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Saqife:  Study of Establishment of Government after Prophet

Saqife: Study of Establishment of Government after Prophet

Publisher: Naba Organization

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought


Study of Establishment of Government after Prophet

Compiled by: Mahdi Dashti

Based on Scholar Sayed Morteza Askari’s Words

Translated by: Mahdi Nasiri

Mustafa Sheikhi


Table of Contents

Chapter One: Establishment of Saqife in Prophet's Lifetime 3

Chapter Two: The Quality of Establishment of Saqife 7

Chapter Three: The Idea of Prophet's Close Companion about Swearing Allegiance with Abu-Bakr 16

Chapter Four: Government’s attitude toward opponents, out of Medina 19

Chapter Five: Government’s attitude toward opponents, in Medina 21

Chapter Six: Economic war with People of house 27

Chapter Seven: Fatima Falls in Sick 32

Chapter Eight: Islamic Territories and Imams Operation 36

Chapter Nine: Abu-Bakr's Will and Omar's Caliphate 37

Chapter Ten: Government’s Condition in Omar's Caliphate Time 38

Chapter Eleven: Government’s Condition in Othman's Caliphate time 44

Chapter Twelve: Revolution Against Othman and Role of Imam Ali 54

Notes 63

Chapter 01 63

Chapter 2 63

Chapter 3 67

Chapter 4 67

Chapter 5 68

Chapter 6 70

Chapter 7 72

Chapter 9 74

Chapter 10 74

Chapter 11 75

Chapter 12 77

Chapter One: Establishment of Saqife in Prophet's Lifetime.

To study the establishment of Saqife in prophet's lifetime, these lines of Quran should be investigated:

God, the exalted, in the beginning verses of chapter Tahrim (the Prohibition) in Quran states that:

O, prophet! Why do you forbid (yourself) that which God has made lawful for you;You seek to please your wives; and God is forgiving, merciful. God indeed has sanctioned for you the expiation of your oaths and God is your protector, and He is the Knowing, The wise. And when the prophet secretly communicated a piece of information to one of his wives-but when she informed others of it, God made him to know it, he made known part of it and avoided part; so when he informed her of it, she said: who informed you of this? He Said: The Knowing, the one Aware, informed me. If you both turn to God, then indeed your hearts are already inclined (to this); and if you back up each other against him, then surely God it is who is the Guardian and Holy Ghost and the believers that do good, and the angles after that are the aiders.

How ness of descending of these verses:

In these verses three subjects are mentioned:

A. Prophet's self-prohibition of what God had made lawful for him to satisfy his wives, and that God has sanctioned the expiation of oaths.

B. Prophet's secret communication of a piece of information with one of his wives, who informed others and that God, the exalted, made him aware of this revelation.

C. God’s threat to Prophet's wives to the end of the chapter.

In the resumption, it is not mentioned of what prophet has prohibited himself to satisfy his wives and what has happened which deserved such a severe threat of God.

It is worthy to be mentioned that God, the exalted, in Quran chapter Nahl (the Bee), verse 44, states that:


And we have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to men what has been revealed to them.

Concerning Quran, two kinds of inspiration were sent to prophet:

A. Quran Inspiration: the text of Quran that is unchanged from prophet's lifetime until now.

B. Expressive inspiration: with which the interpretation of Quran was sent down.

On inspiration of first verse, it is narrated that prophet in Hasfeh’s turn, lay with Mariah, and when Hasfeh became aware of it, prophet prohibited himself of Mariah to soothe Hasfeh1.

In the second verse, God removes this prohibition. Third verse is about prophet's saying secret to Hasfeh, his wife, and her reveling of it. Then God made prophet aware of this

Revelation, and prophet said to her; she asked who had informed him and prophet replied:” The Knowing2.” In the forth verse, the tone changes and addresses these two women that:

If you both turn to God (you make a profit, indeed your hearts are already inclined and if you both back up each other against prophet, God is his Guardian and the Holy Ghost and a pious man of believers- Imam Ali3- are his supporters.

