Children in the Quran and Sunnah

Children in the Quran and Sunnah0%

Children in the Quran and Sunnah Author:
Publisher: Dar al-Hadith Publications
Category: Family and Child

Children in the Quran and Sunnah

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: M. Mohammadi Rayshahri
Publisher: Dar al-Hadith Publications
Category: visits: 14502
Download: 3087

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Children in the Quran and Sunnah

Children in the Quran and Sunnah

Author:
Publisher: Dar al-Hadith Publications
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Chapter 2: Heredity

2.1: Blood is Contagious

51. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Look into what the origin of the womb is that you are going to put your child in, as indeed blood 1 is contagious.” 2

52. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“People are [like] minerals; and blood is contagious and having bad manners is like a bad origin.” 3

53. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Marry from a righteous family because indeed blood is contagious.” 4

54. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Choose [the womb] for your sperm, for indeed women bear children that are similar to their brothers and sisters.” 5

55. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Beware of marrying a fool, for her companionship is disaster and her children are a loss.” 6

56. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“There are three things incumbent on the father for the child: to choose a good mother for him, to give him a good name, and to do his best in training him.” 7

العِرْقُ دَسَّاسٌ‏

51. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله‏ انظُر في أيّ نِصابٍ‏ تَضَعُ وَلَدَكَ؛ فَإِنَّ العِرقَ دَسَّاسٌ‏

52. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: النّاسُ مَعادِنُ، وَ العِرقُ دَسّاسٌ، وأدَبُ السّوءِ كَعِرقِ السّوءِ

53. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: تَزَوَّجُوا في الحِجرِ الصّالِحِ؛ فَإِنَّ العِرقَ دَسّاسٌ

54. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: تَخَيَّروا لِنُطَفِكُم؛ فَإِنَّ النِّساءَ يَلِدنَ أشباهَ إخوانِهِنَّ وأخَواتِهِنَّ

55. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: إيّاكُم و تَزويجَ الحَمقاءِ؛ فَإِنَّ صُحبَتَها بَلاءٌ، و وُلدَها ضَياعٌ

56. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: تَجِبُ لِلوَلَدِ عَلى‏ والِدِهِ ثَلاثُ خِصالٍ: اختِيارُهُ لِوالِدَتِهِ، و تَحسينُ اسمِهِ، وَ المُبالَغَةُ في تَأديبِهِ

2.2: The Role of Heredity in the Creation of a Child

57. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“A man from the Ansar came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) and said: “O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.)! This is my uncle’s daughter, and I am so and so, son of so and so –until he mentioned up to ten of his forefathers-, and she is so and so, daughter of so and so –also mentioning up to ten of her forefathers-, and there is no black person in my ancestors nor in her ancestors, but she has given birth to a black child!”

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) cast down his head for a long while, and then he raised his head and said:“Verily, you have ninety nine blood-veins [genes] and she also has ninety nine blood-veins. When you copulate with her, the blood-veins will move and every blood-vein asks Allah Almighty for the child should be similar to it. Stand up, as it is indeed your child and it did not come other than from either a blood-vein from you or from her.” He [Imam ‘Ali] (a.s.) said:“The man stood up and took the hand of his wife and his happiness with his wife and child increased.” 8

58. Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) said:“One of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) came to him and said: “This is my uncle’s daughter and my wife. I know nothing but good about her. She has given birth to a child from me and is extremely black with large nostrils, fuzzy hair and a flat nose. I know similar to him neither among my uncles nor my ancestors.

He (s.a.w.) asked the man’s wife: “What do you have to say?” She answered:“No, by He who has appointed you as a prophet in truth, I have never been with anyone else since he has taken me.”

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) cast down his head for a long while then he looked up at the sky, and then he turned to the man and said:“O man! There is no one that does not have between him and Adam ninety nine blood-veins [genes], and all of them effect in the descendents. When the sperm arrives into the womb, the blood-veins start to move, and they ask Allah that the child be similar to them. Therefore, this is one of the roots that neither your ancestors nor the ancestors of your ancestors have conceived. Take your child.’

