Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English0%

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: Supplications and Ziyarat

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Sheikh Abbas Al-Qummi
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
Category: visits: 205868
Download: 59552

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English
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Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Mafatih al-Jinan (Keys to Heavens): Arabic-English

Author:
Publisher: www.alhassanain.org/english
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


Notes:

We worked on this book in several formats, because there was not any English translation of this book free downloadable in word, html and pdf as we have been searching it since last year except some parts of it on some sites.

The method of our work was as following:

1- We took the software (android) of Mafatih from the version of Erfan.ir

2- We transfered all parts even page by page into html format by sending one by one of them by sharing on our email: http://alhassanain2014@gmail.com

3- Then, we pasted them into unformatted text, and started to recheck whether there is any error or not, so, we found out that Surah al-Rum has only 26 verses, and like other errors.

4- We saw that this version does has not any chapterizing, so, we chapterized it according to the original text of Persian and then Arabic Translation of it.

5- .....

 

Despite of all we have done, if you see any error, please inform us on our email mentioned above, we welcome it and will try to recorrect as soon as possible.

 

May Allah accept our endeavours in His path, Amen!

Good Luck

http://www.alhassanain.org/english

DUA IN THE OCCULTATION OF IMAM MAHDI (A)

Thirty-second: Shaykh al-Kulayni and others have reported that Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) taught Zurarah to say this supplicatory prayer in the age of the occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (‘a) and when the Shi’ah are exposed to tribulations:

اَللّهُمَّ عَرِّفْنى نَفْسَكَ فَاِنَّكَ اِنْ لَمْ تُعَرِّفْنى نَفْسَكَ لَمْ اَعْرِف نَبِيَّكَ اَللّهُمَّ عَرِّفْنى رَسُولَكَ فَاِنَّكَ اِنْ لَمْ تُعَرِّفْنى رَسُولَكَ لَمْ اَعْرِفْ حُجَّتَكَ اَللّهُمَّ عَرِّفْنى حُجَّتَكَ فَاِنَّكَ اِنْ لَمْ تُعَرِّفْنى حُجَّتَكَ ضَلَلْتُ عَنْ دينى

DUA BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP

Thirty-three: Quoted from ‘Uddat al-Da’i, Imam ‘Ali Amir al-Mu’minin (‘a) is reported to have said: When you intend to go to sleep, you may put your right hand under your right cheek and say this devotional statement. If you say it before going to sleep, Almighty Allah will guard you against raiding thieves and against demolition, and the angels will implore Almighty Allah to forgive you:

بسم اللّه،وضعت جنبى للّه،على ملّة ابراهيم و دين محمّد صلّى اللّه عليه و آله و ولاية من‏ افترض اللّه اطاعته،ما شاء اللّه كان،و ما لم يشأ لم يكن.

DUA FOR PROTECTION OF VALUBALES AND PRECIOUS THINGS (THAT ARE CONCEALED)

Thirty-fourth: Quoted from ‘Uddat al-Da’itoo, the Holy Imams (‘a) are reported to have said that the savings on which Surah al-Qadr is recited will be guarded.

Thirty-fifth: Imam ‘Ali Amir al-Mu’minin (‘a) is also reported to have said: Whoever recites one hundred verses of the Holy Qur’an and follows it be repeating this word seven times, will be able to uproot even a rock if he prays Almighty Allah for so:

يا اللهء

IMPORTANCE OF RECITING قل هوالله احد

Thirty-sixth: Imam ‘Ali (‘a) is also reported to have said that whoever recites Surah al-Tawhid three times before going to sleep, Almighty Allah will order fifty thousand angels to guard him at that night.

Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is likewise reported to have said, “Whoever spends a whole day on which he performs the five obligatory prayers without reciting Surah al-Tawhid, will not be counted as performer of prayers.”

He (‘a) is also reported to have said, “Whoever spends a whole week without reciting Surah al-Tawhid and then dies, will die following the religion of Abu-Lahab.”

He (‘a) is also reported as saying, “Whoever is afflicted by an ailment or a hardship but he does not recite Surah al-Tawhid during his ailment or hardship and then dies, he will be one of the inhabitants of Hellfire.”

Thirty-seventh: Quoted from ‘Uddat al-Da’itoo, this supplicatory amulet may be used to protect the plants of watermelon, cucumber, and the like from the damages caused by worms and other animals:

On four reeds or four parchments, you may write down the following statements. The parchments may be put inside the four reeds and then each one of them may be fixed in the four sides of the farm:

اَيُّهَا الدُّودُ اَيُّهَا الدَّوابُّ وَالْهَوامُّ وَالْحَيْواناتُ اُخْرُجُوا مِنْ هذِهِ الاَرْضِ وَالزَّرْعِ اِلَى الْخَرابِ كَما خَرَجَ ابْنُ مَتّى مِنْ بَطْنِ الْحُوتِ فَاِنْ لَمْ تَخْرِجُوا اَرْسَلْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ شُواظاً مِنْ نارٍ وَ نُحاسٍ [ساً] فَلا تَنْتَصِرانِ اَلَمْ تَرَ اِلَى الَّذينَ خَرَجُوا مِنْ دِيارِهِمْ وَ هُمْ اُلْوُفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقالَ لَهُمُ اللّٰهُ مُوتُوا فَماتُوا اُخْرُجُوا مِنْها فَاِنَّكَ رَجيمٌ فَخَرَجَ مِنْها خآئِفاً يَتَرَقَّبُ سُبْحانَ الَّذى اَسْرى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرامِ اِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الاَقْصى كَاَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَها لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا اِلاّ عَشِيَّةً اَوْضُحيها فَاَخْرَجْناهُمْ مِنْ جَنّاتٍ وَ عُيُونٍ وَ زُرُوعٍ وَ مَقامٍ كَريمٍ وَ نَعْمَةٍ كانُوا فيها فاكِهينَ فَما بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّماءُ وَالاَرْضُ وَ ما كانُوا مُنْظَرينَ اُخْرُجْ مِنْها فَما يَكُونُ لَكَ اَنْ تَتَكَبَّرَ فيها فَاخْرُجْ اِنَّكَ مِنَ الصّاغِرينَ اُخْرُجْ مِنْها مَذْؤ ماً مَدْحُوراً فَلَنَاءتِيَنَّهُمْ بِجُنُودٍ لاقِبَلَ لَهُمْ وَ لَنُخْرِجَنَّهُمْ مِنْها اَذِلَّةً وَ هُمْ صاغِروُنَ

IMPORTANCE OF A RING OF AQEEQ AND LOOKING AT IT IN THE MORNING AND WHILE PRAYING

Thirty-eighth: Sayyid Ibn Tawus has reported Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (‘a) as saying that whoever begins his morning wearing a ring of an agate stone in the right hand, turns the stone of the ring to the side of the palm of the hand before looking at anything else, looks at the stone, recites Surah al-Qadr, and says this devotional statement, Almighty Allah will safeguard him on that day from whatever descends from the heavens, whatever ascends to it, whatever comes into the earth, and whatever comes out of it, and he will be under the protection of Almighty Allah and one of his beloved servants up to the night:

امنت باللّه وحده لا شريك له و كفرت بالجبت و الطّاغوت،و امنت بسرّ ال محمّد و علانيتهم،و ظاهرهم و باطنهم و اوّلهم و اخرهم.

DUA TO REMEMEBER THE THINGS THAT SATAN MAKES YOU FORGET

Thirty-ninth: Quoting the book of Jam’ al-Shatat, al-Kaf’ami has reported Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) as saying: If you had intended to report one of our sayings but Satan made you forget it, you may put your hand on your forehead and say this supplication prayer:

صلّى اللّه على محمّد و اله، اللّهمّ انّى اسالك يا مذكرّ الخير و فاعله،و الامر به،ذكرّنى ما انسانيه الشّيطان‏

In the book of man-la-yahzuruhul-faqih, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have said that whoever is frequently unmindful in his prayers, may say these words when he enters the toilet:

بسم اللّه،اعوذ باللّه من الرّجس النجس الخبيث المخبث‏ الشّيطان الرّجيم.

DUA & MEDICINE FOR GOOD MEMORY

It is worth mentioning that whoever intends to strengthen his memory is advised to use frequently the miswak (a stick used for cleansing the teeth), observe fasting, read regularly the Holy Qur’an in general and Ayah al-Kursi in particular, and addict himself to eating raisins, especially twenty grains of the red colored type, before having anything in the beginning of the day. This is useful for improving understandability, mentality, and memory.

For good memory too, it is advised to eat the post-neck meat, candy, honey, and lentils.

This direction is also useful for good memory: Equal amounts of olibanum, galingale, and sugar candy may be crushed softly and an amount of the mixture that is equal to five dirhams may be swallowed every day. This direction may be followed for three consecutive days and eschewed for five days, and so on.

For good memory too, it is advisable to say these words every day after the Dawn Prayer before saying the taslim statement:

يا حىّ يا قيّوم فلا يفوت شيئا علمه،و لا يؤده.

It is also recommended to say the post-prayer supplication that beings with this statement (after prayers):

سبحان من لا يعتدى على اهل مملكته‏ ...

THINGS TO BE KEPT IN MIND FOR GOOD MEMORY

In Section Two of this book, I have referred to a prayer to be performed for gaining good memory.

Finally, it is advised to avoid doing things that bring about oblivion and stupor, such as:

(1) eating sour apple, green coriander, cheese, and leftover of rats,

(2) urinating in still water,

(3) reading the tablets on graves,

(4) walking between two women (for men),

(5) throwing alive lice on the ground,

(6) abandoning nail trimming,

(7) forsaking taking a nap,

(8) committing acts of disobedience frequently,

(9) engaging oneself with grievances and grumbles about this-worldly affairs,

(10) being excessively busy,

(11) looking at crucified persons, and

(12) passing among a convoy of camels.

DUA FOR GLORIFYING ALLAH (S.W.T.)

Fortieth: Shaykh Ibn Fahad has reported Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) as saying, “Any supplication that is not commenced with a statement of glorification of the Lord is imperfect. Glorification may always precedes praise.”

The reporter asked the Imam (‘a), “What is the least acceptable statement of glorification?”

