Applied Anthropology: An Introduction

Applied Anthropology: An Introduction0%

Applied Anthropology: An Introduction Author:
Publisher: BERGIN & GARVEY Westport Connecticut
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Applied Anthropology: An Introduction

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Author: John van Willigen
Publisher: BERGIN & GARVEY Westport Connecticut
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Applied Anthropology: An Introduction
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Applied Anthropology: An Introduction

Applied Anthropology: An Introduction

Author:
Publisher: BERGIN & GARVEY Westport Connecticut
English

This book is corrected and edited by Al-Hassanain (p) Institue for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Alhassanain (p) Network for Islamic Heritage and Thought

Applied Anthropology: An Introduction

John van Willigen

REVISED EDITION: BERGIN & GARVEY Westport

Connecticut London

www.alhassanain.org/english

Table of Contents

PREFACE 7

SOLVING PROBLEMS ANTHROPOLOGICALLY 7

SHARING A TRADITION OF PRACTICE 8

ORIENTATION OF THE TEXT 8

IS IT ANTHROPOLOGY? 9

CONTENT OF THE BOOK 9

ABOUT THE REVISED EDITION 14

Acknowledgments 14

Part I Introduction and Overview 15

1 The Domain of Application 15

PRACTITIONER ROLES IN ANTHROPOLOGY 15

CONTENT AREAS FOR APPLIED WORK 17

APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: WHAT IS IT? 18

DOMAIN OF APPLICATION 20

KNOWING THE DOMAIN OF APPLICATION 22

SUMMARY 24

FURTHER READING 25

CHAPTER 2: THE DEVELOPMENT OF APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY 26

THE PREDISCIPLINARY STAGE (Pre-1860) 27

THE APPLIED ETHNOLOGY STAGE (1860-1930) 28

THE FEDERAL SERVICE STAGE (1930-1945) 31

THE ROLE EXTENSION, VALUE-EXPLICIT STAGE (1945-1970) 36

THE POLICY RESEARCH STAGE (1970 TO THE PRESENT) 41

Social Organization 43

SUMMARY 46

FURTHER READING 47

Ethics 47

ETHICAL ISSUES 48

PRIVACY 49

CONSENT 50

UTILITY 51

COMMUNICATION 53

SOME RECENT PROBLEM CASES 54

GUIDES TO ETHICAL PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE 56

SUMMARY 59

FURTHER READING 60

Part II Interventions In Anthropology 61

4 ACTION ANTHROPOLOGY 61

Development Of The Approach 61

Key Concepts 62

BASE VALUES 64

ACTION ANTHROPOLOGY PROCESS 65

CASE STUDY: THE FOX PROJECT 66

Fox Problems 69

Fox Factionalism 70

Authority and Leadership 71

Structural Paralysis 72

Project Objectives 73

Economic Development 74

Education Projects 75

Outcomes 76

SUMMARY 77

FURTHER READING 77

5 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANTHROPOLOGY 78

Development Of The Approach 78

KEY CONCEPTS 79

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 81

CASE STUDY: THE CORNELL-PERU PROJECT AT VICOS 82

The Community 82

Project Goals 84

Economic Development at Vicos 87

SUMMARY 89

FURTHER READING 90

6 Community Development 90

DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH 91

KEY CONCEPTS 92

VALUE SYSTEM 94

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 95

CASE STUDY: 97

THE TOHONO O'ODHAM COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM 97

Context of the Program 97

Development Strategy 98

Goals of the Program 99

Selection of Workers 99

Effects on Community Facilities 101

Economic Effects 101

Sociopolitical Effects 102

Bureaucratic Effects 103

SUMMARY 104

FURTHER READING 105

7 Advocacy Anthropology 105

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVOCACY TECHNIQUES 106

KEY CONCEPTS 107

The primary reference group of the community advocate anthropologist is the community. It is through an understanding of this relationship that we can best understand the nature of community advocacy anthropology. A key concept is collaboration: collaboration between anthropologists and community leadership focusing on the former's research skills and the latter's information needs. Community advocacy anthropology is an involved-in-the-action process. It is based on two fundamental assumptions. First, "Anthropological research should provide information to the population under study which contributes to the development of the community and the improvement of community life" ( Schensul 1973:111). The research effort is focused on 107

COMPONENTS OF SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATION 108

The Nine Steps 110

THE COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM AND EL BARRIO 112

Initial Program Context 112

Commando Anthropology 116

The Community Research Unit and El Centro de la Causa 116

SUMMARY 118

FURTHER READING 119

8 Cultural Brokerage 119

DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH 120

KEY CONCEPTS 121

THE CULTURE BROKER'S ROLE 122

PROCESS OF CULTURAL BROKERAGE 123

Phases of the Process 124

THE MIAMI COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM 125

Teams at Work: Some Examples 127

SUMMARY 130

Further Reading 131

9 Social Marketing 131

DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH 132

KEY CONCEPTS 133

SOCIAL MARKETING PROCESS 134

Stages in Social Marketing 134

SOCIAL MARKETING AND FOCUS GROUPS 136

CASE STUDY: BEST START--A BREASTFEEDING PROMOTION PROJECT 138

SUMMARY 144

FURTHER READING 144

Part III: Policy Research in Anthropology 146

10 Anthropology as a Policy Science 146

POLICY PROCESS 146

CURRENT TYPES OF POLICY RESEARCH PRACTICE 149

Criteria Used in Cultural Appraisal of Projects 151

INCREASING THE USE OF POLICY RESEARCH 153

Collaboration 154

Communication 154

Client 155

Community and Politics 155

Research Process 155

Time 156

Advocacy 156

SUMMARY 156

FURTHER READING 157

11 Social Impact Assessment 157

DEFINITION OF SIA 157

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT 158

Environmental Impact Statement 159

CASE STUDY: EL LLANO PROJECT 161

Community Characteristics 161

METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 163

A Community Profile Outline 165

SOME FORECASTING TECHNIQUES 168

ASSESSMENT 168

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF EL LLANO PROJECT 169

EVALUATION--THE LAST STEP 170

SUMMARY 171

Further Reading 171

12 Evaluation 172

INTEGRATED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 172

EVALUATION PROCESS 174

I 174

II 175

III 175

Soft Designs 177

Hard Designs 178

PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF EVALUATION 178

CASE STUDIES: FOUR EVALUATIONS 180

Evaluating Housing Policy Innovations 180

Evaluating a Health Project Sponsored by a Private Voluntary Organization 182

Evaluating a Jobs Program in Philadelphia 184

Assessing Community Needs in Saskatoon 186

SUMMARY 187

FURTHER READING 188

13 Technology Development Research 188

FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH 189

Historic Antecedents 190

Limits of the Top-down Approaches 191

FSR PROCESS 191

Rapid Research Techniques 192

DIAGNOSIS AND DESCRIPTION 193

CASE STUDY: NORTH KORDOFAN (SUDAN) SORGHUM AND MILLET STUDY 195

Research Methods 195

Farming System 197

Constraints 199

SUMMARY 200

FURTHER READING 200

Part IV: Being a professional 202

14 Making a Living 202

LOOKING FOR WORK 202

ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND THE JOB MARKET 204

BEING A CONSULTANT 205

Reasons for Using Consultants 205

Consulting Process 206

COMMUNICATION WITH CLIENTS 209

DOING RESEARCH FOR THE GOVERNMENT 209

Contracts and Grants 211

TIES TO THE ACADEMIC WORLD 214

SUMMARY 217

FURTHER READING 218

Bibliography 219

About the Author 250