The woman said: “O Messenger of Allah! You have solved my problem!” 9

59. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“Verily Allah has created four containers for the womb. Whatever [sperm] comes into the first container is for the father, whatever comes into the second is for the mother, whatever comes into the third is for paternal uncles, and whatever comes into the fourth is for the maternal uncles.” 10

60. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“When Allah the Exalted, the High, wishes to create someone, He gathers all the features between that person and up to [the time of] Adam, then He creates him on the feature of one of them. Therefore, no one should say about their child: “This child is neither similar to me or to any of my ancestors.” 11

دَوْرُ الوِرَاثَةِ في خَلقِ المَولودِ

57. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: أقبَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأنصارِ إلى‏ رَسولِ الله صلى الله عليه وآله فَقالَ: يا رَسولَ اللهِ، هذِهِ بِنتُ عَمِّي، و أَنَا فُلانُ ابنُ فُلانٍ، حَتّى‏ عَدَّ عَشَرَةَ آباءٍ، و هِيَ فُلانَةُ بِنتُ فُلانٍ حَتّى‏ عَدَّ عَشَرَةَ آباءٍ، لَيسَ في حَسَبي ولا حَسَبِها حَبَشِيٌّ، و إنَّها وَضَعَت هذَا الحَبَشِيَّ !

فَأطرَقَ رَسولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله طَويلًا، ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأسَهُ فَقالَ: إنَّ لَكَ تِسعَةً وَ تِسعينَ عِرقاً، و لَها تِسعَةً وَ تِسعينَ عِرقاً، فَإِذَا اشتَمَلتَ اضطَرَبَتِ العُروقُ، و سَألَ اللهَ عزوجل كُلُّ عِرقٍ مِنها أن يُذهِبَ الشَّبَهَ إلَيهِ، قُم فَإِنَّهُ وَلَدُكَ، و لَم يَأتِكَ إلّا مِن عِرقٍ مِنكَ أو عِرقٍ مِنها

قالَ: فَقامَ الرَّجُلُ و أخَذَ بِيَدِ امرَأَتِهِ، و ازدادَ بِها و بِوَلَدِها عُجباً

58. الإمام الباقر عليه السلام: أتى‏ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأنصارِ رَسولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله، فَقالَ: هذهِ ابنَةُ عَمِّي وامرَأتي لا أعلَمُ إلّا خَيراً، وَ قَد أتَتني بِوَلَدٍ شَديدِ السَّوادِ، مُنتَشِرِ المِنخِرَينِ، جَعدٍ، قَطَطٍ، أفطَسِ‏ الأنفِ، لا أعرِفُ شِبهَهُ في أخوالي ولا في أجدادي !

قال: فَنَكَسَ رَسولُ اللهِ بِرَأسِهِ مَلِيّاً، ثُمَّ رَفَعَ بَصَرَهُ إلَى السَّماءِ، ثُمَّ أقبَلَ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ فَقالَ: يا هذا، إنَّهُ لَيسَ مِن أحَدٍ إلّا بَينَهُ و بَينَ آدمَ تِسعَةٌ و تِسعونَ عِرقاً، كُلُّها تَضرِبُ فِي النَّسَبِ، فَإِذا وَقَعَتِ النُّطفَةُ فِي الرَّحِمِ اضطَربَت تِلكَ العُروقُ؛ تَسأَلُ اللهَ الشُّبهَةَ لَها، فَهذا مِن تِلكَ العُروقِ الَّتي لَم يُدرِكها أجدادُكَ و لا أجدادُ أجدادِكَ، خُذ إلَيكَ ابنَكَ. فَقالَتِ المَرأَةُ: فَرَّجتَ عَنّي يا رَسُولَ اللهِ

59. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: إنَّ اللهَ عزوجل خَلَقَ لِلرَّحِمِ أربَعَةَ أوعِيَةٍ، فَما كانَ فِي الأوَّلِ فَلِلأبِ، وما كانَ فِي الثّاني فَلِلُامِّ، و ما كانَ فِي الثّالِثِ فَلِلعُمومَةِ، وَ ما كانَ فِي الرّابِعِ فَلِلخُؤُولَةِ