What had happened in prophet's home, which such a threat has been necessary to remove it, as far as God, the exalted, states that prophet is not alone, God, Holy Ghost, angles and the pious believer- Imam Ali- support and back up of these plots? What was it which God, the exalted, in the following verses threateningly states:

Maybe, his Lord, if he divorces you, will give him in your place wives better than you are: submissive, faithful, obedient, peni-tent, adorers, faster, virgins and non-virgins- O, you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones; over it are angle stern and strong, they do not disobey God in what he commands them, and do as they are commanded. O, you who disbelieve! Do not urge excuses today; you shall be rewarded only according to what you did. O, you who believe! Turn to God, a sincere turning; maybe your Lord will remove from you your evil and cause you to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the day on which God will not abase the prophet and those who believe with him; their light shall run on before them and on their right hands; they shall say: our Lord! Make perfect for us our light, and grant us protection, surly thou hast power over all things. O, prophet! Strive hard against the unbelievers, the hypocrites, and be hard against them and their abode is hell; and evil is resort. God sets forth an example to those who disbelieve the wife of Noah and the wife of Lut; they were both under two our righteous servants, but they acted tenaciously towards them, so they availed then naught against God, and it was said: enter both the fire with those who enter.

What sedition had been excited in prophet's home that he mentioned some of it and did not the rest? What plan these two wives of prophet and their collaborates had made that such warnings and threats and also mentioning the end of wives of two prophets-Noah, Lut- were needed, stipulating that those two wives had been treacher to their husbands- Noah, Lut- and were ordered to enter the hell? We have found more information in caliphate’s lifestyle books:

Prophet told Hafseh, Omar's daughter, that her father with Ayesheh's father, Abu-Bakr, would revolute to get the power after his death. Prophet had kept this remark as a secret, but Hafseh told Ayesheh about it. Ayesheh told his father and

Abu-Bakr said to Omar. Omar asked Hasfeh about the remark: “tell me to provide myself, and Hasfeh revealed the secret of prophet.

Prophet mentioned a part of the subject that was revelation of the secret by his two wives and did not the rest. Was it not their father's readiness to get the power?

Ibn-e Abbas, in order to hear of second caliph, Omar, the quality of descending of this chapter, ingeniously asked him: “It is about a year which I want to ask you a question of Quran, but your majesty rejects me." Omar said:" Ibn-e Abbas, you know that I have an inspired knowledge about Quran, so why don't you ask your question?"Ibn-e Abbas asked:" About whom chapter Tahrim is descended?" Omar replied:" About Ayesheh and Hasfeh4."

In Dor-Al-Mansour, Volume3, page241, it is mentioned:

Concerning what is mentioned until now, it can be illustrated that Abu-Bakr and Omar had planned to get the power, a distinctive plan for while the prophet wasalive5, and another for the time after his death. What is concerned to our discussion is their plan for the time after prophet’s death, which became the base of Saqife and that is that, once, Abu-Bakr, Omar, Abu-Obaide Jarrah, Salem and Othman assembled and planned to get the power after prophet's death, then took an oath and wrote it, therefore deposited it with Abu-Obaide Jarrah6. This is why Omar said:" Abu-Obaide is depository of this nation7,” or why so many times said:" If Abu-Obaide or Salem were alive, I would leave them the power8."

In the course of appointment of second caliph, Omar, this plan became more illustrious:

When Abu-Bakr was about to die, called for Othman and asked him to write:

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Beneficent, this is will of Abu-Bakr, son of Abi-Ghahafe, in which commands Muslims...". Suddenly he became unconscious and Othman himself continued: “I appointed Omar, son of Khattab, as my successor and caliph of Muslims; I tried in your benevolence. “ Abu-Bakr came into and asked him to read what he had written. He read, and then Abu-Bakr said:" O my God! Did you fear of discrepancy among Muslims after my death? Oh, yes, it is what I wanted to tell you to write9."

How did Othman know whom Abu-Bakr was going to select as his successor? Therefore, it illustrates that there had been an agreement among Abu-Bakr, Omar, Othman, Salem and Abu-Obaide Jarrah to become caliph one after another. This subject became clearer in second caliph's actions:

A. When Omar was injured by Abu-Lolo, Salem and Abu-Obaide had died10&11; Omar constituted council to select his successor and arranged it in a way that Othman be voted and became caliph12.

