Investigations And Challenges

Investigations And Challenges0%

Investigations And Challenges Author:
Translator: Mansoor L. Limba
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category: Ideological Concepts

Investigations And Challenges

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi
Translator: Mansoor L. Limba
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
Category: visits: 12082
Download: 1564

Investigations And Challenges
search inside book
  • Start
  • Previous
  • 25 /
  • Next
  • End
  •  
  • Download HTML
  • Download Word
  • Download PDF
  • visits: 12082 / Download: 1564
Size Size Size
Investigations And Challenges

Investigations And Challenges

Author:
Publisher: ABWA Publishing and Printing Center
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought


Note:

Transliteration Symbols of this book are added as we promised.

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Investigations And Challenges

Discourses on Current Cultural, Sociopolitical and Religious Issues

The link between the theological seminary and the university is a blessed phenomenon which bears significant and numerous wholesome fruits. Along this line, for more than a year, a number of concerned and committed scholars in the university has set up a center with the aim of holding cultural activities. One of its activities is to hold monthly sessions in the presence of Ayatullah Misbah Yazdi. In these sessions, the distinguished professor tackles issues suggested by the other professors. Nine of these lectures are presented in this book.

Author(s): Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi

Translator(s): Mansoor L. Limba

Publisher(s): ABWA Publishing and Printing Center

www.alhassanain.org/english

Table of Contents

Publisher’s Foreword 8

Note 9

Preface 10

Notes 11

Chapter 1: Our Responsibility in the Sphere of Culture (Part 1) 13

Responsibility Conscious or right-seeking man 13

The Principle of Balance between Responsibility and Capability 14

The Extent of Capability and Responsibility in the Sight of University and Seminary Professors 15

The Present Cultural and Moral Degeneration 15

Preservation of the Relative Balance between Elements of Guidance and Deviation in Every Age 17

Most of the Great Transformations Owed to the Ideas of Thinkers 19

Importance of the Cultural Revolution 20

The Role of Cultural Movements in the Perpetuity of the Revolution 21

Notes 23

Chapter 2: Our Responsibility in the Sphere of Culture (Part 2) 24

The Most Serious Menace of the Monarchial Reign 24

Imam Khomein’s (r) strategy in initiating political change 27

The Degree of Conviction of The Officials of The Islamic System to the Pristine Precepts and Values of Islam 28

Program of the Enemies of the Revolution in Undermining the Islamic Values 30

The Enemy’s Infiltration In to the Executive and Planning Organs in the Country 31

Summary and Conclusion 33

Notes 34

Chapter 3: Religious Pluralism (Part 1) 37

The Great Crisis of our Age 37

Pluralism, Indulgence and Negligence: Tools at the Hands of the Crisis-Mongers 38

Our Heavy Responsibility to the Youth 39

A Critique of the First Proposition of the Pluralists 42

The Pluralists’ Resort to another Basis 43

The Third Attempt to Prove Pluralism 44

Notes 45

Chapter 4: Religious Pluralism (Part 2) 47

Involvement of the Psychological Factor in the Emergence of Pluralism 47

The Social Factor in the Emergence of Pluralism 48

Assessing the Psychological Motive in Presenting Pluralism 48

Assessing the Social Factor in Presenting Pluralism 49

Historical Account of Islam’s Treatment of Non-Muslims 51

First Interpretation of Religious Pluralism 51

Assessment 52

Second Interpretation of Religious Pluralism 53

Assessing the Second Interpretation 54

Third Interpretation of Religious Pluralism 56

Assessing the Third Interpretation of Religious Pluralism 57

Notes 58

Chapter 5: Religious Pluralism (Part 3) 59

A Review of the Psychological Motive in Presenting Pluralism 59

Our Responsibility toward Freedom of Religion and the Ruling on the Followers of Other Religions 61

A Psychological Point 62

Explaining Pluralism by Using the Similitude of a Prism 65

The Theory on the Unity of Truth in the Realm of Religious Knowledge 66

The Difference of the Maraji‘ At-Taqlid’s Religious Edicts as Nothing to do With Pluralism 66

