Children in the Quran and Sunnah

Children in the Quran and Sunnah0%

Children in the Quran and Sunnah Author:
Publisher: Dar al-Hadith Publications
Category: Family and Child

Children in the Quran and Sunnah

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: M. Mohammadi Rayshahri
Publisher: Dar al-Hadith Publications
Category: visits: 15093
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Children in the Quran and Sunnah

Children in the Quran and Sunnah

Author:
Publisher: Dar al-Hadith Publications
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Chapter 2: The Children’s Duties towards their Parents

2.1: The Importance of the Rights of Parents

“And We have enjoined on man goodness unto his parents; and if they strive with you that you should associate (others) with Me, of which you have no knowledge, then do not obey them, unto Me is your return, and I will inform you of what you were doing.” 1

“And We have enjoined on men doing of good to his parents, with trouble did his mother bear him and with trouble did she bring him forth; and the bearing of him and the weaning of him was thirty months; until when he attains his maturity and reaches forty years, he says: ‘My Lord! Grant me that I may give thanks for Your favour which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do good which pleases You and do good to me in respect of my offspring; surely I turn to You, and surely I am of those who submit.” 2

“And We did enjoin upon man concerning his parents, did his mother bear him with fainting upon fainting and his weaning takes two years, (saying:)’Be grateful to Me and to your parents: unto Me is the ultimate return (of all).” 3

423. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, when he was sked about the rights of the parents upon their child:“They are your Heaven and your Hell.” 4

424. Sahih al-Bukhari, narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud who said:“I asked the Prophet (s.a.w.): “What is Allah’s most beloved act?”

He answered:“Performing prayers at its due time.”

I said:“What else?”

He said:“Obedience to parents.” 5

425. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“The content of the Lord lies in the content of father and the wrath of the Lord is in the wrath of the father.” 6

426. Imam al-Sajjad said, from his supplication to his parents:“O Allah! Make me fear them like one’s fear of a tyrant king, and that I do good to them like the goodness of a kind mother, and make my obedience to my parents and my kindness to them sweeter for my eyes than sleepy eyes, and cooler for my breast than the drink of a thirsty person so that I put their desire ahead of mine.” 7

427. Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) said:“There are three things in which Allah has not given anyone permission to violate: returning a trust to the righteous person and the corrupt, fulfilling a promise given to both the righteous person and the corrupt, and obedience to parents whether they are righteous or corrupt.” 8

428. Imam al-Ridha (a.s.) said:“Indeed Allah…has commanded to thank the Lord and the parents. So, he who is not thankful to his parents is not thankful to Allah.” 9

أهَمِّيَّةُ حُقوقِ الوالِدَينِ‏

)وَ وَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسانَ بِوالِدَيْهِ حُسْناً وَ إِنْ جاهَداكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي ما لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلا تُطِعْهُما إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِما كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُون .(

)وَ وَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسانَ بِوالِدَيْهِ إِحْساناً حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ كُرْهاً وَ وَضَعَتْهُ كُرْهاً وَ حَمْلُهُ وَ فِصالُهُ ثَلاثُونَ شَهْراً حَتَّى إِذا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَ بَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً قالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَ عَلى‏ والِدَيَّ وَ أَنْ أَعْمَلَ صالِحاً تَرْضاهُ وَ أَصْلِحْ لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِي إِنِّي تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَ إِنِّي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِين .(

) وَ وَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسانَ بِوالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْناً عَلى‏ وَهْنٍ وَ فِصالُهُ فِي عامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَ لِوالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِير .(

423. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله- لَمّا سُئِلَ عَن حَقِّ الوالِدَينِ عَلى وَلَدِهِما- هُما جَنَّتُكَ ونارُكَ

424. صحيح البخاري عن عبد الله: سَأَلتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وآله: أيُّ العَمَلِ أحَبُّ إلَى اللهِ؟