B. Of following event, it became illustrious that in Omar's lifetime, the third caliph had been appointed.

Ibn-Saed, writer of Tabaghat, narrates from saeid Ibn Aas-e Omavi that:

I asked Omar for a piece of land to extend my home, because he would do such bestows, Omar told me:" After Morning Prayer come to me to grant your request." I, after saying prayer, went to him and we both went to locate the land. He located a piece of land with his foot and gave me. I said:" your majesty! I'm encumbered by a large family, give me some more land", but he answered:" It is sufficient by now, but I tell you a secret, keep it in your heart. My successor is someone of your relatives, so he will grant you what you need." I waited and as Omar had said his successor was of my relatives who granted my request13.

Moreover, second caliph had in mind that after Othman, Abdorahman Ibn Euf, and then Maviye be appointed as caliph. In order to attest this claim, we refer to following events:

In Aam-o-lroaf year, Othman suffered from nose bleeding and was about to die. He secretly wrote a letter and appointed Abdorahman Ibn Euf as his successor. Abdorahman irritated and said:" I've appointed him as a caliph openly and now he appoints me secretly14." And in the result an enmity came to existence between them that had been Imam Ali's curse:" I wish God put a contradiction between them15." Othman was cured of that disease and Abdorahman died in his lifetime16.

Moreover, Imam Ali had told Abdorahman, while he was swearing allegiance with Othman:

"I swear to God that you appointed Othman as caliph in order to be appointed by him17." We will talk about Omar's desire of

Maviye's caliphate later, but this point should be mentioned that Omar wanted caliphate in Ghoraysh, but not Bani-Hashim family, in fact, he and his followers, not only didn't want caliphate for Bani Hashim family during their lives, but also for coming generations18.

Chapter Two: The Quality of Establishment of Saqife

Prophet's illness and death

Prophet fell in sick in the last days of Safar (name of a month) year 11 A.H. While he was sick, he appointed 18 years old Osame1, son of Ziyad, as the commander of his army in order to go to Damascus and fight with Eastern Roman Christian. He ordered that Abu-Bakr, Omar, Abu-Obaide and Saed must participate in this army2 and emphasized on it. He also said God curses one who doesn't follow and help Osame3." Prophet’s illness aggravated. The army that was out of Medina became aware of this. Those who wanted to interfere in appointment of prophet's successor backed to Medina and in the Monday morning assembled in prophet's home. Prophet said to them:”..

Fetch me pen and paper to write my will and to prevent you of going astray." Omar said:" .........His illness has overcome him4, he doesn't know what he says, he has brought the Reminder and that is sufficient to guide us."

Some of attendants decided to obey prophet and bring pen and paper5.

Other narratives, in book Tabaghat-e Ibn Saed, are given that at that time one of the attendants says:”……………….. The prophet is delirious6”.

Oh, heaven weep down thy blood. A companion in front of others is talking in this way about the prophet. Although the one who had said this remark is not narrated exactly in Bokhary’s narration, but it can be said that, no one except Omar had been so rude to say such a remark, one who had said:" ..............."

Oh, God! What a bitter pain!

After this discussion and dispute, some ones wanted to bring pen and paper, but prophet avoided and stated:" it is out of use by now7." After such remarks, if there had been any pen and paper and if prophet had written any will to appoint Imam Ali as his successor, it would have been useless, because the opposed ones would bring some one to witness that prophet had been delirious.

When attendants were disputing in prophet's home and in front of him, he told them Get away, it is not good to dispute in front of God's messenger8."

O God! What happened in that day?

Whenever Belal was going to sing Azan, he would come to prophet's home and say .It is time of prayer, God’s messenger.” Monday at dawn as usual, Belal came to prophet's home and said his remark:" It is time of prayer........... ." Prophet, while his head was on Imam Ali's lap was unconscious. Ayesheh came at the door and told

Belal:" Tell my father come and say the prayer", and he obeyed. Abu-Bakr came in order to say the prayer. Prophet came into and understood that the congregational prayer was held in mosque while Imam Ali was beside him. prophet, despite of his severe illness, stood up and with help of Imam Ali and Fazl Ibn-e Abbas performed his ablutions and went to mosque. There, Abu-Bakr was saying the prayer. Prophet went to him and broke his prayer, then he in setting position, performed it9.