Absence of Difference in the Domain of the Essentials and Fundamentals of Islam 67

Difference in the Domain of the Disputable Matters in Islam and its Explanation 68

Negation of Pluralism in the Declarative Accounts and Acceptance of it in Ethical and Moral Issues 69

Critique of Pluralism in the Realm of Ethics and Moral Values 71

Moral Decrees of Islam as Consonant with the True Expediencies and Corruptions 72

Summary 73

Notes 74

Chapter 6: Religious Pluralism (Part 4) 76

The Relationship between Pluralism and Liberalism 76

A Review of the Motive behind the Emergence of Religious Pluralism 77

Founding the Universal Unified Religion 78

An Examination of the Theory of Founding the Universal Unified Religion 78

Presenting the Common Moral Principles as Constituting the Universal Unified Religion 81

A Summary of the Critique of the Theory of Universal Unified Religion 83

Notes 84

Chapter 7: The Limits of Attraction and Repulsion (Peace and Violence) in Islam (Part 1) 86

A Historical Example of Repulsion in the Laws of Islam 88

Islam’s Injunction on Attraction and Repulsion in Behavior 89

Examples of Islamic Attractive Behaviors 90

Summary of the Discussion 91

Notes 92

Chapter 8: The Limits of Attraction and Repulsion (Peace and Violence) in Islam (Part 2) 93

Three Types of Questions about Attraction and Repulsion in Islam 93

The Development of Man Depends on Attraction and Repulsion 93

Self-Purification as Attractions and Repulsions Necessary for the Perfection of the Soul 96

An Outstanding Example of Spiritual Attraction and Repulsion 97

Spiritual Ailment and Wellbeing 101

Summary of the Discussion 102

Question and Answer 103

Notes 103

Chapter 9: The Limits of Attraction and Repulsion (Peace and Violence) in Islam (Part 3) 105

A Review of the Previous Discussion 105

The Reference in Identifying the Useful and Harmful Elements in the Spiritual Perfection of Man 105

The Overall policy of Islam in the Affair of Propagating Religion 105

1. Using Evidence and Preaching 106

3. Debate and Argumentation 108

The Reason behind Refraining from Repulsion in the Islamic Call 109

How Islam Deals with Personal and Private Behaviors 109

The Islamic Approach of Dealing with Social Behaviors 110

Penal laws as the Factor in Fostering Social Order 111

Repulsion as the Natural Essence of the Penal Laws 111

Assiduousness in Distinguishing between Personal and Social Dimensions of Action 112

Islam’s Attitude toward the Non-Muslim Countries and their Citizens 112

The View of Islam on Violent Actions and the Power of Repulsion 114

Summary of the Discussion on Attraction and Repulsion in Islam 115

Question and Answer 116

Another Question and Answer 124

Notes 127

Chapter 10: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 1) 128

The Interrelatedness of Right and Duty 128

Types of Interrelatedness among Concepts 128

Two Types of Relationship between Right and Duty 129

The Relationship between Right and Duty from the View Point of Imam Ali 130

Right and Duty in Relation to God 130

The raison d’être of Government 134

The Right and Duty of Government in Relation to Providing Security and the Like 135

Another Philosophy Means another Set of Duties 137

The Impact of the Fundamental Difference in Determining the Rights and Duties of the People and the Government 139

Ensuring the Spiritual Welfare as the most Fundamental Duty of the Government 140

Questions and answers 141

Notes 145

Chapter 11: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 2) 147

A Review of the Previous Discussion 147

The Relationship between Right and Justice 147

The Criterion in Determining Right the Viewpoint of the Natural Law and the Positivist Law 148

The Viewpoint of Islam on the Criterion of Determining Right 152

The Fundamental Difference between Islam and the West on the Criterion of Determining Rights 154

The Religious Law’s Remarks on Dealing with the Relationship of Actions with Welfare and Corruption 156

The Exigency of Facilitation 157

God as the sole original bidder and forbidder 158

Questions and answers 158

Notes 159

Chapter 12: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 3) 161

The Different Approaches in Discussing the Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government 161