قالَ: الصَّلاةُ عَلى وَقتِها

قالَ: ثُمَّ أيُّ؟

قالَ: ثُمَّ بِرُّ الوالِدَينِ

425. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: رِضَا الرَّبِّ في رِضَا الوالِدِ، وسَخَطُ الرَّبِّ في سَخَطِ الوالِدِ

426. الإمام زين العابدين عليه السلام- مِن دُعائِهِ لِأَبوَيهِ- اللّهُمَّ اجعَلني أهابُهُما هَيبَةَ السُّلطانِ العَسوفِ‏ ، وأبَرُّهُما بِرَّ الامِّ الرَّؤوفِ، وَاجعَل طاعَتي لِوالِدَيَّ وبِرِّي بِهِما أقَرَّ لِعَينَيَّ مِن رَقدَةِ الوَسنانِ، وأثلَجَ لِصَدري مِن شَربَةِ الظَّمآنِ؛ حَتّى اوثِرَ عَلى هَوايَ هَواهُما

427. الإمام الباقر عليه السلام: ثَلاثٌ لَم يَجعَلِ اللهُ عزّ وجل لِأَحَدٍ فيهِنَّ رُخصَةً: أداءُ الأَمانَةِ إلَى البَرِّ وَالفاجِرِ، وَالوَفاءُ بِالعَهدِ لِلبَرِّ وَالفاجِرِ، وبِرُّ الوالِدَينِ بَرَّينِ كانا أو فاجِرَينِ

428. الإمام الرضا عليه السلام: إنَّ اللهَ عزّ وجل أمَرَ بِالشُّكرِ لَهُ ولِلوالِدَينِ، فَمَن لَم يَشكُر والِدَيهِ لَم يَشكُرِ اللهَ

2.2: The Rights of Parents

A) Doing Good

“And your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him and (to show) kindness to parents, if one of them or both of them reach old age with you, do not say to them ‘fie’, nor repulse them, and speak to them a gracious word. And out of compassion, lower unto them the wing of humility, and say: ‘My Lord! Have mercy on them both as they cherished me when I was little.” 10

“And (He has made me) kind to my mother, and He has not made me arrogant unblessed. And peace be on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive.” 11

Describing Yahya:

“And kindness to his parents and (unto the people) he was neither insolent (nor) disobedient. And peace on him the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the day he shall be raised a live!” 12

429. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, in concerning Allah’s saying:“… And (to show) kindness to parents, …” : Showing kindness is that you be good company for them and that you should not make them ask you for something they need from you even if they are rich.”13 ,14

430. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Showing kindness to parents is the greatest obligation.” 15

431. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Showing kindness to parents is the most exalted of qualities.” 16

حُقوقُ الوالِدَينِ‏

الإحسانُ‏

)وَ قَضى‏ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَ بِالْوالِدَيْنِ إِحْساناً إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُما أَوْ كِلاهُما فَلا تَقُلْ لَهُما أُفٍّ وَ لا تَنْهَرْهُما وَ قُلْ لَهُما قَوْلًا كَرِيماً* وَ اخْفِضْ لَهُما جَناحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَ قُلْ رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُما كَما رَبَّيانِي صَغِيرا .(

] نقلا عن عيسى‏] (وَ بَرًّا بِوالِدَتِي وَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْنِي جَبَّاراً شَقِيًّا* وَ السَّلامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدْتُ وَ يَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَ يَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا .(

] في صفة يحيى‏] )وَ بَرًّا بِوالِدَيْهِ وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ جَبَّاراً عَصِيًّا* وَ سَلامٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَ يَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَ يَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَيًّا .(

429. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام- في قَولِهِ تَعالى: (وَ بِالْوالِدَيْنِ إِحْساناً)- الإحسانُ أن تُحسِنَ صُحبَتَهُما، وألّا تُكَلِّفَهُما أن يَسألاكَ شَيئا مِمّا يَحتاجانِ إلَيهِ وإن كانا مُستَغنِيَينِ‏

430. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: بِرُّ الوالِدَينِ أكبَرُ فَريضَةٍ