At this day prophet passed away and many other events happened.

Performance of Prophet's Ablution

Those who took part in prophet’s ablution and burial ceremony were Imam Ali, Abbas (Prophet’s uncle), Fazl Ibn-e Abbas and Saleh (prophet servant).

Therefore, prophet's companion had abandoned him alone and just these few people took part in prophet's funeral10.

Another narrative is that Imam Ali with Fazl Ibn-e Abbas, Ghosam Ibn-e Abbas, Shoghran and Osameh held the funeral11; what is illustrious is that Abu-Bakr and Omar had not taken part in it12.

At that time Abbas, prophet's uncle, came to Imam Ali and told him" .Let me swear allegiance with you and prevent other's opposition13", but Imam Ali did not accept and said to him:" ...At this time our duty is to perform prophet's ablution14."

During prophet's burial, Ansars had assembled in Saqife to appoint one of themselves as prophet’s successor15. Mohajerans like Abu-Bakr, Omar, Abu-Obaide and other followers were informed of this, so they rushed there16. Therefore, except a few number of prophet’s relatives, nobody attended in prophet’s funeral; they were: Imam Ali, Abbas, prophet’s uncle, Fazl Ibn-e Abbas, Ghosam Ibn-e Abbas, Osame Ibn-e Ziyad, Saleh, Ous Ibn-e Kholi, of Ansars17.

Saying prayer on prophet's corpse was essential for all Muslims who were in Medina that means they, one by one, were obligated to attend on prophet's corpse and say prayer18.

Saying prayer on prophet corpse differs from other ordinary people and it doesn't need any leader; as Imam Ali states:" The leader of all is prophet himself." Therefore, Muslims in five or six person groups came and repeated what Imam Ali would have bidden. First, men said prayer, then women and at last children who were not mature. This task started at Monday and ended at Tuesday evening19. Prophet’s corpse was buried by few attendants at the room in which he passed away20.

Instead of prophet’s close relatives, nobody attended in his funeral, and Bani-Ghanam tribe, of prophet’s neighbors heard the sound of spades while they were in bed21. Ayesheh, prophet’s wife, says:" we were not aware of prophet's funeral, until at night that we heard the sounds of the spades.22”

Prophet's will to Imam Ali

Before stating prophet's will to Imam Ali, it is better to state a verse of Quran to make it more understandable. God, the exalted, in chapter Ale Imran (The family of Imran),

Verse 144 states:


And Mohammad is no more than an apostle; the apostles have already passed away before him, if then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your feels? And who ever turns back upon his feels, he will by now means do harm to God in the least, and God will reward the grateful.

As it was mentioned, the religion of Islam was descended to prophet with two kinds of inspiration:

A. Quran inspiration: the text of Quran that is unchanged from prophet's lifetime until now and its words are God's and contains the principles of Islam such as: Monotheism,

Spiritual, reward and punishment and general rules like Hajj, Fast, Prayer and other Dos and Don'ts.

B. Expressive inspiration that accompanies Quran inspiration, and is the interpretation of it. For example, in Ghadir-e Khom day, concurrent with descending of verse:

یا ایها الرسول بلغ ما انزل الیک من ربک و ان لم تفعل فما بلغت رساله

O, prophet! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not delivered His message;

There had been an expressive inspiration too which is:"

یا ایها الرسول بلغ ما انزل الیک فی علی

So"فی علی.23 " had been a vice inspiration that prophet had stated.

Prophet was not allowed to express himself and whatever he has said, had been from God, the exalted, who states in Quran:

Nor does he speak out ofdesire, it is naught but revelation that is revealed." (The star 4)

Moreover, in another chapter, more firmly states:


And if he had fabricated against us some of the saying, we would certainly have seized him by the right hand, then we would certainly have cut off his aural and no one of you could have withheld us from him. (The sure calamity 44)

Therefore Quran inspiration is the text of Quran which all it's words are God's, and no one can produce a chapter like it, even as short as The Heavenly Fountain chapter (Kousar); it is prophet's miracle and God himself watch over it Surly we have revealed the Reminder and we will most surly be it's Guardian. (The Rock 9)

But regarding Expressive inspiration, the mean is from God,

however in prophet's words; it is not prophet's miracle and the aim is to interpret the Quran’s text.

