.”

“Sayyid,” I asked, “Is it true that whoever visits al-Husayn (‘a) on Friday nights will be secured?”

“Yes, it is,” he answered, his eyes shed tears, and he wept.

“May I ask another question, sayyid?” I asked.

“Yes, you may,” he answered.

In the year 1269, we were on our way for visiting Imam al-Rida (‘a). In the city of Durud, we met an Arab man who hosted us. When we asked him about the loyalty to Imam al-Rida (‘a), he answered, ‘Paradise is the loyalty to him!’ He then added, ‘This is the fifteenth day on which I have been feeding on the food of Imam al-Rida (‘a). How dare then Munkar and Nakir approach me in my grave? My flesh and bone have grown on the food of Imam al-Rida (‘a) in his guest house.’ Is it true that Imam al-Rida (‘a) will come to this man in his grave to save him from Munkar and Nakir?”

“Yes, it is true,” the sayyid answered. “I swear it by Allah; my grandfather guarantees (salvation from torment).”

I then said, “Sayyid, there is another short question that I would like to put before you, if you permit.”

“You may ask,” he answered.

“As for my visit to Imam al-Rida (‘a), has it been acceptable?” I asked.

“It is acceptable, Allah willing,” he answered.

“May I ask another question?” I said.

“Yes, you may,” he answered.

“Has the visit of Hajj Muhammad Husayn Bazzaz Bashi, the son of the late Hajj Ahmad Bazzaz Bashi been accepted? I accompanied him on my way to the shrine of Imam al-Rida (‘a); we therefore distributed expenditure between us.”

The sayyid answered, “The visit of the righteous servant is accepted.”

“May I ask another question?” I said.

“Yes, you may ask, in the name of Allah,” he answered.

I thus asked, “Has the visit of so-and-so from Baghdad been accepted? He was with us on our way to Khurasan.”

However, the sayyid kept silent. He did not answer this question.

“May I ask another question?” I said.

“Yes, you may ask, in the name of Allah” he answered.

“Have you heard my previous question? Has the visit of that man been accepted?” I asked.

The sayyid did not answer this question either.

The man about whom I asked the sayyid was one of the rich people of Baghdad. Throughout our journey to Imam al-Rida (‘a), he and his friends used to play and amuse themselves profligately. The man was the killer of his mother.

We then reached an open road facing the city of al-Kazimiyyah and surrounded by orchards from both sides. A side of this road, which lies to the right of those coming from Baghdad, had been owned by some orphan sayyids but the ruling authorities usurped it from them to make it part of the public way. Hence, the religious, pious people of al-Kazimiyyah used to refrain from walking in this side of the road. However, my companion did not refrain from walking in that side; I therefore said to him, “Sir, this place is owned by some orphan sayyids and it is thus improper to use it.”

He answered, “It is owned by my grandfather, the Commander of the Faithful, his descendants, and our sons; therefore, it is permissible to our loyalists to use it.”

Near this place, there was to the right side an orchard owned by a man named Hajj Mirza Hadi, one of the rich Persians who lived in Baghdad. Hence, I said, “Sayyid, is it true that the land of this orchard is originally owned by Imam Musa ibn Ja’far (‘a)?”

“What is your business with this issue?” the sayyid replied and refused to answer my question.

We then reached a rivulet on the Tigris used for irrigating the farms and orchards. This rivulet crossed that road making it ramify into two streets; namely, the sultanic street and the street of the sayyids. My companion headed for the street of the sayyids after he had refused my invitation to take the other street. He thus said to me, “Let us take this street.”

A few steps ahead, we found ourselves in the courtyard of the holy shrine of Imam al-Kazim (‘a) near the shoes store without having passed by any market or alley. So, we entered the passage from the eastern side of the gate that is known as Bab al-Murad, which is to the side of the Imam’s feet. My companion did not stop there to ask permission of entrance of the holy portico. He then stopped at the gate of the holy shrine addressing at me with the following words: “You may now say the ziyarah form.”

“I cannot read,” I said.

“May I recite the ziyarah form for you?” he suggested.

“Yes, you may,” I answered.

So, he said, “O Allah, may I enter? Peace be upon you, O Allah’s Messenger. Peace be upon you, O Commander of the Faithful...”

He went on greeting the Holy Imams by this form. When he reached to Imam al-’Askari (‘a), he said, “Peace be upon you, O Abu-Muhammad al-Hasan al-’Askari.”