The Imam (‘a) taught him to say this supplicatory prayer:

اَللّهُمَّ اَنْتَ الاَوَّلُ فَلَيْسَ قَبْلَكَ شَيْئٌ وَ اَنْتَ الاْ خِرُ فَلَيْسَ بَعْدَكَ شَيْئٌ وَ اَنْتَ الظّاهِرُ فَلَيْسَ فَوْقَكَ شَيْئٌ وَ اَنْتَ الْباطِنُ فَلَيْسَ دُونَكَ شَيْئٌ وَ اَنْتَ الْعَزيزُ الْحَكيمُ.

SEVENTH CHAPTER: ETIQUETTES AND SUPPLICATIONS PERTAINING TO DEATH

ETIQUETTES AND SUPPLICATIONS PERTAINING TO DEATH

When signs of death appear to someone, he more than anyone else must prepare himself for receiving it, because he will start a journey from which he will never return; namely, the journey to the Other World. In this journey, he requires suitable provisions. The first thing he must do is to confess of his sins, admit of failure to do what ought to be done, show regret at the wrongdoings he has done, declare pure repentance, weep for himself, implore the All-holy God for forgiveness, and pray Him to stand by him and not to leave him alone facing the imminent shocks and horrors.

As a second step, he must pay considerable attention to his will; he must therefore fulfill his liabilities and duties towards Almighty Allah and people and must not entrust others to do so on behalf of him. He will very soon lose any control over his properties; rather, he will not be able to do anything rather than watching sorrowfully how his properties will be spent. In fact, the devilish jinn and human beings will inspire evil things to his heirs in order to prevent them from absolving him from the financial liabilities and he will have not stratagem other than shouting, “My Lord, send me back haply I may do good in that which I have left!” Yet, this call will not be heard and regret will not be helpful anymore.

In this respect, one who feels his imminent departure of this life must bequeath one third of his properties to his relatives and to charitable purposes in a way that corresponds to the financial situation. Legally, a legator has no right to dispose of more than one third of his legacy.

The next step is that he must absolve himself from his obligations towards his brethren-in-faith, ask those whom he had backbitten, insulted, or injured to forgive him if he can contact with them, and ask his present brethren-in-faith to ask the absent ones to release him from any wrongdoing he had done to them.

He must then nominate somebody as his guardian over his immature sons and entrust a trustworthy person with managing the affairs of his children and family members. Of course, this step, as well as all other steps, must be preceded by putting full trust in Almighty Allah.

The next step is that he must prepare his shroud (i.e. grave-clothes), in case that he has not already prepared it, and to order that the supplicatory prayers and holy verses, which are too many to be mentioned in this thesis, must be written on his shroud with a liquid made of a mixture of water and soil taken from Imam al-Husayn’s holy tomb. However, a true believer must always have his shroud prepared. In this regard, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have said, “Whoever has his shroud kept in his house, will not be registered with the inadvertent ones and will be granted a reward whenever he looks at it.”

One who is near death must no longer think of the future of his family members, sons, and property; rather, he must think of nothing except the All-holy God and must understand that such transient matters will not help or save him neither in this world nor in the other world, and nothing will help except the kindness and mercy of Almighty Allah. Hence, if one puts his full trust in Almighty Allah, the affairs of his household will certainly go well. It must be also known for sure that no one, be he alive or dead, can provide any help or fend off any harm unless Almighty Allah wills so, since He, Who has created the beings, is more compassionate to His creatures than anyone else. As a result, one who is near death must be full of hope for the mercy of his Lord and must entertain expectation of the intercession of the Holy Prophet (s) and the Holy Imams (‘a) and wait for their coming at the hour of death. In fact, it must be known that they all come at the last hour of death to convey good tidings to their loyalists and to ask the Angel of Death to be lenient to the dead who has been faithful to them.

In Misbah al-Mutahajjid, Shaykh al-Tusi says that it is recommended to pay much attention to the last will, which must not be belittled by every human being. In this respect, it is reported that one must not spend a single night without having his will placed under his head. This advice becomes more emphatic in cases of ailments. Hence, one must write down his will as excellently as possible and must absolve himself from the liabilities and responsibilities towards Almighty Allah and towards His servants.

WRITING OF WILL BEFORE DEATH

The Holy Prophet (s) is reported to have said, “Whoever fails to write his will sensibly before his death, lacks reason and manliness.” He (s) was asked, “How should excellent writing of one’s will be, Allah’s Messenger?” He (s) instructed: In the last hours of his lifetime and when people gather around him, he must say:

اَللّهُمَّ فاطِرَ السَّمواتِ وَالاَرْضِ عالِمَ الْغَيْبِ وَ الشَّهادَةِ الرَّحْمنَ الرَّحيمَ اِنّى اَعْهَدُ اِلَيْكَ اَنّى اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لااِلهَ اِلاّاللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَريكَ لَهُ وَاَنَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ اَنَّ السّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لارَيْبَ فيها وَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِى الْقُبُورِ وَ اَنَّ الْحِسابَ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ ما وُعِدَ فيها مِنَ النَّعيمِ مِنَ الْمَاْكَلِ وَ الْمَشْرَبِ وَ النِّكاحِ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ النّارَ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ الاْيمانَ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ الدّينَ كَما وَصَفَ، وَ اَنَّ الاِسْلامَ كَما شَرَعَ وَ اَنَّ الْقَوْلَ كَما قالَ وَ اَنَّ الْقُرآنَ كَما اَنْزَلَ وَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ الْمُبينُ وَ اَنّى اَعْهَدُ اِلَيْكَ فى دارِ الدُّنْيا اَنّى رَضيتُ بِكَ رَبّاً وَ بِاْلاِسْلامِ ديناً وَ بِمُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ نَبِيّاً وَ بِعَلِي وَلِيّاً وَ بِالْقُرْآنِ كِتاباً وَ اَنَّ اَهْلَ بَيْتِ نَبِّيِّكَ عَلَيْهِ وَ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلامُ اَئِمِّتى اَللّهُمَّ اَنْتَ ثِقَتى عِنْدَ شِدَّتى وَ رَجائى عِنْدَ كُرْبَتى وَ عُدَّتى عِنْدَ الاُمُورِ الَّتى تَنْزِلُ بى وَ اَنْتَ وَلِيّى فى نِعْمَتى وَ اِلهى وَ اِلهُ آبائى صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ وَ لاتَكِلْنى اِلى نَفْسى طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ اَبَداً وَ انِسْ فى قَبْرى وَحْشَتى وَاجْعَلْ لى عِنْدَكَ عَهْدَاً يَوْمَ اَلْقاكَ مَنْشُوراً

The Holy Prophet (s) then added, “This is the covenant of the moribund when he makes his will, which is obligatory upon each Muslim individual.”

Commenting on this, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have said: Certifying this fact, Allah the All-blessed and All-exalted says in Surah Maryam:

"They shall not control intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent Allah"

The Holy Prophet (s) then instructed Imam ‘Ali (‘a) to learn this covenant and advise the members of his household and his adherents (i.e. Shi’ah) to learn it. He (s) added, “I have been taught this by Archangel Gabriel.”

THE INSCRIPTION THAT SHOULD BE WRITTEN AND KEPT WITH THE DEAD

Shaykh al-Tusi adds: The inscription that should be written down on the document-paper that is put with the palm-leaf stalk with the dead should be as follows. However, before writing down this inscription, the writer is advised to say the following words:

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحيمِ اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَريكَ لَهُ وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ اَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ النّارَ حَقُّ وَ اَنَّ السّاعَةِ حَقُّ آتِيَةٌ لارَيْبَ فيها وَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِى الْقُبُورِ

Only then, this inscription may be written down:

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحيمِ شَهِدَ الشُّهُودُ الْمُسَمَّوْنَ فى هذَا الْكِتابِ اَنَّ اَخاهُمْ فِى اللّٰهِ عَزَّوَجَلَّ (فلان بن فلان)

so and so and the son of so and so

اَشْهَدَهُمْ وَاسْتَوْدَعَهُمْ وَاَقَرَّ عِنْدَهُمْ اَنَّهُ يَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَريكَ لَهُ وَ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ اَنَّهُ مُقِرُّ بِجَميعِ الاَنْبِيآءِ وَالرُّسُلِ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلامُ وَ اَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِىُّ اللّٰهِ وَ اِمامُهُ وَ اَنَّ الاَئِمَّةَ مِنْ وُلْدِهِ اَئِمَّتُهُ وَ اَنَّ اَوَّلَهُمُ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَيْنُ وَ عَلِىُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِي وَ جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ وَ عَلِىُّ بْنُ مُوسى وَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِي وَ عَلِىُّ بْنُ مَحَمَّدٍ وَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِي وَالْقائِمُ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلامُ وَ اَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ حَقُّ وَالنّارَ حَقُّ وَالسّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لارِيْبَ فيها ، وَ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِى الْقُبُورِ وَ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ [عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ] جآءَ بِالْحَقِّ وَ اَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِىُّ اللّٰهِ وَالْخَليفَةُ مِنْ بَعْدِ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ مُسْتَخْلَفُهُ فى اُمَّتِهِ مُؤَدِّياً لاَمْرِ رَبِّهِ تَبارَكَ وَ تَعالى وَ اَنَّ فاطِمَةَ بِنْتُ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ وَ ابْنَيْهَا الْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ اِبْنا رَسُولِاللّٰهِ وَسِبْطاهُ [وَ] اِمامَا الْهُدى وَ قائِداَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَ اَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَ مُحَمَّداً وَ جَعْفَراً وَ مُوسى وَ عَلِيّاً وَ مُحَمَّداً وَ عَلِيّاً وَ حَسَناً وَالْحُجَّةَ عَلَيْهُم السَّلامُ اَئِمَّةٌ وَقادَةٌ وَ دُعاةٌ اِلَى اللّٰهِ جَلَّ وَ عَلا وَ حُجَّةٌ عَلى عِبادِهِ

The writer of this document-paper should then address the witnesses with these words:

ياso and so وَ يَاso ans so الْمُسَمَّيْنِ فِيْ هٰذَا الْكِتَابِ اثْبِتُوْا لِيْ هٰذِهِ الشَّهَادَةَ عِنْدَكُمْ حَتّٰي تَلْقَوْنِيْ بِهَا عَلَيٰ الْحَوْضِ