God, the exalted, states in Quran:...........

We have revealed to you the Reminder that you may make clear to men what has been revealed to them (The Bee 44).

Whenever prophet stated a verse of Quran that had been revealed to him, he would state its expressive inspiration to make it clear and complete his task.

Abdolah Ibn Maseud, of prophet’s companion, says:" I've learnt seventy chapters of Quran from prophet; whenever a verse was descended like”والشجره الملعونهThe curse tree" (the Israilities chapter) prophet explained that it stood for Bani Omaye family24."

Ahmad Hanbel, of prophet's companions, says:" Prophet taught Quran ten by ten verses25, he would never start another ten verses unless he taught all aspects of ten verses which he had just expressed." For example, if it was about the lives of previous prophets, he would tell his companion the story, if it were about the Judgment day, he would tell them how it would be, and if it was about the rules of ablution and prayer,he would teach them the exact principles and methods. Thus, prophet would never state any Quran verse without its expressive inspiration (interpretation) to his people.

In teaching the verse"

God only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you. O people of house! and to purity you through purifying” prophet added that people of house were himself, Imam Ali, Fatima, Imam Hasan, Imam Hosain26; and also when the verse:” ..

If you both turn to God then indeed your hearts are already inclined (to this)” (The prohibition 4), descended, he explained that those two persons were Ayesheh and Hafseh27, his wives. Prophet, in teaching Quran would regard both the concept and the way they should be performed. For example, when theverse "

Keep up prayer from the declining of the sun. (Israelites 78) descended, he taught his companions how to say prayer and God's remembrance, and by the revelation of the verse" .. Wash your face and heads from the elbow...” he taught them how to perform ablution and how the water of ablution should be.

All the cases which were taught by prophet, were written by literates, both Quran and Expressive inspirations, therefore, all literates wrote Quran and its interpretation, of course not all of them, except the one that was kept in prophet's home, were complete in interpretation, because whenever of Quran was sent on prophet, he would ask one of the literates to write it down on whatever was within reach, paper, wood, parchment or bones, and he would kept them in his home.

When prophet was about to die, he said to Imam Ali:" After my funeral,do nothing until you collect the Quran that is in my home28." Imam Ali, after prophet's death, collected Quran and its interpretation that were written on woods, parchments or bones, and linked them together. He started at Wednesday (the day after prophet's funeral) and ended at Friday. Imam Ali with his servant, Ghanbar, took that Quran to mosque. There, Muslims had assembled to say Friday prayer. He told them that he had brought the Quran, which had been in prophet's home, but attendants said that they didn't need it and that they had Quran! Then Imam Ali said to them that they would never see it again29.

This Quran, after Imam Ali kept by other eleven Imams and now is with Imam Mahdi who will bring it with his appearance30. The Quran that by now is accessible is the same withprophet’s , but without interpretation, i.e. just Quran inspiration without Expressive inspiration*.

But why people didn't accept the Quran that was collected by Imam Ali?

Because in that Quran that included expressive inspiration too, there were some subjects against the policy of politicians of that era. For example, as it was mentioned, prophet in interpretation of the verse والشجره الممنوعه " the curse tree” in Quran stated that tree stands for Bani Omaye family, and it was against Othman, Maviye, Yazid, Valid and ..., or in interpretation of chapter Prohibition (Tahrim), he stated that those two women were Hasfeh and Ayesheh. Another verse that clearly attests this claim is" ........... O, you who believe! Do not raise your voice above the voice of the prophet", which regarding to its interpretation, is about Abu-Bakr and Omar31. Or when the opening verses of chapter Repentance (Tube) descended, prophet gave them to Abu-Bakr to declare them in Hajj ceremony for unbelievers. An expressive inspiration revealed, "Do it yourself or one who is close to you." Therefore, he sent Imam Ali to do it32. These verses, which were about prophet himself and people of his house, like Tathir (the Allies, 33), Mobahele (family of Imran, 61) Velayat (The Food, 55), Najva (The pleading one, 12) and …33 can be put in this group. This is why they did not accept Imam Ali's Quran and tried to distribute Quran without its Expressive inspiration34, and even to corrupt it35.