60. عنه عليه السلام: إنَّ اللهَ تبارَكَ وتعالى‏ إذا أرادَ أن يَخلُقَ خَلقاً جَمَعَ كُلَّ صورَةٍ بَينَهُ و بَينَ آدَمَ، ثُمَّ خَلَقَهُ عَلى‏ صُورَةِ إحداهُنَّ، فَلا يَقولَنَّ أحَدٌ لِوَلَدِهِ: هذا لا يُشبِهُني ولا يُشبِهُ شَيئاً مِن آبائي. فَقالَ لِامرَأَتِهِ: ما تَقولينَ؟ قالَت: لا وَ الّذي بَعَثَكَ بِالحَقِّ نَبِيّاً، ما أقعَدتُ مَقعَدَهُ مِنّي مُنذُ مَلَكَني أحَداً غَيرَهُ

2.3: The Role of Heredity in the Behaviour of a Child

61. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Good morals is an indication of the nobility of the blood-veins.” 12

62. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“When the origin of a person is noble, his behaviour is noble in both his absence or in his presence.” 13

63. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Seek your needs from noble people who have good principles, as your needs will be better fulfilled by them and doing so is more pleasant for you.” 14

64. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“Seek your needs from people who are noble and have principles. It is with them that the need is fulfilled promptly and without obligation.” 15

65. Muruj al-Dhahab, in mentioning Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah in the crisis of the Battle of the Camel when he stood there facing the spears and arrows:“Then Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) came towards him and hit him with the sheath of his sword and said: “A blood from your mother has affected you [your fear is from your mother’s side].” 16

66. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, in Ziyarah al-Arba’in17 :“May my father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O son of the Messenger of Allah! I bear witness that you were a light in the noble loins and pure wombs. Never did the impurities of the Age of Ignorance pollute you, and never did it cover you with its contaminations.” 18

67. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“The Prophet of Allah delivered a sermon in which he said: “O people! Beware of a nice plant growing in waste.” He was asked:“O Messenger of Allah! What is a nice plant growing in waste?” He answered:“A beautiful woman brought up in a bad family.” 19

دَوْرُ الوِرَاثَةِ في خُلُقِ المَوْلودِ

61. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: حُسنُ الأخلاقِ بُرهانُ كَرَمِ الأَعراقِ

62. عنه عليه السلام: إذا كَرُمَ أصلُ الرَّجُلِ كَرُمَ مَغيبُهُ و مَحضَرُهُ

63. عنه عليه السلام: عَلَيكُم في طَلَبِ الحَوائِجِ بِشِرافِ النُّفوسِ، ذَوي الاصولِ الطَّيِّبَةِ؛ فَإِنَّها عِندَهُم أقضَى‏، و هِيَ لَدَيكُم أَزْكى‏

64. عنه عليه السلام: عَلَيكُم في قَضاءِ حَوائِجِكُم بِكِرامِ الأنفُسِ و الاصولِ، تُنجَح لَكُم عِندَهُم مِن غَيرِ مِطالٍ و لا مَنٍّ

65. مروج الذهب- في ذِكرِ مُحَمَّدِ بنِ الحَنَفِيَّةِ في أزمَةِ حَربِ الجَمَلِ لَمّا وَقَفَ حينَ واجَهَتهُ الرِّماحُ والنُّشّابُ-: فَأَتاهُ عَلِيٌ عليه السلام: فَضَرَبَهُ بِقائِمِ سَيفِهِ وقالَ: أَدرَكَكَ عِرقٌ مِن امِّكَ

66. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام- في زِيارَةِ الأَربَعينَ‏ بِأَبي أنتَ و امِّي يَا ابنَ رَسولِ اللهِ، أشهَدُ أنَّكَ كُنتَ نُوراً فِي الأصلابِ الشّامِخَةِ وَ الأرحامِ الطّاهِرَةِ، لَم تُنَجِّسكَ الجاهِلِيَّةُ بِأنجاسِها، و لَم تُلبِسكَ المُدلَهِمَّاتِ‏ مِن ثِيابِها

