## Logical Foundations of Induction

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Author: **Ayatullah Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr**

Translator: **M.F. Zidan**

Publisher: **www.introducingislam.org**

Category: Islamic Philosophy

Author:

**Ayatullah Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr**

Translator:

**M.F. Zidan**

Publisher:

**www.introducingislam.org**

Category: visits: 9333

Download: 2611

Comments:

- Preface to Online Version
- Introduction
- The logical foundations of Induction
- Induction
- Part 1: Induction and Epistemology
- Chapter 1: Aristotelian Induction
- Meanings of Induction
- Aristotle's perfect induction
- Criticism of perfect induction
- Recapitulation
- Aristotle's imperfect induction
- The Problem of induction
- Formal logic and the problem
- Misunderstanding of formal logic
- Aristotelian epistemology and induction
- Formal logic and chance
- Need of definite formulation
- The crucial point of difference
- Chapter 2: Criticism of Aristotelian Induction
- Indefinite Knowledge
- Genesis of indefinite Knowledge
- Aristotelian principle and indefinite knowledge
- First Objection
- Second objection
- Third Objection
- Fourth Objection
- Fifth Objection
- Sixth Objection
- Seventh Objection
- Chapter 3: Induction And Empiricism
- Certainty Attitude
- On the First and Third Questions
- Discussion
- On the second question
- Answer to that question
- Probability Attitude
- Discussions
- Psychological Attitude
- Examination of psychological attitude
- (1) Belief
- (2) Causality and Reason
- (3) Causality and Experience
- (4) Concept of Causality
- (5) Belief in causality
- Physiological Explanation of Induction
- Part 2: Induction And Probability
- Chapter 1: Calculus of Probability
- Introduction
- Axioms of the theory
- Rules of the Calculus
- Bernoulli's law of large numbers
- Chapter 2: The Interpretation of Probability
- (A) Fundamental Definition
- The First problem
- The Second Problem
- (B) Probability in the Finite Frequency Theory
- Real and Hypothetical Probabilities
- New Definition of Probability
- A. The axioms of the new definition
- Difficulties of our definition
- The new definition and the calculus
- The new definition and inverse probability
- The definition and the Bags - example
- Our definition and Bernoulli's law
- The first example
- The second example
- Completeness of our definition
- New axioms
- Ground of Dominance Axiom
- Categorical and Hypothetical indefinite knowledge
- Conditional knowledge that is real
- Recapitulation
- Chapter 3: The Deductive Phase Of Induction
- Causality
- First Application
- Rule of multiplication
- Application of Dominance Axiom
- Dominance and the problem of a priori probability
- Second Application
- The absence of effect does not occur in both cases
- Third Application
- Multiplication or dominance
- Hypothetical Knowledge And Empirical Causality
- Fourth Application
- Chapter 4: Modern Theories of Probability
- Difficulties of Laplace's theory
- Keynes and Induction
- Difficulties of Keynes' Interpretation
- Causal Relations
- Logical Justification
- Philosophical justification
- Scientific Justification
- Tactical Justification
- Another Form of Deductive Phase
- Requirements of the deductive phase
- Induction and formal logic
- Chapter 5: Induction and Certainty
- Subjective Role in Certainty
- Kinds of certainty
- Objective certainty require[s] an axiom
- The formulation of the postulate
- Conditions of the Postulate
- The first form of the postulate
- Objections and Answers
- 1. Is causality a term in indefinite Knowledge
- 2. Attempt to deny our knowledge of causality
- 3. Misapplication of inductive postulate
- 4. Indefinite Probability
- The Second Form of the Postulate
- Reformulation of Aristotle's principle
- Discussion
- Objection and Answer
- Part 3: Human Knowledge And Probability
- Chapter 1: Classes of Statements
- Principles of demonstration
- Principles of other forms of inference
- Universal empirical statements
- Intuitive statements
- Testimonial statements
- Testimonial statements and a priori probability
- Solution of the Problem
- Belief in rational agent
- Inductive proof of God's existence
- (3) or by virtue of an unwise maker having non-purposive actions
- Basic Empirical Statements
- Inductive ways concerning the first formulation
- Inductive ways concerning the second formulation
- Our knowledge of the external world is inductive
- Belief in the conditions of perception is inductive
- Resemblance between percepts and realities
- Beliefs in resemblances of particulars
- Recapitulation
- Primitive and innate statements
- Exceptions
- Differences between primitive and inductive statements
- Induction and mathematical statements
- Chapter 2: Is There A priori Knowledge?
- Empirical Statements
- Formal Statements
- Logical Positivism
- Criticism
- Empiricism and Meaning of Statements
- Reichenbach's Position
- Russell's Objection
- Discussion
- CONCLUSION
- Notes