The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam Volume 1

The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam0%

The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam Author:
Publisher: Naba Publication (
Category: Islamic Personalities

The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: Allamah Sayyid Murtadha Askari
Publisher: Naba Publication (
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The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam

The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam Volume 1

Publisher: Naba Publication (

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Evaluation of Tradition and History

The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam

By: ‘Allamah Sayyid Murtada ‘Askari

Translated by: Dr. ‘Ala ad-Din Pazargadi

Volume One:

‘A’ishah in the Time of the Prophet Until the End of ‘Uthman’s Caliphate

Naba’ Organization

نقش عـايشه در تاريـخ إسـلام

(جلد اول : دوران پيـامبر تا پايان خلافت عثمـان )

97 / 47

Name of book: The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam

Volume One: ‘A’ishah in the Time of the Prophet Until the End of ‘Uthman’s Caliphate

Author: ‘Allamah Sayyid Murtada ‘Askari

Translated from the Persian: Dr. ‘Ala ad-Din Pazargadi

Publisher: Naba’ Organization

First published: 2000

Publisher: Naba Publication


Table of Contents

Transliterations 8

Preface by the Persian translator 9

Ailment and remedy 9

1-Ailment 9

2-Remedy 9

A part of the introduction by 11

Facts 11

Ibn Mas‘ud’s method of guidance 11

Let us know the truth and its supporters 12

Support of Islam 13

Muhammad and enforcement of justice 14

The close and distant friends of Muhammad 14

The author as viewed by Dr. Hamid Hafni Dawud 15

‘Ali’s assassination and ‘A’ishah’s praise of God 16

‘Ali regarded God as his governor 17

‘Ali and the Caliphate 18

Historical verdicts of ‘A’ishah 19

Umm Salamah’s historical letter to ‘A’ishah 19

The author’s goal in this book 20

Author’s preface 22

The motive for writing this book 22

Let us investigate impartially 22

Islam or faith and belief 23

Deep Islamic solidarity 24

Worship of ancestors 25

Blind prejudice 25

Demagogues 25

Part One: ‘A’ishah in the Prophet’s household 27

Chapter al-Ahzab of the Qur’an 27

A glance at ‘A’ishah’s life 27

The secret behind the plurality of the Prophet’s wives 28

Why did the Prophet have several wives? 28

A discussion of nation’s customs 28

Certain facts of history 29

Economic combat of Quraysh with the Prophet 31

Economic support for the Prophet and winning over the enemy 31

Marriage as a means of preventing conflict and bloodshed 32

1-Khadijah, daughter of Khuwaylad al-Asadiyah al-Qurayshiyah 32

2-Sudah, daughter of Zam‘ah 32

3-‘A’ishah, daughter of Abu Bakr 33

4-Hafsah, daughter of ‘Umar 33

5-Zaynab, daughter of Khuzaymah 33

6-Umm Salamah, daughter of Abu Umayyah 33

7-Juwayriyah, daughter of al-Harith 34

8-Umm Habibah, daughter of Abu Sufyan 35

9-Safiyah, daughter of Huyay 35

10-Maymunah, daughter of al-Harith 36

11-Zaynab, daughter of Jahsh 37

The ladies who offered themselves to the Prophet without a dowry 39

12-Khulah, daughter of Hakim al-Hilaliyah 39

13-Another lady 39

A special verdict for a particular person 39

Conclusion of the survey 40

‘A’ishah in the Prophet’s house 42

Uttered by the Prophet 42

Jealousy and Ardor 42

Nightly pursuits 43

‘A’ishah and other wives of the Prophet 44

Encounters and reactions 44

1-Reactions 44

‘A’ishah 44

‘A’ishah and Umm Salamah’s dish 44

‘A’ishah and Hafsah’s dish 44

‘A’ishah and Safiyah’s dish 44

2-Encounters 44

The author 45

‘A’ishah and Safiyah 45

‘A’ishah and Sudah 45

‘A’ishah and dowryless women 45

‘A’ishah with Malikah 46

‘A’ishah with Mariyah 47

‘A’ishah tells this story 47

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful 48

‘A’ishah and memoirs of Khadijah 49

‘A’ishah Umm al-Mu’minin 49

Some remarks about 50

Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mu’tazili 50

Ibn Abi al-Hadid 50

A step-mother for Fatimah 50

Fatimah as the Prophet’s darling 51

Multilateral rancours 51

The Prophet’s intense affection 52

for Fatimah’s children 52

‘Ali and the issue of caliphate 53

Abu Bakr’s performance 53

of prayer with the people 53

Summary 55

Part Two: ‘A’ishah during caliphates of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar 57