67. عنه عليه السلام: قامَ رَسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وآله خَطيباً فَقالَ: أيُّهَا النّاسُ، إيّاكُم و خَضراءَ الدِّمَنِ. قيلَ: يا رَسولَ اللهِ، و ما خَضراءُ الدِّمَنِ؟ قالَ: المَرأَةُ الحَسناءُ في مَنبَتِ السَّوءِ

2.4: The Role of Marrying Relatives

68. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Marry those foreign to your family [non- relatives] so that you do not give birth to weak children.” 20

69. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Do not marry close relatives, as the child will come out weak.” 21

دوْرُ زَواجِ الأقارِبِ‏

68. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: اغتَرِبوا؛ لا تُضووا

69. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: لا تَنكِحُوا القَرابَةَ القَريبَةَ؛ فَإِنَّ الوَلَدَ يُخلَقُ ضاوِياً

Notes

1. The Arabic word ‘irq literally means a blood-vein, but in these traditions it refers to the genetical influence. In the modern context it could be known as genes. [Ed.].

2. Musnad al-Shihab, vol. 1, p. 371, h. 638. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 15, p. 855, h. 43400, narrating from al-Dailami. Both narrating from Ibn ‘Umar.

3. Shu’ab al-Iman, vol. 7, p. 455, h. 10974. al-Firdaws, vol. 4, p. 299, h. 6878. Both narrating from Ibn ‘Abbas. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 3, p. 442, h. 7360.

4. al-Firdaws, vol. 2, p. 51, 2291 & Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 296, h. 44559. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 432, h. 1474, narrating from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.).

5. Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 52, p. 362, h. 11068, narrating from ‘A’ishah. Kashf al-Khafa’, vol. 2, p. 339, h. 2917.

6. al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 353, h. 1. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 406, h. 31. Both narrating from al-Sakuni from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.).

7. Tuhaf al-’Uqul, p. 322. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 78, p. 236, h. 67.

8. Ja’fariyat, p. 90. al-Nawadir, p. 178, h. 297. Both narrating from Imam al-Kazim (a.s.) from his forefathers (a.s.).

9. al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 561, h. 23.’Awali al-La’ali, vol. 3, p. 418, h. 21.

10. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 17, h. 2. ‘Awali al-La’ali, vol. 3, p. 419, h. 22. Both narrating from Muhammad ibn Hamran.

11. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 484, h. 4709. ‘Ilal al-Shara’i’, p. 103, h. 1.

12. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 4855. ‘Uyun al-Hikam wa al-Mawa’iz, p. 228, h. 4397.

13. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 4163. ‘Uyun al-Hikam wa al-Mawa’iz, p. 131, h. 2958, with ‘family’ instead of ‘origin’.

14. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 6162.

15. Ghurar al-Hikam, h. 6158.

16. Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 375. Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol. 1, p. 243.

17. The visitation recited on the fortieth day after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (a.s.) (20th of Safar). [Ed.].

18. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 6, p. 114, h. 201, narrating from Safwan ibn Mahran al-Jammal.

19. al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 332, h. 4. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 403, h. 160. Both narrating from al-Sakuni. Kitab Man la Yahdarhu al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 391, h. 4377. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 103, p. 232, h. 10, narrating from Ma’ani al-Akhbar from Muhammad ibn Abu Talhah.

20. al-Mujazat al-Nabawiyah, p. 92, h. 59.

21. al-Mahajjah al-Bayda, vol. 3, p. 94.

Chapter 3: The Food of the Parents

3.1: The Role of Unlawful Food in a Newborn

70. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“O son of Mas’ud! Do not consume what is unlawful, do not wear what is unlawful, do not take an unlawful relationship, and do not disobey Allah, as indeed Allah the Exalted says to Iblis: “Instigate whomever of them you can with your voice; and rally against them your cavalry and your infantry, and share with them in wealth and children and make promises to them! But Satan promises them nothing but delusion.” 1 ,2

71. Tafsir al-’Ayyashi, narrating from Muhammad ibn Muslim who said:“I asked Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) about Satan’s share in His saying: “and share with them in wealth and children.” 3 He (a.s.) said:“Anything that comes from unlawful wealth is the share of Satan.” He (a.s.) then said:“And he [Satan] stays with the man until he has intercourse, and the child will be from the sperm of Satan and the sperm of the man if his wealth is from the unlawful.” 4

72. Tafsir al-’Ayyashi, narrating from Muhammad from Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) or Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) who said: ‘The share of Satan is what is produced from unlawful wealth, and the child is born from the partnership of Satan.