The Candidates of Caliphate36

a) Imam Ali: who was appointed by God, and prophet himself declared it.

b) Saed Ibn Obade: who was the representative of mostAnsars.

c) Abu-Bakr: who was the representative of mostMohajerans.

The Slogans of Saqife

a) The slogans of Ansars:

1) It is Ansars who helped Islam37.

2) It is Ansars who fought for Islam and defended it38.

3) Medina is the city of Ansars39.

b) The slogans of Mohajerans (Ghoraysh):40

1) Prophet is of Ghoraysh.

2) Prophet's successor must be of Ghoraysh, because they can't suffer the successor be of another tribe.

The Coup de tats of Saqife

After prophet's death, Ansars assembled in Saqife. Tribe Khazraj, of Ansars, wanted to appoint Saed Ibn Obade as Prophet's successor41. They did know who should be prophet’s successor, but did it because of tribal prejudice. A group of Mohajerans, Abu-Bakr, Omar, Abu-Obade, Moghairat Ibn Shobah,Abdorahman Ibn Euf joined them too42. They had left prophet with his family and were disputing on his successor. Tribe Aus, of Ansars, opposed with Saed Ibn Obade. Among tribe Khazraj, Bashir Ibn Saed, a person of distinction, was jealous to Saed and opposed him43.

Saqife, based on storied by Bokhari:

Historian Bokhari quotes from Omar the story of Saqife as: After prophet's death, we were informed that Ansars had assembled in Saqife. I recommended Abu-Bakr to go there and he accepted. When we, without Imam Ali, Zobeir and their companion, got there, we saw that Ansars were carrying Saed Ibn Obade on a carpet and claimed that he was running fever. We sat there, their orator stood up and after praising God, said:" We are supporters of Islam and those who defend it, but Mohajerans are few and...", I wanted to answer him, but Abu-Bakr pulled my sleeves and asked me to be calm. Then he stood up and gave a speech, I swear to God that he told them whatever I wanted and even better. He said to them, “O, Ansars! Whatever this man says about you is absolutely right, but you know that Ghoraysh is famous for its nobleness and gentleness and deserves caliphate. And now, because I want your good and benefit, I recommend you these two Omar and Saed Ibn Obade, to select one of them as prophet's successor." O, I didn't like his last sentence. Then one of Ansars stood up and said:"

“ I'm as a twig with which you itch the back of your camels or a tree which you refuge to its shade- it is an Arabic proverb which means: I'm trustable and in difficulty you seek refuge to me. In this case, Mohajerans select a caliph for themselves, and we select one for ourselves." Therefore, uproar broke loose in people and I made the most of time and asked Abu-Bakr to stretch his hand toward me. I swore allegiance with him, then invaded Saed Ibn Obade and….. By the way, if some one swears allegiance with another one without consolation with other Muslims, do not follow them44.

Saqife, Based on Storied by Tabari

Historian Tabari writes the story of Saqife as:

Ansars left the corpse of prophet with his family and assembled in Saqife. They decided to appoint Saed Ibn Obade, who was ill and they had carried there, as prophet's successor. Saed praised God, Theexalted, and reminded Ansars' attempts in establishment of Islam and how they had esteemed prophet and his companions. He recounted the battles in which they had taken part and emphasized on prophet's satisfaction of them. At last he recommended Ansars to take the rein of government and do not allow others to take it. Ansars in his answer, cried out:" you are right and your thought is well, we never act against your will and appoint you as caliph."