431. عنه عليه السلام: بِرُّ الوالِدَينِ مِن أكرَمِ الطَّبائِعِ

B) Standing up to Show Reverence

432. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Stand up for your father and your teacher, even if you are a commander.” 17

القِيامُ تَعظيماً

432. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: قُم عَن مَجلِسِكَ لِأَبيكَ ومُعَلِّمِكَ وإن كُنتَ أميراً

C) Submissiveness at the Time of Anger

433. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Among the rights of a father upon his child is that the child should be submissive to him at the time of anger and exhaustion.” 18

الخُضوعُ عِندَ الغَضَبِ‏

433. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: مِن حَقِّ الوالِدِ على وَلَدِهِ أن يَخضَعَ لَهُ في الغَضَبِ وَالتَّعَبِ

D) Avoiding Disobedience

434. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, regarding Allah’s saying“…if one of them or both of them reach old age with you…” :“If they annoy you, do not show your inconvenience and if they were to hit you, do not shout at them and be harsh at them.” 19

435. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“The lowest degree of disobedience [to parents] is to say ‘fie’, and if Allah had anything of a word less than this, He would have prohibited it.” 20

436. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, regarding Allah’s saying“And out of compassion, lower unto them the wing of humility…” :“Do not use your eyes in looking at them other with a glance of compassion and sympathy to them, do not raise your voice louder than their voice, do not extend your hand higher than their hands, and do not precede them in steps.” 21

437. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, regarding Allah’s saying“…and speak to them a gracious word.” :“If they were to hit you, say to them: ‘May Allah forgive you!” 22

438. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“It will be said to he who is disobedient to his parents: “Worship as much as you desire, but I will not forgive you.” 23

439. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“He who makes his parents unhappy has surely disobeyed them.” 24

440. Sahih Muslim, narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-‘As who said:“The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: “Among the major sins is swearing at one’s own parents.”

Some people said:“O Messenger of Allah! Can someone really swear at his own parents?”

He answered:“Yes, in a manner that someone swears at another person’s father, and so he swears back at his father, or someone swears at another person’s mother, and he swears back at his mother.” 25

441. Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) said:“My father saw a man whose son was walking with him and the son was leaning on his father’s arm. My father being annoyed of the son did not speak to him until he left this world.” 26

442. Imam al-’Askari (a.s.) said:“The boldness of a child in his childhood against his father will invite to his disobedience in his adult age.” 27

التَّجَنُّبُ مِنَ العُقوقِ‏

434. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام- في قَولِهِ تَعالى: (إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ ...)- إن أضجَراكَ فَلا تَقُل لَهُما: افٍّ، ولا تَنهَرهُما إن ضَرَباكَ

435. عنه عليه السلام: أدنَى العُقوقِ: «افٍّ»، ولَو عَلِمَ اللهُ شَيئاً أهوَنَ مِنهُ لَنَهى عَنهُ

436. عنه عليه السلام- في قَولِهِ تَعالى: (وَ اخْفِضْ لَهُما جَناحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ)- لا تَملأَ عَينَيكَ مِنَ النَّظَرِ إلَيهِما إلّا بِرَحمَةٍ ورِقَّةٍ، ولا تَرفَع صَوتَكَ فَوقَ أصواتِهِما، ولا يَدَكَ فَوقَ أيديهِما، ولا تَقَدَّم قُدّامَهُما

437. عنه عليه السلام- في قَولِهِ تَعالى: (وَ قُلْ لَهُما قَوْلًا كَرِيماً)- إن ضَرَباكَ فَقُل لَهُما: غَفَرَ اللهُ لَكُما

438. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: يُقالُ لِلعاقِّ: اعمَل ما شِئتَ مِنَ الطّاعَةِ فَإنّي لا أغفِرُ لَكَ

439. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن أحزَنَ والِدَيهِ فَقَد عَقَّهُما

440. صحيح مسلم عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص: أنَّ رَسولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله قالَ: مِن الكَبائِرِ شَتمُ الرَّجُلِ والِدَيهِ