Descriptive Study of the Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government in Islam 163

Descriptive study of the Mutual Relationship between People and Government in the Democratic system 167

To be a Mercenary of the Capitalists as the Real Role of the Governments in the Western Democracy 169

Question and Answer 170

Notes 172

Chapter 13: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 4) 173

A Review of the Discussion in the Previous Session 173

A Comparison of the Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government in Islam and the West a Descriptive Approach 174

The Government People Relationship in Western Thought 175

First Criticism to this Theory 176

Second Criticism 177

Third Criticism 177

Fourth Criticism 178

A Summary of the Criticisms to this Theory 179

The Government-People Relationship in the Islamic Thought 179

Questions and Answers 182

Notes 188

Chapter 14: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 5) 190

The Status of the People and the Ruler in Islamic Political Thought 192

Islamic Political Thought: The people and the Ruler as Responsible before God 194

A Summary of the Discussion 195

Examples of the Mutual Rights Between the People and the Government in the words of the Commander of the Faithful 197

Notes 201

Chapter 15: The Mutual Relationship between the People and the Government (Part 6) 202

A Review of the Discussion in the Previous Session 202

The View of Islam on the People and the Government 202

Ensuring the Spiritual Welfare as the Duty of Government and the Right of People in the Islamic Government 204

The Duties of the Ruler and the People from the Viewpoint of the Commander of the Faithful 205

Questions and Answers 206

Notes 214

Chapter 16: Faith as the Essence of Invitation of the Prophets (Part 1) 215

Introduction 215

Faith as the Main Axis of the Invitation of the Prophets 215

The Correct Method of Conducting Research on this Issue 216

The Axis of the Invitation of the Prophets (‘a) from the Viewpoint of the Qur’an 217

Denial as the Prime Origin of Deviation 220

The Unbelievers from the Viewpoint of the Qur’an 221

Some Fundamental Questions on the Issue of Faith 223

Question and Answer 224

Note 225

Chapter 17: Faith as the Essence of Invitation of the Prophets (Part 2) 226

The Truth of Faith 226

The Qur’an and the Alleged Contradiction between Knowledge and Faith 229

The Correct Theory on the Truth of Faith 231

Faith’s Relationship with Knowledge and Freewill 233

Two Contributory Factors in the Enhancement and Strengthening of Faith 235

Summary of the Discussion 236

Notes 237

Chapter 18: Faith as the Essence of Invitation of the Prophets (Part 3) 238

The Jurisdiction of Faith in the Qur'anic Verses 239

Belief in all the Prophets as a Requisite of True Faith 245

Other Viewpoints on the Jurisdiction of Faith 246

The Relationship between Faith and the Acceptance of the Prophets Historically 247

Note 250

Chapter 19: Faith as the Essence of Invitation of the Prophets (Part 4) 251

A Review of the Previous Discussion 251

“Prophetic Experience” and “Hermeneutic Interpretation” as Misgivings Aimed at Weakening the Faith 251

A Concise Reply to these Two Misgivings 252

The Alleged Contradiction between Revelation, and Knowledge and Reason 254

The Qur’an and the Nine Ptolemaic Spheres 256

The Qur’an and the Theory of Evolution of Species 258

Allegory and Metaphor in the Qur’an 260

Reply to this Misgiving 262

Summary 263

Question and Answer 264

Transliteration Symbols 267

Publisher’s Foreword

The invaluable legacy of the Household [Ahl al-Bayt] of the Prophet (may peace be upon them all), as preserved by their followers, is a comprehensive school of thought that embraces all branches of Islamic knowledge. This school has produced many brilliant scholars who have drawn inspiration from this rich and pure resource. It has given many scholars to the ummah [Muslim community] who, following in the footsteps of the Imams of the Prophet’s Household (‘a), have done their best to clear up the doubts and spurious arguments raised by various creeds and currents within and without Muslim society and to give answers to their questions. Throughout the past centuries, they have given well-reasoned answers and clarifications concerning these questions and doubts.