As a reply, the witnesses should say:

ياso and soنَسْتَوْدِعُكَ اللّٰهَ وَالشَّهادَةُ وَالاِقْرارُ وَ الاِخآءُ مَوْدُوعَةٌ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ صَلَّى اللّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَنَقْرَءُ عَلَيْكَ السَّلامُ وَ رَحْمَةُاللّٰهِ وَ بَرَكاتُهُ

Then, the document-paper should be folded, enveloped, and sealed with the seals of both of the witnesses and the person for which the witness has been made. It must then be put to the right side of the dead with the palm-leaf stalk. This paper, which must be written down with camphor (i.e. water with which camphor is mixed) and non-aromatic aloe-wood, must be put on the dead person’s forehead.

BRIEF MANNERS & TALQEEN TO BE RECITED NEAR DEAD

One before whom death appears should face the kiblah direction with the sole of the feet. In his presence, there should be one who recites Surah Yasin and Surah al-Saffat and instructs the moribund to say the two creeds of Islam, to confess following the Holy Imams by names, and to say the following supplicatory words of relief:

لا اِلهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ الْحَليمُ الْكَريمُ لا اِلهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ الْعَلِىُّ الْعَظيمُ سُبْحانَ اللّٰهِ رَبِّ السَّمواتِ السَّبْعِ وَ رَبِّ الاَرَضينَ السَّبْعِ وَ ما فيهِنَّ وَ ما بَيْنَهُنَّ وَ ما تَحْتَهُنَّ وَ رَبِّ الْعَرشِ الْعَظيمِ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمينَ وَالصَّلوةُ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ الطَّيِبينَ

The moribund must not be attended by ceremonially impure persons or menstruating women.

PREPARING THE SHROUD (KAFAN) OF DEAD

When he completes his vow by death, his eyes must be closed, his hands stretched out, his mouth shut, his legs extended, his jaws pulled, and his shrouds prepared. The shroud is required to consist of three pieces; an apron, a shirt, and a loincloth. However, it is recommended to add a fourth piece, which is a special wrap usually used by the people of Yemen, or any other loincloth. It is furthermore recommended to use a fifth piece of clothes with which the thighs and the hip are tied up. Moreover, it is recommended to used a sixth piece of clothes as a turban.

In addition, some camphor that has not been coped with fire may be added in a quantity ranging between thirteen and a third dirham, four mitigals, or one dirham at least. If this is unfeasible, any quantity may be used.

On each of these shrouds, the following words my be written down:

so and so يشهد ان لا اله الاّ اللّه وحده لا شريك له و انّ محمّدا رسول اللّه و انّ عليّا امير المؤمنين و الائمّة مِنْ وُلْدِهِ ...

This inscription may be written with water with which soil of Imam al-Husayn’s tomb or asba’ (apparently the soil of a certain mountain) is mixed. It must not be written with black color.

THE RITUAL BATHING (GHUSL) OF THE DECEASED

A dead person must be bathed three ritual bathings; first, with water of the leaves of lote-tree; second, with water of camphor; and third, with pure water.

Just like the ritual bathing after ceremonial impurity, the first organs of a dead person to be washed are the hands; they must be washed three times. Then, they may be rubbed dry with a little amount of moss (i.e. a kind of cotton-grass) three times. Then, the head should be washed with the foam of the water of lote-tree three times. The same thing should be then made to the right and then the left sides of the body. The hand of the bather (i.e. the person who bathes) must pass over the entire body with the water of the lote.

The vessels that have contained the water mixed with lote must be cast and another liquid, which is a mixture of water and (a little quantity of) camphor must be poured in the vessels. Then, the same previous process of washing must be repeated, yet with the mixture of water and camphor this time. Then, the vessels that have contained the mixture of water and camphor must be cast and re-filled with pure water with which the dead body must be washed in the same previous way.

The bather must stand to the right side of the dead body. At each time of bathing, the bather must repeat this word:

عفوا عفوا

Upon accomplishment, the dead body must be dried with a clean piece of cloth. It is then obligatory upon the bather to bathe himself, either immediately or afterwards. However, it is recommended to perform a ritual ablution (wuzu’) to the bathings of the dead body.

SHROUDING THE DEAD BODY

Then comes the stage of enshrouding. The enshrouding person may spread out the fifth piece of cloth, put a little quantity of cotton over it, disperse a little quantity of crumbs (of either the leaves of lote-tree or powdered incense) over it, put some of the crumbs on the two private parts of the dead person, and stuff the anus with little cotton. Then, the buttocks and the thighs must be tied up firmly with the (fifth) piece of cloth. Then, the apron must be tied up from the navel downwards. Then, the dead body must be dressed the shirt over which the wrapper is dressed and over it the special wrap, or the other piece of clothes that replaces it, must be dressed.

With the dead body, two palm-leaf stalks, or stalks of any other tree, must be put. These two stalks must be wet and must be in the size of the arm bone. One of the stalks must be put to the right side of the dead body and stuck to the skin near the loin. The other stalk must be put to the left side between the shirt and the apron. The organs of prostration (i.e. the forehead, the palms of the hands, the knees, and the fingers of the feet) must be stained with camphor. If any amount of camphor remains, it must be put on the chest. Then, the wrapper must be restored to its position and knotted from the sides of the head and the feet. When the dead body is buried, these knots must be unfastened. Then, the dead body must be carried on the bedstead to the prayer-place, where the ritual prayer of the deceased is performed.