He then said to me, “Do you know the Imam of your age?”

“How come that I do not known him?” I said.

“So, greet him,” he asked.

I said, “Peace be upon you, O Allah’s Argument, Patron of the Age, and son of al-Hasan.”

He replied, “Peace and Allah’s mercy and blessings be upon you, too.”

We then entered the holy shrine, threw ourselves on the holy tomb, and kissed it.

He then said to me, “You may now say the ziyarah form.”

“I cannot read,” I said.

“May I recite it for you?” he asked.

“Yes, you may,” I answered.

“Which form of ziyarah do you wish to say?” He asked.

“You may say the most favorite of them,” I answered.

“Ziyarah of Aminullah is the most favorite,” he remarked.

He then went on visiting the Imams (‘a) with this form of ziyarah, saying, “Peace be upon both of you, O Allah’s trustees in His land and His arguments against His servants...” up to the end of this form.

At that moment, the lanterns of the holy shrine were lit, but I noticed that these lanterns and candles did not add any light to that very holy place, which seemed to have been shone with sunlight and these candles seemed as if they were lit in daylight. Despite all these extraordinary matters, I was completely diverted that I could not pay attention to these things.

When he accomplished the ziyarah formula, he turned from the side of the Imam’s feet to the back of the holy tomb and stopped at the eastern side, “Will you visit my grandfather al-Husayn?” he asked.

“Yes, I will. This is Friday night,” I answered.

He therefore visited Imam al-Husayn (‘a) with the ziyarah form that is known as Ziyarah Warith.

At that moment, the caller to the Maghrib (sunset) Prayer finished from declaring the adhan (call to prayer). My companion then said to me, “Perform the prayer and join the congregation.” So, he came to the mosque that is situated behind the holy tomb where a congregational prayer was held. He stood alone to the right of the imam (leader of prayer) while I could find myself a place in the first line thus joining the congregation of the prayer. When I accomplished my prayer, I could not find my companion. So, I went out of the mosque and searched for him the entire shrine, but uselessly. I had the intention to give him a little amount of money and host him that night.

At that moment, I recovered my attention and began to think about the personality of that sayyid who had accompanied me to this place. Hence, the extraordinary events and miracles that I observed with the sayyid turned in my head. I thus remembered how I had surrendered to him totally and returned to al-Kazimiyyah forgetting the important matter that I had to do in Baghdad due to which I should not have come back to this city. The man called me by name although I had never seen him before. He also used the word, “the loyalists to us...” as well as other expressions such as, “I will witness for you.” He showed me the flowing river and the trees, which were fruitful in a time other than their seasons. All these clear-cut indications, as well as many others that I saw from this sayyid, prove undoubtedly that this sayyid was Imam al-Mahdi, especially that he asked me whether I recognize the Imam of my age; and when I answered in the affirmative, he asked me to greet him. When I did, he smiled and responded to my greeting.

However, I came to the custodian of the shoes store and asked him about my companion. He told me that he had just left. He then asked me whether he was actually my companion. I answered, “Yes, he was.” I then came to the house where I resided as guest and spent the night there.

The next morning, I headed for His Eminence Shaykh Muhammad Hasan and inform him of the whole story. He put his hand on his mouth and warned me against divulging this story. He added, “May Allah lead you to more success.” I therefore used to keep it secret and refrain from letting anybody know about it.

After one month of that incident, I met a reverent sayyid who approached and asked me, “What happened to you?” He was hinting at the incident, but I denied the matter, saying, “Nothing happened to me.” He repeated the same question and I repeated the same answer with more emphasis. He then hid himself and I could not see him after that.


Situated on the road between al-Kazimiyyah and Baghdad, Buratha Mosque (Masjid Buratha) is one of the most famous and blessed mosques. Although the visitors of the holy shrines pass by this mosque, they are unfortunately unaware of this holy place and the great standing and merit that it enjoys.

In his book of Mu’jam al-Buldan, al-Hamawi, one of the historians of the fifth century, says:

Buratha is a district situated in the Karkh side of Baghdad to the south of Bab Mihwal. It had one mosque in which the Shi’ah used to offer prayers. However, this mosque was demolished to the ground. Before the reign of al-Razi billah the ‘Abbasid ruler, a group of the Shi’ah used to meet in this mosque and revile at the Sahabah (the companions of the Prophet)!! So, al-Razi attacked this mosque, arrested those whom he found there, put them in prison, and demolished the mosque to the ground. The Shi’ah informed the Emir-in-chief of Baghdad of this matter. So, he ordered to rebuild, expand, and strengthen the building of this mosque. He also inscribed the name of al-Razi on the front part of the mosque. Prayers were performed and offered in this mosque up to the year 450 or after that. However, this mosque was deserted up to now.