To meet the responsibilities assigned to it, the Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly (ABWA) has embarked on a defense of the sanctity of the Islamic message and its verities, often obscured by the partisans of various sects and creeds as well as by currents hostile to Islam. The Assembly follows in the footsteps of the Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) and the disciples of their school of thought in its readiness to confront these challenges and tries to be on the frontline in consonance with the demands of every age.

The arguments contained in the works of the scholars belonging to the School of the Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) are of unique significance. That is because they are based on genuine scholarship and appeal to reason, and avoid prejudice and bias. These arguments address scholars and thinkers in a manner that appeals to healthy minds and wholesome human nature.

To assist the seekers of truth, the Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly has endeavored to present a new phase of these arguments contained in the studies and translations of the works of contemporary Shi‘ah writers and those who have embraced this sublime school of thought through divine blessing.

The Assembly is also engaged in edition and publication of the valuable works of leading Shi‘ah scholars of earlier ages to assist the seekers of the truth in discovering the truths which the School of the Prophet’s Household (‘a) has offered to the entire world.

The Ahl al-Bayt World Assembly looks forward to benefiting from the opinions of the readers and their suggestions and constructive criticism in this area.

We also invite scholars, translators and other institutions to assist us in propagating the genuine Islamic teachings as preached by the Prophet Muhammad (S).

We beseech God, the Most High, to accept our humble efforts and to enable us to enhance them under the auspices of Imam al-Mahdi, His vicegerent on the earth (may Allah expedite his advent).

We express our utmost gratitude to Professor Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi for writing the book,1 Mr. Mansoor Limba for translating it, and all our honorable colleagues, especially the dear ones in the Translation Office for accomplishing this task.

Cultural Affairs Department

Ahl al-Bayt (‘a) World Assembly

Note

1. Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi, Kavishha va Chaleshha, compiled and edited by Muhammad Mahdi Nadiri Qummi (Qum: Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute, Spring 1382 AHS (2003)), vol. 1, 192 pages; vol. 2, 240 pages.

Preface

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and may the blessings of Allah be upon our Master and Prophet, Muhammad, and his pure progeny, and may the curse of Allah be upon all of their enemies.

The link between the theological seminary and the university is a blessed phenomenon which bears significant and numerous wholesome fruits. On the contrary, the separation of these two culture-building and influential pillars for the society always entails heavy losses. In the attempt to foster this blessed and auspicious connection, many years prior to the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, some individuals from both the seminary and the university have always been active in this field and by understanding the importance of this issue and its strategic standing, they have always tried in many ways to expand and consolidate this connection.

The entrance of the figures such as Martyr Mutahhari,1 Dr. Beheshti,2 Dr. Bahonar,3 Martyr Mufatteh,4 and other farsighted and conscious ‘ulama’ (i.e. men of religious knowledge) to the university campus has been motivated by their enlightened thinking and along the line of fostering this connection. University personalities in the past decades can also be founded who, by their conviction in the expediency and importance of promoting this line of communication, have exerted efforts in this context.

These efforts have earned new and more extensive dimensions after the victory of the Islamic Revolution and the declaration of the motto of unity between the seminary and the university by the great founder of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini (r).5

Of course, there are still many shortcomings and failings, and in attaining the desirable point in this movement, so many ifs and buts must be removed along the way. At any rate, actual experience has shown that further closeness and connection of the two students and seminarians and the two strongholds seminary and university has extended worthy assistance in making the ideas of the two sides more fruitful. In the end, the society will also benefit from its blessings. In the same manner, the separation and bifurcation of the two will also result in their own destruction and that of the society.

Among the personalities who have realized, for the past three decades, the importance and exigency of creating this connection and have exerted many efforts in this direction is the erudite scholar, prominent philosopher and outstanding jurist [faqih], Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi. On the issues surrounding the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution6 during the first years of the Islamic Revolution and established at the order of the Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah Misbah was given special attention by the eminent Imam in guiding and setting the program of this movement. This is a testimony and confirmation that the distinguished professor has been involved in this venture for many years.