NAMAZ E MAYYAT

The following is quoted, yet briefly, from the book entitled Zad al-Ma’ad by ‘Allamah al-Majlisi, may Allah show him mercy, under the title: Chapter: the Deceased Prayer:

The performance of the ritual Deceased Prayer is obligatory upon every Muslim individual who knows about the death of somebody. If one Muslim performs this prayer, the other Muslims will be exempted from this obligatory duty. Unanimously agreed by all scholars, the Deceased Prayer is obligatory upon all mature Twelver Shi’ites. However, it is most famous and most acceptable that this prayer is obligatory upon even the immature who are more than six year old. Apparently, it is sufficiently acceptable to intend seeking nearness to Almighty Allah (rather than pronouncing the words of intention). To perform the Deceased Prayer for the dead bodies of the less than six month year old babies who have been born alive is deemed highly recommended by some scholars, but deemed heretic by some others. However, it is precautious to neglect performing this prayer for these babies.

According to the religious law, the foremost people to perform the Deceased Prayer are the nearest to the deceased people and who deserve the largest quantity of his/her inheritance. This is the most familiar law. Thus, a husband must precede others in performing the Deceased Prayer of his wife.

The performer of the Deceased Prayer must face the kiblah direction and stand to the right side of the head of the dead body, which must be laid down on the back.

Validity of the Deceased Prayer is not conditional upon ceremonial purity; therefore, it is valid for the ceremonially impure, the menstruating women, and those who have not performed the ritual ablution (wuzu’) to perform such prayers, although it is recommended for the performers of this prayer to have performed the ritual ablution. If water is not available, there is something prevents from using water, or there is not enough time to perform the ritual ablution, it is then highly recommended, according to traditions, to perform the dry ablution (i.e. tayammum). However, it is understood from the apparent meanings of some traditions that dry ablution should be used even if there is nothing prevents from performing the ritual ablution.

It is also traditional that the performer of the Deceased Prayer should stand in the middle of the dead body of a man and in front of the breast of the dead body of a woman. This is the most familiar rule. Besides, the performer of the Deceased Prayer should take off the shoes and must intend performing the Deceased Prayer. He must then repeat the takbir statement five times. It is also traditional that he raises his hands to the level of his ears while uttering these statements. Familiarly, he should say the following words after uttering the first takbir statement:

اشهد ان لا اله الاّ اللّه و اشهد انّ محمّدا رسول اللّه

These words should be advisably said after uttering the second takbir statement:

اللّهمّ صلّ على محمّد و ال محمّد

These words should be advisably said after uttering the third takbir statement:

اللّهمّ اغفر للمؤمنين و المؤمنات

These words should be advisably said after uttering the fourth takbir statement:

الّلهمّ اغفر لهذا الميّت

Then, the fifth takbir statement should be uttered, and thus the prayer has been accomplished utterly and acceptably.

As another method, it is familiarly better to say these words immediately after determining the intention of performing the Deceased Prayer:

اَللَّهُ اَكْبَرُ اَشْهَدُ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَريكَ لَهُ وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ اَرْسَلَهُ بِالْحَقِّ بَشيراً وَ نَذيراً بَيْنَ يَدَىِ السّاعَةِ

After that, it is recommended to say these words:

اللّٰهُ اَكْبَرُ اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ بارِكْ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَارْحَمْ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ كَاَفْضَلِ ما صَلَّيْتَ وَ بارَكْتَ وَ تَرَحَّمْتَ عَلى اِبْرهيمَ وَ آلِ اِبْرهيمَ اِنَّكَ حَميدٌ مَجيدٌ وَ صَلِّ عَلى جَميعِ الاَنْبِيآءِ وَالْمُرْسَلينَ

After that, it is recommended to say these words:

اَللَّهُ اَكْبَرُ اَللّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنينَ وَالْمُؤْمِناتِ وَالْمُسْلِمينَ وَالْمُسْلِماتِ الاَحْيآءِ مِنْهُمْ وَالاَ مْواتِ تابِعْ بَيْنَنا وَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْخَيْراتِ اِنَّكَ مُجيبُ الدَّعَواتِ اِنَّكَ عَلى كُلِّشَيْئٍ قَديرٌ

After that, it is recommended to say these words:

اللّٰهُ اَكْبَرُ اَللّهُمَّ اِنَّ هذا عَبْدُكَ وَابْنُ عَبْدِكَ وَابْنُ اَمَتِكَ نَزَلَ بِكَ وَ اَنْتَ خَيْرُ مَنْزُولٍ بِهِ اَللّهُمَّ اِنّا لا نَعْلَمُ مِنْهُ اِلاّ خَيْراً وَ اَنْتَ اَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنّا اَللّهُمَّ اِنْ كانَ مُحْسِناً فَزِدْ فى اِحْسانِهِ وَ اِنْ كانَ مُسَّيئاً فَتَجاوَزْ عَنْهُ وَاغْفِرِ لَهُ اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ عِنْدَكَ فى اَعْلا عِلِّيّينَ وَاخْلُفْ عَلى اَهْلِهِ فِى الْغابِرينَ وَارْحَمْهُ بِرَحْمَتِكَ يا اَرْحَمَ الرّاحِمينَ

The performer of the Deceased Prayer should then say one more takbir statement and finish the prayer.