قالوا: يا رَسولَ اللهِ وهَل يَشتِمُ الرَّجُلُ والِدَيهِ؟

قالَ: نَعَم، يَسُبُّ أبَا الرَّجُلِ فَيَسُبُّ أباهُ، ويَسُبُّ امَّهُ فَيَسُبُّ امَّهُ

441. الإمام الباقر عليه السلام: إنَّ أبي نَظَرَ إلى رَجُلٍ ومَعَهُ ابنُهُ يَمشي، وَالابنُ مُتَّكِئٌ عَلى ذِراعِ الأَبِ، قالَ: فَما كَلَّمَهُ أبي عليه السلام مَقتاً لَهُ حَتّى فارَقَ الدُّنيا

442. الإمام العسكريّ عليه السلام: جُرأَةُ الوَلَدِ عَلى والِدِهِ في صِغَرِهِ، تَدعو إلَى العُقوقِ في كِبَرِهِ

2.3: General Rights of Parents

443. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, when asked about the rights of parents upon their child:“He should not call his father by his name; he should not walk in front of him; he should not sit before him; and he should not be the cause of his father getting sworn at.” 28

444. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“There is a right for the child upon his father and there is a right for the father upon the child. The right of the father upon the child is that the child obeys him in everything other than sinning Allah.” 29

445. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“Parents have three rights upon their child: to be grateful to the parents in any condition, to obey them in whatever they order him or prohibit him except sinning Allah, and in seeking benevolence for them in secret and publically.” 30

جَوامِعُ حُقوقِ الوالِدَينِ‏

443. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله- لَمّا سُئِلَ عَن حَقِّ الوالِدِ عَلى وَلَدِهِ- لا يُسَمِّيهِ بِاسمِهِ، ولا يَمشِي بَينَ يَدَيهِ، ولا يَجلِسُ قَبلَهُ، ولا يَستَسِبُّ لَهُ‏

444. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: إنَّ لِلوَلَدِ عَلَى الوالِدِ حَقّاً، وإنَّ لِلوالِدِ عَلَى الوَلَدِ حَقّاً، فَحَقُّ الوالِدِ عَلَى الوَلَدِ أن يُطيعَهُ في كُلِّ شَي‏ءٍ إلّا في مَعصيَةِ اللهِ سُبحانَهُ

445. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: يَجِبُ لِلوالِدَينِ عَلَى الوَلَدِ ثَلاثَةُ أشياءَ: شُكرُهُما عَلى كُلِّ حالٍ، وطاعَتُهُما فيما يَأمُرانِهِ ويَنهَيانِهِ عَنهُ في غَيرِ مَعصيَةِ اللهِ، ونَصيحَتُهُما فِي السِّرِّ وَالعَلانِيَةِ

2.4: The Benefits of Doing Good to Parents

446. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“He who wishes to prolong his lifespan and increase his sustenance should do good his parents and keep ties with his kin.” 31

447. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“The master of the righteous on Judgment Day is he who does good to his parents after their death.” 32

448. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Blissful is he who does good to his parents, and Allah will increase his lifespan.” 33

449. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“Do good to your parents so that your children will do good to you.” 34

برَكاتُ بِرِّ الوالِدَينِ‏

446. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن سَرَّهُ أن يُمَدَّ لَهُ في عُمُرِهِ ويُزادَ لَهُ في رِزقِهِ؛ فَليَبَرَّ والِدَيهِ، وليَصِل رَحِمَهُ

447. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: سَيِّدُ الأبرارِ يَومَ القِيامَةِ رَجُلٌ بَرَّ والِدَيهِ بَعدَ مَوتِهِما

448. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن بَرَّ والِدَيهِ طوبى‏ لَهُ، زادَ اللهُ في عُمُرِهِ

449. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: بَرُّوا آباءَكُم؛ يَبَرَّكُم أبناؤُكُم

Notes

1. Qur’an, 29:8.

2. Qur’an, 46:15.

3. Qur’an, 31:14.

4. Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 2, p. 1208, h. 3662, narrating from Abu Umamah. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 463, h. 45453, narrating from it.

5. Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 197, h. 504. Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 90, h. 139 and p. 89, h. 137, with ‘the best’ instead of ‘most beloved’. Both narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud.

6. Sunan al-Tirmidhi, vol. 4, p. 311, h. 1899. al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihain, vol. 4, p. 168, h. 7249. Both narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr.

7. al-Sahifah Sajjadiyah, p. 102, Supplication 24.

8. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 162, h. 15, narrating from ‘Anbasah ibn Mus’ab, and vol. 5, p. 132, h. 1. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 6, p. 350, h. 988, with ‘there is no excuse for anyone in it’ instead of ‘has not given…permission’. Both narrating from al-Husayn ibn Mus’ab al-Hamadani from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.).

9. al-Khisal, p. 156, h. 196. ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha (a.s.), vol. 1, p. 258, h. 13. Both narrating from al-Dilhath.

10. Qur’an, 17:23-24.

11. Qur’an, 19:32-33.

12. Qur’an, 19:14-15.

13. It means that you should provide them what they need before they ask.

14. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 157, h. 1, narrating from Abu Wallad al-Hannat. Mishkat al-Anwar, p. 282, h. 854.

15. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 4423. ‘Uyun al-Hikam wa al-Mawa’iz, p. 195, h. 3982.

16. Dastur Ma’alim al-Hikam, p. 23. Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 85, with ‘the virtue of the nature [of a person]’ insead of ‘the most exalted of qualities’. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 77, p. 212, h. 1.

17. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 2341.

18. Tarikh Madinah al-Munawarah, vol. 2, p. 568, narrating from Ibn ‘Abbas. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 473, h. 45512, narrating from Tarikh Dimashq.

19. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 158, h. 1. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 408, h. 5883. Both narrating from Abu Wallad al-Hannat

20. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 348, h. 1, narrating from Hadid ibn Hakim. ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha (a.s.), vol. 2, p. 44, h. 160, narrating from Dawud ibn Sulayman al-Farra’ from Imam al-Ridha (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.).

21. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 158, h. 1. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 408, h. 5883. Both narrating from Abu Wallad al-Hannat

22. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 158, h. 1. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 408, h. 5883. Both narrating from Abu Wallad al-Hannat

23. Hilyah al-Awliya’, vol. 10, p. 216, narrating from ‘A’ishah. Rawdah al-Wa’izin, p. 403.

24. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 372, h. 5762, narrating from Hammad ibn ‘Amr and ‘Anas ibn Muhammad from his father from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.). al-Khisal, p. 621, h. 10, narrating from Abu Basir and Muhammad ibn Muslim from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.) from Imam ‘Ali (a.s.).

25. Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, p. 92, h. 146. al-Sunan al-Kubra, vol. 10, p. 397, h. 21086.

26. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 349, h. 8, narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn Sulayman. Mishkat al-Anwar, p. 285, h. 862, narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn Muskan, without ‘was walking’.

27. Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 489.

28. al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 158, h. 5, narrating from Durust ibn Abu Mansur. Mishkat al-Anwar, p. 277, h. 833. Both narrating from Imam al-Kazim (a.s.).

29. Nahj al-Balaghah, Wise Saying 399.

30. Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 322. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 78, p. 236, h. 67.

31. Musnad Ibn Hanbal, vol. 4, p. 530, h. 13812 and p. 458, h. 13400. Makarim al-Akhlaq by Ibn Abu al-Dunya, p. 178, h. 244, with ‘he who loves’ instead of ‘he who wishes’. All narrating from ‘Anas.

32. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 74, p. 86, h. 100, narrating from the book al-Imamah wa al-Tabsirah from al-Sakuni from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.).

33. al-Adab al-Mufrad, p. 20, h. 22. al-Mustadrak ‘ala al-Sahihain, vol. 4, p. 170, h. 7257. Both narrating from Ma’Ádh.