After this agreement, they concerned about Mohajerans apposition and being primary companion of prophet, and superiority in succession. They reached to conclusion that if Mohajerans did not accept their decision, they would offer them to appoint one for themselves, but Saed disagreed and said that it would be their first step of retreat45. Abu-Bakr and Omar heard about this gathering and accompanied with Abu-Obaide Jarrah, run there. Osaid Ibn Hozair46 and Ovaim Ibn Saede47, Asem Ibn Adey48, three of Ansars and jealous to Saed Ibn Obade, joined them. Moghairat Ibn Shobah and Abdorahman Ibn Euf run there too. Abu-Bakr, after preventing Omar from speaking, stood up and praised God, then spoke about Mohajerans and their records in Islam. He said:" Mohajerans were the first who believed in God and his prophet. They were prophet's relatives and do excel in his succession, and those who are opposed will opposite them." Then Abu-Bakr spoke of Ansars' virtue and excellence and said:" Of course, After Mohajerans, you are the advanced people in Islam and nobody reaches you, therefore, leadership and commandment for us, status of ministry for you."

Meanwhile Hobab Ibn Monzer stood up and said to the gathering:" O people of Ansars! Take the rein of government because Mohajerans are living in your city and under your support. Nobody can oppose you. Avoid of disunity, because it results to your destruction and loss of succession. And if they oppose, we select caliph for ourselves, and Mohajerans select one for themselves.

At this time Omar stood up and said:" No, that is impossible, two kings in one kingdom do not agree well together. I swear to God that no Arab will agree with your government, because prophet is not of you, they just accept the government of one who is of prophet’s relatives49. We have a logical reason for those who oppose us and that’s our relationship with prophet; they will accept unless they are of unbelievers and belong to those who go to astray."

Hobab IbnMonzar, again stood up and said:" O, people of Ansars! Be united and don't pay attention to his words, else, you will lose the government. If they don't give up to your wills, dismiss them and have the last word, take the rein of government because you are better in this task and unbelievers believed in God for fear of your swords. I'm as a twig with which youitch the back of camels or a tree which you refuge to its shade50, so I recommend you to take the government, even through war and blood shedding51."

Omar said:" God perish you with such thoughts."

Hobab answered:" Kill you too."

Meanwhile Abu-Obaide addressed Ansars and told them:" O, people of Ansars! You were the first people who helped prophet and defended Islam, now do not be the first in corruption of it."

After this smart statement, Bashir Ibn Saed52 stood up and said: "O, people of Ansars! I swear to God that we were thefirst who accepted Islam and stood against unbelievers, and in this way, we obtained a good position, but we did it just for satisfaction of God, not for any reward. Therefore, it is not decent to misuse what we've done for God and Islam, and take worldly status. All of us know that prophet was of Ghoraysh and they are closer to him and do excel in his succession. I beg God to have mercy on me and do not put me against them in taking the power. I recommend you to fear of God and do not oppose them. Abu-Bakr, after hearing Bashir, stood up and said:" Select one of these two, Omar or Abu-Obaide, and swear allegiance.", but Omar and Abu-Obaide did not accept and said that Abu-Bakr is more capable to take the power.

Abdorahman Ibn Euf also stood up and gave a speech. He said:" O, people of Ansars! Although you've got a high position in Arab, but there is no one in your members like Abu-Bakr, Omar and Imam Ali."

Monzer Ibn Abi Argham stood up and said to Abdorahman:" We don't deny your excellence, especially when you have some one like Imam Ali who if rises to get the power, nobody would oppose him53." Uproar started and some Ansars cried out that they would just swear allegiance with Imam Ali. Omar says:" Suddenly uproar broke loose and I afraid of opposition between Muslims and our defeat in taking the power. I asked Abu-Bakr to stretch his hand toward me in order to swear allegiance with him54, but before me Bashir Ibn Saed did it55."

Hobab Ibn Monzer who was witness of it, shouted on Bashir and said to him:" Goddamn! You leave your family and envy your cousin to be caliph?" Bashir Ibn Saed answered:" No absolutely not. I just don't want to take something which God has given them."

When tribe Ous saw what Bashir Ibn Saed did and because they envied tribe Khazraj who were about to take the power, rushed to swear allegiance with Abu-Bakr, and with this action frustrated the chance of tribe Khazraj for taking the government.