Before the construction of Baghdad, Buratha was a village by which (Imam) ‘Ali is claimed to have passed by on his way to fighting the Haruriyyah (i.e. al-Khawarij) in the famous battle of al-Nahrawan. It is also claimed that he offered a prayer in that mosque and entered a public bath in that village.

To this village, Abu-Shu’ayb al-Burathi is ascribed. A famous worshipper, this man was the first to reside in Buratha in a cottage, which he used for doing acts of worship. One day, a daughter of rich and worldly people who was brought up in palaces passed by him and liked his lifestyle. So, she became fond of him and offered him to accept her as a servant. He accepted on condition that she would deprive herself of her appearance, leave her previous lifestyle, and dress herself with the costume of ascetics so that she would be fit enough to imitate his lifestyle. She therefore dispossessed herself of everything, put on the costume of ascetics, and came to him. He married her, but when she entered his cottage, she noticed a leaf of a tree on which he would sit to prevent him from dew. She said, “I will not live with you before you take this leaf out, because I heard you saying, ‘The earth says to the son of Adam (i.e. human being): You set up a screen between you and me; but in the morrow, you will find yourself in my interior.’” So, Abu-Shu’ayb threw out that leaf and his wife remained with him for years sharing him in the best acts of worship. They both kept on this manner until they passed away.


In my book of Hadiyyat al-Za’ir, I have written a few lines on the characteristics of Masjid Buratha. I have said that this mosque, as inferred from traditions, has many excellencies each one of which, if enjoyed by any other mosque, is sufficient to make one prepare oneself and cover long distances to visit it, seeking the pleasure of Almighty Allah through praying and supplicating Him therein.

First Excellency: Almighty Allah has decided that no army reside at this mosque except armies commanded by a Prophet or a Prophet’s successor.

Second Excellency: Masjid Buratha was the house of Virgin Mary (‘a).

Third Excellency: It was the residence of Prophet Jesus (‘a).

Fourth Excellency: The spring that pour out for Virgin Mary (‘a) is found in that mosque.

Fifth Excellency: Imam ‘Ali the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) showed that spring by way of miracle.

Sixth Excellency: In that place, there is a white, blessed rock on which Virgin Mary (‘a) put Prophet Jesus (‘a) down from her shoulder.

Seventh Excellency: By way of miracle too, Imam ‘Ali the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) showed that rock and set it up to the kiblah direction and then offered a prayer behind it.

Eighth Excellency: Imam ‘Ali (‘a) and his two son, Imam al-Hasan the Divinely well-chosen and Imam al-Husayn the chief of martyrs (‘a), offered prayers in this mosque.

Ninth Excellency: Imam ‘Ali the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) resided in this mosque for four days.

Tenth Excellency: All Prophets, especially Prophet Abraham (‘a) the Friend of the All-beneficent Lord, offered prayers in this mosque.

Eleventh Excellency: This mosque contains the grave of a Prophet, most probably Prophet Joshua. On the word of the Shaykh (may Allah have mercy upon him), the tomb of Prophet Joshua is in the yard opposite to Masjid Buratha.

Twelfth Excellency: It was the place where the sun was recoursed for Imam ‘Ali the Commander of the Faithful (‘a).


Unfortunately and strangely, the majority of visitors of the holy shrines in Iraq have been inattentive to visiting this holy mosque despite its sublime status and merits and its being the place where Divine signs and miracles of Imam ‘Ali (‘a) were shown. Actually, this mosque is not situated in an isolated place where it is difficult to reach; rather, it is situated on the way that visitors take frequently on their way to the holy shrines. Perhaps, one of one thousand visitors may visit this place. It also happened that when a visitor comes to this mosque seeking the great reward of Almighty Allah that is decided for its visitors and finds its gate closed in his face unless he pays some money, he (the visitor) may be annoyed to pay, thus depriving himself of the great reward of the Lord. On the other hand, such visitor may pay much money for visiting the city of Baghdad and the edifices of the tyrants there or pay much more money for purchasing unnecessary means of living and dealing with the Jews of Baghdad to purchase their ill-omened and filthy goods, which have unfortunately been regarded as perfective parts of the journeys of the majority of visitors.