The two Sheikhs (Elders) 57

The period of tranquility 57

Tabaqat of Ibn Sa‘d 57

1-The sole lady mufti of Islam 57

2-‘A’ishah goes on Hajj pilgrimage 58

The traditions of ‘A’ishah in support of the caliphate 59

An excerpt from this book 60

An opportunity for making traditions 60

The period of appearance of these traditions 61

The jinn mourn for ‘Umar 63

‘A’ishah 63

Reciprocal respect 66

Text of the book 66

He chose ‘A’ishah’s house as the council’s seat 66

al-Miqdad 67

‘Amr ibn al-‘As 67

al-Mughayrah ibn Shu‘bah 68

Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas 68

A summary of the previous account 69

Text of the book 69

Part Three: ‘A’ishah in the time of ‘Uthman’s rule 71

Who was ‘Uthman? 71

‘A’ishah and ‘Uthman the period 72

of confirmation and support 72

‘A’ishah, like other chiefs of Quraysh, rose up to support ‘Uthman’s caliphate 72

Text of the book 72

The period of wrath and rebellion 73

Historians 73

al-Walid ibn ‘Uqbah 74

and governorship of Kufah 74

Text of the book 74

The Qur’an introduces al-Walid 76

An evil-doer as a governor 76

al-Hakam, the caliph’s uncle 77

Events which befell Ibn Mas‘ud 78

‘Umar, in a Lear to the people of Kufah 78

Playing with fire 81

Ansab al-ashraf of al-Baladhuri 81

Protecting a winebibbing companion 81

The first sparks of revolution 83

‘Uthman’s inspector in Kufah 84

The winebibber ruler of Muslims 84

History of al-Mas‘udi 84

The event about witnesses 85

In ‘Uthman’s presence 85

The caliph’s reward to the witnesses 86

‘A’ishah opposing ‘Uthman 86

al-Walid’s dismissal and purification 87

of the pulpit at the Kufah Mosque 87

Justice dispensed by ‘Ali 88

‘A’ishah’s instigation’s against ‘Uthman 90

‘Ammar ibn Yasir 91

The Prophet 91

‘Ammar contributes to building 92

the first mosque of Islam 92

‘Uthman and ‘Ammar 93

Public funds kept on private asset 94

‘A’ishah aiding ‘Ammar 95

Burial of Ibn Mas‘ud and al-Miqdad 95

Part Four: Revolution 97

‘A’ishah assumes the leadership of the revolution 97

Text of the book 97

Three figures 98

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr 98

1-‘Abd Allah ibn Sa‘d ibn Abi Sarh 98

2-Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr 98

3-Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfah 99

The uprising of the Egyptians 100

People of Egypt 100

Imam ‘Ali’s endeavors for quenching 101

the fire of sedition 101

al-Baladhuri 101

The Uprising of the people 102

of Medina against ‘Uthman 102

Marwan ibn al-Hakam 104

Pleaders for justice proceed to Medina 105

Muhammad son of Abu Hudhayfah 105

‘Uthman concludes a pact with the rebels 107

1-az-Zubayr ibn al-‘Awam 108

2-Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah 108

3-Sa‘d ibn Malik Abi Waqqas 108

4-‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar 108

5-Zayd ibn Thabit 108

6-Sahl ibn Hunayf 108

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr 108

and governorship of Egypt 108

‘Ali abandons his support for ‘Uthman 109

Imam ‘Ali 109

‘Uthman’s political repentance 109

Marwan’s obstruction 110

‘Uthman’s prudent wife 111

‘Uthman is besieged 113

Ibn ‘Abbas 113

A strange letter 116

A letter from ‘Uthman to the governor of Egypt 116

‘A’ishah’s historical verdict 120

‘A’ishah 121

A survey of ‘A’ishah’s verdict 122

‘Uthman turns to ‘A’ishah for help 124

‘A’ishah’s cousin 125

at-Tabari History 125

Talhah blocks the water from reaching 126

‘Uthman but ‘Ali provides it for him 126

Talhah insists upon ‘Uthman’s assassination 127

The end for ‘Uthman 127

al-Baladhuri 127

The incident of the caliph’s burial 128

Appendices 130

A word with critics 130

Falsehoods and fables in important Islamic sources 130

Ahadith of Umm al-Mu’minin ‘A’ishah 131

Mr. A. M.’s criticisms and answers to them 132

A word with the writer 135

Footnotes 140


Preface by the Persian translator

In the Name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Ailment and remedy