34. al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 554, h. 5, narrating from ‘Ubaid ibn Zurarah. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 21, h. 4985.

Chapter 3: The Child’s Duties Towards His Teacher

3.1: Obedience

450. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“He whom you learn one word from, has made you become his servant.” 1

451. ‘Awali al-La’ali: It is narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said:“He who teaches something to someone owns him.”

It was said:“O Messenger of Allah! Can he sell him?”

He (s.a.w.) answered:“No. But he can command him and forbid him.” 2

الإطاعَةُ

450. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن تَعَلَّمتَ مِنهُ حَرفاً، صِرتَ لَهُ عَبداً

451. عوالي اللالي: رُوِيَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وآله أنَّهُ قالَ: مَن عَلَّمَ شَخصاً مَسأَلَةً، فَقَد مَلَكَ رَقَبَتَهُ. فَقيلَ لَهُ يا رَسولَ اللهِ: أيَبيعُهُ؟ فَقالَ صلى الله عليه وآله: لا، ولكِن يَأمُرُهُ ويَنهاهُ

3.2: Honouring

452. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Honour your guest even if he is menial, and stand up for your father and your teacher even if you are a commander.” 3

453. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“There are three things of which you should not be ashamed of: A man serving his guest, standing up for his father and his teacher, and demanding his right even if it is little.” 4

454. Imam al-Sajjad (a.s.) said:“The right of your teacher is to honour him, revere his presence, listen to him carefully and heed him. You must not raise your voice over him, not answer a person who has asked him until he himself answers, not speak with anyone in his meeting, and you should not backbite anyone in his presence. You should defend him when someone speaks against him, you should conceal his defects and reveal his virtues, and you should not associate with his enemy and not be hostile with his friend. If you were to do this, the angels of Allah will bear witness for you that you have gone to him and you have learnt his knowledge for the sake of Allah the Exalted, and not for the sake of people.” 5

التَّعظيمُ‏

452. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: أكرِم ضَيفَكَ وإن كانَ حَقيرا، وقُم عَن مَجلِسِكَ لِأبيكَ ومُعَلِّمِكَ وإن كُنتَ أميرا

453. عنه عليه السلام: ثَلاثٌ لا يُستَحيى مِنهُنَّ: خِدمَةُ الرَّجُلِ ضَيفَهُ، وقِيامُهُ عَن مَجلِسِهِ لِأَبيهِ ومُعَلِّمِهِ، وطَلَبُ الحَقِّ وإن قَلَّ

454. الإمام زين العابدين عليه السلام: حَقُّ سائِسِكَ بِالعِلمِ التَّعظيمُ لَهُ، وَالتَّوقيرُ لِمَجلِسِهِ، وحُسنُ الاستِماعِ إلَيهِ، وَالإِقبالُ عَلَيهِ، وألّا تَرفَعَ عَلَيهِ صَوتَكَ، ولا تُجيبَ أحَداً يَسأَلُهُ عَن‏ شَي‏ءٍ حَتّى يَكونَ هُوَ الَّذي يُجيبُ، ولا تُحَدِّثَ في مَجلِسِهِ أحَداً، ولا تَغتابَ عِندَهُ أحَداً، وأن تَدفَعَ عَنهُ إذا ذُكِرَ عِندَكَ بِسوءٍ، وأن تَستُرَ عُيوبَهُ وتُظهِرَ مَناقِبَهُ، ولا تُجالِسَ لَهُ عَدُوّاً ولا تُعادِيَ لَهُ وَلِيّا، فَإِذا فَعَلتَ ذلِكَ شَهِدَت لَكَ مَلائِكَةُ اللهِ عزّ وجل بِأَنَّكَ قَصَدتَهُ، وتَعَلَّمتَ عِلمَهُ للهِ جَلَّ وعَزَّ اسمُهُ لا لِلنّاسِ

3.3: Lowering the Voice

“Surely those who lower their voice before Allah’s Apostle are they whose hearts Allah has proved for guarding (against evil); they shall have forgiveness and a great reward.” 6

455. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“He who lowers his voice in the presence of the scholars will come forth on Judgment Day with my companions whose hearts have been tested with piety by Allah, and there is no goodness in flattery and humility except for that which is done for Allah for the sake of seeking knowledge.” 7

غَضُّ الصَّوتِ‏

)إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْواتَهُمْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُولئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوى‏ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَ أَجْرٌ عَظِيم .(

455. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: مَن غَضَّ صَوتَهُ عِندَ العُلَماءِ جاءَ يَومَ القِيامَةِ مَعَ الَّذينَ امتَحَنَ اللهُ قُلوبَهُم لِلتَّقوى مِن أصحابي، ولا خَيرَ فِي التَّمَلُّقِ وَالتَّواضُعِ إلّا ما كانَ فِي اللهِ في طَلَبِ العِلمِ

3.4: Avoidance of Belittling

456. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“There are three groups who are not belittled by any one except a hypocrite whose hypocrisy is manifest: the owner of grey hair in Islam [an elder], a teacher of goodness and a just leader.” 8

457. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“He who humiliates a person of knowledge has indeed humiliated me and he who humiliates me is a disbeliever.” 9

458. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.):“No one belittles knowledge and knowledgeable people except one who is foolish and ignorant.” 10

459. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Be careful not to belittle scholars, for this action will make yourself belittled, and it will bring suspicion to you and negative views about you.” 11

460. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Do not use the sharpness of your tongue against he who has taught you to speak, or use the eloquence of your speech against he who has disciplined you.” 12

التَّجَنُّبُ عَنِ الاستِخفافِ‏

456. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: ثَلاثَةٌ لا يَستَخِفُّ بِهِم إلّا مُنافِقٌ بَيِّنٌ نِفاقُهُ: ذو شَيبَةٍ فِي الإِسلامِ، ومُعَلِّمُ الخَيرِ، وإمامٌ عادِلٌ

457. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: مَنِ احتَقَرَ صاحِبَ العِلمِ فَقَدِ احتَقَرَني، ومَنِ احتَقَرَني فَهُوَ كافِرٌ

458. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: لا يَستَخِفُّ بِالعِلمِ وأهلِهِ إلّا أحمَقُ جاهِلٌ

459. عنه عليه السلام: إيّاكَ أن تَستَخِفَّ بِالعُلَماءِ؛ فَإِنَّ ذلِكَ يُزري بِكَ، ويُسي‏ءُ الظَّنَّ بِكَ وَالمَخيلَةَ فيكَ

460. عنه عليه السلام: لا تَجعَلَنَّ ذَرَبَ‏ لِسانِكَ عَلى مَن أنطَقَكَ، وبَلاغَةَ قَولِكَ عَلى مَن سَدَّدَكَ

Notes

1. ‘Awali al-La’ali, vol. 1, p. 292, h. 163. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 77, p. 165, h. 2.

2. ‘Awali al-La’ali, vol. 4, p. 71, h. 43. Munyah al-Murid, p. 243.

3. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 2341.

4. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 4666. ‘Uyun al-Hikam wa al-Mawa’iz, p. 212, h. 4230.

5. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 2, p. 620, h. 3214. al-Khisal, p. 567, h. 1. Both narrating from Abu Hamzah al-Thumali (Thabit ibn Dinar). Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 260.

6. Qur’an, 49:3.

7. Firdaws al-Akhbar, vol. 4, p. 181, h. 6076, narrating from Sa’id al-Shami.

8. Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 8, p. 27, h. 4074. Usd al-Ghabah, vol. 6, p. 354, h. 6439. Both narrating from ‘Amarah al-Qurashi from his father from his grandfather.

9. Irshad al-Qulub, p. 165.

10. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 10807, ‘Uyun al-Hikam wa al-Mawa’iz, p. 541, h. 10030.

11. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 2732. ‘Uyun al-Hikam wa al-Mawa’iz, p. 100, h. 2298.

12. Nahj al-Balaghah, Wise Saying 411. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 10385.