He [Satan] will accompany the man until he has intercourse, and so his semen will be mixed with the man’s semen if the wealth consumed was unlawful. He said:“Both [their semen] will be mixed together.” And he said:“The child might be created from the semen of one, or it might be created from both.” 5

73. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“[The effects of] Unlawful income will be seen in one’s offspring.” 6

دَوْرُ طَعامِ الحَرامِ فِي المَوْلودِ

70. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: يَا ابنَ مَسعودٍ: لا تَأكُلِ الحَرامَ، و لا تَلبَسِ الحَرامَ، و لا تَأخُذ مِنَ الحَرامِ، و لا تَعصِ اللهَ؛ لِأَنَّ اللهَ تَعالى‏ يَقولُ لِإِبليسَ: (وَ اسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَ أَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِخَيْلِكَ وَ رَجِلِكَ وَ شارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوالِ وَ الْأَوْلادِ وَ عِدْهُمْ وَ ما يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطانُ إِلَّا غُرُوراً

71. تفسير العيّاشي عن محمّد بن مسلم عن الإمام الباقر عليه السلام، قال: سَأَلتُهُ عَن شِركِ الشَّيطانِ؛ قَولِهِ: (وَ شارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوالِ وَ الْأَوْلادِ)، قالَ: ما كانَ مِن مالٍ حَرامٍ فَهُوَ شَريكُ الشَّيطانِ

قالَ: و يَكونُ مَعَ الرَّجُلِ حَتّى‏ يُجامِعَ، فَيَكونَ مِن نُطفَتِهِ وَنُطفَةِ الرَّجُل إذا كانَ حَراماً

72. تفسير العيّاشي عن محمّد عن أحدهما عليهما السلام: شِركُ الشَّيطانِ ما كانَ مِن مالٍ حَرامٍ فَهُوَ مِن شِركَةِ الشَّيطان، و يَكونُ مَعَ الرَّجُلِ حِينَ يُجامِعُ، فَيَكونُ نُطفَتُهُ مَعَ نُطفَتِهِ‏ إذا كانَ حَراماً، قالَ: كِلتَيهِما جَميعاً مُختَلِطَينِ، و قالَ: رُبَّما خُلِقَ مِن واحِدَةٍ، و رُبَّما خُلِقَ مِنهُما جَميعاً

73. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: كَسبُ الحَرام يَبينُ فِي الذُّريَّةِ

3.2: The Role of the Father’s Food in his Child

74. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“Whoever eats a quince before breakfast, his semen will be clean and his child will be good.” 7

75. Tibb al-A’immah, narrating from Bukair ibn Muhammad who said:“I was in the presence of Abu ‘Abdullah al-Sadiq (a.s.) when someone said: “O son of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.)! [Sometimes] A child is born but he is rather foolish and weak.”

He (a.s.) said:“What has prevented you from eating Sawiq? 8 Both you and your wife should eat it, for it causes flesh to grow, the bone to strengthen and only the strong will be born from you.” 9

76. Imam al-Kazim (a.s.) said:“He who eats egg, onion and [olive] oil will increase his sexual potency. He who eats meat mixed with eggs will result in his child’s bones being strong.” 10

77. al-Kafi, narrating from ‘Amr ibn Ibrahim from al-Khurasani11 who said:“Eating a sweet pomegranate increases a man’s semen and makes the child beautiful.” 12

دَوْرُ غِذاءِ الوالِدِ فِي الوَلَد

74. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: مَن أكَلَ سَفَرجَلَةً عَلَى الرِّيقِ طابَ ماؤُهُ، و حَسُنَ وَلَدُهُ