Intense fanaticism, blind following, undue respect shown to so-called pious individuals of the nation and lack of courage in investigating the life history, morals and mentality accompanied by a careful survey and discussion of all aspects of the period in which they lived, have been major factors for the Muslims’ indigence, and the reason for the dispersion and retardation of the Islamic society.

Fourteen centuries of Islamic history have gone by, but not all the Muslims have heard of this history which is related to them, nor of the critical and important events which have been the main factor in the course of such a history for Islam. Various political factors, too, have had a significant role in this connection.

Today all are cognizant of the fact that in every society and nation, employment of self-interest and influence, and promotion of personal motives through religion facilitate the attainment of a decisive result for this reason, alteration of facts, fabrication and propagation of false stories and non-factual matters and creation of false subjects are the factors which have been employed in every period and country in order to promote personal motives and political aims. In this way, the basis of differences and dispersion among the Muslims has been greatly, reinforced and those who have held position and power have spared no effort in employing all methods to intensify these differences in order to attain their political designs.

With the passage of years and centuries, and concentration of misinterpreted and altered subjects and stories in minds, their penetration into the beliefs and thoughts and their transfer from one generation to another have eventually led to such conditions which have been faced by nations for many centuries. Hence there has come about a history which has perplexed all sound minds, wondering how to have access to true facts in this regard.


This deviation from truth is not only in the history of Islam. Every nation and religion too has a similar history. But it is certain that truth does not perish, and however strong the means of deviation may be, it cannot generally be eliminated. But what is meanwhile important is the endeavor to discover and bring the truth out of thousands of false statements and announcing it decisively with acceptable arguments. What has been achieved by the lofty scholar Sayyid Murtada ‘Askari in his famous book“Ahadith of ‘Umm al-Mu’minin ‘A’ishah” has shown a new way for seekers of truth. The author has written the present book which describes the facts and events of early Islam, by means of perusing many books of history and tradition about the validity of which all world Muslims are unanimous, and he has set forth clear and decisive arguments and evidence about which no doubt or ambiguity remains and he has left it all for the public to judge.

On the suggestion of the author, I translated the said book entitled“The Role of ‘A’ishah in the History of Islam” when I was on an official mission to Baghdad. But its printing was postponed for some years; this delay, however, proved to be fortunate, since the present book secured some advantages over the original text in several ways, and after a recent meeting with the author in Tehran, the following points were agreed to:

1-It contains the accounts and introduction written by scholar Hamid Hafni Dawud in praise of the book, together with its translation.

2-The reason for the plurality of the Prophet’s wives, described by the author, has been added to the present book.

3-A more detailed account has been given of the personalities who were dealt with briefly earlier in the notes.

4-A more detailed account has been given of the great men of learning who played a significant role in the course of Islamic history, and this account has been transferred from the notes to the main text.

5-The Quranic chapter“at-Tahrim” and the cause of its descent have been wholly included after the brief story of Mariyah.

In following up the admirable way adopted by the author, the translation into Persian has been carried out impartially and free from any prejudice and personal feelings, and without any alteration or expression of likes and dislikes.

May this minor contribution succeed in revealing the true facts and causes of the course taken by the present history of Islam, and be acceptable to Unique God, and approved by men of learning and research.

Now that the first volume of this book is offered for the general public for judgment, it is hoped that men of enlightenment, knowledge and discernment will offer their views, criticisms and suggestions impartially and without taking side with any particular sect, and thus guide and help the writer to remove any deficiencies, which may exist now, in his effort to produce a faultless edition in future. In this way, they may render a worthy service to the world of Islam.

In conclusion, I must express thanks to my learned friend Mr. Muhammad Husayn Mujahid for encouraging me to translate this book and for undertaking the labor of its collation.

‘Ata Muhammad Sardar-Niya

Tehran, October 1967