If the dead person is female, the following words should be said by the performer of the Deceased Prayer instead:

اَللّهُمَّ اِنَّ هذِهِ اَمَتُكَ وَابْنَةُ عَبْدِكَ و انبنَةُ اَمَتِکَ نَزَلَتْ بِكَ وَ اَنْتَ خَيْرُ مَنْزوُلٍ بِهِ اَللّهُمَّ اِنّا لا نَعْلَمُ مِنْها اِلاّ خَيْراً وَ اَنْتَ اَعْلَمُ بِهامِنّا اَللّهُمَّ اِنْ كانَتْ مُحْسِنَةً فَزِدْ فى اِحْسانِها وَ اِنْ كانَتْ مُسيئةً فَتَجاوَزْ عَنْها وَاغْفِرْ لَها اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْها عِنْدَكَ فى اَعْلا عِلِّييّنَ وَاخْلُفْ عَلى اَهْلِها فِى الْغابِرينَ وَارْحَمْها بِرَحْمَتِكَ يا اَرْحَمَ الرّاحِمينَ

If the dead person is of those whom are deemed enfeebled, then the performer of the Deceased Prayer should say these words:

اللّهم اغفر للّذين تابوا و اتّبعوا سبيلك و قهم عذاب الجحيم.

If the dead person is an immature child, the performer of the Deceased Prayer should say these words:

الّلهمّ اجعله لابويه و لنا سلفا و فرطا و اجرا.

CARRYING THE DEAD

It is also tradition that the performers of the Deceased Prayer, especially the leader, should stop in their places until the funeral is raised.

According to a reported tradition, when the Deceased Prayer is accomplished, these words should be said:

ربّنا اتنا فى الدّنيا حسنة و فى الاخرة حسنة و قنا عذاب النّار.

Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have said that it is recommended to inform the brethren-in-faith about the death of their brother so that they will present themselves in the funeral ceremonies, offer prayers on his dead body, and implore Almighty Allah’s forgiveness for him. Once they do so, both they and the dead person will be awarded.

According to another acceptably reported tradition, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) has said, “When a faithful believer is entered into the grave, he hears a caller saying to him: Verily, the first of Your gifts is Paradise and the first of the gifts of those who followed you (in your funeral ceremony) is forgiveness.”

According to another tradition, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) has said, “The first gift of a faithful believer in his grave is that all those who have followed his funeral will be forgiven.”

According to another tradition, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) has said, “Whoever follows the funeral of a faithful believer to the grave, Almighty Allah will order seventy angels to escort him on the Resurrection Day and to implore Allah’s forgiveness for him from the grave to the situation of the Judgment.”

The Imam (‘a) is also reported to have said, “Whoever participates in carrying the coffin of a dead faithful believer, Almighty Allah will forgive twenty-five of his grand sins. If he carries the four legs (consecutively) of the coffin, all his sins will be forgiven.”

CARRYING THE DEAD PERSON AND THE COFFIN

The coffin should be carried by four men and it is better for the one who escorts the deceased to start with carrying the dead body from the side of the right hand, which is situated to the left side of the coffin. Then, he should carry the body from the side of the right leg. Turning to the backside of the coffin, he should then carry the side of the left leg on the left shoulder and then the side of the left hand on the left shoulder. If he intends to take another tour, he must avoid passing from the front side of the coffin; rather, he must turn from its backside. Hence, this tour starts with carrying the side of the right hand of the deceased in the same previous way. However, this way is contradictory to the instruction of the majority of scholars, who have instructed that the point from which a coffin should be carried begins with the right side of the front of the coffin followed by carrying the right side of the coffin from the backside. Then, the left side is carried from the backside and then from the front side.

However, the earlier way is in fact corresponding with the most validly reported traditions. Most preferably, the two ways may be followed.

It is also most preferable to walk either behind or to the two side of the coffin rather than in front of it. Yet, the majority of traditions apparently maintain that it is better to walk in front of the coffin of the faithful believers and it is disapproved to walk in front of the coffin of the dead person who follows another sect (i.e. non-Shi’ite), for the angel receives the coffin with chastisement. Finally, it is discommended to follow a funeral riding.

DUA WHEN SOMEONE SEES THE DEAD

The Holy Prophet (s) is reported to have said that whoever sees a funeral procession and says these words, all the angels in the heavens will weep as a sign of showing mercy to him:

اَللَّهُ اَكْبَرُ هذا ما وَعَدَنَا اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ صَدَقَ اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ اَللّهُمَّ زِدْنا ايماناً وَ تَسْليماً اَلْحَمْدُلِلَّهِ الَّذى تَعَزَّزَ بِالْقُدْرَةِ وَ قَهَرَ الْعِبادَ بِالْمَوْتِ

Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have instructed the bearers of a coffin to say these words:

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ وَ بِاللّٰهِ اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَاغْفِرْ لِلْمُؤْمِنينَ وَ الْمُؤْمِناتِ

Imam Zayn al-’Abidin (‘a) is reported to have used to said these words whenever he would see a funeral procession:

اَلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذى لَمْ يَجْعَلْنى مِنَ السَّوادِ الْمُخْتَرَمِ

It is not traditional that women follow funerals. It is also discommended for those who follow a funeral to laugh or to utter nonsensical words.