In result, everybody made haste to swear allegiance with Abu-Bakr and at this juncture, some one of Saed’s relatives cried out:” O people watch out not to trample Saed.” Omar in order to answer him shouted:” Kill him, I wish God kills him.” Then pushed people away and went to Saed, and said to him:” I wanted to trample you so severe that all your bones break.” Gheis IbnSaed, took Omar’s beard and said:” I swear to God that if you hurt him in the least, I’ll break all your teeth.” Abu-Bakr said to Omar:” Be calm, at this situation moderateness is better than angriness.” Therefore, Omar left there. Saed addressed Omar and said:” I swear to God that if I was not ill or at least I could stand up, you would hear a roar of me that you and your companions would refuge to caves and I would send you to those who order you not those who obey.”

Historian Abu-Bakr Johari in his book writes:

Omar at the day ofSaqife, walked in squirts and allies of Medina and cried out that people had sworn allegiance with Abu-Bakr; whoever was seen, his companions would bring him to Abu-Bakr to swear Allegiance56.

Historian Tabari adds that:

All people of Aslam tribe had come to Medina to buy their provisions. The number of them was so much that the streets of Medina were crowded and it was difficult to traffic. Based on this event, Omar said:”………………….. I was not sure about the victory till Aslam tribe came and made the allies of Medina crowded57.”

The Role of Tribe Aslam in Swearing Allegiance with Abu-Bakr

Sheikh-e Mofid in his book ' Jamal ' writes:

At that time, nomads came to cities in-group to buy their provisions, because the roads were unsafe and they would be rubbed and even killed. Tribe Aslam, in-group, had come to Medina to by their provisions. When they entered Medina, people had begun to swear allegiance with Abu-Bakr. Omar and his companions asked them to swear allegiance with Abu-Bakr and they, in return would give them their provisions in gratis. They accepted and not only did swear allegiance with Abu-Bakr, but also helped Omar58.

Reasons of selection of Abu-Bakr

The reason that Mohajerans counted for Ansars was Abu-Bakr's relationship with prophet59 (It was Arab law). They also reminded his records in Islam60.

Imam Ali about these reasons states:" . 61They clung to prophecy tree, but forgot its fruits. They claimed that they were relatives of prophet while I was closer; the value of vine is not the leaves but the fruits; they reminded Abu-Bakr's records in Islam while I had been the first believer.”

When Imam Ali was a child, prophet brought him to his home. Imam Ali says:" Prophet chewed the meal to reduce it to powder,then put it in my mouth. I could smell his perfume. I was with him in Hera cave62."

Imam Ali, at any time and everywhere accompanied prophet. When prophet passed away, his head was on Imam Ali's chest63. Imam Ali was his closest relative and his first follower in Islam, but they forgot it.

Public swearing Allegiance

After swearing allegiance with Abu-Bakr, people delightfully took him to prophet's mosque64; by their entrance, Abu-Bakr's caliphate stabilized.

Prophet mosque was governor’s seat and all the affairs of government were done there.

A raised structure, in prophet's mosque that was used for preaching also worked as nowadays TV and radio. In any revolution, revelators try to occupy radio and TV station. By occupying these two, they have possessed the government. Abu-Bakr, the day after Saqife and swearing allegiance with him, sat on this raised structure.

Omar, before Abu-Bakr give a speech, stood up and said that his denial of prophet's death had not been based on Quran or any order of prophet, and that, it had been based on his thought that prophet would have arranged everything before his death65. He added:

God has sent Quran, which was prophet's tool, for you, take hold of it in order to become prosperous as prophet became. By now, God has made the best of you, who had accompanied prophet in cave, as your governor. So come and swear allegiance with him66.

It is narrated in Sahih-e Bokhari that a group swore allegiance with Abu-Bakr at Saqife and in fact, the public one was performed in prophet’s mosque67.

In conclusion, people swore allegiance with Abu-Bakr.

Anas Ibn Malik says:" At that day, I heard that Omar told Abu-Bakr to sit on raised structure and he did it, then people swore allegiance with him."

After Omar, Abu-Bakr gave speech, he said:

O, People!Although I'm not the best of you, but I took the government. So help me if you find me well, and if not, help me to correct myself… And now let's say our prayer68. God bless you69.

Then, people said their prayer and went to their houses. From Monday until Tuesday night, they had forgotten prophet! During this time, they were busy with Saqife and prophet succession!