It is Allah only Whose help is sought.



The Four Emissaries of Imam al-Mahdi (‘a) are Abu-’Amr ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id al-Asadi, Abu-Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Uthman, Shaykh Abu’l-Qasim Husayn ibn Rawh al-Nawbakhti, and the sublime Shaykh Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Samari, may Allah be pleased with them all.

One of the duties of the visitors of the holy shrines in Iraq is to come to Baghdad, during their stay at al-Kazimiyyah city, for visiting the Four Emissaries who represented the Awaited Argument of Allah and the Imam of the Age, peace of Allah be upon him. Visiting the tombs of these personalities does not require much effort, because they are all situated in near places in Baghdad; therefore, they are not far away for the visitors. However, even if these graves were scattering in remote places, they would be worthy of being visited by covering long distances and suffering the troubles of travel, because great reward and abundant prize are gained from visiting these graves.

The Four Emissaries excelled all the companions and elite friends of the Holy Imams(‘a) in rank and excellence. They thus won the Imam’s representation, emissary, and mediation between him and the subjects for seventy years. They also showed many extraordinary manners and innumerable miracles. Moreover, some scholars are reported to have imputed Divinely-granted infallibility (i.e. ‘ismah) to these personalities.

It goes without saying that these personalities are still mediators between the Imam (‘a) and the subjects after their death; it is therefore necessary to make them the means and way to convey to the Imam, in a written form, the needs and ordeals from which his subjects suffer. Details of these matters have been discussed in relevant topics.

In conclusion, no pen can contain the great merits and supreme statuses of these personalities. We thus hope that the previous discussion gives the visitors the desire to visit their tombs.


Mentioning the method of visiting the tombs of the Four Emissaries, Shaykh al-Tusi, in his book of Tahdhib al-Ahkam, and Sayyid Ibn Tawus, in his book of Misbah al-Za’ir, have reported the following form of ziyarah from Abu’l-Qasim Husayn ibn Rawh:

You may now mention the name of the visited as well as his father’s name; and then continue:

اَشْهَدُ اَنَّكَ بَابُ الْمَوْلَى اَدَّيْتَ عَنْهُ وَ اَدَّيْتَ اِلَيْهِ مَا خَالَفْتَهُ وَ لا خَالَفْتَ عَلَيْهِ قُمْتَ خَاصّا وَ انْصَرَفْتَ سَابِقا جِئْتُكَ عَارِفا بِالْحَقِّ الَّذِي اَنْتَ عَلَيْهِ وَ اَنَّكَ مَا خُنْتَ فِي التَّأْدِيَةِ وَ السَّفَارَةِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ بَابٍ مَا اَوْسَعَهُ [اَوْسَعَكَ‏] وَ مِنْ سَفِيرٍ مَا آمَنَكَ وَ مِنْ ثِقَةٍ مَا اَمْكَنَكَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ اخْتَصَّكَ بِنُورِهِ حَتَّى عَايَنْتَ الشَّخْصَ فَاَدَّيْتَ عَنْهُ وَ اَدَّيْتَ اِلَيْهِ

جِئْتُكَ مُخْلِصا بِتَوْحِيدِ اللّٰهِ وَ مُوَالاةِ اَوْلِيَائِهِ وَ الْبَرَاءَةِ مِنْ اَعْدَائِهِمْ [اَعْدَائِهِ‏] وَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ خَالَفُوكَ يَا حُجَّةَ الْمَوْلَى وَ بِكَ اِلَيْهِمْ [اللّٰهُمَ‏] تَوَجُّهِي وَ بِهِمْ اِلَى اللّٰهِ [اِلَيْكَ‏] تَوَسُّلِي

You may then pray and beseech Almighty Allah for anything you want, and you will be granted, Allah willing.


As long as he is in Baghdad, a visitor is also advised to visit the tomb of Muhammad ibn Ya’qub al-Kulayni, may Allah perfume his tomb, the most sublime, splendid, and trustworthy religius personality. In his time, he was the most trustworthy and versed chief of the Shi’ah in the field of reporting of traditions. In a period of twenty years, he compiled his famous book entitled al-Kafi - such a precious book that has delighted the eyes of all the Shi’ah. Moreover, his book is considered a favor that has been done to the Shi’ah in general and Shi’ite scholars in particular. Ibn al-Athir has regarded Shaykh al-Kulayni as the reviviscent of the Imamiyyah Sect in the third century after he has regarded our master the Eighth Imam (al-Rida) as the reviviscent of the Sect in the second century.