75. طبّ الأئمّة عن بكير بن محمّد: كُنتُ عِندَ أبي عَبدِ اللهِ الصّادِقِ عليه السلام فَقالَ لَهُ رَجُلٌ: يَا ابنَ رَسولِ اللهِ، يولَدُ الوَلَدُ فَيَكونُ فِيهِ البَلَهُ و الضَّعفُ؟

فَقالَ: ما يَمنَعُكَ مِنَ السَّويقِ؟ اشرَبهُ وَمُر أهلَكَ بِهِ؛ فَإِنَّهُ يُنبِتُ اللَّحمَ، ويَشُدُّ العَظمَ، ولا يولَدُ لَكُم إلّا القَوِيُ

76. الإمام الكاظم عليه السلام: مَن أكَلَ البَيضَ و البَصَلَ وَ الزَّيتَ زادَ في جُماعِهِ، ومَن أكَلَ اللّحمَ بِالبَيضِ كَبُرَ عَظمُ وَلَدِهِ

77. الكافي عن عمرو بن إبراهيم عن الخراساني: أكلُ الرُّمّانِ الحُلوِ يَزيدُ في ماءِ الرَّجُلِ و يُحَسِّنُ الوَلَدَ

3.3: The Role of a Pregnant Woman’s Food on the Foetus

78. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Feed dates to a woman who is in her month of delivery, for her child will become patient and clean.” 13

79. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Feed frankincense to your pregnant women, for when a child is fed with frankincense while in its mother’s womb, its heart will be strengthened and its intellect will increase. If it is a male, he will become brave, and if it is female, her posteriors will grow large and it will be liked by her husband.” 14

80. Imam al-Ridha (a.s.) said:“Give wet frankincense to your pregnant women, for if she caries a male in her womb, he will be born with a strong heart, be knowledgeable and brave; and if it is a female, she will beautiful, have good morals, her posteriors will be large and her husband will be pleased with her.” 15

81. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Give frankincense to your pregnant women, for it will increase in the child’s intellect.” 16

82. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“There is no pregnant woman who eats melon with cheese without her child not being born with a beautiful face and good morals.” 17

83. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“Give quince to your pregnant women, for it will make your children have good morals.” 18

84. The Prophet (s.a.w.) said:“The smell of prophets is the scent of quince, the smell of Houris is the pleasant scent of the ‘As tree, the smell of angels is the scent of a rose, and the smell of my daughter Fatimah al-Zahra (a.s.) is the scent of quince, the ‘As tree and a rose. Allah did not send a prophet or a successor that did not have the smell of quince, so eat it and feed it to your pregnant women, for it makes your children beautiful.” 19

85. Makarim al-Akhlaq, narrating from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) who said:“Eat quince and give it to each other as a gift, for it brightens the eyesight and grows friendship in the heart, and feed it to your pregnant women, for it makes your children beautiful.”

In another tradition:“It [quince] will make your children have good morals.” 20

86. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, while looking at a handsome boy:“The father of this boy must have eaten quince.” 21

87. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“Eat endive, for it increases a man’s semen and makes a child handsome. Its nature is hot, it is a laxative and it increases the masculinity of a child.” 22

88. al-Kafi, narrating from Sharhabil ibn Muslim who said:“He (a.s.) said concerning a pregnant woman: “She should eat quince, for it will give a nicer scent to her child and a better colour.” 23

دَوْرُ غِذاءِ الحامِلِ فِي الجَنينِ‏

78. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أطعِمُوا المَرأةَ فِي شَهرِها الَّذي تَلِدُ فيهِ التَّمرَ؛ فَإنَّ وَلَدَها يَكونُ حَليماً نَقِيّاً

79. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: أطعِموا حَبالاكُمُ اللُّبانَ؛ فَإِنَّ الصَّبِيَّ إذا غُذِّيَ في بَطنِ امِّهِ بِاللُّبانِ‏ اشتَدَّ قَلبُهُ، وَ زِيدَ في عَقلِهِ، فَإِن يَكُ ذَكَراً كانَ شُجاعَاً

80. الإمام الرضا عليه السلام: أطعِمُوا حَبالاكُم ذَكَرَ اللُّبان، فَإِن يَكُ في بَطنِها غُلامٌ خَرَجَ ذَكِيَّ القَلبِ، عَالِماً، شُجاعاً، و إن تَكُ جارِيَةً حَسُنَ خَلقُها و خُلُقُها و

81. رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: أطعِموا نِساءَكُم الحَوامِلَ اللُّبانَ؛ فَإنَّهُ يَزيدُ في عَقلِ الصَّبِيّ

82. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: ما مِن امرَأَةٍ حامِلَةٍ أكَلَت البِطِّيخَ بِالجُبنِ إلّا يَكونُ مَولودُها حَسَنَ الوَجهِ و الخُلُقِ

83. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: أَطعِموا حَبالاكُمُ السَّفَرجَلَ؛ فَإِنَّه يُحَسِّنُ أخلاقَ أولادِكُم

84. عنه صلى الله عليه وآله: رائِحَةُ الأَنبِياءِ عليهم السلام رائِحَةُ السَّفَرجَلِ، و رائِحَةُ الحورِ العينِ رائِحَةُ الآسِ‏ ، و رائِحَةُ المَلائِكَةِ رائِحَةُ الوَردِ، و رائِحَةُ ابنَتي فاطِمَةَ الزَّهراءِ عليها السلام رائِحَةُ السَّفَرجَلِ وَ الآسِ وَ الوَردِ، و لا بَعَثَ اللهُ نَبِيّاً و لا وَصِيّاً إلّا وُجِدَ مِنهُ رائِحَةُ السَّفَرجَلِ؛ فَكُلوها، وَأَطعِمُوا حَبالاكُم؛ يَحسُنَ أولادُكُم

85. مكارم الأخلاق عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: كُلُوا السَّفرجَلَ و تَهادَوهُ بَينَكُم؛ فَإِنَّهُ يَجلُو البَصَرَ، و يُنبِتُ المَوَدَّةَ فِي القَلبِ، وأطعِموهُ حَبالاكُم؛ فَإِنَّهُ يُحَسِّنُ أولادَكُم

وفي رواية: يُحَسِّنُ أخلاقَ أولادِكُم

86. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام- لَمّا نَظَرَ إلى غُلامٍ جَميلٍ‏ يَنبَغي أن يَكونَ أبو هذَا الغُلامِ أكَلَ السَّفَرجَلَ

87. عنه عليه السلام: عَلَيكَ بالهِندَباءِ؛ فَإِنَّهُ يَزيدُ فِي الماءِ، وَ يُحَسِّنُ الوَلَدَ، و هُوَ حارٌّ لَيِّنٌ، يَزيدُ فِي الوَلَدِ الذُّكورَةَ

88. الكافي عن شرحبيل بن مسلم: أنَّهُ‏ قالَ فِي المَرأَةِ الحامِلِ: تَأكُلُ السَّفَرجَلَ؛ فَإِنَّ الوَلَدَ يَكونُ أطيَبَ ريحا وَ أَصفَى‏ لَوناً

3.4: The Role of a Mother’s Food on the Newborn

89. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“The Prophet of Allah said: “The first thing a parturient should eat is ripe dates, for Allah the Exalted told Mary: “Shake the trunk of the palm tree, freshly picked dates will drop upon you.” 24

Some asked:“O Messenger of Allah! If it is not the season of fresh ripe dates, what must she do?”

He said:“Then seven dates from the dates of Medina; if that is not found, then seven dates from your own cities, for Allah (s.w.t.) says: “By My honour, My glory, My greatness and the highness of My position, if a parturient was to eat ripe dates on the day she delivers her child, boy or girl, will be forbearing.” 25

90. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said:“The best of your dates is the Barni. 26 Feed it to women while they are in their post-natal period so your children will become wise.” 27

91. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said:“Feed Barni to your women during their post-natal period and your children will turn out forbearing.” 28

دَوْرُ غِذاءِ النُّفَساءِ في المَوْلودِ

89. الإمام عليّ عليه السلام: قالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: لِيَكُن أوَّلُ ما تَأكُلُ النُّفَسَاءُ الرُّطَبَ؛ فَإنَّ اللهَ تَعالى‏ قالَ لِمَريَمَ: (وَ هُزِّي إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُساقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَباً جَنِيًّا (