In his book entitled al-Hilyah, ‘Allamah al-Majlisi, may Allah have mercy upon him, quotes the Holy Prophet (s) as saying, “Whoever performs a prayer for a deceased, seventy thousand angels will pray for him and Almighty Allah will forgive him his past and coming sins. If he remains until the deceased is buried and soil completely covers his grave, then he will be granted a carat of reward for each step he has made. One carat is equal to the weight of Mount Uhud.”

The Holy Prophet (s) is also reported to have said, “Any faithful believer who performs a prayer for a deceased person will be awarded Paradise incumbently unless he is hypocrite or impious to the parents.”

TESTIMONY FROM 40 FAITHFUL BELIEVERS

Through a valid chain of authority, Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) is reported to have said, “When a faithful believer dies and his funeral is attended by forty faithful believers who says these words about him, Almighty Allah will say to them: Your testimony is admitted and I will forgive him what you do not known about him but I do:”

الّلهم انّا لا نعلم منه الاّ خيرا،و انت اعلم به منّا

According to another validly reported tradition, the Holy Prophet (s) has said, “The first title of a faithful believer’s Record of Deeds is what people say about him after his death. If they say good things, then his Record is good; but if they say evil things, then his Record is evil.”

MANNERS OF CARRYING THE DEAD PERSON

In his book entitled Misbah al-Mutahajjid, Shaykh al-Tusi says:

It is recommended to carry a coffin from the four sides, beginning with the right side of the hand, the right side of the leg, the left side of the leg, and ending with the left side of the hand. Thus should the four sides of a coffin be carried. Hence, the bearer should turn around a coffin just like the turning of a hand mill.

BURIAL

When the coffin is brought to the grave, it must be left at the backside of it. Then, it must be approached towards the grave in three stages. If the dead person is a woman, then the coffin must be put in front of the greave towards the kiblah direction. Then, the dead person’s heir or the person deputized by the heir to do so may go down the grave. Meanwhile, he is recommended to say this supplicatory prayer:

الّلهمّ اجعلها روضة من رياض الجنّة،و لا تجعلها حفرة من حفر النّار.

The burier is required to go down to the grave barefooted, bareheaded, and having the buttons of his shirt unfastened. Receiving the dead body, he should begin with the head to take it down to the grave. Meanwhile, he should say these words:

بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ وَ بِاللّٰهِ وَ فى سَبيلِ اللّٰهِ وَ عَلى مِلَّةِ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ اَللّهُمَّ ايماناً بِكَ وَ تَصْديقاً بِكِتابِكَ هذا ما وَعَدَنَا اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ صَدَقَ اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ اَللّهُمَّ زِدْنا ايماناً وَ تَسْليماً

Then, the burier should make the dead body lie down on the right side facing the kiblah direction. He should then unknot the knots of the shrouds from the sides of the head and the legs. He should then put the cheek of the dead person on the soil. It is recommended to put with the dead body an amount of soil taken from the tomb of Imam al-Husayn (‘a). He should then line up bricks on the dead body and say these words meanwhile:

اَللّهُمَّ صِلْ وَحْدَتَهُ وَ انِسْ وَحْشَتَهُ وَارْحَمْ غُرْبَتَهُ وَاَسْكِنْ اِلَيْهِ مِنْ رَحْمَتِكَ رَحْمَةً يَسْتَغْنى بِها عَنْ رَحْمَةِ مَنْ سِواكَ وَاحْشُرْهُ مَعَ مَنْ كانَ يَتَوَلاّهُ مِنَ الائِمَّةِ الطّاهِرينَ

PROMPTING THE DEAD

Before lining up bricks, it is recommended to prompt the dead person to say the two creeds of Islam and the Holy Imams by names. Hence, the prompter, addressing the dead person, should say:

يا so and so بن the son of so and so

اُذْكُرِ العَهْدَ الَّذى خَرَجْتَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ دارِ الدُّنْيا شَهادَةَ اَنْ لا اِلهَ اِلا اللّٰهُ وَحْدَهُ لاشَريكَ لَهُ وَ اَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ اَنَّ عَلِيّاً اَميرَالْمُؤْمِنينَ وَالْحَسَنَ وَالْحُسَيْنَ اَئِمَتُّكَ اَئِمَّةُ الْهُدىَ الاَبْرارُِ

Upon accomplishing lining up the bricks, the burier, as well as all the attendants advisably using the backsides of their hands, should pour down dust on the dead body. Meanwhile, they are recommended to say these words:

اِنّا لِلَّهِ وَ اِنّا اِلَيْهِ راجِعُونَ هذا ما وَعَدَنَا اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ صَدَقَ اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ اَللّهُمَّ زِدْنا ايماناً وَ تَسْليماً