In my book of Hadiyyat al-Za’ir, I have listed the names of the scholars buried in these holy shrines. To acquaint oneself with this piece of information, the gentle reader may refer to that book.



One of the duties of the visitors of the city of al-Kazimiyyah is to head for the city of al-Mada’in to visit the righteous servant of Allah, Salman al-Muhammadi, Allah’s pleasure be upon him. The first of the Four Pillar-Persons, Salman was given an exclusive excellence by the Holy Prophet (s) who said about him, “Salman belongs to us - the Ahl al-Bayt.” Thus, the Holy Prophet (s) included Salman with the group of the Household of Prophethood and Infallibility.

Declaring the value of Salman, the Holy Prophet (s) also said,

Imam ‘Ali Amir al-Mu’minin (‘a) likened Salman to Luqman whom Almighty Allah gave wisdom.

Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) regarded Salman as even preferred to Luqman the wise.

As for Imam al-Baqir (‘a), he considered Salman to be one of those who understand by tokens (mutawassim).

From the traditions on the merits of Salman, we can conclude the following:

1. Salman had knowledge with the Greater Name (alism al-a’zam).

2. He received directly from the angels.

3. Faith is of ten ranks; Salman attained the tenth (i.e. most supreme) rank.

4. He had familiarity with the unseen knowledge and the knowledge of the times of death.

5. In this worldly life, Salman ate from the presents of Paradise.

6. Paradise longs for and loves Salman.

7. Almighty Allah and His Messengers love Salman.

8. Almighty Allah ordered His Messenger to love four persons one of whom was Salman.

9. Verses of the Holy Qur’an were revealed in praise of Salman and his matches.

10. Whenever Archangel Gabriel descended to the Holy Prophet (s), he would order him to convey compliments of Almighty Allah to Salman and inform him of the knowledge of times of death, future catastrophes, and lineages of people.

11. At nights, Salman held special sessions with the Holy Prophet (s).

12. The Holy Prophet (s) and Imam ‘Ali (‘a) taught Salman a portion of the stored and hidden knowledge of Almighty Allah - the knowledge that none could bear except Salman.

13. He attained such a magnificent prominence due to which Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) said about him:

In the course of arousing desire for visiting the tomb of this great personality, it is sufficient to reflect on the following peculiarity and great preference by which Salman was characterized among all of the companions of the Holy Prophet (s):

When Salman passed away, Imam ‘Ali (‘a) covered the entire distance between al-Madinah and al-Mada’in in one night to attend his funeral ceremony. The Imam (‘a) himself washed and coffined the dead body of Salman. He then performed the ritual Deceased Prayer for his body in the participation of a line of angels. At that night, the Imam (‘a) returned to al-Madinah. What a sublime honor the loyalty to and love for the Ahl al-Bayt grant. Such loyalty and love raises one to such a splendid status and supreme rank.


In his book of Misbah al-Za’ir, Sayyid Ibn Tawus has mentioned four forms of ziyarah of Salman. However, I will mention the first form only, which has been also recorded by Shaykh al-Tusi in Tahdhib al-Ahkam. In my book of Hadiyyat al-Za’ir, I have mentioned the fourth form.

When you intend to visit Salman, you may stop at his tomb, direct your face towards the kiblah direction, and say the following words:

السَّلامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ السَّلامُ عَلَى اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّينَ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْاَئِمَّةِ الْمَعْصُومِينَ الرَّاشِدِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَى الْمَلائِكَةِ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا صَاحِبَ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ الْاَمِينِ [الْاَمِينَ‏] السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَلِيَّ اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا مُودَعَ اَسْرَارِ السَّادَةِ الْمَيَامِينِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بَقِيَّةَ اللّٰهِ مِنَ الْبَرَرَةِ الْمَاضِينَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّكَ اَطَعْتَ اللّٰهَ كَمَا اَمَرَكَ وَ اتَّبَعْتَ الرَّسُولَ كَمَا نَدَبَكَ وَ تَوَلَّيْتَ خَلِيفَتَهُ كَمَا اَلْزَمَكَ وَ دَعَوْتَ اِلَى الاهْتِمَامِ بِذُرِّيَّتِهِ كَمَا وَقَفَكَ [وَفَّقَكَ‏] ، وَ عَلِمْتَ الْحَقَّ يَقِينا وَ اعْتَمَدْتَهُ كَمَا اَمَرَكَ [وَ] اَشْهَدُ اَنَّكَ بَابُ وَصِيِّ الْمُصْطَفَى وَ طَرِيقُ حُجَّةِ اللّٰهِ الْمُرْتَضَى وَ اَمِينُ اللّٰهِ فِيمَا اسْتُودِعْتَ مِنْ عُلُومِ الْاَصْفِيَاءِ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّكَ مِنْ اَهْلِ بَيْتِ النَّبِيِّ النُّجَبَاءِ الْمُخْتَارِينَ لِنُصْرَةِ الْوَصِيِّ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّكَ صَاحِبُ الْعَاشِرَةِ وَ الْبَرَاهِينِ وَ الدَّلائِلِ الْقَاهِرَةِ وَ اَقَمْتَ الصَّلاةَ وَ آتَيْتَ الزَّكَاةَ وَ اَمَرْتَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ نَهَيْتَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَ اَدَّيْتَ الْاَمَانَةَ وَ نَصَحْتَ لِلَّهِ وَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَ صَبَرْتَ عَلَى الْاَذَى فِي جَنْبِهِ حَتَّى اَتَاكَ الْيَقِينُ لَعَنَ اللّٰهُ مَنْ جَحَدَكَ حَقَّكَ وَ حَطَّ مِنْ قَدْرِكَ لَعَنَ اللّٰهُ مَنْ آذَاكَ فِي مَوَالِيكَ لَعَنَ اللّٰهُ مَنْ اَعْنَتَكَ فِي اَهْلِ بَيْتِكَ [نَبِيِّكَ‏] لَعَنَ اللّٰهُ مَنْ لامَكَ فِي سَادَاتِكَ لَعَنَ اللّٰهُ عَدُوَّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَ الْاِنْسِ مِنَ الْاَوَّلِينَ وَ الْآخِرِينَ وَ ضَاعَفَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعَذَابَ الْاَلِيمَ، صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْكَ يَا صَاحِبَ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ عَلَيْكَ يَا مَوْلَى اَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَى رُوحِكَ الطَّيِّبَةِ وَ جَسَدِكَ الطَّاهِرِ وَ اَلْحَقَنَا بِمَنِّهِ وَ رَأْفَتِهِ اِذَا تَوَفَّانَا بِكَ وَ بِمَحَلِّ السَّادَةِ الْمَيَامِينِ وَ جَمَعَنَا مَعَهُمْ بِجِوَارِهِمْ فِي جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ [صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْكَ‏] يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ وَ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَى اِخْوَانِكَ الشِّيعَةِ الْبَرَرَةِ مِنَ السَّلَفِ الْمَيَامِينِ وَ اَدْخَلَ الرَّوْحَ وَ الرِّضْوَانَ عَلَى الْخَلَفِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ اَلْحَقَنَا وَ اِيَّاهُمْ بِمَنْ تَوَلاهُ مِنَ الْعِتْرَةِ الطَّاهِرِينَ وَ عَلَيْكَ وَ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلامُ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ.

You may then repeat Surah al-Qadr (No. 97) seven times and then offer any voluntary prayer you wish.

When you decide to leave, you may stop at the tomb to bid farewell farewell to him. You may now say the following words, which Sayyid Ibn Tawus mentioned at the end of the fourth form of ziyarah of Salman:

السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللّٰهِ اَنْتَ بَابُ اللّٰهِ الْمُؤْتَى مِنْهُ وَ الْمَأْخُوذُ عَنْهُ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّكَ قُلْتَ حَقّا وَ نَطَقْتَ صِدْقا وَ دَعَوْتَ اِلَى مَوْلايَ وَ مَوْلاكَ عَلانِيَةً وَ سِرّا اَتَيْتُكَ زَائِرا وَ حَاجَاتِي لَكَ مُسْتَوْدِعا وَ هَا اَنَا ذَا مُوَدِّعُكَ اَسْتَوْدِعُكَ دِينِي وَ اَمَانَتِي وَ خَوَاتِيمَ عَمَلِي وَ جَوَامِعَ اَمَلِي اِلَى مُنْتَهَى اَجَلِي وَ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ وَ رَحْمَةُ اللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ وَ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ الْاَخْيَارِ.