قيلَ: يا رَسولَ اللهِ، فإن لَم يَكُن أوانُ الرُّطَبِ؟

قالَ: سَبعُ تَمراتٍ مِن تَمرِ المَدينَةِ، فإن لَم يَكُن فَسَبعُ تَمراتٍ مِن تَمرِ أمصارِكُم؛ فَإِنَّ اللهَ يَقولُ: و عِزَّتي و جَلالِي و عَظَمَتي وَ ارتِفاعِ مَكاني لا تَأكُلُ نُفَساءُ يَومَ تَلِدُ الرُّطَبَ فَيَكونُ غُلاما إلّا كانَ حَليما، و إن كانت جارِيَةً كانَت حَليمَةً

90. عنه عليه السلام: خَيرُ تُمورِكُم البَرنيّ، فأطعِموا النّسَاءَ في نِفاسِهِنَّ يَخرُج أولادُكُم حُكَمَاءَ

91. الإمام الصادق عليه السلام: أطعِمُوا البَرنِيَّ نِساءَكُم في نِفاسِهِنَّ تَحلُمُ أولادُكُم

Notes

1. Qur’an, 17:64.

2. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 2, p. 354, h. 2660, narrating from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 77, p. 105, h. 1.

3. Qur’an, 17:64.

4. Tafsir al-’Ayyashi, vol. 2, p. 299, h. 102. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 104, p. 136, h. 5.

5. Tafsir al-’Ayyashi, vol. 2, p. 300, h. 108. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 103, p. 294, h. 48.

6. al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 124, h. 4, narrating from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah.

7. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 357, h. 3. al-Mahasin, vol. 2, p. 365, h. 2273.

8. A dish made from wheat-flour and roasted barley.

9. Tibb al-A’immah, by Ibn Basaam, p. 88. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 104, p. 79, h. 4.

10. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 425, h. 1451. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 104, p. 84, h. 41.

11. Apparently referring to Imam al-Ridha (a.s.), however the narrator of this tradition is ‘Amr ibn Ibrahim who is a companion of Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.), so it is far from possible that he has narrated this from Imam al-Ridha (a.s.). [This footnote is mentioned in the source of the tradition].

12. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 355, h. 17. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 163, h. 46 .

13. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 365, h. 1202. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 141, h. 58.

14. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 23, h. 6, narrating from Abu Ziyad from Imam al-Hasan.

15. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 23, h. 7. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 440, h. 1758. Both narrating from Muhammad ibn Sinan. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 424, h. 1443.

16. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 423, h. 1439. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 444, h. 8. al-Firdaws, vol. 1, p. 101, h. 331, narrating from Ibn ‘Umar.

17. Tibb al-Nabi, p. 28. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 62, p. 299.

18. al-Da’wat, p. 151, h. 405. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 372, h. 1230. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 177, h. 37.

19. Jami’ al-Ahadith, p. 82. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 177, h. 39, narrating from al-Imamah wa al-Tabsirah.

20. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 372, h. 1230. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 66, p. 176, h. 37.

21. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 22, h. 2. al-Mahasin, vol. 2, p. 365, h. 2274. Both narrating from Muhammad ibn Muslim. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 373, h. 1241.

22. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 363, h. 6. al-Mahasin, vol. 2, p. 313, h. 2047. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 385, h. 1295.

23. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 22, h. 1. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 439, h. 1755.

24. Qur’an, 19:25.

25. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 22, h. 4. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 440, h. 1757, with ‘wise’ instead of ‘forbearing’. al-Mahasin, vol. 2, p. 346, h. 2194.

26. A high quality sweet red-yellowish date.

27. Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol. 7, p. 440, h. 20. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 22, h. 3, with ‘virtuous and forbearing’ instead of ‘wise’. Both narrating from Zurarah from Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.).

28. al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 22, h. 5. al-Mahasin, vol. 2, p. 345, h. 2190. Both narrating from Salih ibn ‘Aqabah. Makarim al-Akhlaq, vol. 1, p. 366, h. 1206, with will become beautiful’ instead of ‘will turn out forbearing’.