Along this line, for more than a year, a number of the wary, concerned and committed scholars in the university has set up a center with the aim of holding cultural activities. One of its activities is to hold monthly sessions in the presence of Ayatullah Misbah Yazdi. In these sessions, the distinguished professor tackles issues suggested by the other professors.

On account of the academic standing as well as the importance of these discussions in the current conditions of the society, the host of these sessions, namely, the Mobilization Center of Professors of the University of Science and Technology [kanun-e basij-e asatid-e daneshgah-e ‘ilm va san‘at] has insisted that the collection of the distinguished professor’s lectures in those sessions to be published according to the chronological order of their presentation. Thanks to God, through the effort of Hujjat al-Islam wa’l-Muslimin Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Nadiri Qummi, a faculty member of this Institute and one of the outstanding students of Professor Yazdi, now we can offer to all those who are interested nine of these lectures in the form of the present book.

We hope that in the future we will be able to continue presenting these discussions to the academic and cultural centers of the country and all the academicians and knowledge-enthusiasts.

Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

1382 AHS (2003)

Notes

1. Professor Ayatullah Murtadha Mutahhari (1298-1358 AHS) was born in Bahman 13, 1298 AHS [February 3, 1920] in the village of Fariman near Mashhad to a family of clergymen. At the age of 12, he went to Mashhad where he learned the basics of Islamic sciences and then moved to Qum where he attended the class sessions conducted by the great authorities of the theological center.

From 1319 AHS [1940], Mutahhari had taken part in the sessions led by Imam Khomeini and other famous teachers of the time. Moreover, he himself conducted lessons in subjects like Arabic literature, logic, kalam [scholasticism], jurisprudence, and philosophy. In 1331 AHS [1952], Mutahhari was transferred from Qum to Tehran and in 1334 AHS [1955], he was invited to teach Islamic sciences at the Faculty of Islamic Sciences, Tehran University. He was arrested at the midnight of Khordad 15, 1342 AHS [1963] and spent 43 days in prison. After Imam Khomeini’s migration to Paris, France, Mutahhari went to meet him and His Eminence assigned to him the responsibility of organizing the Revolutionary Council. On the night of Ordibehesht 11, 1358 AHS [May 1, 1979], Mutahhari was martyred by an agent of the terrorist Furqan group.

He wrote more than 50 books and tens of articles, and delivered scores of speeches. Imam Khomeini said of Mutahhari,“His written and spoken words are, without exception, educational and enlivening… I recommend that the students and intellectual group not to let Mutahhari’s words be forgotten by anti-Islamic tricks…” [Trans.]

2. Dr. Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Beheshti was among the combatant clerics and a very high profile academic and political personality of the Islamic Revolution. Imam Khomeini appointed him as the first supreme judge. ayatullah Beheshti and seventy-one other members of the judiciary, thinkers, writers, and revolutionary elements were martyred by a bomb explosion at the Islamic Republican Party Headquarters perpetrated by the hypocrites on Tir 7, 1360 AHS (June 28, 1981). [Trans.]

3. Hujjat al-Islam Dr. Muhammad Jawad Bahonar: the Prime Minister who was martyred together with President Muhammad ‘Ali Raja’i in the explosion of his office perpetrated by the hypocrites on Shahrivar 8, 1360 AHS (August 30, 1981). [Trans.]

4. Hujjat al-Islam Shaykh Muhammad Mufatteh, Dean of the Faculty of Theology at Tehran University and a key promoter of the unity between the university and the seminary, was martyred by the terrorist Furqan group on azar 28, 1358 AHS (December 19, 1979). [Trans.]

5. The abbreviation,“r” stands for the Arabic invocative phrase, rahmatullah ‘alayhi, rahmatullah ‘alayha, or rahmatullah ‘alayhim [may peace be upon him/her/them], which is used after the names of pious people. [Trans.]

6. Imam Khomeini issued a decree on Khordad 23, 1359 AHS (June 13, 1980) on the formation of the Cultural Revolution Headquarters. On Azar 19, 1363 AHS (December 10, 1984) he made a directive regarding the formation of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution to replace the Cultural Revolution Headquarters. [Trans.]