You may then say as many prayers as you can and leave.

After accomplishment of ziyarah of Salman, there remain two more duties to be carried out by a visitor:


First: It is recommended to offer a two or more unit prayer at Taq Kisra (the remnants of the palace of the Sasanid king Khosrow I), because Imam ‘Ali Amir al-Mu’minin (‘a) offered a prayer there.

‘Ammar al-Sabati has reported that when Imam ‘Ali Amir al-Mu’minin (‘a) visited the city of al-Mada’in, accompanied by Dalaf ibn Bujayr, he wandered in the courtyard of Khosrow’s palace. Having offered a prayer, he stood up and asked Dalaf, who was accompanied by a group from the tribe of Sabat, to accompany him. The Imam (‘a) wandered around the chambers of Khosrow and in every place, he would tell Dalaf that such-and-such was in that place. Dalaf would answer, “By Allah I swear, this is as exactly as you are telling.” When he wandered about all the locations in that palace, Dalaf said to him, “O master and chief, it is as if you have put these things in these places!”

It is also reported that when Imam ‘Ali Amir al-Mu’minin (‘a) visited the city of al-Mada’in and passed by the traces of the palace of Khosrow, a man expressed that state by saying the following poetic verse:

Winds flew on the traces of their homes

As if they had already arranged for a date!

The Imam said, “You should have said (the following verse of the Holy Qur’an):

كَمْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ جَنَّاتٍ وَ عُيُونٍ وَ زُرُوعٍ وَ مَقَامٍ كَرِيمٍ وَ نِعْمَةٍ كَانُوا فِيهَا فَاكِهِينَ كَذَلِكَ وَ اَوْرَثْنَاهَا قَوْما آخَرِينَ فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّمَاءُ وَ الْاَرْضُ وَ مَا كَانُوا مُنْظَرِينَ

اِنَّ هَؤُلاءِ كَانُوا وَارِثِينَ فَاَصْبَحُوا مَوْرُوثِينَ لَمْ يَشْكُرُوا النِّعْمَةَ فَسُلِبُوا دُنْيَاهُمْ بِالْمَعْصِيَةِ اِيَّاكُمْ وَ كُفْرَ النِّعَمِ لا تَحُلَّ بِكُمُ النِّقَمُ


Second: It is recommended to visit the tomb of Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman.

One of the major companions of the Holy Prophet (s) and elite friends of Imam ‘Ali (‘a), Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman was characterized by his capability to recognize the hypocrites by names. The second Caliph would not perform the Deceased Prayer for any dead body unless Hudhayfah would be present there. For many years, Hudhayfah had been appointed as the governor of al-Mada’in, but the second Caliph deposed him and appointed Salman for that office. However, when the second Caliph passed away, Hudhayfah regained his past position as governor of al-Mada’in and continued in that office until Imam ‘Ali (‘a) regained his position as the leader (caliph) of Muslims. The Imam (‘a) wrote an official epistle to Hudhayfah and the people of al-Mada’in informing them of his having been chosen as the caliph and, through a governmental decree, appointing Hudhayfah as the governor of al-Mada’in. However, Hudhayfah had passed away and been buried in that city before Imam ‘Ali (‘a) could arrive in al-Kufah with his army after he had left al-Madinah towards al-Basrah to repel the evil of the people of the Camel.

Abu-Hamzah al-Thumali has reported the following:

At the last hours of his lifetime, Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman summoned his son and transmitted his will to him, saying, “O son, show despair of what people have in possession, for richness lies in this. Beware of asking your needs from people, for this is the whole poverty. On this day, try to be better than what you were on yesterday. When you perform a prayer, try to perform it in a mood of one who is bidding farewell to this world and will not have a chance to return to it. Beware of doing things that make you apologize.”

It is worth mentioning that the Major Mosque of al-Mada’in is situated near the tomb of Salman. This mosque is ascribed to Imam al-Hasan al-’Askari (‘a) although none has known the reason. Perhaps, the Imam (‘a) ordered of constructing this mosque or offered a prayer therein.

So, do not deprive yourself of the merit of offering a two-unit prayer in this mosque.